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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/conengprac

Application to a dam-gallery open channel system

A. Akhenak a,b, E. Duviella a,b,n, L. Bako a,b, S. Lecoeuche a,b

a

Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille, France

b

EMDouai, IA, F-59500 Douai, France

a r t i c l e i n f o abstract

Article history: The paper presents an online strategy for sensor and/or actuator fault detection and isolation applied to

Received 14 June 2012 a dam-gallery. A recursive subspace identiﬁcation algorithm is used to estimate the dam-gallery model

Accepted 21 February 2013 parameters. The main contribution consists in developing a speciﬁc identiﬁcation scheme, insensitive

Available online 22 March 2013

to a certain type of faults. That is, the identiﬁed parameters are invariant to the faults. A fault

Keywords: estimation procedure is proposed to detect potential faults. The proposed approach appears to be

System identiﬁcation suitable for open channel systems for which the characteristics are not easily measurable.

Recursive subspace algorithm & 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Fault detection and isolation

Finite memory observer

Open-channel system

et al., 2010). In multimodelling approaches, the number of models

Water resource management has become an important issue and their operating range are known a priori in Di Palma and

due to the preciosity and scarcity of water in many countries in Magni (2004) and Özkan and Kothare (2005), or determined

the world. Being a complex problem requiring an indisciplinary according to a physical parameter in Duviella, Chiron, and

cooperation, many researches have been done in the area of Charbonnaud (2006). These approaches require ﬁne knowledge

automatic control of open channel systems. Advanced manage- of the open channel system, i.e. geometrical characteristics,

ment methods were proposed to improve the water resource boundary conditions, etc., and the calibration of the friction

valorization by the determination of new setpoints on ﬂow coefﬁcients, i.e. Manning–Strickler coefﬁcient. They are not easily

discharge, level or volume (Duviella, Chiron, & Charbonnaud, usable for systems whose geometry or characteristics are not

2011; Faye, Sawadogo, Niang, & Mora-Camino, 1998). In order precisely known. In addition, the parameters of the LPV model are

to reduce the water losses in irrigation channels, various control estimated by considering a model structure (Bolea, Puig, & Blesa,

algorithms were proposed in the literature (for example see 2007; Puig, Quevedo, Escobet, Charbonnaud, & Duviella, 2005), as

Litrico & Fromion, 2009), and have been classiﬁed in Malaterre a ﬁrst order differential equation with time delay. In Weyer

and Baume (1998) and Zhuan and Xia (2007). Traditionally, the (2001) and Euren and Weyer (2007), the authors proposed linear

control methods are designed from physical models based on the identiﬁcation techniques based on a grey-box model to compute

Saint-Venant partial differential equations (Chow, Maidment, & simple models that can be used for control design as proposed in

Mays, 1988). The resolution of the Saint-Venant equations Cantoni et al. (2007). The identiﬁcation algorithms, which take

involves rather complex numerical approaches based on discre- into account prior physical information on the open channel,

tization schemes. Therefore, the Saint-Venant equations can be arecarried out off-line and require a large number of experiments

simpliﬁed and linearized around an operating point (Litrico & on the real systems. Their main drawback is that the identiﬁed

Georges, 1999), but the accuracy of these models is only accep- model parameters cannot be adjusted online in order to deal with

table on a restricted interval around the operating points. Other physical parameter variations, such as, for example, the friction

control algorithms based on multimodelling or Linear Parameter slope modiﬁcation due to sedimentation phenomena. In Rivas

Varying (LPV) models were recently proposed in order to consider Perez, Feliu Batlle, and Sanchez Rodriguez (2007) and Rivas Perez,

Feliu Batlle, Castillo Garcia, and Linarez Saez (2008), an online

robust system identiﬁcation method was applied to a one canal

n

Corresponding author at: EMDouai, IA, F-59500 Douai, France.

pool. This robustness has been deﬁned as the capability of

Tel.: þ 33 327 712 102.. compensating the model uncertainties under the presence of

E-mail address: eric.duviella@mines-douai.fr (E. Duviella). parameter variations. However, only few modelling approaches

0967-0661/$ - see front matter & 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conengprac.2013.02.013

798 A. Akhenak et al. / Control Engineering Practice 21 (2013) 797–806

for Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) of sensors and actuators are computed according to physical laws if the geometry and

have been implemented on hydraulic systems. These approaches characteristics of the systems are known, or determined accord-

are suitable for increasing availability of the system and water ing to identiﬁcation techniques if not. Whatever modelling

resources valorization (Bedjaoui & Weyer, 2011; Choy & Weyer, approaches are, it is necessary to validate and calibrate the

2005). In Bedjaoui and Weyer (2011), three model-based FDI obtained model with the real data. However, most of the existing

algorithms are proposed and compared in order to detect leak on identiﬁcation algorithms or model calibration techniques do not

an operational irrigation channel. Even if analytical redundancy take into account potential sensor or actuator faults. In this paper,

methods have been recognized as powerful and effective techni- an online modelling algorithm is proposed to identify switching

ques for detecting faults, the generation of robust residuals is a system dynamics subject to sensor and actuator faults. A speciﬁc

critical issue because of the presence of unavoidable modelling application is focussed on the modelling and the supervision of a

uncertainties, process noise, parameter variations and non- dam-gallery which supplies two rivers with water contained in

linearities. It is also essential to characterize the operating modes the catchment area (see Fig. 1). It is composed of three parts

of the system to be supervised. Recently, in Le Pocher, Duviella, which correspond to three reaches characterized by circular

and Chuquet (2011), a data-driven approach, based on a classiﬁ- proﬁles (see Fig. 2). The upstream part is a one kilometer long

cation tool, is proposed for the FDI of sensors of a real inland reach, the two downstream parts are hundred meters long

navigation channel. This channel has the particularities to have reaches. The operating range of the dam-gallery corresponds to

large scale dimension, without slope, with several inputs and a minimal discharge Q min ¼ 1 m3 =s and a maximal discharge

outputs, and thus difﬁcult to model according to classical model- Q max ¼ 5 m3 =s. The system is also equipped with two measure-

ling methods. ment points located at each output of the gallery. The sensors

The main contribution is twofold: (i) the proposition of an allow the measurement of the two output discharges.

online model identiﬁcation scheme in the presence of sensor and The dam-gallery is an open channel system whose dynamics

actuator faults, and (ii) the design of a FDI technique to isolate the are characterized by nonlinearities and time-varying delays.

faults. The open-channel system is possibly subjected to additive According to the literature (Litrico & Georges, 1999; Weyer,

constant sensor or actuator faults. Since the data available for 2001), dynamics of open channel systems can be modelled,

identiﬁcation could be generated by the faulty system, the ﬁrst around an operating point, by a second order plus transfer delay

step of our method consists in projecting the system equation function, or by a state-space model (Li, Cantoni, & Weyer, 2004;

onto a subspace that is orthogonal to the direction of the faults. Zaccarian, Li, Weyer, Cantoni, & Teel, 2007).

By doing so, the inﬂuence of the faults in the data is eliminated. However, these approaches require an accurate knowledge of

Therefore, subspace identiﬁcation techniques can be used to the system characteristics, like geometric parameters, boundaries

compute the correct parameters of the model. Given the identi- conditions or friction coefﬁcient, which are not easily measurable

ﬁed parameters, two ﬁnite memory observers (Alessandri, in practice. An alternative consists in an online identiﬁcation of

Baglietto, & Battistelli, 2005; Nuninger, Kratz, & Ragot, 1998) are the dynamics of hydraulic systems without major prior knowl-

proposed for estimating the faults (sensor and actuator) that may edge about the system characteristics. The proposed identiﬁcation

be affecting the system. technique is based on the segmentation of the large operating

The whole proposed FDI strategy is implemented recursively.

Indeed, the recursive subspace identiﬁcation can be regarded as a

Dam

tool for handling the problem of fault detection (Lovera, Parisini, &

Verghaegen, 2001; Oku, Nijsse, Verhaegen, & Verdult, 2001), espe- Gallery

cially when the system is slowly time-varying or multi-modal. With

this rather realistic problem in mind, a special recursive subspace

identiﬁcation algorithm is worked out. It is insensitive to the

presence of actuator or sensor faults. The algorithm uses a recursive

orthogonal projection technique to compute the so-called observa-

tion vector (Gustafsson, 1997; Merce re, Lecoeuche, & Lovera, 2004)

from the input–output data. Given the observation vector, the Fig. 1. Dam-gallery open channel system.

Projection Approximation Subspace Tracking (PAST) algorithm of

Yang (1995) is called upon for updating the column space of the

extended observability matrix from which the system matrices are

computed. On the one hand, the resulting model is completely

decoupled from the effects of the faults and on the other hand,

it reﬂects possible evolutions in the actual system parameters. It can

hence be used for estimating more reliably the deviations caused by

the faults by discriminating between natural evolutions of the

system parameters and changes due to faults. In Section 2, the

problem statement of the dam-gallery supervision is presented.

The recursive subspace model identiﬁcation procedure is detailed

in Section 3. In Section 4, the methods dedicated to the sensor

and actuator fault detection and isolation are presented. Finally,

Section 5 presents the application of the proposed tools to the

supervision of a dam-gallery.

2. Problem statement

management are generally based on models whose parameters Fig. 2. Circular proﬁle of the gallery, where R is the radius, z the water level.

A. Akhenak et al. / Control Engineering Practice 21 (2013) 797–806 799

range of the dam-gallery, i.e. ½Q min ,Q max , into several local operating

ranges, i.e. ½Q s,min ; Q s,max , with s A S where S ¼ f1, . . . ,Pg, with P

being the number of local models. Then, dynamics of each local

operating range are modelled by a local linear model whose state Fig. 3. Time scale showing the activation of the local model and the occurrence of

space representation with input delay is in the form (Palmor, 1996): sensor or actuator fault.

(

xt þ 1 ¼ As xt þ Bs utts þ vt

ð1Þ

yt ¼ C s xt þ wt According to Eq. (2), for each t A ½t n ; t n þ F1:

where matrices As, Bs and Cs are the parameters of the local model s, ya,t ¼ Ga xt þ Ha ðua,t þ ðja DuÞÞþ ðja DyÞ þ Za,t , ð5Þ

utts A Rnu is the input variable at time tts , xt A Rnx and yt A Rny where

represent the state and the output vector of the system at time t,

respectively. ts A N is the time delay supposed to be known and Ga ¼ ½ðCÞ> ðCAÞ> ðCAa1 Þ> > A Rany nx , ð6Þ

constant for the local model s. The process noise vt A Rnx and the 2 3

measurement noise wt A Rny are assumed to be white and uncorre- 0 0 0

lated with the input utts . 6 CB 0 07

6 7 an an

Ha ¼ 6 7AR y u, ð7Þ

The selection of the local model s is done according to the 4 ^ ^ & ^5

value of the input utts , i.e. the upstream discharge. Due to the CAa2 B CAa3 B 0

dynamics of open-channel systems, it is assumed that each local

model s is stable and active during a minimal time T. The system 2 3

0 0 0

order nx is also considered to be known and equal to 2. The 6 C 0 07

6 7 an an

numbers of inputs and outputs are respectively nu ¼1 and ny ¼2 in Ga ¼ 6 7AR y x: ð8Þ

4 ^ ^ & ^5

the case of the studied dam-gallery characterized as a SIMO

system. CAa2 CAa3 0

When sensor and actuator faults are considered, the state here refers to the Kronecker product (Brewer, 1978),

space representation (1) becomes Za,t ¼ Ga va,t þwa,t and

(

xt þ 1 ¼ As xt þ Bs ðutts þ Dutts Þ þvt ja ¼ ½1 1> A Ra : ð9Þ

ð2Þ

yt ¼ C s xt þ Dyt þwt

From Eq. (5), the subspace identiﬁcation consists ﬁrst, in

computing the column space of the extended observability matrix

where Dutts and Dyt are possible actuator and sensor faults and

Ga and then in deducing the system matrices. To this purpose,

are assumed to be unknown constant additive numbers.

Eq. (5) is stacked to form the data equation:

Based on an identiﬁcation technique, a fault estimation pro-

cedure is proposed to detect and estimate online the sensor and Y a,t ¼ Ga X t þ Ha U a,t þ Na,t þ ðHa ðja DuÞ þ ðja DyÞÞj>

F, ð10Þ

actuator faults acting on the dam-gallery system. ny aF

where t ¼ t þ F1, Y a,t ¼ ½ya,t ya,t A R , X t ¼ ½xt xt A RF ,

nu aF ny aF

U a,t A R and N a,t A R are deﬁned in a similar manner as

Y a,t , and jF is deﬁned similarly as in (9). In order to identify the

3. Recursive subspace identiﬁcation algorithm system matrices, it is necessary to eliminate explicitly the unknown

terms (the ones that contain Du and Dy). In this objective, let us

3.1. Subspace identiﬁcation robust to faults deﬁne the projection matrix

jF ¼ IF jF ðjF jF Þ jF

such as (2), the objective is to work out a Recursive Subspace 1

¼ I F jF j>

F: ð11Þ

Model Identiﬁcation (RSMI) scheme that would be insensitive to a F

certain class of faults (sensor or actuator faults). The identiﬁcation

Then, by multiplying Eq. (10) on the right by P? jF , the term that

scheme consists in the estimation of the parameters of each linear

contains the faults vanishes, so that Eq. (10) is reduced to

submodel. Firstly, the strategy that will be used to estimate the

system matrices is presented off-line for the local model s. Due to Y a,t P? ? ? ?

jF ¼ Ga X t PjF þHa U a,t PjF þ N a,t PjF : ð12Þ

the genericity of this approach, and for the sake of clarity, the

For the sake of clarity, it is set

index s will not be mentioned in the notation.

8

The stacked output vector ya,t and the stacked input vector ua,t >

> Y ¼ Y a,t P? jF ,

> a,t

<

are introduced

U a,t ¼ U a,t P?

jF , ð13Þ

ny a >

>

ya,t ¼ ½y>

t y> >

t þ a1 A R , ð3Þ >

: X ¼ X P? :

t t jF

ua,t ¼ ½u> > >

tt utt þ a1 A R , ð4Þ

where the symbol > refers to the matrix transposition, and a 4 nx . Y a,t ¼ Ga X t þ Ha U a,t þ Na,t P?

jF : ð14Þ

The order of the system nx is supposed to be available a priori.

The projection of (14) onto the orthogonal complement of the

Vectors va,t A Rnx a and wa,t A Rny a are deﬁned similar to ya,t .

subspace spanned by the rows of U a,t is accomplished by post-

The local model is active and stable during a time interval T

multiplying Eq. (14) by the matrix P?

U

deﬁned as

which begins at time tb and ﬁnishes at time tf. During T, actuator a,t

> >

or/and sensor faults Dutt and Dyt can occur at each time tn, with P?

U

¼ IF U a,t ðU a,t U a,t Þ1 U a,t : ð15Þ

a,t

t n A T. These faults are assumed to be constant on, at least, the

time window ½t n ; t n þ F þ a2 with F b a nu . This constraint Then

implies also that t n þ F þ a2 rt f , and Dutt ¼ Du and Dyt ¼ Dy

Y a,t P?

U

¼ Ga X t P?

U a,t

þ Na,t P? ?

jF PU : ð16Þ

on ½t n ; t n þF þ a2 (see Figure 3). a,t a,t

800 A. Akhenak et al. / Control Engineering Practice 21 (2013) 797–806

Hence, the identiﬁcation problem boils down to the problem of input and output vectors ua,t and ya,t respectively

extracting the range space RðGa Þ of Ga from the noisy observation

matrix Z a,t :¼ Y a,t P? ¼ ½z a,t z a,t in this latter space. The whole 1 1 F t 1 1=2

U a,t u t ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ u~ a,t , y t ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ y~ a,t , rt ¼ :

identiﬁcation algorithm can be summarized in two steps: F t ðF t 1Þ F t ðF t 1Þ Ft

Estimation of the observation matrix Z a,t . identity matrix), Ryu ð0Þ ¼ 0, su ð0Þ ¼ sy ð0Þ ¼ 0 and r0 A ½01, rather

Extraction of the column space of Ga . closer to 1 than to 0.

tion deals with the computation of the observation vector z a,t 3.3. Recursive update of the observability matrix

whenever a new couple ðut ,yt Þ of input–output data becomes

available. Section 3.3 considers the problem of recursively updat- This section concerns the update of the observability matrix

ing a basis of RðGa Þ, given a new observation. from the observation vector z a,t . In effect, as shown in the

appendix, the vector z a,t lies in the column space of Ga . This

means that the following equation is satisﬁed:

3.2. Recursive estimation of the observation vector

z a,t ¼ Ga x t þ e a,t , ð19Þ

The ﬁrst stage of the recursive identiﬁcation algorithm is to

where z a,t , x t and e a,t are respective columns of the matrices that

compute a new observation vector z a,t whenever a new couple

appear in Eq. (16). For this purpose, the well-known Projection

ðua,t ,ya,t Þ is acquired. This can be done as follows. Stack column-

Approximation Subspace Tracking (PAST) algorithm is used

wise the new vectors ua,t and ya,t in U a,t 1 and Y a,t 1 to form new

(Lovera, Gustafsson, & Verhaegen, 2000; Yang, 1995). The basic

Hankel matrices U a,t ¼ ½U a,t 1 ua,t and Y a,t ¼ ½Y a,t 1 ya,t . It can

idea of this algorithm can be summarized as follows. Notice from

then be shown (see the Appendix) that the matrices Y a,t and U a,t

Eq. (19) that by neglecting the effect of the noise,1 it holds that

deﬁned in (13) can be modiﬁed as follows:

pﬃﬃﬃ Rz Ga Rx G>

1 1 a, ð20Þ

Y a,t ¼ lY a,t 1 þ y~ a,t j>

F t 1 y~ a,t , ð17Þ

F t ðF t 1Þ Ft where Rz ¼ Eðz a,t z > andanx anx

Rx ¼ Eðx t x >

and E is nx nx

,

a,t Þ A R t ÞAR

pﬃﬃﬃ the expectation operator. Denote by Oa a matrix formed by the nx

1 1

U a,t ¼ lU a,t 1 þ u~ a,t j>

F t 1 u~ a,t , ð18Þ eigenvectors of Rz that correspond to its most dominant eigenva-

F t ðF t 1Þ Ft

lues. Then the matrix Oa has the same column space as Ga and

where l is a forgetting factor can be computed by minimizing the criterion

pﬃﬃﬃwhich is introduced to weight the

ﬃﬃﬃ information, and y a,t ¼ lY a,t 1 jF t 1 ðF t 1Þya,t and u a,t ¼

past ~ ~

p X

t

lU a,t 1 jF 1 ðF t 1Þua,t . Here, F t denotes the number of col- VðOa,t Þ ¼ lt k Jz a,k Oa,t O> 2

t a,t z a,k J2 : ð21Þ

umns in the matrix Y a,t . Note that F t þ 1 ¼ F t þ 1. k¼1

Before going into the details of the algorithm, it is assumed

> By using Eq. (21) the approximation hk :¼ O> >

a,t z a,k C Oa,k1 z a,k ,

that the inverse of the matrix ðU a,t U a,t Þ A Rnu anu a exists for

one gets the following weighted least squares criterion:

t b anu , i.e. the condition of persistency of excitation has to be

respected (Merce re et al., 2004). X

t

Under this condition, it is possible to derive, through ortho- VðOÞ ¼ lt k Jz a,k Oa,t hk J22 ,

gonal projection, formulas for computing z a,t . The details on the k¼1

derivation of these formulas can be found in the Appendix. From whose minimization leads to the PAST algorithm (Yang, 1995) for

the group of Eqs. (A.9), a simple change of notations leads to the recursively updating Oa,t :

following recursive algorithm. This latter is simpler to implement

and does not depend explicitly on F t . ht ¼ O>

a,t 1 z a,t ,

Lt 1 ht

Algorithm 1. Recursive update of the observation vector. qt ¼ ,

l þ h>

t Lt 1 ht

1

rt ¼ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Oa,t ¼ Oa,t 1 þðz a,t Ga ht Þq> ,

2r2t 1 t

pﬃﬃﬃ 1 >

u t ¼ rt ð lsu ðt1Þua,t Þ Lt ¼ ðLt 1 qt ht Lt 1 Þ, ð22Þ

l

pﬃﬃﬃ

y t ¼ rt ð lsy ðt1Þya,t Þ where Lt A Rnx nx and Oa,t A RFny nx are generally initialized at

pﬃﬃﬃ random. In principle, since Ga and Oa,t have the same column

l

z a,t ¼ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ðy t Ryu ðt1ÞRuu ðt1Þu t Þ space, it is just set G^ a to be equal to O .

> a,t

l þ u t Ruu ðt 1Þu t Once G ^ a is available, the matrices A^ and C^ can be immediately

> extracted by exploiting the A-invariance property of Ga :

Ryu ðtÞ ¼ lRyu ðt1Þ þy t u t

! ^ m y G

^k

1

>

u t Ruu ðt1Þ A^ ¼ ½G a a and C^ ¼ G

^ a ð1 : ny , :Þ: ð23Þ

Ruu ðtÞ ¼ Ruu ðt1ÞRuu ðt1Þu t

^m¼G ^k¼G

l >

l þu t Ruu ðt1Þu t where G ^ a ð1 : ny ða1Þ, :Þ and G ^ a ðny þ1 : ny a, :Þ, (Matlab-

a y a

^

like notations), and G a is the pseudo-inverse of G ^ a: G^y ¼

su ðtÞ ¼ r2t su ðt1Þ þ ð1r2t Þua,t > > a

^ G^ 1 ^ ^ ^ ^

ðG a a Þ G a . Given A and C , the matrix B can be estimated by a

sy ðtÞ ¼ r2t sy ðt1Þ þ ð1r2t Þya,t linear regression (see e.g. Lovera et al., 2000 for more details).

1

In the original PAST algorithm, the noise symbolized by e a,t is assumed to be

The notations in Algorithm 1 are deﬁned as follows: Ruu ðtÞ ¼ white. But this is not the case here so that a solution may be to use an

> >

ðU a,t U a,t Þ1 , Ryu ðtÞ ¼ Y a,t U a,t ; su ðtÞ and sy ðtÞ are the average of the instrumental variable (Ljung & Soderstrom, 1983).

A. Akhenak et al. / Control Engineering Practice 21 (2013) 797–806 801

4. Fault detection and isolation are considered faultless (Dy ¼ 0). Then the system (2) becomes

(

xt þ 1 ¼ Axt þBðut þ DuÞ þvt

The objective of this part is to detect the occurrence of sensor ð28Þ

yt ¼ Cxt þwt

and actuator faults, and to isolate them. The FDI technique which

is proposed consists in the generation of residuals that reﬂect the

The ﬁnite memory observer can be used for the estimation of the

faults acting on the system which is modelled by Eq. (2). An ideal

actuator faults by considering them as components of an aug-

residual signal should remain zero in the fault-free case and non-

mented state of the system. One considers that the actuator fault

zero when fault occurs.

is constant on the time window F þ a2 as deﬁned in Section 3.1.

Based on the hypothesis that a fault is constant on the time

The augmented system can be written as follows:

window F þ a2 (see Section 3.1), the FDI technique is presented ( 0

for a single local model s. For the sake of clarity, in the following, xt þ 1 ¼ Ax0t þ But þ v0t ,

the index s will not be mentioned in the notation. ð29Þ

yt ¼ C x0t þ wt ,

where

4.1. Sensor fault detection and recognition

> > >

x0t ¼ ½x>t Du and v0t ¼ ½v>

t 0 ,

" # " #

In order to detect and estimate the sensor fault, the actuators A^ B^ B^

are considered faultless, i.e. Du ¼ 0. Then, the system (2) becomes A¼ , B¼ , C ¼ ½C^ 0,

0 I 0

(

xt þ 1 ¼ Axt þBut þvt ,

ð24Þ From this augmented system, which is assumed to be observable,

yt ¼ Cxt þ Dy þwt :

a ﬁnite memory observer of the form (26) can be designed for

cu is extracted as the last n compo-

estimating x0t from which D u

Given the identiﬁed matrices according to the method presented

nents of x0t .

in the previous section, the output of the system can be recon-

structed. The sensor fault indicator is designed as the difference

between the measured output yt and the output estimated y^ t

5. Online fault diagnosis of the dam-gallery

from the identiﬁed matrices. To compute y^ t , a ﬁnite memory

observer is used (Alessandri et al., 2005; Hocine et al., 2005). The

The proposed RSMI algorithm and FDI method are applied in

procedure is as follows. Note that the following approximation

the framework of the dam-gallery open channel system (see

holds:

Fig. 1) described in Section 2. The ﬁrst stage consists in identifying

^ a x^ ta þ H

y^ a,ta ¼ G ^ a ua,ta : ð25Þ online the model of the system. To show the efﬁciency of the

RSMI algorithm, the dam-gallery is ﬁrstly modelled by the Saint-

Solving Eq. (25) for the state Venant partial differential equations, using the software SIC.2 This

^ y ðy ^ software leads to an accurate model of channels according to the

x^ ta ¼ G a a,ta H a ua,ta Þ: resolution of the Saint-Venant equations via a discretization

Then, the state at time t is approximated by the following scheme. SIC is extensively used by hydrographical network

equation, which is referred to as a ﬁnite memory observer managers as well as hydraulic and control engineers (Duviella,

Chiron, Charbonnaud, & Hurand, 2007; Duviella et al., 2011;

a

x^ t ¼ A^ x^ ta þ T^ a ua,ta Litrico et al., 2007; Lozano et al., 2012; Malaterre & Chateau,

a y

^a ^ y ^ 2007).

¼ A^ G

^ y ^

a a,ta þðT a A G a H a Þua,ta , ð26Þ

In what follows, the model built using the software SIC is used

a1 as a reference model. Then, based on the parameters identiﬁed by

where T^ a ¼ ½A^ B^ A^ B^ B.

^ Finally, the output is reconstructed

as the RSMI algorithm, the output-sensor and input-actuator faults

are estimated using the proposed FDI approach.

y^ t ¼ C^ x^ t :

And the residual vector is given by the following equation: 5.1. Dam-gallery dynamics identiﬁcation

The analysis of each component r ðiÞ trical characteristics are considered to be known and are given in

t ,

i ¼ f1, . . . ,ny g, of the residual

vector (27) indicates the faulty sensors. For this purpose, appro- Table 1, where R is the radius, J the reach slope, K the Strickler

priate user-deﬁned thresholds Zi are set up for each r ðiÞ coefﬁcient and X the proﬁle length.

t to decide

whether or not the i-th sensor component is faulty. The sensor The software SIC allows the resolution of the Saint-Venant

faults can thus be diagnosed using a simple thresholding logic: equations according to the Preissman discretization scheme.

Among the resolution algorithms proposed by SIC, the Newton

9r ðiÞ

t 9 r Zi ) Fault-free condition of the sensor algorithm, which offers the best performance in spite of a longer

simulation time, is chosen. To avoid instability periods during

9r ðiÞ

t 9 4 Zi ) Faulty-condition on the sensor simulation, the Courant number has to be close to one

dt

Nc ¼ ðV þ C e Þ, ð30Þ

The value of the fault detection thresholds can be tuned according dx

to the expert knowledge. where Ce is the celerity coefﬁcient and V is the mean velocity of

the ﬂow expressed by V ¼ Q =S, with the discharge Q and

4.2. Actuator fault detection and recognition the wetted area S. To guarantee a Courant number Nc close to

SIC user’s guide and theoretical concepts. CEMAGREF, Montpellier, 1992.

proposed as a method to identify the actuator fault. The sensors http://canari.montpellier.cemagref.fr/

802 A. Akhenak et al. / Control Engineering Practice 21 (2013) 797–806

4

Reach 3.5

3

Reach

u

2.5

Dam Reach 2

1.75

1.5

y1

Table 1

Geometrical characteristics of the three reaches: radius R (m), slope J, Strickler 1.25

coefﬁcient K and proﬁle length X (m). 1

2

1 1 0.26 70 950

2 0.75 0.09 70 150

1.5

y2

3 0.75 0.1 70 300

1

0 6 12 18 24

Table 2 Time [h]

Dam-gallery downstream limiting conditions.

Fig. 5. (a) Upstream discharge u, (b) y1 and (c) y2 with SIC (continuous line) and

Q (m3/s) 0.507 1.02 1.496 2.02 2.53 3.03 RSMI (dashed line) downstream discharges.

y1 (m) 0.4 0.58 0.6 0.81 0.9 0.98

y2 (m) 0.54 0.72 0.84 0.95 1.04 1.12

0.2

0.15

Table 3 0.1

Deﬁnition of local models on operating range ½Q s min ; Q s max ½ depending on the

0.05

e1

pure delay ts .

0

Local model s ½Q min ; Q max ts ð:T e Þ −0.05

s¼2 [2.3;4.6] 2

s¼3 [4.6;5] 1

0.2

0.15

one, the spatial and temporal discretization steps are tuned as

0.1

dx ¼ 50 m and dt ¼ 12 s respectively.

0.05

e2

mann scheme requires downstream limiting conditions, i.e. the 0

relative water level z (m) according to the discharge Q (m3/s). Due −0.05

to the geometrical characteristics of the system, the downstream −0.1

0 6 12 18 24

limiting conditions are denoted y1 for the ﬁrst output at the end of

Time [h]

the reach 2 and y2 for the second output at the end of the reach 3

(see Fig. 4). The limiting conditions are given in Table 2. Fig. 6. Downstream discharge errors (a) e1 on y1 and (b) e2 on y2.

Due to its large operating range, i.e. [1, 5] m3/s, the dam-

gallery is considered as a switching system in the form (2) where

only one local model is active at any moment. Each local model is state estimation based on the observer (26). These shifts are

available on a local operating range (see Table 3). The number of increased during the switchings since mixed data resulting from

the local models is determined according to the discharges. various operating points are present in the sliding window a used

The transfer delays are supposed to be known, or estimated to identify the model parameters. The system dynamics are well

according to the method presented in Duviella et al. (2006). The identiﬁed, since the estimated outputs are very close to those

pure delays, which are expressed according to the sample time Te, from SIC.

are displayed in Table 3. The errors between the SIC and RSMI downstream discharges

The RSMI algorithm parameters have been chosen as a ¼ 8 for are computed as the difference between the two SIC and RSMI

the sliding window and l ¼ 0:8 for the forgetting factor. outputs, and depicted in Fig. 6. Around the operating points,

In order to evaluate the proposed online identiﬁcation algo- i.e.2 m3/s and 3.8 m3/s, the errors on y1 and y2 are less than

rithm, the ﬁrst scenario consists in a 24 h simulation with an 0.05 m3/s, i.e.2.5% (considering the discharge 2 m3/s). The max-

important setpoint modiﬁcation (from 2 m3/s to 3.8 m3/s) and a imal errors are reached around the 10th hour during the switch-

random noise of variance equal to 0.01. Fig. 5 shows the upstream ing between the two operating points. They are such as

discharge u and the downstream discharges y1 and y2 from SIC in max e1 ¼ 0:14 m3 =s and max e2 ¼ 0:19 m3 =s, i.e.7% and 9% respec-

continuous line, and from the RSMI approach in dashed line. The tively. The maximal errors are attributed to the presence of mixed

RSMI outputs are obtained by using the identiﬁed parameters and data coming from the two operating points in the sliding window,

the ﬁnite memory observer (26). Slight shifts between the SIC and and to the different time delays considered for each operating

RSMI outputs could be seen in Fig. 5b and c. They are due to the point. The magnitudes of the system poles using the RSMI

A. Akhenak et al. / Control Engineering Practice 21 (2013) 797–806 803

algorithm are depicted in Fig. 7. The magnitude of the system pole (x-mark) to the zone corresponding to the real ones (point-mark).

eig1 (see Fig. 7a) is approximately equal to 0.5 for the ﬁrst Poles (plus-mark) characterize the switching between the two

operating point around 2 m3/s, and to 0.1 for the second operating operating modes.

point around 3.8 m3/s. The second magnitude of the system pole

eig2 (see Fig. 7b) is close to 0.5 for the two operating points. At the

10th hour, when occurs the setpoint modiﬁcation, the errors on

the magnitude of the system poles are large on a small time 5.2. Sensor fault detection and isolation

interval inferior to 10 min. Then, the magnitudes of the system

poles converge to their values corresponding to the second Based on the RSMI results, the FDI method is used to detect

operating point according to the evolution of the discharge (see and estimate the faults acting on the dam-gallery system. The

Fig. 5). Again, errors on magnitudes of the system pole at the 10th type of fault, its duration and its amplitude are estimated

hour are due to data coming from two different local models in according to the analysis of the residuals generated by the ﬁnite

the sliding window, and the different time delays. memory observer (25) and (26). The faults are assumed to be

Finally, the poles of the system are depicted in Fig. 8. Poles that constant. Moreover, an output-sensor fault does not exist at the

correspond to the operating point around 2 m3/s are complex same time as an input-actuator fault. The proposed scenario

conjugate and close to 0:4 70:2j (x-mark). Those that correspond consists in a 96 hours simulation with important setpoint mod-

to the operating point around 3.8 m3/s are real (point-mark). iﬁcations (from 2 m3/s to 3.8 m3/s and from 3.8 m3/s to 1.4 m3/s)

During the switching between the two operating points, poles (see Fig. 9a), and two output-sensor faults. The output-sensor

(plus-mark) move from the zone corresponding to 0:4 70:2j fault Dy1 on y1 appears at the 24th hour with an amplitude of

0.5 m3/s and disappears at the 80th hour. The output-sensor fault

Dy2 on y2 appears at the 50th hour with an amplitude of 0.3 m3/s

and disappears also at the 80th hour. The RSMI algorithm para-

0.6

meters used are a ¼ 8 and l ¼ 0:8.

The downstream discharges y1 and y2 from SIC are depicted in

0.4 Fig. 9b and c in continuous line. These measured discharges are

eig1

0.2 discharges estimated by the ﬁnite memory observer (26) are

displayed in dashed line in Fig. 9b and c. The residuals r1 and r2

0

are computed from the difference between the measured outputs

and their estimates by the ﬁnite memory observer (see Eq. 27).

The residual r1 is equal to 0.5 m3/s between the 24th hour and the

0.8 80th hour (see Fig. 9d). The residual r 2 is equal to 0.3 m3/s as

0.7

from the 51th hour (see Fig. 9e). The residuals lead to a good

estimation of the faults, i.e. duration and amplitude, in spite of the

0.6 switching between the two operating points at time instants 34th

eig2

0.4

0.3 4

0 6 12 18 24 3

u

Time [h] 2

1

Fig. 7. Magnitudes of the system poles (a) eig1 and (b) eig2.

2

y1

1 1

0

0.8

0.6

2

y2

1

0.4

0

0.2

0 1

0.5

r1

−0.2 0

−0.5

−0.4

−0.6 1

0

r2

−0.8

−1

0 12 24 36 48 60 72 84 96

−1

−1 −0.8 −0.6 −0.4 −0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Time [H]

Fig. 8. Unit circle with the poles for the operating point corresponding to 2 m3/s Fig. 9. (a) Upstream discharge u, SIC (continuous line) and RSMI (dashed

(x-mark), for the operating point corresponding to 3.8 m3/s (point), and for the line) downstream discharges (b) y1 and (c) y2, (d) residual r1 on y1 and

commutation between the two operating points (plus-mark). (e) residual r2 on y2.

804 A. Akhenak et al. / Control Engineering Practice 21 (2013) 797–806

4 tion parameters become insensitive to the presence of the faults

3

considered (sensor and actuator). As the identiﬁed parameters are

u

2

1

insensitive to the sensor or actuator faults, the second stage of

this approach, consists in the fault detection and isolation using

the parameters identiﬁed in the ﬁrst stage. The strategy of fault

2

localization depends on the element to supervise. The sensor

residual is computed by the comparison between the actual

y1

0 ﬁnite memory observer. The analysis of each component of the

residual vector indicates possible faulty sensors. The actuator

fault detection and isolation is carried out by the design of a ﬁnite

2 memory observer with unknown input. The role of this observer

consists in estimating the augmented part of the state vector

y2

1

which corresponds to the actuator fault, after having rewritten

0 the identiﬁed model of the system in its augmented form.

This approach is applied for the online parameters identiﬁca-

tion and diagnosis of a dam-gallery open channel system subject

0.4 to sensor and actuator faults. The parameters of the dam-gallery

0.2

ru

−0.2 space identiﬁcation algorithm by considering known time delays.

0 12 24 36 48 60 72 84 96 The system dynamics are well identiﬁed with maximal modelling

Time [H] errors during the commutation between two operating points.

Using the identiﬁed parameters, the ﬁnite memory observer leads

Fig. 10. (a) Setpoint (continuous line) and upstream discharge u (dotted line), SIC

to the detection and isolation of the sensor faults acting on the

(continuous line) and downstream discharges estimated by ﬁnite memory

observer (dashed line), (b) y1, (c) y2, and (d) actuator fault estimation ru. dam-gallery system. The type of fault, its duration and its

amplitude are well estimated according to the analysis of the

generated residuals. Finally, the ﬁnite memory observer with

During the commutations between two operating points, at unknown inputs is used for the detection and isolation of the

the 34th and 68th hours (see Fig. 9a), or when an output-sensor actuator faults acting on the dam-gallery system. The residual

fault appears or disappears, at the 24th, 51th and 80th hours (see analysis leads to a good estimation of the type of fault, its

Fig. 9b and c), there are abrupt changes in the residual values (see duration and its amplitude in spite of the commutation between

Fig. 9d and e). The detection of a fault or a commutation is carried operating points. The downstream discharges are well estimated

out after a time corresponding to the sliding window width a. It is in spite of the actuator fault.

possible to differentiate a fault detection from a switching by

considering the input signal.

Appendix A. Recursive update of z a,t

5.3. Actuator fault detection and isolation

The goal of this appendix is to compute the observation vector

z a,t whenever a new couple ðua,t ,ya,t Þ of input–output data becomes

The second scenario consists in an input-actuator fault (see

Fig. 10). The input-actuator fault on u appears at the 34th hour available (Merce re et al., 2004). For notational convenience, the time

with an amplitude of 0.4 m3/s and disappears at the 84th hour. In index t will be omitted in F t that is, F t will be denoted more simply

Fig. 10a, the setpoint is shown in continuous line, and the by F. Given Z a,t 1 ¼ Y a,t 1 P?

U

, it is necessary to obtain z a,t as the

a,t 1

upstream discharge u subjected to disturbances is shown in

last column of Z a,t ¼ Y a,t P?

U a,t

. This is done in a recursive manner by

dotted line. The downstream discharges y1 and y2 are depicted

in Fig. 10b and c in continuous line for the measured outputs and performing an update of the orthogonal projection onto the ortho-

in dashed line for the discharges estimated by the ﬁnite memory gonal complement of the rows space of U a,t .

observer (26). The residual r (r u ¼ D cu) is estimated by using By using the equation

u

" # " 1 #

> c> > cu corre- 1 F1 jF1 jF1 jF1

>

Eq. (26), and replacing x^ t by x^ 0t ¼ ½x^ t Du , where D 1 P?

jF1 0

P?jF ¼ I F j j >

¼ ,

sponds to the last nu components of the augmented state of the F F F 0 1 F j>F1 1

system (29). It is equal to 0.4 m3/s as from the 34th hour until the ðA:1Þ

84th hour (see Fig. 10d). The residual leads also to a good

estimation of the fault, i.e. duration and amplitude, in spite of it is possible to obtain:

pﬃﬃﬃ

the commutation between two operating points at the 50th hour. 1 1

Y a,t ¼ lY a,t 1 þ y~ a,t j> ~

F1 y a,t ðA:2Þ

FðF1Þ F

pﬃﬃﬃ

6. Conclusion 1 1

U a,t ¼ lU a,t 1 þ u~ j> u~ a,t ðA:3Þ

FðF1Þ a,t F1 F

In this paper, an online procedure for sensor and actuator fault pﬃﬃﬃ

detection and isolation is proposed, with only a little prior y~ a,t ¼ lY a,t 1 jF1 ðF1Þya,t ðA:4Þ

knowledge on the system to be supervised. To implement this

pﬃﬃﬃ

new approach, two stages are necessary. Initially, a speciﬁc u~ a,t ¼ lU a,t 1 jF1 ðF1Þua,t ðA:5Þ

recursive subspace identiﬁcation algorithm is developed to iden-

tify online the parameters characterizing the dynamics of the In order to estimate the observation vector z a,t , it is necessary to

system. By explicitly eliminating the inﬂuence of a certain type of compute the relation Y a,t P?

U

step by step. The ﬁrst step consists

a,t

A. Akhenak et al. / Control Engineering Practice 21 (2013) 797–806 805

rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

>

in obtaining the product U a,t U a,t . By applying Eq. (A.2) and xa,t pﬃﬃﬃ

1

lFðF1Þz a,t ðga,t U a,t 1 þ ljF1 Þ FðF1Þ y a,t jF1

þ > > ~ >

?

observing that U a,t 1 PjF1 ¼ 0, the following expression can be

sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 3

derived: xa,t ðF1Þ

1 z a,t 5

>

U a,t U a,t ¼ lU a,t 1 U a,t 1 þ

>

u~ u~ > : ðA:6Þ F

FðF1Þ a,t a,t

By applying the matrix inversion lemma to (A.6) with

! sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

> 1 >

1 g~ a,t g~ >a,t x

a,t >

ðU a,t U a,t Þ1 ¼ U a,t 1 U a,t 1 ðA:7Þ z a,t ¼ ðy~ Y a,t 1 U a,t 1 ga,t Þ: ðA:8Þ

l d~ FðF1Þ a,t

a,t þ lFðF1Þ

> Using Eqs. (A.5) and (A.8):

with g~ a,t ¼ ðU a,t 1 U a,t 1 Þ1 u~ a,t and d~ a,t ¼ u~ >

a,t g a,t .

~

>

By post-multiplying Eq. (A.7) by U a,t , and taking (A.2) into Z a,t Z a,t ¼ lðY a,t P?

U

ÞðY a,t P?

U

Þ>

a,t a,t

account:

>

¼ lZ a,t 1 Z a,t 1 þz a,t z >

a,t

>

Now, pre-multiplying the last equation by U a,t yields Note now that Z a,t 1 and Z a,t ¼ ½Z a,t 1 z a,t can be written as

Z a,t 1 ¼ Ga X t 1 P?

U

and Z a,t ¼ Ga X t P?

U

respectively. From

a,t 1 a,t

this, it follows that z a,t belongs to the column space of Ga .

! algorithm for computing the observation vector as follows:

xa,t pﬃﬃﬃ > d~ a,t pﬃﬃﬃ

Ca,t ¼ lg~ >

a,t U a,t 1 þ j>F1 y~ a,t ¼ lY a,t 1 jF1 ðF1Þya,t

F FðF1Þ

pﬃﬃﬃ

u~ a,t ¼ lU a,t 1 jF1 ðF1Þua,t

and

>

g~ a,t ¼ ðU a,t 1 U a,t 1 Þ1 u~ a,t

d~ a,t

xa,t ¼ 1 ~ : d~ a,t ¼ u~ >

a,t g a,t

~

d a,t þ lFðF1Þ

b~ a,t ¼ d~ a,t þ lFðF1Þ

Now, the orthogonal projection P?

U

can be obtained such as

a,t xa,t ¼ 1d~ a,t =b~ a,t

sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

pﬃﬃﬃ x

a,t >

1

lY a,t 1 þ FðF1Þ y~ a,t j> ?

0 z a,t ¼ ðy~ Y a,t 1 U a,t 1 g~ a,t Þ

Y a,t P?

U

¼ F1 PU FðF1Þ a,t

a,t a,t 1

806 A. Akhenak et al. / Control Engineering Practice 21 (2013) 797–806

> > 1 Li, Y., Cantoni, M., & Weyer, E. (2004). Design of a centralised controller for an

Y a,t U a,t ¼ lY a,t 1 U a,t 1 þ y~ u~ >

FðF1Þ a,t a,t irrigation channel using H-inﬁnity loop-shaping. In UKACC International con-

! ference on control, Bath, UK.

> 1 > g~ g~ > Litrico, X., & Fromion, V. (2009). Modeling and control of hydrosystems. Springer.

ðU a,t U a,t Þ1 ¼ ðU a,t 1 U a,t 1 Þ1 a,t a,t ðA:9Þ Litrico, X., & Georges, D. (1999). Robust continuous-time and discrete-time ﬂow

l b~

a,t control of a dam-river system. (I) Modelling. Applied Mathematical Modelling,

23, 809–827.

which in turn, can be rearranged in the form given in Algorithm 1. Litrico, X., Malaterre, P., Baume, J., Vion, P., & Ribot-Bruno, J. (2007). Automatic

tuning of PI controllers for an irrigation canal pool. Journal of Irrigation and

Drainage Engineering, 133, 27–37.

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