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D A V I D B A K E R ' S


For the Small Ensemble:
Jazz, R&B, Jazz-Rock
Rev"ised Edition
© Copyright MCMLXXXV by Frru,gipani Press
© Copyright assigned MCMLXXXVIII Alfred Publishing Co., Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Print in the United States of America

ISBN 0.88284-469-5

No part of this publica1ion may be rcprQduced in any form or by any means whatsoever. without the
prior written of the copyright owner.

Table of Contents
Biographicd Notes . .... ... ... . .. .. .. .. ..•.......•... . . . ... . .• ... .. ... . .... . . .. iv
ForcwOt'd J:.y Quincy Jones .. ... ... •• .. ...••...... .• • .• ... . . . .. ••.. . •• .. ..•.. .. •.. v
Preface.....•.••• ,,,,,, ....•...•.• ,,•••••.....••••..•••..••.• , .••...••••..... vi
Chapter I: Nomenclature . .. ... . . . .. ... .......••.•...• , .... • •....• • . . . ••• .. .. I
Chapter II: The lnurumcn1s . .... . ...........•.•...••...••••..•... , •.. 6
Chap1cr Ill: General Rules for Insm.imema1 Scoring .• , . , • , , •• , . • . •. . .•.•.. • .. . . .. . .. .. .. 12
Chapter IV Constructing a Melody...... . . .....•.....•..........••. , .•. , 16
Chapter V: Techn,ique$ To Be Used in Developing a Melody......•••...•... ,. , • , , •.• • .... . 20
Chapter VJ: Fining Chord._ To a Given Melodic Linc ...........••..........•..... , • , .. , . 45
Chapcer VD: Writing ror the Rhythm Section......................•.....•.....•.• ,• •.. S2
Chnpecr Vfil: The Piano Trio ......................•....•. , ...•.•..••.•..•••. , . • S6
Chnpcer IX: The Jati Quartet ....................••....••. , , , .•••. , ••• •. .•• ••..• 59
Chapter X: S<.-ales and n,eir Rela1 iooshi p To Chords ...•• , . . . .•. • .. • •••.. • • • •. .• • • ...• 60
Olapter Xt Two-Voice Writing.•..•.. ...•. . .•..•• •• • ... ••. • . . • • • . ..• • • .. . • • .... • n
O apter XD: l'umbacks ...•, •• , ••.. , , . . . . .•... •.• • •.. ••• •. .• • • • . . •• • . . .• • ...•. 90
Ch.apter XDl: Threc-¼ice Writing ••,• ,..••.••...••• , .. .•.••.. ••.•. .•• •.. .•• • .. •. 93
Chap1cr XIV: Four-Voice Writin g ••... ,. •• .••...•••• ••. .••••. . • ••.. • •• • .. •. 101
Chapter XV: Fi••e-Voice Writing ..•..• , , •••.•.•••• , , .•. .••••. . •. •.. .• •... .. 113
Cha.pier X'/1: Six.Voice Writing .••............••••••• , . •.•.. .•. •.. .•. . .... 123
Chapter X'/11: 8iional \Vriting: •,•...•.. . . . . •..•••.•.•..•.• • ..•.•..• • •..... 125
Chapter XVIII: Putting an Arrangement 'fo-gether............................. .......... 135
Chapcc.r XIX: Olord Sub.'itilutions................•.•••..•..•..•.....••• ,•• , ••.••. . . 139
C11af,11cJ XX. The 8lue1-.mJ R.h1tr11-.� & Oh.1c:. .••..••.. , ••....••.••.•..••.•.••.••.• , . 14$
Ch11p1er XXl: A Model Arr:a.nieme1u, • , .• . . ••. .. • . .. •.. .. . . .. . •. . ..•..•. . •.. • .... 153

Biographical Notes

DAVID NATff,ANlEL BAKER-au1h0r, comp0s-er. arran1e:r, ins1rumeo1alis1, and teacher-is a aifled and
versatile mus.ician equally al home in all worlds of music.

Born December 21, 1931 in lndfanapolig, lndian:i, 81U;cr firo CUAblishcd his musicaJ reputation a$ a brllllan.t jau:
trombonist. He worked with the bl.a bands of Stan Kenton, Mayna,d Ferausoo, Buddy Johnson, Lionel Hampton,
and Quincy Jone$ Md with combos led by Wes Mon(J:omery, HarOld Land, Charles T'yter, and m0$1 notably,
George Russell. Currently, Baker performs on oc:llo.

Baker holds 1he '8.M.E. and M.M.E. degrees from lndlana Uni\•enity. He $tudied crom\>Qnc with
Beversdorf, William Adam, J. J. Johnson, Bob Brookmeytr, and oc.heB; cello whh Leoi:,o,d Teraspulslcy, Jules
£$kin, Norma Woodbury, Helaa Winold, Janos Starker. and otben.; .tnd theory and comp0silion with George
RusselJ, WIiiiam Russo. John Lewi.s, Gunther SchuUCJ, Bernard Heiden, and others.

Baker received a down beat Hall of Fame Scholarship Award in 1959 and won down beot's New Star Award:
Trombone in the 1962 Jntcmational Jazz Critics Poll. ln 1981 he was the recipient of the National Association or
Jazz Educators HaJJ of Award.

In the non-jazz realm 13,aker has t,«n a member of the Indiana University Philharmonic and Opera o,ch�trM and
the Wind and Brass Ensemble; the Buder Un.iversi1y Orehewa, Band, and Brass Ensemble; and the Indianapolis
Civic Ordlcstra, He bu made solo appcaranoes with and h:u had his compos-itions performed by the New York
Philharmonic, among many orchestras. Artists who have performed :Baker's compos:.hions include Josef Otogold,
Janos Starker, Ru,ierio Ricci, James Pellerite, Gary Karr, Jkr1tam Turctzl:y, and Harvey Phillips.

David Baker is currently Profc$SOr of Music at the Indiana University School of Music and is Chairman or the Jan
Oepanmem. supervising one of the m0$t important jaustudics programs in l11e U.S. He also uavels cxttnsivc:ly in
bi$ various roles a$ clinician, lecturer, performer, and conductor.

David Bakcris one of those rare people who has evetything covered. He's a mU$ician I mean, Ba:tok
to Boogaloo. In this book, he gets into piano lrios,jatz quartets; he explores four and fivc-,·oicc writin;. ct:ord
substitution;, rhythm&: blues voicings: and bass patterns, and a who� )ot of other mi.nd--stretchel"S,
I was privileged to have Dave in my big bard in 196 l. as a trombonisl bass trombonist, arranger and
composer. He had (and has) a Slimulatine,, provoealive kind ofmind plus a roaring sense of humor. He was a
probt'r, always curiou.s about life and mu.sic. But at the same time; he was stable. He was someone
you could count on when everything was goingcrazy, which was o�rly always. Freddie Hubbard was in theband
then too, ai:d Oa,id · B.akt.r was his music teacher i n lndhmapolis.
This toot i:san inlensh"e study. ll oovcr:s (ar more than its titk implies, including as it docs many orDave's
ori&inalcorapooilion:s-. Fm a bigfan ofDa,·c's writing. I remember a tune he brought with him whe.n he joined my
t,and. It was �Dcd Screomi'n' Mttmies. Since lhen the tune has become a standard with ba.nds all over the
country, laqe and small, especially scbooljau bands.. As a matter or fact, David Baker's inOuence is
SU'Ol1$1Y fell on campuses from one coast to the other.
I'd like to add that David Baker has been alm0$t a pioneerincollatingint'.onnation on the histories orblack
comp0sers 1n Amerka.
I'd also like to go on record with the reason I was Late in submitting this foreword \0 the P')blishcr. Wben f
sat down to write it, I got all hung up in the book instead. And1hat'sju:n what yc>u!hou.lddotoo. i(you're.a writer,
or ir you're thinking about be.coming one. This book is a ateat lrip lhrough the foundations ormod,em


This book addresses i.tsclf' to the needs of the composer-arranger who is interested in writing for small
combinations (3-10 pieces) in jau.. rhythm & blues, Mdjaa,.roc:k. Many book$ have been written across lhc
years dealing with jazz band ananging and/or composing but almost without exception these books have
concerned themselves primarily with the exigencies of large ensemble writins., 1 suppose that much ofthe neglect
in this area has been the result otthe mistaken notion that writing for smaU groups does fl(( require the skills and
disciplines ncce$$ary for big band writing. Tho situation is much like the igoorance that so long inhibited the
tca-ching otja2:% improvisfl.tion, This tack o f knowledge manifested itself in attitudes such a.s"you cithcr-got it or
you ain't".
In mai,y ways the writing rorsmall combination i.s much more di.ffiwlt than writing for the bj3band. In big
bands, with complete $Cd.ions of brass and saxophone:$, the task of combining orchestral colors i$ much less
precarious. Cer'tain aspc,cu of oompoSjtion and arranging can be trested much more loosely in the context o(lhe
big band. Such problems as creating the illusion or a brass section when you have two brass and th.rec reeds. or
getting a fuU chord sound with only three instruments, or achieving conuast and variety with limited lonal
res.ources. arc problems usually endemic to small group writing.
Leaming to write ror small groups is particularly valuable for many reasons, musical and oo�musical.
Ahhough the big band continues to be the ideal toward which :aspiring strive, it is easier to
organize a six to nioo-piececnsembJe than II twenl}'-pieee:bisband. Another reason is. of oou.rse, the popularity of
the small ensemble in jut., rhythm & bluc:s, and jau-roek. Even within the context or a large
ensemble, sm"-ll ensembles olfcr wc�omc rcllef in tcnns of contrast and variety. From lhe standpoint or
eoonomies the small a,oup is more likely to get work than lhe biJ band. from an atslhetic Point of view most
innovation, and departures from tradition have taken pl.ace within the smaller ensemble. The unwieldiness or
large ensembles, the relatively ttrict adherenoeto csabli.s:hed big band practices. and the traditional tole of the big
band as synthtsiwhavc all eontribu1.ed to this state o(, For these.and oclter re.:isons, many young writers
will want lO explore area or small JtOUP writine,
Thi$ boot include:! cxccrpu from SmaH group amingcments. complete Sc6rei of recorded Alld r,ublishtd
arran.gtmcnts, mu.$ical examples, r«ornmendcd recordings.. and suggested out.side reading. The book also
provides many of the compositional tools for lhe arranger. ror alJ good arrangers must be able to compose or
ferever remain mediocre in their writing efforts. Of\en the composing will be simply wriling introdue1.ions,
interlude$, countenndodics, etc.• but in every sense of the word. composing,
Simply put, i t is the purpose or this book to mate available the techniques for developingskiJls necessary to
a composer�arranger (or teacher) in writing (Of small groups.

Da11id &ktr
Bloomin3ton. Indiana
January, 1985
Chapter I


One of the 11m things that in ll$piringjau musician 100$1 do is learn to read 31ld interpret chord symbols.
The six chord types are major, minor. dominai:it. dimitlished, augmented, a.od half diminished.
An alpbabcticaJ letter indicates lhe rOOt o n which a chord,, built. 1ne tertian system is u.1ually em"Joyed.
that is. chords arcbuilt inconsecutivt thirds (i.c.. CEAJ•B·D-F•A). F0t the uninitiated two short cuts to aid itt
chordconst;roetlon follow: (1) buildthe chord using altemttin& letters or the musical alphabct(i.e.., f-A-C-E-G-
8-0-etc.) and (2) build the chord using either the lines E..Q.8,0-F or the spaces F-A-CE.
1n the m�r chord types all notes arc indi•now tolhemajor scale ofthe root� i.e. C major is spcUcdC­
£-G-�D-etc., E-b major is spelled Eb-G-Bb,[)..F-etc., and so forth. NumericaUy this can be expressed 1-3-5-7-
9-11-etc. A letterstand ing alone indicates a major triad, which is a c,hord consisting ofthe root., the major
third, and lhe perfect fifth. i.e., C·E-0, F·A·C. Gl:>-Bb-Db. etc.
AU m.;or type chords ha\'e the word major" or one of the symbols of abbreviation in the title with the
exception of the triad (i.e., C·E--G) and the chord oC the 3dded sixth (i.e., c,=C�G-A). Tht: tenn extension
refers to the notes higher than the seventh in a tertian suuccure. i.e�, lhe ninth, eleventh, thirteenth, ccc. We may
exlead the major chord by using the Jeuer 11amcsofthc major scal e built on the root of the cbord(i.e., Ab major 13,
wlikh ls spelled Ab-C-Bl>G--Bl>Db-F) or by using the unaltered odd numbers (1·3-5•1-9-1 1-13). The most
commonly used symbols and abbreviations for major areMaj. Ma, M, 6 , a1enerby itself, and a leuerplus tbc
number six:, i.e., the; C Maj, C Ma.CM, C 6 , C, and c,. In abbreviations for major use a capital
leuer M for the first letter of the abbreviation.
All minor type chords ha\'C lhc word minor (use small letter m) or one of thc symbOls or abbreviaOOns for
miBor in the title �ith the exception ot the half diminished chord. for our purpus.cs thc half diminished chord is
�tter called a minor seventh with a Oat five(m�l\)�. The most commonly used symbols and abbreviations for
minor arc nun, mi, rn. and-, i..e,, the following: C min, C mi.Cm. andC-. To lhis wc ma.y add the numbers which
indicate the members or d\t scale to be added, Le., C mi 11. which k $pe]Jed CEb-G-Bb-0-F.
In conlSlrucLing a minor chord we again Lhink oflhc rool or the chord as being the tOnic note or a major !Scale.
We then lower the third ofthe c;.hord one halhtep. The resultant triad is indicated by a leuer pllll the word minor
or one ofits abbreviations. To this triad we may add lhe lowcrodor minor scvcnth. The spclling is then 1-b3-5-b7;
if we use the OO(e C as the rool of lhc chord.C m� is spe.lled C-Eb-G-Bb. Any extension5 added to the minor
chord are indigenous to the ofthe root tone; C mi 1 1 is spelled, for example,C-Eb--G-Bl>�F or 1-b3-
S•b7-9- I I.
An altered chord tone or ex\cnsion is indictllcd by a pfus(+) or sharp(•) for raised and by a minus(-} or flat
(b) for lo�red. Altered and added notes: are best parenthesi'Zcd to a,'Oxl confusion, i.e., C,i1111• C/IIM �,, and
Tbe dominant seventh chord is constructed as follows: I-3·S· b1, or, in other words, lower the seventh ofthe
major scale of the root one hair step(usiflg C as the root, the chord Is spelled C-E-G-Bb). The number seven.
unleu aocompinied by tl� word major or mitlor, meal'IS to add the minor seventh 10 the tti4d, Any leuer plus a
number other than six signifiu a dominant seventh c-bord. i.e. the following: ,, lS spelled CE-G-Bb-0; C1 is
spclfcdC·&G-Bb-D-F-A. AU extensions arcindigenou.stothc: major key of the root tone. i.e. lhe following! (..;.
is spcUcd c.£.G-Bb-0-F-A.
The diminisbcdchol'd is COnSlruclcd 1-b3.bS-6; usingCas the root the chord is spelfedC.£1>-Gb-A. lnjau.
all reference$ to a diminilhed chord dimin.i�cd seventh. In this chord all adjacent members are a mioor
third apart. The ,ymbol few diminished Is a circ:lc; hs abbreviation is dim. (small lc\ter d).
The augmented chord is COl'\SU\ICted 1-l-•5: usincC as the root the chord is spclkdC-E-G•. I n this chord
1,ll adjacent member, are a major third apan, The symbol ror auemented isa pl\tS sign (+):its abbreviation is aug.
The half diminished chord is also known as a minor .seventh with a flat 6vc(mi,'"") and i-s oonstruded 1-b3-
b5-b1; using C as the roo11he chord i$ spelled C-Eb--Gb-8b. The half diminished chord is symbOlized ti and
abbreviated mi,<16>.
AU chords that arc neither major nor mino, function as dominant seventh chords. i.e.• C+, C13• Co,. C11 ,
cte. The lllJ.8fflented chord usually functions ;as the dominant seventh chord with the ume root n11.�. i,e.,
C+=C,(+!i). Diminished chords arc usWllly derived domil\jlnt seventh chord$. The root ,one is found a �or
third below 1he bo«om tone or the diminished chord. i . e.. Co,=Ab1•
One of the most perplexing problems for bcgionin_g jazt player1 is rceonciling the key of a
compositioo to the seemi ng inconsis:tcnc:ies in the realizations of the chord symbols, Le., the following examples:

Why is thert oo Eb in lhi.s ch0rd?

Why is there l'IO F" in this chord?

In answering tbtse questions obscrYe the rottowioa rule: the key signature ofa composition has no dlrtct beating
on the spellina of indlvidua.l cbotds. The tYmbols: cictate the realization or Ult chord.
Properly irne' l>'lg the chord of the oode.d six1h poses another problem ro,many people because
chord is often M ttlvetted ronnor a mi.n0rseve111h chol'd. This problem shoukl be handled u follows: ifthc chord
oftheadded sixth resolves� a dominant st'o'cntb chord a m.ajor second above« a domina,it seventh chord a major
third below iu r oot., It sbowd be treated as a m.inorst\lenlh chord. To k>cate its root. inven the chord until it is
arranll<(I in thi«ls. Le.. the following: C,(C-E-G-A) • Ami, and Etwru,(E b-Gb-Bb-C) • C<j,.

SUMMARY: Infonnation ror determining chord catciorics


M'\iOr. 1->-5-7-9-ete. C. C t; • C Majot, C MIV,, C Ma, CMa,, C7 CMlli,.
Minor: 1-b3-S-b7-9-etc. C-, C-1, C min, C mi�, Cmi, Cini,, Cm, C m,
Dominant 1-3-S-b7-9�tc. S· c,. ell ' c u
Diminished: 1-b3-bS-6 Co. Co,. C dim. C dim,
Half diminished: 1-b3-b5-b7 cp, Cm�!MI, CJ"')
Augmented: l -�•5 C+,C1 +, c;s, C, aug. c,+i
Alterations and additions are made aoc<>rdu\£ to the lc.ey of the bottom tone.

I: AU major type c-hords(i.e.. C, C6 • all chords with maj<x in the title)
II.: All minor type chords(minor in the title) including. the",
V: Any domi nant SC\'enthchord(letter plus a number<Xher than 6); anything odterthan a major or minor1.Yf)t
Special v chord types: (I) Augmented (Aug=dominant 7th or the s-.arne name. i.e., C+=C1)
(2) Diminished . Oimioisbcdchords are usually derived from the dominant 7th a major
third below the. root of the diminished chord. I.e., Co 1=A�.
I. the six chord types nnd give examples ol each.
2. Give an example of an extension to an Ab1 chotd.
3. Build the following chords:
r. o•--11

._ Ab 13
b. ot-111 Fo,

c. Om� b. Bbm�•�1

d. E i C , ( �)

e. ArJ, j. F"

4. Cb.ssify the chords in e:xercise #3 as lO major. miooir, or dominant fuoctioo.
S. Gf,e the dominant 7th to which the (oUowing diminished chords belong:
L Ao,
b. Do,
c. F•o
:I. Bo,'
e. Co1
6. Fiad the r� c)f' the following chords:
a. C-E--0,A
b. B-B-G-A-C
'"� Oh-Ah-Rh-F-Gh-F'.h
d. P-C-Eb-A
•. B-8-0-G

• C c.. Cllai.7 Cm C "'· c...i.
., + ... • ... ij ..
it, rP.. lf,IW._ O'ml �"' ........
. rv .. ,,� vv � JO
• D � Dt,q., Omi Dmi.. lm,i.
1-' ii ..V '" V :U 0
El> 9t. l'MoJ,7 l!>mi P111i.. 1'miy
. VV .- .. i -�

• E q, £Moj,7 En,i EINI, Elftlr

ii - I

F I'\ r Mat1 """' F'mi6, rm1,
F � �


rJ> CJ\. (l>lllj.7 r;,.; l;>n,'

!I "'
G Gi, "Gi.j1 G-11\i c.m;. 6, in,

• ,. »Mojf .#nli »mi., ��ffli-,
. ·-


I A ,._A lllj.7 �1'111 Amit.


II>. �Moj N ebmi Pmi.. �mi,,

. blt .bit ,v

lllf �
g 8" 6111j.7 hi g ..... i
"'6 ilf � � ,,.

�. -
CIIII).(+) C,/♦5)


�/llllj; �.
.... ...
�(t5) II/dim(•)
� (i.s)
Oflll.r (►b}
Otw<1. (+)
-- J
Dr �5) 07�

Q � V V - � .- -
l:'ri, (�) �ni(llllj1) Sir 9o.uq.(♦) Eli,� f!ldml.•) E\, (i.s)
�- . . .
Emir (►5) E.tni {maf1) 6r £ Qli(J• (♦) f1 t: dim(•) f7 �sl
- - � - - -
Fmi, (1,5) F OW).(♦) F7 �
�mi Cmot1) Fr Fdlffl. C•)

�mi-,,�> �(Ola}7} Gia, i;,1,, (+5) �(bs)
' Gl>oug. (♦) ()d,;,,.(o)
Gmi1 I� Gm{iroj7) b1
loOIIQ• (♦)
Gt, (+5) Gdtm.(0) G1 (t,5)
hi7 (w
L -
�QWJ- (♦) It>-, (+5)
' ,;,Jiin.(,)
Ami1 (1,5)
Anri6NJ.1) A1 Ao.uq. (+) A1(
,.,, (►s)


�(Is) � �GUQ-C+) �. (♦5) 8'>di0t. (•) e,., (Is)

Fl f»'> ,� b'6- b� •�-ue- b�

h1i1 &n(1111j1) B.. & .... (,) 6? (+5) 8dtn. (•) &7 ( ►5)
'6- ,,. - J!. "'-'ij- •:::. -'6- �-o-

Chapter II


1ne instruments of the orchestra are dividt-d into four main sections: bra53, woodwinds. strings and
The Brass section includes iuch lnstruments as:
Trumpet Tenor Trombone
Comet Bass Trombone
Bass Trumpet Baritone Hom
French Hom Tuba
The Woodwind, inclu<le:
Piccolo Bassoon
Flute Contra Bassoon
Aho Flu1.e Soprano Saxophone
Bass Flute Alto Saxophone
Oboe Tenor Sa.�cpbonc
Engloh Hom 8 aritone Snopbone
Clarinet Bus Saxophone
Bass Clarinet
The Stri nv include:
VtO!in Guitar
Viola Electric Bus
ViolinoeUo Tenor BaAjo
The Percussion i.nstruments include:
Tympani Marimba
Snare Drum Xylophone
Bass Drum Celesta
Cymbals Piano
Vibes H•r p
h is beyond the scope of this ebapcer t0 go into drtails about each instrument, ilS use, charac.teristics,
idiosyncrasies, etc. This chapte, will thertforc deal with some comparisons between classes ofinstrum«ns and
some general characterist ics of each cl.ass. A indicating ranees and transposition ofeach instrument follows
I.his chapter.
Comparison o( Families ot lnstrumeoll ( 1 i.s the greatc$t degree; S l$ lhe weakest degree)
Stri.s, Brass Woodwinds SaxOphones Petcussioo
Homog_cnclty I 2 4 3 s
Strtnglh 4 2 s 3
of Rtgistcr 2 4 3 ,

I. Good blend with other brass inttrumentS,.

l. Tle larger the instrument the more air required.
3. T:ie lara,er the instrument the less facility and speed (theoretically).
4. All brass inslruments built on the overtone series (bugle).
S. L,:,ng tones sound louder than short tones except ia highly rhythmic passages.
6. Hgh torn:s oo bass instnune:nu: sound hl per than tones of the same pitch in the low registers of treble
7. Hidt tones on bras$ instruments are most promint:iL
8. B;ass instruments tend t oward isolation.
9. Dissonance is particularly acute in btass.
10. Avoid utreme registers.
11. Trum pets and tromboaes arc nearly equal in power; tuba and hom Jess strona,
12. Clefs.
a. TrumpetS read in treble clef.
b. Homs read in treble and bass clef.
c. Bass trumpet reads- in treble clef.
d Trombones read in bass, tenor, aho a.nd trebk tier. (When in treble· clef, transposition is a 9th higher
than it $0unds. )
e. Tuba reads in bass clef or tenor clef,


Pkcolo Clarinct.s Oboe
Fhrtes Bass Cl.l.rinct$ English Homs
Alto Flule So:ophoocs Bassoon
Bass Flute Contra Bassoon
I, Flutes read in treble clef.
2. Oboes read in treble clef:
3. EngJlsh Hom reads in treble clef.
4. Clarinets rud in 1reble clef.
S. Eass Cla.ritlct reads in treble and bass clef,
6. E4.$$00I\ reads in bass: and tenor cler;
7. Contra Bassoon reads in bass clef.
8. Sa.x 0phooes read in treble clef.
General Characterhtks of Woodwinds
I. Woodwinds the distinctive sound of the four sections.
2. Each sok> woodwind bas a highly d:istinctn·e sourd.
3. Each so'° woodwind has complete blend potcntia'. with all instruments.
4. The tooe eol0r of each member of the woodwind family remains constant throuahc)ut the ran.te (X the
bsuument bu1 the intensity md)' vary because ol':cuitura and technic,al c.;waeit)•.

Sh.e Olf'fcrcnccs
I. Violas are a perfect fifth l ower than violins.
2. Cellos are an octa,·e lower than violas.
3. Basses an O<:Uve lower than cellos Mad sound an octave. lower than wriuen.
Cid Oittere.ncu
I. Violins play in treble clef onl y.
2. Violas play i.n alto and treble clef.

3. Cellos play in bass, tenor and treble clef.
◄. Basses play in b:m,. tenor and ueble clef. (Always sounding an octave lowec than wrinen.)
Uu11bnltks of Strings
1. Openstrings are loudest and most prominent. ()pen strings .should usually be a,·okk:d in sk>w or expressive
2. Outside slfin.&$ 3rt most aJh,e.
3. The larger the Instrument the more effective the piulcauo.
4. lbe-smaller the initrument the more Oexibility available and conscquendy the mote activity in the writing.
S. Lona chromatic passaies should be used judicioesly,
6. Tbe trill size determines the faclJity.
a. P 4th on violin.
b. P 4th on viola
c. Major 3rd on cello.
d. Major 2nd on bass.
e. Minor 3rd on electric bass.
t P 4th on guitar.
g. P 4th on banjo.
?. Short tones played with separate bows sound k>udcr than k>ng tones.

I. Two baSic types.
a Dcf'i.nite pitch-tympani, vibes. ,cylpr>hone., etc.
b. Indefinite pitc�drums, cymbals, tom•toin. bongos., etc.


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Chapter III


I. Observe the ovcrton<! scries: wider intervals at the bottom. dose intervals at the top. (example 1)
2. Write, Take into consideration lhe charactcristic tone and individuality of each instrumenL
(example Z)
l. Write in comfort.abl,e tcgisterS for al.I instruments.
4. High pitches on au instruments arc best led up :o.
S. A note tend$ to souod hi,gher for a k>wer instromull than the identical note on a higher pitched instntmt'nc.
(example 3)
6. The larger the instJUmcnt the le$s agility.
1, Quick rhythms should be simplified u they IPft'Oach the tower re&ister, (e.x:ample ◄)
8. Remember wind players must rest.
9 . View au lines a s horizontal entitles rather tban vertical
LO. Always include dynamics., tempo indication aod ex.l)f'CSsive m&rk[n,as.
LI. Change, in the type C1 scoring. grouping or inswmentS, number of voice$, etc., should coincide with the
lfltroduction of a new idea, theme or phrase. (,xample 5)
12. Instruments forming chords should be used oonth:UOuslyin the same way during a given pas$&ge. (Doubled
or not. 4, S or 6-way scorin1,. etc.) (example 6) This nile may be -.iolated to insure that a given part is
brought out.
13. One ofthe tasks ofa goodcompoteM, rr&J'l#r is tc.makesure that each part i s heard in its proper perspective.
To assure prominence in a gjvcn part any one of a nwnber of factors may be considered:
a. Dyna.mies-added 'IOl'umc i.none in.slr\Lmcntor reduced \'olwnc i n lbe cthcrswm pn::d.J.ce prominence.
(tumple 7)
b. If all other (actorS: are a}Ual a moving voice "ill be promioeot if' the other voices are static. (e.umple 8)
c;. Spa:ing-Ir one instrument is plaoed at• d.stanice from the other inscrumcnts then attention will be
drawn to lh� M>litary i.nstnlme.nt. (u.,.ph 9j
d . Rhythm-when the rhythm or one instruncnt I S strikingly different & 0m lhe ocher Instruments,
particularly ifit i s complex, that instrumcn: will stand out. (cumple l0)
c. Tcssitura-a.n instrument that remains eitbtt in an enremc high register or an extreme low re&ister
tends to stand out. (example 11)
r. Physical properties orthe instrument. For irutance, if a brass instrument i s plaeed in lhe midst ofstr ings
or woodwinds it wiJI be prominent.
a. How the in$1:ruffl(nt.s are combined-if all other things arc equal the outer \'Oioes will be most
prominent. (example 12)
14, Except In special cases, a.n instrument chosento �lay a theme should be able to carry it through its entirety.
(.. ample 13)

[��'J-- -
JS. In a small group it is oot often poss-ible lO make ,se ofhomog,encous groupiogs. It is, bc>wtver, possible to
create the illusion of a brass section or a saxophone scc:tk>n through the slcillM use of the Instruments
available. For Instance, using trumpet, alto, tenor, trombOne and bari-couttless tonaJ oombination.s are

Thls combination in a medium to tessitura sounds like a brass seetioo.

U�: J-_ __
Trombon e (uample 14)

t This c:ombinatioo suggests• � sedioo. (ex.ample 1$)

Troq,et A.lto nu c:ocnbioation gives tbe illusion of brass and reeds.
Trombone Alternating LJTenorJ -----(cumple 16) Bari
rrumpet ( I• buctet) , • •
/\Ito - - - - This oombioataon .sow,ds like. a French hom section. (t.u.rnple 17)
[ ]
Trombone(ln buckel)
When a brass instrument is in the lead. the gro1p tabs on the prQpc.rty or a brass section. When a
su:op ·none leads, then the section assumes the pr�rtits of a reed section. The reader is tncouril#(l to
cxpetinent with ocher il1$11\lmenta1 combinati011$,
16. Dissonance 1ends 10 be m0te acute between like instruments, particularly in brass andhorns. (example 18)
11. Dissonance attenuates when it's betwcc:n dissimilar instruments and the instruments arc placed far tparl
!example 19)
18. ln ordinary small group WTftfng, the instromenu are beSt c.1istributed in their normal on:tu of nnge.
!example 20)

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Chapter IV


All Jan writers and anangcn must loam to compose- melodies early in their careers. Jau arranging
consist.$ of much more llian orehC$tratioa or arranging pretty melodies. All good arrangers must have the
equipment to oompOSc their own mckidics and to �pose other mt1odles..
The tenets or good melody vary with the circums1ances, cype of tuoc. style and other consideratioas. We
oitions. Some of them follow:
will first ex amine some tenets or melody that transcend delimhing styles aod dcfi..
L • First, there must be aproper balance ordiat0ni.c movement and s.lcip$. Stepwise motion is the general rule in
melodic construction. To this we add slclps for varieoi.
Generally, leaps, except aloog the ootl!ne of the chord, rum ba<:k in the direction of the skip.
However, if lhc second note of a skip is the final note of a phrase or is followed by a pro1oogtd rest. the
melOdy may continue in the same direction. (eumpk l)
1. A mclcdy shouk:I aim in a genen.1 manner toward a climax pOi.nt All melodics usuaJly have a single climax
point or area. This point mle,ht be at the highest Ptcb rian area in which the general tessitura is high. 11,e
m3in thtU$1 of a good melody is to approach and leave this point or series ofpoints in an effective manner.
Once a cl l,na,e: Is achie,.,ed. the melody will\1$Uallydcscer,d gradually to a point ofless intensity. More ot'teo
than nor the k:$.se:ntnl of tension and returning to normal is much more rapid than the buildup or asceOl.
(exampit l)
3. There must always be coa.trast and interplay between: density and Jack of density, tension and relaxation,
and intensity Md lack or int�ity. (uample 3)
4, ln mos:t melodies there i s considerable evidence o f repetition which,. when combined with other thinas, acts
as a unifying factor, however, the writer is cautiooed to avoid too much repetition or a curve, a note or a
pbtase exccpt for special effecc.. Repetition in the melody can. however, be sufficiently disguised to allow a
more extensive use. The changes which effect the di$8Uise rnl,ghl Include alteration of intervals, rhythm.
dynamics. etc. ( eumple 4)
S. Another general rule to be observe� When the melody is Stade then the harmony or the rhythm must mo�.
If the melody is active then the other e<>mponct1l$ may be less acdve. (eumple $)
6. Most mclodicsh.ave some unique feature that disdn,guishu them rromOlher melodiesofthe same 1ype. The
melody mi.VU oontail'l a tudde,1 rhythmic shift. 11 nOte that $0unds wrong. a particular inlel'V6l that is used
more than others or some other St.JCb device.. (el(;ample 6)
1, The writer mtm strive for a prc:,per balance between oew and old(the oo,·el and lhe:farniUa.r). Eve.ry
mek>d)' must have enough clements to provide stabilit y but eoough ofthe novel top-event 1M
listener from anticipating every melodic, harmonic and rhythmic oocu:n:nce.
8. Mclodie phrases arc not aJI lengths; length is b)' and Large governed by the idea itsclt Long phrases
are usually brokc:n into smaller units with implied cadence (example 7)
9. Avoid outlining chords (tertian, qua.rtal, quinlal, etc.) (example 8) There arc many exceptions to this rule
but they arc special c-ascs and retain strength and vitality through other means.
"Frttdom Jau Dance" - Eddie Harris
" 'Round Midnight'' - T. Monk
..I Cnn'1 Gtt Sttmtd.. - V. Duke
10. Avoid exueme ranges (generally t'IOt larger than an octave and a fifth), (example 9)
11. Strh•e to change me.Jodie direction after rot.Jr or five tones. Avoid scale unit$, (�ample 10)
12. A void too much repetition of a gh·cn tone. (eumplc 11) Thi:s becomes even more ofa problem when the
attcruling note falls the same place lo the measure. (example 1 la)
13. Use augmented and diminished intervals spari:ng1y. (example 12)
14. Use chromaticism sparingl y (generally oot more tha.n three semitones in succession). (example 13)
Hidden chromaticism Ls abo best avoided. (enmpfe 14) If more than two tones intervene between a
chromatic progression the chromaticism is attenuated. (example IS)
15. Limit the melody to two Of three basic oote values. (example 16)

A Composer's World (ch.a�er 4) by Paul Hindemith
Stria! Composition (chapter S) by Ret,:u'lald Smith Brindle
Studkt in Counurpoinl (lntroductioo; chapter, I and ll} by £mst Ktenck
Tht Rhythmic Structure ofMusic by Cooper and Meyer
Structurt and Style {section 1) by Leon Stein
The Schillinger Systtm qfMu:lcal C<,mposilion, Volwnes I aid II by Joseph Schillin�r
TwenJ{tlh Ctr1fury Mmic Jdio1ns by G. Welton Marquis
Compoiing for the Jou OrchtJlrO by William Russo
Compl)�·(n1 Mullic:i A Nt:,i, Aw,uu1:h Ly Williw.u ltuSMJ ttilb Jc:0'1cy AiuJ� lll..lJ Da.viJ Slcvci:iwu
Listen to any rccordifli,Sofcom,os-itioos you enJoy. Pay particular attention to the points raised in this chapter.
I. Study some ol your favorit:: composed melodic:$ with regard to the rules li.stl'd in lhis c-hapter.
2. Write many fragments.
a. Not more than two measures in length (six to ten notes).
b. Simple fol) mielod:es..
c. Avoid finalizing the Leave it .. up in the ai.r," The should want to oontioue.
d. Work for a "'sfr1g-song" quality.

Constfllcting A Mtlody

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Chapter V


We wi11 now examine some or the techniques used to develop a melody, Aaa,in tM over-riding
consideration ls tbe use oftcnsioo and relaxation.

Repet ition is an important unifying priociple used in traditional Western music (jau inc.luclM). Exact
repetition palls very quickly solhe tast:o(thc writer is to use repetition skillfully and subtJy. Exact repc:Citioo oran
ilka more than two times. except for special pu:,poscs. is rarely effective. (original theme, example I).
I. One ofthe eas:.ies11echniquc� for avoiding exact repetition is octave displacement ofall or pan or a line. Its
suensth and iu weakness is its lack of subtlety. (example 2)
2. Another technJque for avoiding exact repetition is sequence. Sequence is the technique of transposing a

sec:tion or a theme by an interval other than an octave. Even sections using this technique become
uncomfortable to listen to after two or three: repetitions. ( example 3)
The technique is considerably more cffecth·e if slight changes are made ii\ lhe seque.DCes. i.e.:
A. Cba.nges ot contour
b. Harmon ic changes (example 4)
c. Rhyth.nuc chan&es
d . Altered notes
3. Extension is a technique ofmodification in which a phrase is extended lo inc1udc more measures than Its
original form. T1'te process might t.ake place(Wtr many measures with a nolc or notes beinJ added tQ e.ach
subsequent repetition. This technique is particularly elTc,c.tive in a situ.i.t.ion where lhc harmony is slow­
moving or stJtic (i.e., "So W1rat" "Speo-k Lo"•" ' the blues. etc.) (example$)
4. Truncation Is 1be technjque oromiuing a nole<>r PO(CS f'i'Orn the end ota mu.tica l phrase. As with extension,
the process mc1y lakt place over an cx-tmdod period of time, and, as with extension, lhc technique is
particularly effective in a /Situation whcrc the harmony is slo.,.'-moving or static.
Both truncation and extension arc more effective when the phrases which utilize the technique are
cons;ocutivc; however, the technique is. still useful as long as the phrases are close enough together to be
remembered and perceived as modifications of the same basic idea. (example 6)
Thelonious Monk's "Stroighl No Cltastr' ' is a mamlOU$ written example cl both elrte.nsion and
S. Augmentation or elonaatfon refers to the process of increasin& the rhythmic values of a 1heme. This is
usu.a.Uy done by increasing the valuc oftbc nOC.e5 by a oonstant ratio. (e.umple 7) (A caution; Don'utrctch
lbe theme too much, as this causes. it to lose its identity.)
6. Ojmioution is the process ordecreasing the rhytlunic values ora theme. This is usu.all)' dOne by de<:tu. sing
the value of the notes by a consunt tatio. (example 8)
In an acrual jau situation, aua,neotation and diminut.On are rarely used in a pure form and
generally usod brietly, modified and in combi.na1ion with each ()ther and other developme-.nt.aJ techniques.
7. Fragmentation is the technique of prese.ntlng the theme in pans. This particular tec:fmique is very p<>pulat
with many jazz. wriitr, (Mon.le, J. J. Johnson. John Lewis, etc.). Almo!il all jau composcB use this
technique consciously or otherwise. (example 9)
8. All motifs or themes have four basic fonns: ori,gjnal, inversion_ retrograde and retrograde. inversion.
a. lnvetsior:i chanet$ c11cb ascendint interval into tl\e cottespoodlna descending interval and vice versa.
(example 10)
b, Retrograde is the playing of a theme backward.$ (bcainning with the last nOle and ending with the 6r$1
ooe). (uample 11)
c, Rtlr'O&r4de inversion is the 1echnique or(;()mbinillg rtuograde and ioverslon or playing a line upside
down and bac.kwa.rd:s. (example 12)
Inversion. retrograde and retrograde inversion are noc generally ooasldered practical or musically
feasible-for use in thejazz contutexocpt ine.xtremcl)' modified form. These suiccly calcul11ted practioesve
the antithesis ofjazz.. Usually a musical birit o(one or more orthe three ltchniqucs is enough to convey the
bGsic idea.

9. Rhythmic and melodic displacement is the techniqu: ofremoving a theme or rhythm from its us1,1al pOSilion
in the time. or harmony. (tnmple 13)
JO. Contextual placement for ooo.sonanceor dissonanoe is a teehoique of placing: a theme 01 section of a t�me
within the harmony in such a manner as lo render lhe themeconsonant or dissonant by context ln most
cases the theme remains unaltered. (example 14)
11. Tonal shift refers to lhe technique of arbitrarily moving a theme oc theme fragment to another key,
irrespective ohhe underlying harmony. This is a techni<p.1e practiced more �d more by modem writers 10 harmonic and me.Jodie interest lo the line. (cample 15)
12. Cbao&e of mode i s simpl>• the technique of changir.g the scale color of the theme or theme fragment. i.e.,
from major scale color to hannonic minor asctnding color. (example 16)
13. J11xtaposltion of lune sections is the process of using lhe material from one section in another section
(•�1Wtlm or ..Jrercd), (uample I?)
14. Simplifying or OCKnpUcating the li ne. Simplilication takes place when w e remove-everything but the esstnce
d the line (ge«ing rid or embellishing and decor-at big materiaJ}. (example J 8) Complication takes place
v.'hc.n we add embellishing and decorative or a.dditiOttal m1ucrial to the line. (exampk 19)
15. Alteration of shape. (e:c.a-mple 20)
a. Changing the size oh.he interval
b. Changing the contour of the line:.
16. Combining elementS of the oomf)OSilioo at random simply means joining measures together that were
formerly s egregated (c-xamplc 21)
17. holating and using rhythmic aspects o(composition, i.e ., using unique rhythmic factors. (example 22)

A number or complete original compositions with analysis rollow:

I. The same phrase is llSed three times ( centers around C).
2. 'J/4 material is the. same: as the begiMina material.

------------- /'------
3. Recurring curves.

Range is a ninth.
5. · AU phrases arc four measures Jong.
6. Two basic scales or mOdes.
I. Fonn is unique in that il contains three complete compo$itlons in one.
2. All three compooitions are: extremely long-lined and lyrical.
Composition I
8 8 89
2. Germ motive in(A) 1 • 2 is used inJ • 4 and5·6 in slightly-altered f0rm. (B) samegermbutmovedoverone
3. Na!'Tow range.
Ccmp,JSition II
l. A B A
1 9 7
2 . Compotied line measure lhree gives the feelin; ofbeln_g :,in impro11iicd accompanimenl
3 . Unusually large skips.
4. Few basic
5. Sequences 3 and S :\£;8-in, 6 and 9 {same two--oot¢ figure in diminution aod ausmentation).

I. Fonn 3 A A 4 13 (A)
4 4 4
26 25 1--10 ---1 f-- 25 ---f
2. Range-an
. octave and a fourth.
3. Melody line again includes its: own accompanimcnl

4. Prcdom.inance or skips or a fourth and a fifth.
5. Phrases overlap in the (A) sectioo.
6. Two or three basic figures.
7. {8) I, 3, 8. 9 same rhythmic figure and CUl"\'e.
8. Although the return of (A) is the same length a; the first {A), an extension i s built in.
1. F'onn A A A
2 . Melody moves8freely through many keys.
3 . Balance between diatonic movement and skips.
4. Melodies often outline chords..
5 . Two 0t three basic my,hms,
6. Melodics arc most dten � a lush melodic varitty (C Major 7, 9. I 1. etc.)
1. R.ange-ao octave and a fourth.
8. Curves vary cOntidetably.
9. (A)$•8 ph...,., doY«•ll.
lO. (B) materia1 coo1rasts (A) niaterial but the illl1$on is that the oomposit.Ol'I i.1 lhr()Ugh composed.

I. Unusual form
Latin jJ
,___\ 1 ---i
I- 10--j
t -8 --I
2. Pickups tc> (A) same as pickups to (8}:
3. The Bass fi.aurc in (C ) starts as accompanimeti And then becomes the mdlody.
4. Measure (A) 5 is retUrn of sklp..
5. (A) climaxes tn measure S.
6. Same melody but altered in (8) 2, 4. 8, 10, 12.
1. Two mc-asurc phrase$..
I. Fann A A 8 A
16 16 16 16
2. (A) section-two notes ascending then two nous descending-two notes ascending wrlb eiuen$lon ( 1-4).
(A) 5 • 8 more extension. (A) slightly altered.
J. Scales • sequenoe twice • then slightly
1-2 3 •. g
altered cadence.
Three sel'i of sequences taken from (A) 3 thr011gb 8.
4. Diminution <;A rhythmic figures and hannonic, rhythmic and melodic sequences.
S. Relatively narrow range (octave and a seoond·Nith one high point).
I. Regular A A B A rorm,
8 8 8 8
2. Unique features-open.Ing figure ca g pennea1u the em ire tune.
(A) I, 4, 5, 6. 7, 8
(B) '2. J, 6 in sequence, inversion and altered iltervals.
Measure (A) 1 is altered augmenlation or (A) 2, (A) 3 is an i.n"crsion.
3. (B S. 6 have idcnticil chord sequences but d:ffcrc-nt melodics (slightly ahcrtd).
) 01' 1hr� basic rhythms.
4, Two

: I[ j! I: I I I
I. Unique rictors-unc-vcn s«:tions
A) ( ) (C ) ( (A) ( )
( ].
1- 10--4 f-9- j f-4-I 3-j 1-10-1 f-5
f-D) E-j

2. Combin.ation of major and minor t0nality,
3. Ra¥$t two octaves and a fourth (unusual).
4. The rccum:nt tnticipated fourth beat.
s. The is built on the. germ round in meas!l.rc two.
lt isfoundinMeasure (A) 3• 4 • 8
T,a (E) 3
acnn with extension (A) 5• 9
(BJ 3 • 9
sequence: (C)

6. (8) E'mi Bl>mi E11mi 811mi £•mi B"mi Augmentation

Ill/ I F
//!/ I G'
Ill/ I This lhrtt- groupin1, prepares the(C) 3/4 sectiOn.

The measure ot(B) is the(E) melody.

9. (A) I 10 is rea1�y one pri,ase broken into sections.
lO. (A) 8 is an invenion of(A)7.
II. (A)3 •4 same chang,. u(B)I• 2- 3• 4.
12. Whole ttep movement
(A)I• 2
(8) 7 • 8 • 9
J3. Tonal shift occurs in the 3/4 section.
J4. Juxtaposition of tune sections. Material in {A)10 same as bridge.
I. Rcgulat A A B A form.
8 8 8 8
2. Uniquefe.atures-whole SltP mc)\'tmcnt or chords:
(A)4-6. (A) 7-8
(8)3, 5. 6. 7
Chords are frequently <11Hlined pickups.. (A) 7, (Bi 6.
3. Sequences
(A) I - 2- 3 - l,(8) 7- 8, (8) 2 - 3, 4- 5
(B) S and 6 with rhythmic displaocmcnt.
4, Odd harmonizations.
5. Climax in measure: (8) 4.
6. Variation or picl(up and pickup t0 (A) 2. (J\l$t a wbtle change.)
7. Three basic rhythms.
1, R�gulo, A A '8 A form.
8 8 8 8
1. Unique Featurcs-medil.1m bul a narrow tcs;itura.
(12th) (6th)
3. T'4'0 or thre:e basic rhythms.
4. Melodic germ in measures {A)I• 2 is inverted isl {A) 1•8 and (B) 5- 6.
.S. Exact repetition in measure (A) I- 4.
6. (8)I• 2 is a lonn of(A)S•6.
7 . Unu.<;uaJ instances in which changes and melody both move rapidly.
I.Res.ular A A B A form.
8 8 8 8
2. Unique featurd-mtlody is in one key some. rncwement away from the key cen1er, Three
rc;,catcd notes in(A) 2 and (B) 2 and 7.
3. Chords move when the melody stands still
1s, 2nd
(A)3-4 7-8 I 7-8
Chords static when melody moYes (B) I • 2.
4. The rirst eight climaxes in measure frve-lhe bridge climaxes in measure one.
5. Sequences
(A) 1 - 4 with alteration.
(8) ;- 6
6. The chord changes outline a diminished scale..
I. Form 3/4 24 measures blue,
2. Meuure Sequences Sequences
1-2 3-4
S- 6 (wilb alterations) 7- 8 (Jnvcnion of 3- 4)
9- 10 II - 12 (sUsJ,Uy altered)
Measure 21 is a combination of both sequences.
Measures 17 - 18- 19- 20 with arpcggic:6.
l Long held nous add in�resL
4. iwo or three basic note values.
l. Fonn

A C pickups A
l--18--I I- 6� 1-10--1.
2. (A) Scquen« Extensions
1------2+3 4---- 10
(B) Contrasting material
l - 4 measure phrase S - 9
Shining rh)'lhmie feel cxtensic>n offirSt 4,
(C) Triad + •e>J•
(D) Scale melody �lt from diminished mlc.
l. F�Blucs (24 measures)
2. Mctody is extmncly angular.
3. Balance betw-een movement and slaticncss.
4. Balance be.tween skips and diatonic movement.
5. Use of diminished l(:a)e in meawres 17 Md 18.
6. Written out slurs which soutKI improvised (measures 11 • 12)
1. Nott« suscaiocd «)n(:S at eocb of seccioos which cont.1in great activity.
8. Recurring sequence-measure before the cbuble bar and measures 7 • 8 • 24.
9. Range-one octave and a minor sixth.
10. Sequential triplet across the bar line in me.a.wres l 9 • 20 and 21 - 22.
I. Formis A A e
8 8 10
A with CJttension
4 3 I
4 •
2. Prokofieff-like shifting tonality.
3. Balance bctv.-een sldpwise and Stepwise movements.
4. Perfect 4th interval is promi.oent
6. Meter follows the flow of line.

7. Extens:ion measures 3 and 4 from the end 3re an inversion of 1 and 2.

8. Last measure is lhe s:ime ti the opening measure.
9. Each cadence, excluding the fioaJ one. 'e3ves the nelody dangling.

I0. Sequences
measures I and 2.
Last (A) mearures S aod 6.
Last 3 measures.
I. �mpOSed.
2. IS mc.a.sures l,oog.
3. Octave and a Slh.
4. Balance between &kiPG and diatonic mo.,.emcnL
5. Sequences 1 - l - 3
L0-l l andU
12- I 3
6. Exltn$ion in measures LO thru 15.
Ver$ion Jl it a.n improvement because or the less obvious scqucmccs in measures l &M 3.
Serial Composition (chapters 14 and IS} by Regln3ld Smith Brindle
Tuhnfq11es o/Twtnrl11h Cenrury Composilfon (chapun 12 and 13) by Leon Oal1in
Jou: An JntroduC'lion 10 Its Mil.ffcol Basis (c�r 2) by Av1il Dank:wonh
The Schillinger System ofMusiet1/ Composition. Volume.s I and JI by Jo.seph Schillinger
Twentieth Century Music ldloms by G. Welton Matq\/iS
Composing for the Ja.u Orclitstro by WIUiam Russo
Composing Music: A Ntw Approach by William Ru.S!O with Jeffrey Alnis and David Stevtnson
Play reeorctsofyour f3\orite
• composers, tdentlfy lhe \arlous techniques deS;cribed ln thi$ chapter.
I. 1.oca.te and w rite down ln a notebook for fi.l1ure rt(ete'lcee.xamples from recordings oreacllo(the techniques
dcs.cribcd in this chapter.
2. Write a 32-mcasure melody according to the followlllg
a. A ABAf.orm.
b. One hi.ah a11d one low point in both the (A) ud the (8) seettOt1s.
c, Not t0 exceed an octave and a fourth in ra.'nge.
d. No more than three different note values.
c. (A) scc.tion usentiall:y diatonic,
(8) section e$$entia.1Jy angular.
r. Use repetition, btrt never usef an exact repeat more than twice. ( Use variation technique.)
1, Use a t Jeast ooe example o exltnsiOn Md ewe examples of sequence.
b. Have at least one identifyina <>r unique factor. (Rhythmic or melodic and ,hould occur morechan once.)
i. Btllad tcmpQ.
3. Write other melodics according to )'our own 5pecifications.

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Chapter VI


One orthc.mostdiftlCult tasks racing the jazi arrangcr-oomp00er is lhat ofascenairli.ngthcb.innonii.ation to

a given melody line. The arrangcr-oomposcr might encou:mcr the problem when:
I. He 1mempts to harmonize an original melody or hi; own.
2. He auempu: to tu11monizc someone. else's melody, i.e., standard, jau tune) de.
l. He auempts toeheck the harmonization in a"fakc" book(oftcn wrong) or on a picccofshttt music (often
This ch.apter will concern its.elf with some get1eral and speclr,c rules ro, <lea.Ung with these situations.
I. Make sure that you know the melody, that you arc able tofing or play it COIT«:tly. Very often we ha,.·eonly a
vague imp(essi<m of a mek>dy cu11ed rrom a rec()f(I er some other so-1rce. 111$ ab.rolutely neemary to be
able to reproduce the melody comctl)' before Pf0C:cding to the next Steps.
2. Try to ascertain the key.
a. Check key signature ff Possible.
b. Play or sing the melOd)', stopping al phrase ends lo check resolving tendencies. F'rom each or these
points of rest try to sing or p&ay to the lonic of the key. (ex.ample 1)
J. Reduce the melody to its essentials; simplify the mckxl'kline, getting rid of embellishing tones, 11,,ppoggiaturll
and other deco11tti\'c material. (example 2)
4, Find a ba.Q line sounds good againi:t the mcl«ly then flU in the ch<>rds.
S, Check t0see ifthe tune ls sub!;umed urtder anothtr SL'Ucnu•aJ an<V<>r harmonie type. (Blues. I GotRh)•thm,
etc,) Many bebop tur1cs are based on tl1-e cha.�s to $1andlkrd u.ine$,
6. Generally, the slower the- tempo the faster the hamortic rhythm and cortversely the ro'l$Cer the tempo lhe
slower the harmonic rhythm. (enmple 3)
7, Check the possibilities for the use of harmonic formulae, Do secaions ()(the tune lend themselves 1o cenain
e..�ffillshed ronnulaesuc:h as: 11 V, Ml VT TT V, et.e.• (t:•ampk.4) C.het:k thtl!i.t! 1eer.ti0Mnf1M 1m1.-. whP.rr
tumarounds of cenain types would nonn.aU)' be four.d. (Last two measures of sections, etc.) (uan1ple 5)
8. Work b3ckwards from endS or phrases or points or rest, plsccs where the chord is known or at leas,
suspected. For in-stance. if the last chord is a tonicdmd, check to sec.if it is preceded b)' a fl V, progression
or one ot its sutxstitutions. (example 6)
3. Cheek for V.,'s or 11 v, '$ lea.din, to each new key area. (example 7)
b. Look for logical root movement (refer to lhe c:han of root prosrenions on pag,c 51).
9. Look for cadence and semi-cadence points with tb?ir traditionall)'--impl ed chords,
10. Look for resolving tendencies of the melody n()(cs, for instance �•s down 3 half step to the 3rd of another
chord. (examplc8)
l l. Test seemingly logical formulae against me.lod)' nctes for diserepancic$ or verification. (example 9)
t 2. Look for Ob\'iouS fonn,dae but dol'l'l close your mind to other p»sibilitics.
13. Within the bar, u:;iyi as many notes: as p05Sible to:he samc chord. panicularty at fast temp(JS. (example
a. Look for chord oullines(explicit or implicit); (00\'iou.s Of disguised). (example It)
b. Look for scales. scale fragmenl.$ thal suggest ccnain chords or lOnal arcas. (example 12)
14, Harmonic chan3es usually follow the bar ltne or the normal di\'ision c-J the bar. For example. in a 4/4
measure the harmonic,es wo1.1ld occur on the llm or the third beat as opposed to the seoond andfourth
or a fraction of the beat (example 13) A\•oid carrying a change across the bar line.
l5. With the exc-epdon oC 1be domlnant 7th chord, a�•oid having strings or chords of the same quality in
suceeuion. i.e,, IJ\8jor 7th. minor 7th, etc. (c-umple 14) The problem is not so acute in chromatic
situations. (e.umpk- 15)
16. Try lo recaJI Simila, melodics and how thoy are hmnoni zed.
17. Set upu:re hannonics and lill in all the "jigsaw" puu.le. (example 16)
18, Avoid the Bach chol.\!.e .-pprooch except for substitution or variation. The BacbehoraJe approach is simply
a chord ch:ingc for -each no1e. Obviously this kind or ha.nnonizati<>rt will JX1$e areal problems in
oornp(&lions that will serve as improvlsatlOnaJ \'Chicles. (example 17)

)9. Try to IS(en&in the style. period. comp0Ser, type of tune. etc. All of these thu\gs can provide valuable
insights into harmooiution of lhe cune, For inst.mice, a bebop tune wouJd rtceivt a completely different
harmonitation tom a modal tune or a Dixieland tun� (example 18)
20. If the tune is(amili.arit may be possible to remember and recreate the changes youfirst h,card associated with
21. Cheek for melodic sequences which might in t u m dictate hannonic Sequences. (enmple 19)
22., Once you've arrived at a set ol harmonic changes that sound correct. then look (or similar cOOSlrUction at
other places in the composition. (e:ii;amplc 20)
23. Wortt for somethin,a that sounds eotrC¢t.
24, The eat is the ru-biter.

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Chapter VII


The term rhythm section injan reJers to the i.nstnm,enlS i.n a jau group normally entrusted with tht time
continuum. This rh�'lhm section can include piano. organ. bass. gujta.r, drums, vibes andlor miseellnncous
percussion. For our purposes we will limit clulpter to piano, guilar, bass and drums.

The role of the piano in the modem rhythm section is 10 provide harmonic oslioato, rhyth.m.ic impews,
contrapuntal interplay with the soloist Md to provide i.m.f()(Netions, interludes and cndingS as well u Jolos.
1n order to provide the pianist with a wide degree oflathude. most modem writers ob.serve a few rules of
I. Chord symbols ineludlna aheradons are non:nall)'. used instead of written out parts exoept in speeia.l
situations. (eicample I) Some siruations that might netc$$itate writing out a complete part might be;
a. When a particular voicin$ i$ t1ceded. (cumple l)
b. When a written solo ls necessary. (cnmplc 3)
2, It i$ often neeess.ary to write a le-ad line because of certain rhythms you want played or certain melodies
played and/or doubled. (u.ample 4) (Rhythms arc also indicated by noces wilh (X) heads.) (example 5)
3, The 1.1sc of vergvles and chord symbols aUows the pian'ist to exercise his imagination and generally Superior
kn()Wlcdgc d his instrument (unless, of 001.1rse, the writer i:S a pianist).
4, SpeeiaJ in$tructions regarding styles, musical mannerisms, etc., may be indicated in writing or a few
measures may be written out to indicate the clTect desired. (example 6) Caution-remember to co.n«;I
special effects by writing .. swing." ··straight ahead," etc.
5. Behind a vocalist. in order to provide a moreunsitivc accompaniment, it is oft.en good to provide the melody
line, enables a pianist to avoid melodic clashes in hi:s accompaniment and to provide intelligent ..fills."
(Hlmple 7)
6. Certain stindatd short c1.1u ma)' be used in writing a piano par1. (example 8)
7. It Is often better 10 omit the piano io 1ut.ti sections.
The writer should li.ncn toa.s manypianisu as pOSsiblc in an effort tot'ind a way to write idiomatically for the
Jazr /mprovlsation (chapter XVI) by David Baker
Jerry Coker's Jazz Keyboard by Jerry Coker
Jarz/Rock Voicin gsfor tire Contemporary Keyboard Player by Dan Haerle
n� rules f<ir writill.& for guilar :ite the same as those ror piano.
1n most pre-avant garde groups. the prime function of the bass player has been to provide - a harmonic and
rhythmic ostinato in conjunctioa with the piano. The bass player has been tradidonally assigned the task of
"'walking a line'' built on the chords of the tune. The mechanics of constructing a bus line are best left \Othe bass
player (unless the writer happens to be a bass player). Some general guideUncs for writioa; a bass pan folkiw:
I. Chord symbols are normally used instead of writt�out parts except in special situations. (example 1)
Inuodu<:tioos. inter1udes, Cl'ldings. unlsons• .,.a.mpS and orthcst.ral tutti arc special sitwitions frequent in
stylized mu.sic such ns rhythm & blues: music, LatJn music and ocher type!t that use extensive ostin.UL
(er.ample 2)
2. llte use of chord .symbols with vergulcs is often combined with written noles lO indicate special rh)'lhms or
special paru. (uample 3)
J. Spe<:ial instructions regarding style, musical mannerisms, etc., may be indicatedJnwritingor a few measures
may be wrinen out co indicate the effect desired. (example 4)

Jrit becomes necessary to write out bass lines die attbor suggests a thorough study of chapter XVU inJau
Impro�,'sofion by the author.
The aspitU'lg writer should listen to bass pla)' ers in an c::ffort to rlnd II way to write idiomatically for bass.
TJw Monk Montg0mtry Eltctric Bas1 Method by Monk Montgomery. Edited and complied by David Baker.
Jazz lmpro,•io
s rion (chapter XVTf) by David Baker
The EPOMng by Rufus Reid
Modtnt Walking Bass Ttc.hnlqu1t by Mike Richmond
Big Band Ba.rt by John ClaytOn, Jr.
Elecrric Ba.u by Carol Ka)'e
The drummer tu.nctioos In dUfercm ways ln<lilTerentgroups. SQrrle of the things that determine bow he is to
function are: style ofgroup, sil.e ol8f0Up, abUWes ofthea,ro,up. era which ii represen·u, and many other music.tJ
and noD-mw;icaJ factors.
Ttad.Jlioniilly th:n: �cm to be ci::rt.ain fu:nclkmn1:ssi.plc:d to a drummer and lhc:se f\mctioni vary only in
degree-. The first functiol'I is to provide a rhythmic tinte COltinuum. This Is usually done by assigning certain Uses
to certain pans of'thedrum sel The four main parts arc: (I) Hi-hat cymbal, (2) Ride cymbal,(3) Bass drum and
(4) SIUllc cuwn.
The hi--hat($0t:k) cymbal U$'Ually plays on be al.$ two and rour in 4/4 time. on beats two a:id th.tee or on beat
two in 3/4 time, etc. (uample I)
In order lO pr0'1ide the drummer with max.imum lauude1 most modem writers observe the followit13 Nies:
J. Indicate the form of the tune in the following manner, (example 2)
2. lndic.11e special beats, change$ of moods, changes d cok>r, etc,, in wrilint, or by writing a few measures to
indicate the desired effect, (uample 3)
3. Indicate special rhythmic effects in one of the following ways. (uampk 4)
4. Jn plac.cs where "fills" or accents are desired, write the rhythm or lhe melody line or a f'Tasment or the line
aDowing the drummer to use his expertise.. (example 5)
5. In Styliud roosic it might be neccssat')' to write a few measures oflh�''beat'' or"rhythm" you desire. (i.e.,
rhythm & blues, oc:rtai.n Latin beau, cilypso, 0$Einit� etc.) (e.umplc 6)
6, Always indicate anything unusua1 or out or the ordnary.
The aspiring writer should listen to as many drummers in an ensemble situa.tion � J)OSSible to detenninc
how to write icfiomaticalJy for drums.
Ja.zz Jm,pro,isati'on (chapter XVTJT) by David Baker
Complett l1&11ruc1ion fn Jau Ent1mblt Dnunmfng by Jake Jerger
Lalin·-Ame-rican Rhythm Jnsrrumems and How To Pt,y Them by Humbcno Morales in collaboration with
Henry Adler
Drumming 1ht Lorln-Am4rlcon Woy by ls.abclo Ernesto Marrero
Any Miles Davis recording featuring the rhythm section ofR.ed Gartanct.. Paul Ch.ambcrS, and Philly Joe Jones;
Rt!d Gadand. Paul Chambers, and Jimmy Cobb; Wyn10n Kelly/Bi.U Evq.ns, Paul Chambers, andPhilly Joe
Jones/Jimmy Cobb; or Herbie Hsncoct. Ron Carter, and Tony Williams..
'The John Coltrane Quartet tf\ythm sections.
The rhythm sections ofvarious edit.ions oflhe Homce Silver Quintets, An Blakey and the JauMessengen, and
the Modem Jan Quartet.
l. Study lhe scores in the back of this book ror insi&}tts into how to use lhc rhythm section.
2. Write rh)1hm scctioo parts to some of your favorite arranaements on rcoords.

Writing tCI" h RhVfhm StLwn
lJ I 7 I r.,mz o/
I F7L .. ..I � 3 �} I


\;pvp[fl I' f[ff

© C.M1
,, .. ,,,,,,, /

□ f., t .. pTz z L t� I ., .r. t
@ Frni Frni n II Ft, fmi
!i-iP 1•
f ; ..
D �¥

I I ,, 7 tfe


C �
f r r
\ I Ii 'l f I 0
I �
rr •1
ff fof4

\ ,,

II 2 I n
Sw1n9 Lahn out 2 btat •
I II 6 Ii II

l sw,nci
... II ��-tim£!!j!
►! I U
� bo.Ck in ilit. ii!Tl',.

Chapter VIII


The rhythm se:tion dthc jazzband often FunctioM as an independentjaz.z unit i[lhe section is. piano, bass
and drums. This aegregation is often rererred to u a piano trio.
Writing for thii group poses some very speel.'1J problems. Some rules and gener:il procedural techniques
I. A lot more anention must be given 10 itllrodUedon, interhides, mcxtuta.lions and en:tin$$,, The absence of a
hom player me.ans thitt the writer must rely less oo texture: for coatrasl.
2. ln1roductions. etc.. are very effect ive if there is muchrhythmic activity with aU thteeinstrumenuduplicalina
the rhythm patterns. (example I)
3. Usually, unexpected chord movement and hi,sb incidence of chord substitution is extremely effective.
(example 2)
-4. U.)"uidly the I.riv dcm;,u!W mu1;b ltlOrc: actuill wdttc:n materlal than would bl: exp.:.;tc:d un4t:r W11:r
circumsunces.The score mil,ht be entireJy written out i.n somc$ecdoos and ln OChersection.s abbreviations
might be used, (c:nmple 3)
5. Extremely rhy1tunic block chord$ rni!ht be U$td in the matter of a brass section IS"$endOff" into choruses.
(example 4) Piano mi&ht imitate various sections of I.he jazz. band. (eumple S)
6. Other means d obtaining mi.ght inctude modulall<>r$ (beNteen soloists er between piano solos);
interludes to introduce different tectiOOS oflhe sokr, niba.10 vs. teJllJ)Oe(I sections. dia.f\leS of meter. tempo,
mood. dynamb. cu:. (example 6)
7. Generally ther� i.smuch more of a propensity forunifonnity of rhythmic paltc.m:s lhao in other lype group$.
(uample 7)
8. Generally all thrtt ins-trumenu expected t0 $010. (c, umple 8)
9. Rhylhmie �aati and vn.mps a$$ume mucti imJ)(NUnce in wriling for this oomb:nation. (uam.plc 9)
10. AU the-oolorsdtheva.rious instruments should be e,cpk,ited, {i.e•• piukato bass. muted bass, sroo, piano in
the strin&,$, various mallets_ different drums. etc.) (example 10)
11. Remember all insll"llmentS needn't pis)' aU the time.
12. Medleys. extctdcd compositions, ctc., arc very cft'ccti\'e for this combination.
Any recording of th& Ahmad Jamal Trio
Any recording of the Oscar PecerSOn Trio
Any recording of the Bill Evans Trio
An)' recording r:I the Nat King c• Trio
McCoy Tyner: Supe.r Trio.s (Mi.lestone M-55003}
McCoy Tyner. Nig'i.ts ofBallads and Bluu (Impulse Stereo A·39)
Chict COfca: Now fie Sings. Now He Sobs (Solid State SS I8039)
Red Garland: Crot:ingt (Galax:y OXY·S 106)
I. Listen to some l>f the su141,ested records and make sketches of the various formats used,
2. \Vrice several rtiythmie lntroductions. interludes and endings for a piano tno.
3. Write several arrangements in which U1c piano imitates sections or a big band
4. Write an arrangement using a format of )'our own ctioosin,g.

Prano Trio
© r.. n �

,I, • L l

I �

I .., J I' ·r I I I I w >
- I .., -p "' 7 I I L..J
n..,,_ C. C

I•sllbs""'"' 01'11'- a,_ AbM. L. £IL. G,. CM-,

,.� 0111i7 &, Abmi ., 1)1,., (,H., F1 (tll) tM,

• ,....., I l7 r1 ' I
- • -
-• - • •� t

- ,.. nn
� I I..J L_J 1..---' L.J

. u u i, v


1ntroduction ,nMudi,


I ,, II II
8 I I

•com •

Chapter IX


Thejauquartet in this chapter rerers to• piano trioplus a solo instrumcnt(hom.guitpir, vibes, etc.). Allot
the rules listed for the piano trio arc still in cffeet when writing for the jazi quartet.
Some ocher rules folJow:
J. Mal:c cxtcnsin use of the imitation ofbi,g band writing(usingthc soloist as lead and 1he pinno as a section
undemeath). (example: I)
2. Contrast so)oist and thyttlm section.
3, Use the soloist in duet with the ,•arious rh>•lhm seetion instruments. (i.e., alto sax tu1d biss or alto sax and
drum$, etc.} Observe the Nies for two-voice writirts.
4. Uniso-n writing, tutti or soloist. wi1b another instnmenl (rhythm) is very effective if used judiciously.
(e�mple 2)
Any reoording of the Modem Jau
Any recordingof the fohn Coltrane Quartet
An)' J. J. Johnson Quartet
I. Listen to some of the suggested,g.s and male sketches of the variQUS fonnats used.
2. Write several atra,ngements, the concepts described in this chaP(et and in the chapcer on the piJno

1ht. To:1:i �uartt.t:

SIalJ •• • I r-, - l

' ..., - • LJ II I'

• ,.... - - - . •
I_, .
' l . J '
- )
� .. �

. ,..-., .. � r--, ,....,

I-' ,

Pms�I I
V ,__ I
I I � .._J L_.I

Chapter X


The rollowiog scaJes and their modes aie I.he most used scales In ja:u.: major, Metnding melodic minor,
whole tone, cGminished, blues, pent.a.tonic. and, m«t importandy, the bebop scales.
C maj0< 7, 9, 11, 13 (m�,)
Dminor7,9, 11, 13(dorian)
G, 9, II, 13(mlxolydi.,n)

B� (locrian)

1 , zr:
• • ... 1

• ;)

+ ••
• ,

• •


• •• •M

• ••
•+ + +

• M•
• • -
8¢ .. c•f l.ocsuNI
•• •
�' T • M (+)
T ... • jM

•( ) the parentheses indicate notes which arc usually altered.

In the key ore the chords used in improv�atioo arcC(I), Dml,(ll), G, (V), and �(VII). Tb• rules are "
l. M•or chords (l) use the major scaled lhc same name, i.e., C 6 • C major scale
2. Minor chords (U) use the major scaJc a "hole step below or the dorian scale ol the same oame,
Le., Dmi, = C m.ajor !ICale or D dorian scale
3. Dominant chords (V) use the major sclJe a fourth abo,·e or the mixolydian ofthe same name,
Le., 01 C major sc-.ale or G mixotydian scale
4. Hal£ chords (Vil) (jil, m.t,1w1: , use the major scale one halfstep above or the locrian
scale or lhe same n.une. i.e., Bti C Major scale or 8 locrian scale

most difllcult scales lO use and almost always comes replete with admonitions with rq.ard l() avoid wne,.
BeC-&U$e oflhe many ineonsistcncies th at exist t>etweeo theo,y and perfonnance the majorscale-is ooe of the
exflt'lplt, don't emphasize the pcr{cl.rt fourth ofthe major scaJc over .t mojorchord(iflhc chord isa final chord use
a #4 in the scale); C)\ltr a half diminished chord avoid tle tonic of the major scale. The con.sequence or these
traditions and conventions is a complete set of undersk>Od approaches to the major scale, including added
chromatic tones and other mochanisms that aid in the circwnvention of many of these problems: these solutions
are dealt with in lhe section on the bebop scales.
Tbe asoe nding melodic minor scale contains five nodes which arc among the most important in jazz. The
scalc$/modct and the chords to which they relate ru follows:
1. Minor chords with a major 7th u,e the tseendin.g melodic minor scaJe or the same name as the
chord in que$tion. i.e., Cmi 6 =
the C ascencling melodic minor scale

2. Dominant seventh chords with a raiseC 11 lh use the as«nding melodic minor scale a perfect.
fifth above the name of the chord in qtestion. i.e., F 11 > the C ascendi� melodic: minor
J. Dominant seventh c.hotds with a ral.sed 9th or a combination or ra ised 91h and ra iscd 5th use the
asccndingmelodie minOr scale a hair stt-p above the name oftht chord i nquest.ion. i.e.• B.C-'' os
81 ( :� ) - the C ascending melodic minor scale

4. Half diminjsbed chords with a m.ajor 9th use the ascending melodic minor scale a minor third
above the Mme or the chord in qucsti<:n, i.e., Atl(Major 9) - the C a.seencling me.Jodie minor
S. Major chords with a raised 5th and a r:ised 4th use the-ascending melodic minor scale a major
siXth above the ruimeofthe chord inqO?Stion, i.e., Eb 6 :! =
the C ascending melodic minor


1 r[ l)IHINISMU/WHOl.4 '1"01ift.


• b• + • 6•
• •
F,. (,tu)
L,, �
<(3 • • * •) •

• j

..., + wb

�, . '
•• eM
+ +
+ T + •D•


The ch.aracterislic.:s d the wbole tone sc.ale are 11$ re>llows:
I. There are only si.x dilfereol tones in any 11•hole tone scale�
2. AO adjacent tones a,e a whole step apart.
3. There are only major thirds and augmented triads in � whole tone scale.
4. There arc ooly two whole tone sca1cs. and the notes in the two arc mutually exclusive,
S. Because of the lack or half steps this se11le palls vtl)' quicldy and must be

01 C -.·hole tone scale

p•t•S • the C who!c 1oae &eale
* + • • f I•

eo.,• Db whole tone sca1e:

F, •J

G/1 - lllC Ob whole tone sc:;

b• b• w
• •e•

Although there a,e seeminaJy crucial notes U'I con.act with those in the minor seventh cbo.rd(II), common
practlcc permilslhc use of the whole tone scale tooolorthc minor chord. The Nie isasfolJows: use the w bole :one
scale roe ha.Ifstep abc),,e the r()(lt of the minor seventh <:lord io question. Le., Gmi, - the Ab whole tone scale.


The eh&r.lcteristies of the diminished scale are •s follows:
1. There are eight different tones in any •imin.ished scale..
2. The di.mi.nished scale cot1sisu of altenating half steps and whole steps.
3. All p0.,sible chord conslnJclS inherent in the scale duplicate themse:l'ves at dlt inte.rv-aJ ot the
minor 3rcL Le... the following:

C, ., appears u '
Eb "'

C minot1 appears ll Eb minor1

C4 appears u E�

Co appears u Ebo

4. Th.ere m only three possible diminisb!d scales.

S. This scale is one <>f the most versatile scales.

•• ' ..•

' ..••
. .,
C. :; Ebl t,t
" F" •• A
Eo, G<l, Bbo, Dbo,
- C-Ob-Eb-E-F"-G-A-Bb-C
(le$$ specific)

Gm� Bbm� Dbmi , Em�

G0 Bbo Db• E•

RULES: ( l ) When 51.arting on the- root of the seventh chord begin with a haJf step.
(2) With all other chords, when starting on the root, begin with a whole step.
.. e .. . •

Th.• C d1miniohed scale


"'bq C cilmWs�

••... I,) d.iminl$1w:t.

t, Ff d.lmw..Iw:L

,ot A d.u>wiw..a.

t>Y -.·-

Although there seemingly crucial Stale oo«:s in conflict with those io lhe minor seve.nlb ctlotd!ll) aod
the i.aU diminished chold(Vll). common practice pennits the use ofthe di minis.bed scale over c:ithutbe (I orthe
VU ehord Qvcrthe minor seventh, half dimini.sbcdscvcnth, (Ir the diminished seventh, when startinglhcicalc on
the ton.ic of the chord, begin the scale with a whole step.

This KA]e is U$Ually used a.s a horizontal scale, th:t is. a sc:ile U$ed to blanket areas of a tune as in a
bfuu. The prope.rseateis detennined i n cwo ways: (I)bythetey ofthem1.1$le(forexa.m.ple, abh.tes inFusesan F
blues scale, a tune prtdominanlty in the ley orFuses an F blues scale. etc.) or(l) the tesolvin&tcndenc:ics <itwo
or more chords, Le., lhe followina cxamplt:

D- C C
•• IIi iI v•

�D c&o, • .. ..
C Oluc, scae

� $ "7

b i • B• ( ) =- dc:mands attenLion


The mQjor pentatonic scale eon sisu of the J -2-3-!-6 n<Xcs ola major scale: using the C major scaleas an
example, the C major pentatonic scale wou'd bcC-D-E-0-A. The major pentatonic scale can be used as cithera
horizontal sute or a vutica.l s.eale. Wben used as a hori!ontal scale- it is us ually used to blanket major key trta$.
As with the blues scale. scale of lhe tonic is usually used, i.e., the following:

I fI IIi - C major pentatonic

When used as a vertical scale or a scale of high $J>CCificity, obsel'\'e the folJowing rules:
I. The major chord([) uses the major pcntalfnic scale built on the I . 2. or 5.

n ,*•• u.
...... .1.
C mi\or "'"'
+ •••

2. The mloor .seventh ¢hord (ll) uses the majcr pentatonic sc-ale buitt on b3, b7, or 4.

Omi,= ft .. •
II • •• II

3. The dominant seventh chord (V,) uses the major pentatonic scale built on I. 4, b7. b3, b5, orb6,

........ t
• • • ••
........ (IJ.aa)

bF :.=•
• I
Theminorpentuortic scale C:Ol'l$i:ns olthc l•bl-�S-b7 no�s ofa ma jorscale� usin g the C ma jor scale as an
example, theC minor pentatonic scale would be CEb-F..0-.-Bb. the minor pentatonic sealccanbe used as either
a horizontal sealeor a verticalsc:ile. When us.eel as ahoriz.ontaJscale , the same rules are observed as for the blues
When used as a venical scaJe. observe the following rules:
I. ll\.c. m.ajor cbotd (0 uses I.he mioor pentaton.ic scale buih on the. 6, 7, or l

C major=

.:+ ••
• II ... II . ' •• I

D nu,- '
... ti,< i

•• H + • • •

...H -�•
2. The minor seventh chord (Ir) uses the mioot pentatonic scale built on t.he I, 5, or 2.

•• I
3. The dominant sevcntbc bord(V,> uses theminor pentatonic scale buil t on the 6, 2. $, I, bl, or 4.

n .... u•
on... � m.._G
• •• u
4"' ...

�) t,yt>•
6. • I
•b! H

From the earty t\\elrties jazz musicians attempted to make their lines nc,w rnore smoochly by
connectingS<:aJcs al'ld scale tones through lhe use ofchrom:u:ic passingtones. Jn a detailed anatysis of rnore than
500 solos by the ack:nowleda,ed glant.s rrom Armstrona throuah Les-ter Youna aod Coleman Hawkins. one is
aware, fin;1,. otthc increased use ofscaJe.s(as opposed lO atpe&a;ios and chotd ouUines) and lhcn tht increa.singuse
or chromaticlsm widlin tbe$e scales. An unusual about increased chtomatieisa, Ls lhat. despilc the
frequent re>-occurenee dciertaio lk:1<$ or paclett1$, no disc:erru'ble de.sign wilh regard to hov the einta chromatic
tones arc added emcrg<s. The overall impression is a somewhat arbilrary or random� d
When one listens to the great players from the distant and near past,. one of the mail things that ttnds to
"date" their pl11ying(aside from te-chnological improvements in recording techniques. ctiangcs with regard to
h.armonfo and rhythmic fonnulae, etc.) is this lad: of unanimity with regard to the use or melodic chrom;aticism.
From his earliest recordings Charlie Parter�n be observed groping ror a method makin.a the modes or
the mljor scale sound less awkward and fOf rendering lhc:m more oooducive to swing and forward motion.
Grad'ually, in a systenutic and logical way, he began using certain sc.ales with ndded chromatic tones, Diuy.
appro3Ching the scales from ao entirely different direction, utiliring the same techni�ues for tNlftSformlna
th:m. These scales be:ame the backbone of all ja1i from bebop to modal music.
A study ora l&1t$1Wmbe.r of r�rwesentativelOlos from the bebop era yieldt • set otvc:y compl.ex. goY<'ming
rules that b;a..,e now beer1intemaliud and are apa.rtoftbe language or au good player, in the bebop and post-bebop
Very simply Maled, the added chromatic tones make the scales ..come out right• Play a descending
mixotydian scale and ti'lcn play the bebop \'Crsion of the scale and se,e how much smoo;ber the second s<:alt


"1 Cc-)
r t*t ,. JsJJ J J
F"1 (c-)

rht ( ,- tH� .J J J
,,,.,.,.,..._ bobcp

'Jbere are a number ofrtaSOns why the second scale makes more sense. First, in the seooacl scale all of the chord
tones are on down beats; and second, the tonic or the scale falls on beat one of each saxesslve measure.
Thi.s scale is speUed l-2·3•4�S-6-b7• q'T-1 and the rule, goveming hs are given with dominant
seventh chord as the pc,int of reference. The scale is also used oo lhc rela1ed minor .sc.,..e:othcbord (II) and, under
special conditions tobe:liscusscd later. aJso on the related half diminished sc,-enlh chord(\lr), i.e. the: following:

£1' (under spec131 conditions)

RUl,&S: I. On a dominant seventh chord dw: scale is reckooed from the toO( o( th-: chord, i.e., C1 - C
dominant (bebop)
2. On a ll'linor seventh chord the scale is reckoned from the root of the rclateddomin.i.nt seventh
chord, i.e., 0- C domi.nanc (bebop)
3. Wbcn conditioos diet.sic lhe or this scale on a half diminished choid its Starting point is
reckoned From the root or the relateddomioant seventh chord, i.e., Et1 C dominant(bebop)
4. The stale. usually moves in NS:ic eighth note patterns.
S. In pumc- form the sc-ale invariabfy srn.r1s on a down beat.
6. lo pure form the scale Starts on a chord lone ( I, 3, 5, or b7) or I.he- dominant seventh chord.

C,(G·) m-•

t C"t r JJJJ J
. rr
E bJ J J J Jwl
u ¥t Cr t er,,l r-ll

Qp £rt: J JoJ J J 1

7, Most often the dcsocnding rorm of the scale Is U$ed,

8. As longaslhescalestans on achordtot1e, tho llnem.iy ucend in a scalar fashion and �wmthe
same way,

$ tr t r i 3 �� t rBI• r jpisl

�p re r t r e , ol3 eh

9. 'The line may also destcnd. theo ascend in scalar rash.Ion.

$ r rer r J.J J&J I tct r h

10. When the line starts on the 3rd, it may descend chromatically to the 6th. i.e. the fdlowm&

�I r Ih

or ucend and then desceod chlomuieaUy rrocn the 3rd. i.e. the followin�


The e:Ddings QI pbrascs are very
ltnponant,, and two pa,ticularendi.ngS � )?""
appcu will! great frcq11toq:


Morecftt11 thaoootphtueund onlhc (A'
upbell of beats Of!& « thttt., U iD the
foJIOWUI& e:umpk-s:


The line should t&Se whichev« of the twQ endings make lhis possible-.

Please OOLe chat ill uamplcs •:z

#A the extra ball step between Ille
10nic ud b7 �u t,«:n qmlttcd. The
rule pemine this aitiaatioo iJ u
folk>wt: lf die 1itie i, erxlin&, "" •
wbolu1rp as kl examples •2 and •A:
ff Ill& line ii to c«itiiroe, ust tM half
u� .,. ,lu1al. •t In t� rnnnwine

Oiffettnl eodlJ'l&S starting oo other

('hofd lOMl.


When starting the scale on a n()J).chord tone ll\aJIJ Optioos exisL Some of the mos, frequently used

I. Use the $Cale without the tatra half

st.cp. u iD the followi.n& examples:

:Z. Use the ,c.ale •·it.bou1 the extra half

step antil you ruch the b7, at which
time balance i, restored and the
p,tvioua Nie, ve 01108 mort opera­ 1{ - µ®,
t1're, u lB tht. followlng examples:

3. Insert I hlllf $tep bcbc the fl.tit

chord tone )'OU wme to, as tn Ule
folWt'(in& enmplca:

4. S)'11Copt1e die Ont cbotd 1on,e you

i fli Tl t4: %1-e..

come to, u ill the foUowing example:1:

S . From the bl approach lhc took
from a half step bet�. as ia the h::::,:
following example:

6. From the b3 approach the 3rd from

• half itcp above. as lt1 the foUo'#in.g

1. Fn:xmthe •4descet1dcfiro11111.tiicallr
IOlheJrd, as in the fotkW.•ir'lgexam,plc:

8, From.die b6 approach the 5th from

• half step bebw or a&ecod chro­
rt)llticaDy tothe.b7, as i:n lbc foUowing
examples: J J 1;;21;
9. Whca lbc line ua.tts with • chord
&one oo anupbeat, all Q(theproceedui&
eight no1><tiord tooe rules are opcra-­
ti\'C slt1ee it plxe11a noo-cbord toneoa.
a down beaL

10. Generally, mo'l'e by step, h;1,lf

step,« skip \ll)til a chord t0ne occurt
Oil adoY.-n bettL All oflllcJnt0ecdill$
example,s exemaji.fy thi, J'\IJe,


'The bebop dominant scale ma)' be txtcnded through the use of a number of'te-chniques v.flicb are a pan of
the oommo-n language of all good Jan m1,1sk:i:111s. Some of the - more common ones fO,low:

I. Uponarrivalonthcb1 thelir.emay
a$ccnd aloa& a majof stvw.h chord.
<Al ($tf$_y@7 i JJJ,h& ppft'tt
aTio"'illl for exttnslOC'I or change d
(f #FttHe•ASU
direction. asin the following examples: (1)

2. Upon anivaJ on the 3rd. Stb, or tt\ �&H-E&tr &H+t· 4 i6it

- ·-
b7th, the line may proce«I tloag the
outline of the diminished chord OOl'I•
tainlng that note, as ir, the follo'l'·ing (� ({,;JJp €i
example (the dim inistlll:!d cho,rd tut1�Uy
set$ up I moduJIIDOQ):

m ·¥-·-

{r/ ,, H

�) ·i ;.;z :; p;;;;;��..1¥1
(I) � A- A J Qi cl, fj &

Eitampks A ud B m1y be combined
with curna>lcs C through It, as in th.e
1Vzrr Jt.JJ. ri ··-4€­

fotlowin, c:2am:ple:

J, Tlic bebop line may be ext.coded

tlwugh lhc use of whll I shall her�
after rereu to u deOection. When
Jeavitia tlllC Sth ol the scale, th.t Une ;{ # tdSOOa4J:iT4J
:f&: -i
may be ddlcctcd ia the manner of lhc
follMVlng txamplC$ (mab $1,U'C that
when the line resumes its ditSCCJK the
.j ,3-¥\t
5th is on • doWa beat):
•ker@J 1 J .JJltJJ
,. The bebop 1ine may be extended by
embellishing the root or the 5th of
cllord. This is 8.CCIOCl1'lisbed by de-
1,-ying I.he a.nival ohhc cllotd tooc by
inserting the DOtcs OC'IC half step aboYe
JM ()CIC haIF stq> below the !One SI
question, as ln the fono...tnguamp&ca:

If the line oriai,nates. from 1M3rd or the

b7 nile #4 remains opcrMive. as in the
following ,
1[ @tu ;JJiJ.
l(llle lrd!t to be cmbelUsbed within a
line. tlart ()fl lbe b5, as in tbe following

Or sk:ip from the 4th and rttum by hidf

Step. as in the following uampie: 1,J
These techniques r« cxtellding lines (1) $4¥4
are p;artiooluly u&e:M in mcxial situa:­
tions (as, In cxamplo! 1'1, which
foUowa), tn double time pauagcs
whe:lt• mote mattrlal ls aeedtd t0 fill
the same number of mcuurcs (as in
example #J, which follows),, aod
simply f<W variety, (Jl

jit umtit£.E...-:s£ J


l. Swt the scale on hntlhing olhfl

tbltl t.M first beat oflht- men.we, u in
the folk,.\•lrlg examples:

2, Vary the stanitlg ntltt (not:juiuhc

IOnic and no,1 ju.u chord COMS), as irt
lbc roJlowlng examples.:

3. Vuy lht end� asin tlle rollowing


4. Balance aseeftdlngat1d detoeoding

mocioft. as In the lbllowtng examplt=

S. Bur, thuca)ewllhiullnc. u lrnbc

following examplu:

•I tff"tt:t ¥

6. Turu may be l.t$Od oo a,wy chord
lOll.e, as tn the folJowina cumplri:

<hwr- - -;;;-�.,.
�s::u:. 1¥J\ tt
7. J� l>e... tultt to odle:r Mt,;:.,. t er, ;{
•I �tiIii[I fIt
l(:lle3. p in the (oUowitig examples:

t· 46.3
., ... @Jr


S . Joi11 the bebq) $!CUC$ tooehcr KIile

tn,cs. u i.n. l'.be foll()',\ing examp�

The➔ '�t¥

9. Ute various delays, u in me fa±j \co

rollowilg ex&m.plcs:

10. Uie��s.

I l. U$1$ double time.


Wheo the halfdimini:sbed chord ls treated as a minor seventh (U), I.hen all ofd,e aforementioned rules are.
operative, as exemplified here:

� �S.. I c,___
However,ifthebaifdiminishedchordisperctivcdaspanofall V1 Vlhituation(Le.,G-1 ell E;A,1 D--as
lR ..B,d: Home Apin in lodiana.'' "WhisperNot," etc.� then observe: the following rule:: treat the ,.(VI.I) as the
relatoa D V proc,n:ssion, 1$ in the following example:

The ratKlnale for the use ofthe bebop m.J,jor$Cale is the same as that Cot the use or the bebop dominant s.cak.
This scale is spelled 1 2- 3 - .•s.,.6,.1.s aod is u.scd o,·cr any major type chord.
- - 4s
RULES: I. The scale usually moves in basic eW,.tb note pattenu and usually descends.
2. ln pure form lhe sea.le invariably stw on a down beat.

3. In pun: liorm the scale aan, on a
chord tone. For the purpoGcs of the #i
use of this scale tlie chord tones are J •
3. S, at1d6_, uU'lthcfoflowingex.amplc e;i 144 -

4, As loQg u tilt scale swu on 11

chord tone. t&c litle may aseeM and/or
@-Re& '1C JJ EC
dc5cctd l.n scalat rashiort. 11S ill the
rull.,..i•� ,:,u,mpks;: $11r J£J¢l;;;i £! 144 r;
S. Wbca t he stale awtts on the 9th,
�od obronmltally to th! mqjor b•JJi ;
7th. Oleo obsen'C the baic n,,1Je. u in
the follow£ni eumplcs:

<i r ff-h:t.t.15 I_J ,

. l - t➔ tri J'l
6. Wbco the ,caJe SI.arts one.he m\jQr
11b, du«nd ct1rom11ticaDy to the Sth
el the chord. a& in the followina

7. Whenstatti03on anon,dtord u:me rr.ove by step. hal£ Slep.,oukipuntil achord tone( I,3, S.. or
6) occul'S on a down beal.

8. When tbe&0lo lincstaruoo a noo­

ebord tone or when lhe line bas a chotd ½ 7
tone Oil an upbeit, insert II half step
jvst before a chord tone to r�tpre $1 7:nt+ee..eo J-a-� f
t,�ance lo the liM.. Mill lhc fdle)'l>'h'lg
examples:. $¥f$Uf f- JwJ I I 164

9. Forvarie()'awroaehthccbord lone -1!!!1

which Initiates Ult line b)' a half siep
abo\>.t a.od a hllh1cp below. as in the
foOowin& Cll amph$: T l-4 ®


I. Sta.rt the sc.alc on something other than the fm;t beal of lhc me$urc.
2. Vary the starting note (ootjust the toric and not just cho«I tones).
3. Balance ascending and mer.ion.
4, Bury lbe scale within leu obvious lines..
5. Tums may be used on any chord rone, as in the rollowing examptes:

$ rrrr u,.u J 1JJl1 lrol

�i EFtr u J, JJJ J J l jowj

(�i rtrrr u t e r' r J JJ

Gp rtrr ti t r rtr JJJ t (A@ �

c; tt&tr t rre J1..JJ, 3 JJ l ti

The choices of scAles to colo,t chords arc not Jntirety arbi1rary but are governed by a number or-
Some of these considerations
!. The writer's petSOnal tnste(one scale sounds better to him than 3™'.llher.)
2. How consonant Qt disSOnant the writer w0t1ld )ite the line to be in relation to the chord.
3. Certain alterations in the given chord(ahnys dloosc a sc.alc that takes into consideration altcmiOfls in
lhe chord. For example, in a C, !': IC·E•o•.9,,_0•1 cbooele a dominant se,·e nlh seak: lhat includes a a• arid a
The information in chapter is based on persc,nai Obkf'\ •ations of many of the most import.ant jau
players or our time. It is bcyood the scopeofthis chapter to deal with the theoretical concepts that underlie the
choices or scaJenhat accompany particular chords. Furthennore. this information shOllld noc cause the player to
eklse miod to lhe many other �le sys1cms and possibilities for consuuctin,& and usi ng his own s<:a1 es.
Wheo dealing with ahe.r scale sys1cms it is perh1ps better to adopt the OOfl"lenclature and rules ofthat
syStCJL However, settle in yOllr own mind which scales are sim lar and how theyopenue in the different systems.


of The following chart presents other scale p0$Sibilitie.1 to color specific chord types. Sc.ales sta.n on the name
the chol'd unless olbena.isc indicated.
I. M-,jor ScaJc Cbolces Se:1te Name
C � ( can be written C) . , ......... . Major (don"t emphasize the 4th)
c� +4 .................•.......•.... Lydian (major scale. wi th +4)
C6 b6 ................................. . H:umonk: major
C 6 +S. +4 .........•... Lydian augmented
C ............................ ·•· ......... Augmented
C ..•...........•...... • .•.•...•.....••••• Diminished (beain with K step)
C ......•.•........••.........•.......•... Blues scale
C ........••••••••..••.........•. Major pentatonic
C ............................·•.•. Bebop major
2. 7th St:alc: Choices Scale Name
C1 ..................•..........•....•.•. Dominant m·e,1111 (Mixol)'dian)
C7+4 .................................... Lydian dominant
C7b6 ................................... . Hi.ndu
C7+ (lw •4 & #S ) ................ , ...... Whole lOne
C7b9 (also has •9, #4) .................... Dimin�bed (begin with !! Sltp)
C7+9 (also has b9. #4. #S) .. .•••••...•.... Diminished/Whole (A)rle
C7 ...... ......... ... ···•···.• ·•·· 81:ues sea.le
C7 ...........•................ , ........ . Major penwonic
C7 ..................................... . Bebop dominant
3. Miaor Scale Choioca Scale: Name
c- ..................................... . Mino, (Dorian)
C-b6 ........................ , ......... .. Pure minor
C- 6 (major sevcath) ••••••.•.• , • , •••• , •• Asecoding mc:todic minor
c- ..................................... . Blues scale
c- .................................... .. Diminished (tqio wllh whole mp)
C- 6 (b6 & major se1,-enth) .............. . Hannonic. minor
c- ...................................... P luygian
c- ...................................... Minor pentatooic
c- ...................................... Bebop dominant starting on F
4, Hair Oiminilli.ed Scale Choices Scale. Name
Ce ..................................... . Half' diminished (
Ce ...................................... Bebop dominant a.tarting oa F
Ce ...................................... Bebop dominant Marting on Ab
c,#2 ···························•····•··· Halt diminished #2 (Loc.riao #2)
S. Diminished Sulc Cboiec: Sealc:Nuu
Co ...................................... Diminished
6. Dominant 7tlti Suspended 4th Scale Nune
C7M4 ................................. Domiaant 7th scale, but don't emphasize the 3rd
C7M4 ................................. Major pcotatonlC starting on Bb
C7su,4 ..............•............ Bebop dominant
Ttthnif.Juesoflmpro\lcisation. Volume I: A Metltodfor Depefoping lmprovisalionalTechnique(Bastd on the
Lydian Chromatic Concept by Georte Russell) by Oavid Baker
Ad..,anced JmproviJa1ion by David Baker. Volume. I, cha�er 8; Volume 0, chapters 7•14.
A Ntw Apprt)(lch 10 Ear Traim·ng for tht Jou Mu.ticltm by David Bater
Ear Training for Jau Musicians. Volumt J: St�nth Chords/Scal¢t by OJvid Baker
Tift Lydian Chromo#c Conctpt o/Tonal Orga.n{tationfor Jmpro�isarion by George Russell
Jamey Acbersold series: A New Approoch lO Jez: Jmprovilation. Volume /: A New Approach to Jazz
Jmpro.,isatlon. Volume 2: Nothin· But Bluts. Volumt 21: Gt1tin' It Together. Volume 14: M4}or6.
Minor. Volume 26: The Scale Syllabus.
Tht Complete Mei.hod/or lmprol'isation by Jeny Coler
Sc.altJ for Jaz� lmproi,isation by Dan Hacrle
Pentatonic Scalts for Jau lmprotJisation by Ramon Ricker
Thesaurus ofScales and Melodic Patterns by Nicholas Sionimsk.y
Encyclopedia of Scates by Don Schaeffer and Charles Colin
Patttrn.Jfor Saxophone by Oliver Nelson
Virtually any jaz.z record with n.rst-class players, amogers a.nd composecs. For an extensive u,1 of recordings
usin& Sf)e(ifie scales sec Adwmct'd lmproruu.tlon by David Baker. volume I. chapltf' 8.

Chapter XI


In writing for two voices in a jazz idiom, a number of distinct possibilities exisl
I. Par11Jlel writing-the two voices move in parallel motion predominently. The second voice is for all
practical purposes a .shadow of the lOP voice. (example I )
2. Pol)•pbonic writing-In thi$ style of writing the second voice docs not minor lhc top voice. The lwo ,.,<Jioes
move in oblique or contrary motion and avoid rhythmic duplication. This is essentially the classical
approach. (example 2)
3. Scalar writing-·a kind of writing just as easily e.a.lled modal writing which combines the techniques of
parallel and polyphonic wniting. (example 3)
4, Simple-shell twt>hom technique-a technique usualty used by two horns accompanying a melodic line.
(example 4)
S. Lead voice with a bass line. (sclr explanatory)
Very few compo5itions lend themselves e.nlirely lO a single techni.que $()J'BC general ruk:s that transcend
catesories lhc-n some specific rutes foUow:
I . 3rds and 6ths are best{consona.nccs).
2. 2nds and 7ths .,. usable.
l. iri10ne u,ed sparingly.
4. Sths and occavcs used only under special circumstances ( move in or oot o;f 5th$ and octaves).
5. 41hs are bad except to set up tendencies (move in or out of 4ths).
6. When hannonle$ are ext.ended use $tcOndary chord$ and resolutions. {J{ V I substitutions} (example 5)
7. Use tendency tones and passin,e tones. (uam, plc 6)
8. Try to change harmony part irhannon)' changes acaross the bu line. (txa.mplt 7)
9. Use tumback{tumarounds) at cndS ofsections.{Le., 1st and2ndendingortoerminal ending.) (example: 8)
JO. lntrodo« dissonance for reasons or tension. (example 9)
11. Avoid hannonizing rest points with 6th olkey, {uamplt 10)
12. Decide whccher 2nd part i.s to be a bass line or one M;tual 2nd voice or a mirror of the l st voice.
I. Parallel Writing
a. Two voices.
b. Both voices within the octave.
c. Avoid crossing.
d. Second voice us-ually parallcb the motion of'the top voice.
,. H,rmony is 111()S!ly thirds •rd sixths.
The hannony n01e may come from the chord itself ifit is one. of the ebord tone s or it may come from the scale
to which the chord bclongS ( dorian, mixolydian, etc.) (uasnple la)
Pa W. is a composition h.annonizcd according to e,his tedmique.
11. Polyphoale Writing
a. Two voices.
b. Both \'Oices within the octave.
c. Avoid CJostinp.
d. Overlup phrasts (tty 'lo make p:>ints o f rest different). (examl'.lle Ila)
c. Free rbytbm (but not too complex).
r.. Try to wort with just two Of three different note values. (eumplc llb)
g. Use rests.
h. Don't us.c uitooes, minor seconds or major sevenths cxoep, as suspen:sions, dela)'S snd ror melodic
i. ror basic unia:otthe dmc. (There must be movement unit ofthe time. i.e., in 4/4 time
each quarter note mu.s, be a.ccountcd for.) (exam,plti De)
J. Conlfii'Y 6f oblic:i;ue motion is desirable. (esample lld)
t. Use conflicting rhythms whenever possible. (eXAmple lle)

t Avoid duplication of figures lhat divide tht Lime unit (example llf)
m. In general, the seoond voice is less lndcpen:leot than tbc 6rSt bul the ruies for mcJodic construction
shoul d $till be ob$erved.
n. A,·oid cross relatlooships, (e.xamplc Ilg)
o. The highest and low1m points should not be the same in both ,·oiccs.
p. Avoid chord outline$ (tertian, (lUartaJ, etc.I (example lib)
Po. W. is a eOITIJ)()$ition harmonited according to this tcc, hnique.
Ill. Scalar Wthin&
a. Two homs,
b. 80lh voices wi1hin the oc::1a,·c.
c. Avoid crcmings.
d. Motion i$ parallel oblique and contrary.
e. Choose MCI adhere to sea.le colorS ( i.e.. l)'�an. conventional or other scales). (example Jib)
r. Use simple major sc.a.les unless the chordtictates otherwise. (example lllb)
i, Essentially thirds and tixths.
h. Use olher intervals discrcctJy.
i. Scalar writing is very often used as an adtes:ive technique. (e,u1mplt Ille)
j. Set tension points. (example llld)
k. Set and use rhythm i c schem,u fol' cohesio,. (example flle)
S . W. i.s a composition hannonized according t> 1hls technique.
IV. Simple-Shell Technique.
a. l'wo voices.
b. Boch voices within 1he octave.
c. Avoid crossing.s.
In major chords these<:ond voice usually 11l()VCS1 to6 or within the implied major scale. (t.rample lVa)
In minor seventh chords the "7 descends a halfst::p to lhe sixth ofthe key (which is the 3rd ofthe dominant
7th). (uamplt IVb)
lrthe melody k I.he mhtor third use the ninth ff\O\ing ',1;'i1hin the sc:alt. (c.x.Ample rVe) 11IC wri1e.r may also
opera1e from within the ar,propri,ue dorian scale or Mocher stale if an alter.,,tion demands h, (example IVd)
Treat the dominant seventh as though it were a mi,o, seventh resolvi n gto a dominant. (Use the abo,-e rule..)
The "''riter may also Operate with the proper mixolydiu sc:aleor another scale "''bkh an alteration might demand,
(example JVc)
With a diminished chord choose anod\er meni>(r of the d minis.hed chord or the propcr diminishod scale.
(example- IVf)
Treat the augmen1ed chord a.s a dominant seve:'lth eh0td, (example IVg)
d The second voioe usually moves with the harmonic rhythm o, 1he i�lied harmonic thyt hm orthetune.
(example IVh)
e. Notes smal ler than lhe buic un1torlhe tlme�notes tha1 ititersect the basielime may be hannonitedin
parallel 3rds, 6ths, 4ths. Octaves and un� may also be used. (example IV()
Remember many compositions don't lend lhemsclvcs to this tec:hnique of bannonitation,
S.. S. is a composition harmoniud aceordi.nt te+ this technique.
V. Lead Voice With A Dass Line
a. Two IIOiccs.
b. No crouing.
c, Bottom voice usually plays rooc.sjoined by �lidi.ngruns. although higher partials of the chord arc often
used. (uample Va) This technique is \'ti')' limited in itS use.
L V. 8. is a com�ition harmonit.ed aceortl.i� 10 thi.$ 1echnique.
A two.horn arrnng_cmcnt showing a mixture or the techniques follow: (namplt mixed)

Any Honice Sil\·er Quintet recording
Any C#Monba.11 Adderley Quintet recording
Any Art Blakey Quintet rcoording
Any rceordin& by the various versiot1s of lhe Miles Davis Quintet in the I 950:s and I 960s
Any recording or the Max Roach-Clifford Brown Quintet
Any J. J. Johnson Quintet recording
Any Wynton Marulit Quinlet recording
Any rec«ding of the Jay and Kai Quintet
L Study aJbums Involving two horns. Analyze ac.cocding to the techniques described in chaptet,
2. Write arrangement$ U$ing each of lhc techniques.
3. Write arra.ngcm.cnt:s combining the techniques,

Two-\JOia. I.Alriiing ( EXQm!>lu)

t,� � J �wb f
�I I�
i a i� �r fh

♦ ;;;zjzz1,, I ;;t;1 Izzl7dJZ.1 I,f;, . I �o/,.If:11I

o/II h
tr I 3 ,, I f c!f, I EMi�
�� .t�,
I I• I 2 ii1

,. fr.�I ;
Dml1 �
8 (�
� U1r11

@ CM, A""7 C.M7 A!!!!z
H 8 IN01i HZ :e
fu r
i'r "'r
4J "7

t,-p j a
I i IfU:5LI .J I


047,-zld F
I 8

8 &-i I

♦� ,. I 4
r i�r
CM, f"""S1d
I 8 I1Hst1 I
�ID DmiJ
r+) i! ,,,� r r r
., =8
a., C"7

1@11 e=t Zs

i 1ml •o Ill) : Ii .. 116

(i r r f r I F ff f I � f f f I � J J J
(+ r u r r I 11 d ,w r u a�
1 @tt 11

1 / r Irrr rr r r1,i
1 ..
11 ,,.,,
J i 1 ,,
� 6� �� J J 6J
�I ���·��J�1*�����
�- J SI �

J �, .J J , 'r ,, '" '", • �, J J •,
C7 (dimiriKhtd SGCllt)
C.7 (mixe>l,dion)

f f i f r :! i TJ1 .1 - ��1::11

n '"'f r r r �r r ,e,,
OW t...-, (J!d) (�!Nllcr sc.aW

1 bu r

CM7 AMi7 Omi7 Gr

"I rl
c-;J ' ' ' ' I
I - r:-�-, .
-.... ......... ...
·• ;_• . I I
I i '
I,;, l I I I I I
. . I
• • .,... .+-
I r--3�
. '
�· .
.. . ' •• ' ..' ,
I• ,
. . . -� ' .
7 fl
1 T
is ' ·- . • .




J ls fur IDV\lintss
&bM, r- J---, Gml1


...... ,__.
ei:,,,1 N'I
AIIYll7 Pr Gr �3.---:, i:, . ,

I� I V
T "f . '9t I , ·r " '

,., ., p►


• lnl I . .

J J..J 5 � -
. - I n,-, .
,� u II , '
• � � ' ' -, c.i, I),, r.»t G,,,i. c.. �- I).,
IJ -,. -, -=- I . I I I
- .. - ---
...... �l. - . -.. ' .
. • . • I'
Grn11 Cq EM1 Fm
·; . ' ' 17

,. ' � ' • . .....

• - i:.+ � .. . .
J I ' I V •
r Eml7 A7 OM, EM• G\. Ab. G- - I ,. . ,A�

I• • ++ , I-' • I I .
I ' , .
J ••

-, 77 ' I' l I I ........., I' .. I '

- •·

I I' I I .


. D . - <. 0 � I

. ..
- I I I ·I ' h I

r�A I) r,rd

. im
Irttrl: I�);
B 3 1
r rI :
j : ; :
· ..

,••. il:.'I I : : : ,,.

I :r
::-;:.:t.t::�; •�t

G; I I I 3 I : .: I : 1JO';t,t..::=,m...,

� M,rCl!f no+
'° I :t,:: b• Wi•d .,,,
,.. OS
n i

; '"'• I


ti!, •11 I ►II g !!
o '!_
ii !!.
5e r I
_Jtfnt int. hol{e
daixuDisbtd chant as o minor -,..,
lrrnt tnt mu,�7- ph • I __
ffl111c_ •HOOP)
.. ft) ❖
- mtn♦
1111 •• lo111 In, o m,qor 1•
instf.Qd of � ►7 ill. nit CO.SU.
Oominallt 'flt\

lfj,� 9

��1,1 •:
I == ;J: ustd 11npt 1H A-

�i;f'{)I b:


,sos ufb(r ru,t, )ta, 5'fti 11•i

►- If... titot I► o,

Chapter XII


The tcnn tum back usually refers to a progression oonsistingoHour chords. 1'his progression
.sen·es a number orpurposes. Fin,t, it hell)$ define the form o(a composition. For instance, in a blues lhe laSl two
measures of eachcborusconsilts of a I chord. The first foor mcaswesalsoconsisu otal chon±coosequently. lhe
lis.tener hears six measuresofa tonic chord. These six measures could bedivided J + S, S + I. 4 + l, 2 + 4 or 3 +
3. RyllS:lng t.he.tumh�kth� f1t.rform11r i� i:.hletr.u�leftrly indieMe t.he('Ot'l'tttdivisier:i 2 + d. Seool'Klly, it ser'"'t. th�
purpose of providing a lint from one choru$ to aoother. A third purpose served is that of J)ft\'etitingstaticness.
For example. it provides the p0ssibility for harmonic mction where no motion exisu.. A fourth pu.rpOse served is
that of providing rhythmic ar,d melodic interest at the ends of sections within oom�ilions.
The writer IM.y iturOduoe one of lhe tumback patterns when::
I. The composition calls f« that specific progression.
Example Dmi,
I G)
II 1.
2. TIie last two measures of one section or :a tune consists ora tonic chord and the first beat ofthe next section is
also a tonic chord. (The tonic d1ord may be major or minor.)
f'ti� 1?/1 ·I ;ii� l 1 1�/ l C M,
/Ill I CM,


I ��
ll' E '
Ill/ l C ,
A' ri'
Tbe combinationofthetumback with the ti Vl progression comprisesoncc(themost important formulae in
jazz. Tbc ability to cope with turnbacts make the writer'$ task infinitely 0$.i?r.
Virtually every composition written inthejuz and pop idioms can be enlivened :incl made more intertsting
by the interjection or well-placed turnt>acts, This chapter includes a numl)ef"ofwmbact formulae.
I, Loc:ate live records lhal include tumbacb and write do'-'·n the fonnulae.
2. Find al least t'ivc tunes that contain potential uttnbacks•within the tune-(10t 8' the final two measures).
l . Be able t o write- at least three different tumbnck formulae in any key, tempo or meter.

Tumbock farmu..1.o.E.

I bm 1,1[ bl
©� eMJ
37! #M7
;:, 6 H
I bi,

9iij e II
I b'II[ b!I. b][

FM7 BiMt AiMi
a:� t II

I blil JI
c.., g;, \;8! t«

© �re, II

11 b:l
eMz e II
®� %'·
Ip �1'
blJI 1[

wv II
I bllI. b,n
a:4 f,
ew, f:; e II
@� IMj, �ti br,d7 6 II
I !
1I blI

©� I'"1

I l[
=,,, (q
if;., II

eH1 lni7 B!i e
I ►m lt ►I
®� t'§ Hnij 0§ C II
I bJII lt y
I'Mj gl•Ni UP!•, I\ H
@� 6j

I ll m lL 1
@� CH,
f!t Eroij DMlt I e I
I •m lll I

£Mt iMj En§ 5 I e I
♦ e-
][ ]l ! l
@ t: T Eij C

@� �..,


:aaz;;I Ofl. Riiiidi""11o51t

*' �· I

�=; I
Whb olliiir rtoc& ii fhl ¼hi m1PMn

.�: :O:rni, @
Pm1z ., I
•n, ® l @
1:, II

Chapter XIII


The technique or tllree-voicc paraJlcl writing Carrie$ with it certain rules as dkl tWO-\'()ioc writing but the
three-voioc variety tcndf co be much more rewarding. 1'he addition of a third voice opcn.s up matiy more
The rules for thrce>voicc writirag follow:
1. Three voiCA?$ all within an octa"c.
2. Avoid the us.e ohh, perfect fourth above the root otthe ti\ltn chord except M 3 pa,singtone oremhellishing
3. The bottom \"OiccS ma)' mo,·e freely within the major key area or within tbe :uu ,)(the chosen sc3le,
(example I) Cbrcma1ieism Is also p0$Sib1e, (e1u1m.pte 2)
4. Avoid the use ot triads whenever possible,
a. "try to introduce diitonanc� bet,..�n two of the voic:c!I. c�.ompl� 3)
b. Triads vt reas.ble whc-nonc« more ofthcvoicesprovidcsa co ntcxtual dissonance.(example: C triad
over .t D minor 7th chord.) The note C provides the diS$0iu.nt interval of a sever1.h above the note O .
5. The ba!:ic notes in riajor cho,ds are t h eupper extension 6. 7. 9 . 11 • 13. ln the major chord the major 7th
against the tonic is vtry effecth·e. (e:u11mple 4)
6. The basic notes in i miOOf 7th to dominant 7th situation arc still the "7 of the minor chi>rd rtsoh1ing down a
hair step. (example 5)
7, If the 11 is giveft, wpply the v,. (e.xample 6)
lFthe V, is given. ,upply the II. (example 7)
8. Harmonize with duplkate mo\·cmcnt orbyu5e oltwi>-vo ice harmony in the bottom two\•Qmces.( e8)
9. The use of perfect founhs can provide variety and color. All 4lhs must be contained in the major scale to
which the given chord belongs. ( 9) Exceptior. -you may u$e a pair of 4ths�ontaining the raised
4th of the major scale to which the given chord belongs. (e_.ample 10)
10. When desired examine the po.ssibili1y for the use of a "bluc-s" voicing. (example 11)
11. rr the melody is italic )'OO may fflO\·e the- bouom two voices in pa.rall,cl thirds. foorths o, seconds.
(example 12)
12. Try whenever poslibk: for contrary motion between the top voioe and the bottom pair. (example 13)
13. At points of re!t (cadences, etc.) two or all three \'oioc:s may move frccl)'. (enm�lc 14)
14-. [n modal compositions lriads may be. used freely.
Dahomey Dnnce . . . . . • . . . . . • . . Coltrane
Milutones • • • • . .. . . . • . . ... • • • Milu Oa\•is
$() Jffha1 • • • • • • • •• • • • • • • • • • • • • Miles Davis
Freddie 1ht Frtelooder • • • • • • • . Miles Davis
15. 1'rca1 non.chord tooes as chord tones.(example I5). or as members ofone of the se!lhs to which the chord
belongs. (example 16)


A thrcc.hom voicing chart follows on pages 96-97. It should be used in the following ma.Mer:
a. Detennine the quality o( the chord )'OU want to voice(major, minor, doininaJU.. etc,)
b. Oeie:rmine the member of the chord that is in O,.e lead(I. 3. 5, 7. 9. etc.)
c. Check I.he chlltl for the correspondi ng set-up.
d. Choose one cf the voicing:s that satisfies the aesthetic demands of the musical situation.
Any recording of the Miles Davis from 1he ea.rty 19S0s(with J. J. JQhnson and J,mmy Heath)
Any recording of the Mies Davis Sc.xtct with C:uu,onball Adderley and John Colw.u,e
Any J. J. Johnson Sc11d recording
Any Jazz.let recording

Any George Russell Se>:tet recol'ding
Any Art Blakey Sexte1 recording
Cunis Fuller: Slfding Eosy (Unhed Artis.ts UAL 4041)
I. Usten to and analyze three-horn compositioos by your ra\·oritc writers.
2. Score some compositions or )'OUr own choosing ror three horns using both the techniques dcsc-ribcd in this
chapter and the three-horn chart.

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Chapter XIV


The following rules: should be 0M«''od in scoriog for rour voices moving in pira11el fashion.
J. There must bt (oor cllffennt \'oices. (Unlike choral writing in whk-h one voice is doubled.) (enmple I)
2, All four .,--oices mUSl be within an ()Clave. (uample 2)
3. Each family ol chords reacts difl'erendy,
4. Major chords.
a. Add major 6, 7 or9(w:uaUy in that order) to the bask uiad LOOblain a founh voic:e. (txample.3 ) If the
d s ar, extension you m•y ,oict down lhe chord huding for the tonk Example:

m •;ru
b. It is also possibk to u$e different combina1ions or 1he degrees of Lhc major scale to which tht chord in
question belongs.(I. 2. 3. S. 6. 7) excepting 1he perfect fourth. (example 4)
c. You may also use combinations involving the r:iised eleventh or raised fourth. (uample S)
d. Some mo,-ina ,•oice po5Sibilities inthisca.1egory include 7 • 6 or other diatonic movemc.nt including + 4
or 9 I() 1 if anything but the toot of tht chord is in the lead. (uamp1e 6)
s. Minor Se\'enlh chords.
a. AU four notes are already present,
b. All four YOices. must be wid,in 1he ocrnve.
c. There must be four diff'crent voiocs.
d. When neccssaJ)' or for varict)' add major ninth. perfect ele,·cnth or m.:ijor seventh. (uample 7)
c. Othcr combin31tions of I, 2, "'3, 4. S, 6. "7. i-, ma)' be used. (c�ample 8)
r. Dorian di�1o,nic::ism may be used frcel)'(i.e.• Dmi, chord ma)' draw from the no<cs<>f a D d<>rian scale).
(example 9)
a. Other scale po.ssibilitics may be used according to chocd alterations: or pcrson31 (example l 0)
h. Particularly cff'octive movement in the minor 1th chord. (example 11)
6. OomiMrU U\'enth.
a There must be four different voices,
b. All four voices must be within the octa,·e.
c. The third and ,evcnlh should be present whcm:vcr l)O$$ible.
cl Oon't use a plain dominant se,·entti. 1ha1 is. a dominant seventh chord with no altered notes and no
added notes. {example ll)
e. Any movcmcn« IS pcnnissablc within the mixol)·clian scale or another predetermined scaie <>f )'()Uf
c.hoicc. (uampk 13)
r. To S'-'Oid aplain dominant seventh add some. form of the ninth if an)'thing but the root of the chord Is in
the lead. (example 14)
$, If the root of the chord is in the lead alter the fifth, (example 15)
b. lf the ninlh is lhe lead, the root may be omined, (enmple 16)
i. The fifth a� the ninth are the 1wo notes nomtJlly ahered in a dOminant seventh chord. (example 17)
j . For variety or added color add any oombinaUOn of the following
9 6 (.4) •5
"'9 (example 18)
•9 "6 'S
k. Treat diminished chords a.s derived dominant sevenths.. (A diminished chotd i$ a seventh
with a flat niM- e g b• <f>.) Refer to rule in nomcnc:Jature chapter, (ex.ample 19)
I. Treat augrnenEed chords as dominant se,·enlh chords of the s� name. (example 20)
?. Half diminished chords ( h or m.ioor 1lh 'S) are treated as minor se,-cnth chords. (example 21)
8. When the minor chord functions as a tonic chord(I) add the sixth or the major (example 21) If you
add thcmfoor1tll ii then implies motion because the resultant chord sound is that ofJI (minor 7lh) moving t o
V1 (dominant).

9. Treat non,.chord tones as chord lones (eumplc 23) or as members of oac to which th: chord
belona,,. (example 2.4)
10. For variety, smoother line and change or color, skips in lhc me1od)' or less oft.en in other part5 may bojoined
by \!Sing scale runs. (See Chaplet X for dclennining whal scales colos whal chords.) (c;camplc 15)
11. Once the melody nOlC has sounded al the: end of a Phrase or other poinl of rcsl, oomposed melodje$ drawn
from scales or olhcr sour. ce.s may be employed to relieve lhe statkncss. (aamplc 16)
12. ln four voice writing. ii is of\en poss.ible to employ ce:nain formulae in the various endings of A A 8 A
compositions. (c.1:ample 27)
13. Oncn itis desirable to dropthcsccood voicc(from the. top) in thefourvoice construcl The resultant voicing
is One of the most popular and the most frequently used voicings in modem writing. ti is used ·Nhen:
a A closed or tight voicing \\'OUld foroe the bottom voice iruo a.n unn�1urally hl,ah or uncom(ortable
rcglSter. (example 28)
b. Variety is desired. (example 19)
14. The closed voicing technique m.ay be lnlerchanged freely with the dropped vo.Ce technique. (uample30)
IS. The voiclng chart (pages I OS- I 08) should be us«I in this manner.
a. Ottennine the quality of the chord you want to voice (major, minor, dominant, etc.)
b. Dclcrminc: what membe.r of the chord is in the (I, 3. 5. 7. 9.etc.)
c. Chcd; the chart ror the corresponding set-up.
d. Choos.c one of the. voicing.s that satisfies the aesthetic demands of the situation. The chords with the
most congestion are usually the most dissonanL (uampltc 31)
Any re.cording of the Four Freshmen
Any ttcording ¢/ the HiLos
Davi! 8.ikcr's 21st Century Bebop Band: R.S, V.P. (LaW'CI Record LR-504)
Oavi:l Baker's 21st Century Bebop Band: Stniuin'(Laurcl Record LR-SOS)
I. Listen 10 and analyte $0C'l'le four,hom comPoSilion$ by your raN0tite writers..
2. Score some c:omp()f.ltionii or your own choo�tn� (both s.w; ,ig •lki ball ad1<) f« four hom!I usi ris l,orh ,t,,e
1ecMiques described in 1his chapter a,nd the rour�hom ehan.

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Chapter XV


There a1e a number otways: to obc.ain a fifth voice i.n paraltcljau scorina,. One is to s.imply double the
\-Oice an octave tower. (example: I)
Anocher way lS to write low· roots in the bass part. With this technique. obviOU$ly, the rule about all voices
being within ao octa,·e is waived. Some times the bass note wiU merely be OI dupllea.tlonofone o(the upper voices;
at other times it will be a new voice. (example 2)
80th of the above tcchniq1.1cs are oft.en used with die dropped voice descri,bed in four-voice writin,g,
While 1he aforementioned techniques are useful. pr-acti<:al and, we will use the tenn flv�voice
writina to refer to a technique utilizlRJ five ditren:nt voices. The Nies for this technique follow:
I. There m1.1st be fi,·e dUTcrcnc voices.
2. All five voices must be with:in an octave.
3. Account for all olthe chord tones. Then choose the fifth tone from the remaining tones of the implied major
scale•. ln lhe ease oraltered chords or for variety, the notes may be chosen rrom some other predetennined
scale. (enmplc 3)
4, In general the rules for four-voice wri1ing pertain 10 6\'1>voice wnling.
S,, Tb� v9i�i!'!& �h.!Ln (pages 11 6-118} should be used in the following manner:
a. Dettnnine the quality ot the chord yoo w.ine lO voioe (majos-. m.i»or. dominant.. etc.)
b. Detennine what member of the chord is in lhc lead(l . 3, S. 7, 9, etc.)
e. Cheek lhe chart for the com:spoading set-up,
d. Choose one of the \'Oicings satiS0C$ lhe aesthelic dcmancl:S of the situation.
Backsrouad fivo-•;oicc writing. Aspec-ial situation arises whcnlhc fn·evoiCCs eompris.c the background to
a solo Une (vocal or instrumental). It i$ sti1J possible to write. the bacqtound according to the fivo-votoe rules or
the fivtrYOice chan but it is often desirable to use the chart on page I IS.
The main advan1aae to this voiein.g is its lleJtibiliry. The voicing affords tw•dve po&sibilities with minimum
effort and movement. There are six possibilities with the 1110 V1 root movement and six more possibilities with
lhe II to "JI root movement
Listen to the �_xophone $tCtion in any good big band.
Listen 10 any reeording or Supeirsax.
I, Lis1cn and a.nalyu some c;,ompositiori$ by your favoritt writers. Try to disc:over the different approaches
described ln this chap1er.
2. Wrhe &0me exercises -Of fh·e-volce writing (4 voices with a double le:1.d).
3. Wri1e some exercises or li\'e-voice writing (4 voices with low t()()t$).
4, Write some exercises with five different voices.
5. Write exatnples of numbers 2. 3. and 4 with a dropped second voice.
6. Write some exercises usina the background writing technique.
a. VocaJ backgrounds, both ballads and swing tune$.
b. Instrumental backgroun,ds to an improvised solo.

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Chapter XVI


One way to obtain sUI p.u1s injausoorin.gora paraUeJ na1ute withou1 usinuixdirrerent ,'Oice.s is todouble
lhe lead voice and add the low roots. (example I) This is a very much-used technique.
To arrive at six dHTerut voices observe 1he following rules::
I. There. must be si.x differut voioea.
2. All six voices muse be within the octa..·e.
3. first, account for allehord loots.. Then choose the remaining 1wo1ories from the implied majorS(ale, In case
of altered d,ords or tor variety the ,emaining notes may be chosen from some C)lher predetennined scale.
(example l)
4. In general lhe rules for rour-voioc writing pertain to six♦ voioe writing.
S. Very often io sUC,voicewritin.g the second and fourth voice from the top are dropped an oc::tave. (example l)
From five voices upward (6, 7, 8, etc..), the ChAl\(;CS ro, varyir.g tension from chord to chol'd lessen
considerably. One oftMre.."LSOftS is that with five or more voices. all ofthe notesof the implied $Cale arc presenl in
every chord. This unifonnity ohension gives the illusion ofstalic:nessorlackorrotward motion. for I.his reason it
is probably better to use th!$ tcc.hniquc sparingly.
The S:i1noi« lCctutiq_\lQ fa particul.ar1)' ivci-cssful when combint•d with bitonal writing.
Because of the unifonnit)' or lc0$ion when dealing v.ith six notes. the chord chart is omiuod.
Miles Davis: Birth q/rhe Cool (Capitol T 762)
Miles Davis: Miles Dalli.sand .His Tuba Bond (Jazz Live BU8003)
I. Ustcn and analyze some S:ix-hom compositions by your ravoritc writers.
1. Score some compositions of your own choosing (both swine, and ballads) for six horns using the techniques
described in I.his chapter.

Six- v0itt wrl-tlnJ



Chapter XVII


Bi tonal writing refers co the pl';1,ctice of superi-imposin.g one chord on iinothcr, Each class of chords Us a
different set of bi tonal possibilities.
The bitonaJ chord$ are most frequently used on tht dominant seven lb chord. Observe the following rules
when the bi tonal is comprised of a major uiad and a dominant seventh chord.
I, Twodiffercntehords. (example 1)
2, five w 11iA vvkc� (cxampk ?)
3. T0p three voices make a majortriad (The melody is the root, thirdorfH\h ofsomc m3jortriad.) (e.xa.11ptr.
4. )f three \'oiocs arc used on the bottom. the voicingshould be l '1 10. If two vo.cts. use the 3 and t�c .,,,
(e,:ample 4)
5. Tbe melody n()(e must not be a perfect fourth or a major scvcMh above the root o(lhc dominant sc,·t<nlh
chord. (uample 5)
6. If the melody note is a perfec1 fourth or a major S(\' enth above the roo1 of the dominant seventh which is
called for, then• substitute dominant seventh mm be us-cd,
a. Use the dominant a.evmth chord a minor lhirdor a major sixth above the r'O(l(Of the original dc>mirtanl
seventh chord. (cumple 6)
\. Substitute dominant seventh c.hords may a1sobc: used for other reasons such as obtainifll a beuer °'
different bass line (example 7), for variety (�xample 8), in order to obtain more or less inteasity,
(erample 9) or ror sheer shock v3lue,
1. The following major triads work as bitonals above a domil\ant seventh chord. (All triads maybe played in
any inversion.)

Who\e Slep ab:we

Dominant 7th Mfoor third atovc
(example 10) Tri-tQnc nbon
M.Vor or miner tixth abcwe
thefollowing mtnor tri:ids w<)tt J$ bitonils wilh tlv.dominont ,cvcnth chord. (1'riadt maybe pl ayed b any
Triad with the same name
Perfect 5th ab.we
� step 3bovc
Dominant 1th Major 6th ibc;vc
{ex.ample 11) Tri�tone
Step above
Minor 7th abc,\·e
Minor 3rd abc,vc.
The. following augmented triads in any inve:r..ion:
Dominant 1th Same name
{example 12) Step above
The rollowing d-imjnished seventh chords in any in,'tl'$ion:
Same name
Oomi�nt 7th •3
(cxampk IJ) "5 or 6
8. The MajOJ triad lakes the following bitonals:
Major triad + Major triad i.n any inversion:
Y.! slt!p abOYe
Step above
Major trla:I Perfect Sth above
(example 14) Mioor 6th above
Major 6th above
Major 7th above
Major triad + minor triad in any inversion:
M�or l.-d above
Major triad Perrw 5th a,ove
(example 15) Mo\iOt 6th abc>\'e
Major 7th above
Major triad + auamented triad with an UwerSions:
Major triad Augmented
(example 16) Whole step
Maj01 triad + dimil'lished se-.•enth and all im·enKlns:
Diminished ':th
Major triad Samec oamc md inversions
(e.u,m.plc 17) � s�p abuvt and in-.'crsions
9. The minor triad takes the foUowing bitonals:
M.inor triad + M,tjor trfad
Step abo-.·e
�iinor triad Mi.nor 3rd above
(example 18) Pedeel Sth a,()ve
Minor 7th above
M ajor 7th alove
Mi.nor triad + minor triad
Minor uiad Step above
(Ham.pie 19) Perfect 5th ibove
Minor triad + augmented uiad
P,.tinOt (example 20) Mi™)( 3rd and in\'etSiOfl.$
Minor tri�d + diminished 7th
Mioor OlminJshed 1th
(example 21) Same name ind invcnions
10, The .auamented triad ta.kes the following bitonat:
Auaroented + Major
M�or name
Step .above
Augmented Mjnor 3rd a'>ove
(example 22) Major 3rd above
Minor 6th i:,ovc
Major 7th ab1We
Augmented + Mi.nor
Augmented Minor 3rd above
( example 23) Mioor 6th Vcwe
Major 7th above
Augmented + Au,amented
Augmented Auemu,,d
(example 24) Step above u,d inversions
Augmented+ Diminished 1th
Augmented Dimtnished
(example ZS) Step above and in,·e.rsions
l I. The Major 7th chord takes the rotbwins bitooals:
Major 7th+ Major triads

Step above
Major 3rd above
Major 7th Tri-cone
(example 26) Pelfect 5th above
Major �t!l o\>Qve
Majo, 7th above
Major 7th + Minor triad
M,\1or 3rd above
Ma;or 1th Mi\i¢ir 6th aOOve
(1xample 27) MajC)f 11h above
Major 1th+ Augmented ui.a.d
Major 7th (example 28) Same name and all inverSfons
MaJ(ll" 7th + Diminished 7th chord
Majot 7th (eumple 29) Same name and all in\1ersi()n.c;
12. The minor 7th chord takes the rotlowi� bitonal$:
MioOc" 7th + Major triads
Step above
Minor 1lh Perfect 4lb above
(example 30) Perfect Slh above.
Major 6th abo..·c.
Minor 7th above
Minor 7th+ Minor triad
Minor 7th Step above
(e:.ample 31) Perfect 5th above
Mino, 7UI + Aua,nented triad
Minor 7th (example 32) 1-i step above and invers:ions
Mi11or 7th + Diminished 7th
Minor 7th Same name and inversion
(e,cample 33) ij Step llbo\'C
1). The Diminished 7th chord takes tl,e following bitonals:
Diminished 7th + Major triMI
Step abcwe$bed Perfoc-t 4th abO'\•e
(u:ample 34) Major 6th abo\'C
Major 7th abcwe
Diminished 7th+ Minor triad
Diminished Si.ep above
(example 35) Perfcc.t 4th
Oiminis.hed + Augr.nented 1riad with all inversions
Same name
Diminished � sr.ep above
(e,::ample 36) Minor 3rd above.
Diminished + any other diminished

14. 11,e half-diminished 7th chord cakes 1he following bilonats:
Half-dimini5'1e:l 7th chord + Major triad
� step above
HaJf-diminishe.l Perfect 4th above
( e-xample 37) Tri-tone
Minor 6th above
Minor 7th aho\·e
Hall-diminished 7th chord+ Min0r triad
Step above
Half-diminished Miool' ltd above
(e.nmple 38) Perfect 4lb above
Mln0r 7th above
H.alf--diminis.hcd 7th chord+ Au�ed triad
Half-diminished Augment ed
(example 39) Step above and all inversions
Half-diminished 7th chord+ diminished 7th
Half-diminished (example 40) S:une name and all in\'enions
IS. Bitonals lend t:> be most elfecth·e whel'l two triacts are scored in lwo different «tors.
Tap triad Strings or woodwinds
Bottom chord WOOdwinds or brass
Open Brass Muted Brass
For this rc.ason it is perhaps beue-r 10 view chord superimpositions as bitonals Nlher than e xtensions or

r ls For l.ow.lirlus ( b� wrmng)

added !Ones.

� ,--3---,


Bitonal Writinq
-. © C7 Cf @ l'l)Ot ,_
J .. "
. -
� ..
.... .... .... L

- -

I.l 0 •

F ( tnlid) ( minor 'fTiClds)


F(tNc!) {d1in1N!hld.,... CNlld5)
- ...... .. '
.. ••• =i

Froiftlll' (major ffW>ds

. ·+ ,

F'minor ( minor 1nCMls)

F m1r« ( diminishtd '?Ill dlords)

F�,.., , • tnilda)


F_--, (minor -trilld,)
I_, � ,w
r:t,., (ClllqmVIIUi 'hiads)

@ F� ( d1mioishtd 7ih chards)

,.� ..
-� -

Chapter XVIII


Once all of the tools of arranging have bt'en acquired then the real tasks be&in. How ro put the arrangement
I. Some considerations include type or group.
a. abilities
b. ranges
c. expericni:e. etc.
2, Wbat kind of p�e is it? Ballad, swing tune, type (boogaloo, Latin. etc.)
3. Wbat style of S(X)l'in.i is sugg_e.<;ted'! ( R.c1y on past experience. records, etc.)
4. What instrumenu1.tioo arc you writing ror'!
5. What instruments art best suited to play what parts [Tom the standpoint ot range. teebnie�il, line
suitability, etc.?
6. HO"A' many choruses will lhe pietc be? What balance or wrincn a1Tanr.emcnt and improvisation? What
aboul b;)c1'1"0unds'? Will there be an introduction. intcrl'l.t<lcs'? What kind of ending'!
7. How will cont.Nl5t be. achie\·ed'!
Wllat d°'$ the: kin4 9fp,i�� !l!\'t; tQ (lo with 9ur handling of the $(;()ring$? Each tune type by its defmition
demands certain gener;ilized types or treatmenL For instance� a ballad by delinition is slow, so harmonies can
fflO\'e fasler. hannonles might be in order, etc. If the tune is a bebop tune, traditional treatment of bebop tones
should b,e considered, �e., melody lines were oft.en stated in unison. lol.S of substitution. stark harm()nies, e1e. IJ
the tune is a b00$,1loo the-beat or rbythm i.:S prodctcrmined. an approximate tempO Is known. lt will pt()bably be
relatively si�le, etc.
What style or sooting is suggested'? Ifthe rune is a quiet ballad don't scote the trumpet in its high tessitw-a ff'.
Calypso tunes as.k (or a brass trealment traditionally. Rb)'thm & �ues tunes mighl suggest cleclric bass and
electric piano.
What instrumentation are you writing (()I'! Chec:t. out tranSpOshion., r.:inges, capabilities, etc.. ,of the
Wh01 instruments are best suited to play what pans from the standpoint of range. technical capabilities, for
.suitability, etc,? Ccnain keys arc better for some i.nstrumeflt.s than others. i.e., sharp keys arc better for strings
ineh.idins violin. Oat bys better for winds. Make sore an instrument chosen to play a given tine can play the line
through its entirety. Assign melodies idiomatically, Oive•brltssy percussive figures to either brass group or brass.­
Jed nation, A king scalar line at a fast tempo mialn be bc(ter suiced for saxophooe than trombone, etc,
Octermi ne abeAd of timc h()W many choruses the arrar\gtmcnt has. This allows you to se.t climaxes. control
tension and decide how many 1.boruscs &0IOi$t.S will pla)'1 placcmcnl ofbackgrou.nd.$, t1':, A balan,e t>Gtwocn
wrlnen material and improvised sokls must be strud; so Chat the arrangement doesn't sound like a string o:f solos
with a handle on eac-h end Will there be an introduction? If so, where will the malerial come from?
Tile writer may draw material from II numl>et ()f source,.
I, The theme itself, or some readily di.s:ttrnible demeil'lt from the melody or rtlythm of tliecomPQSitioo,. This
clement might then be developed according to the techniques described in the chaplet "Oc,·e'°Ping A
2. Oti.ginally composed material. The original m,uerial win prOba.bly rel.ate 10 che compo6ilion in ooc of a
n\lmbcr of ways.
a. Th-c original material might ose .some aspect of lhe hannonic scheme ()f thc tone or use the mood o f the
tune. or it mlgln contrast the mood of the tune.
b. The original macerial might be completely unrelated to the tune itself excepc for tempo or key,
3. l\.{atcrial from another similar tune, (same mood. kc>', temJ>Ot rhythm, etc.)
4. If it's a show tune. an cxccrptfrom anothcr tune in tl!le s.ame show. ("Sum,ntrtime" mighl use a fragment of
••l.tAin't Necessarily so-.) Listento thc.Gil Evans• Miles Oa\•is ver,-lon()f'/tA/n·, Ncr:tssarily So.... which
us:,es the bridge of ,., Go, Plenty of Nuthin'" for an i.ntroduedon.
S. nie: material might oomc from a tune with the sam� words i.n the title, i.e.,"It Might As Well Be Spring."
m;g111 use the tide line from "Spri1ig Will Be A Little late Thi, Yenr. • or "Spring Con Really Ha,,g You
Up Tht Most." etc.
6. Some ri&uratioa or aecomp:u1.imen1 figure from lhe arrangement itself mighl sel'\te �s lntro<.h)Ctk,a.

1, A seclion of the tune might serve as an introduction as usually happens with chuJ'(h h)'nmS and p.-1triotic
tunes in which cJSc the last rour measures of the tune serves as an introduction. Often a writer will use the
bridge of a cotnj>OSition as an introduction.
8. Oft.en a writer will simply rch.armonize the melody or a section or the melody ud let that serve as an
intro<tuction. This technique is often combi)l(:d with rubato or the use ofa meter or tmi.po other than which
the a�ual temp, or meter ot the tune.
9. ••vamµs" m.ny aboscrve as introductions.. The .vamp is usually a chord panemexec11,ed O\'er a pedal point
The pedal i s uually the dominant or the tonic or the key. The number or chords is u$ually quile limited
(between twoar.d five). The chords may be dia,tonic chords from the key. chromall: chotds. mixtures or a
harmonized me· .odic fr-agment. The vamp ls uw:1ny quite rh)•thmic and is onen �,annonicauy striking,
I 0. lntrodll(tiont are d no $et ic·n&lh but traditionally they have been £our, eight or sixteen meuures long to tetnPo, meter. amount of tension desired, etc. The last chord or the irtroduction should lead
intothe fil'$t chord ol'tbc compo$ilion. In most instances this m(!rcly means thelastchord oftfw: introduction
will be a domi.nanuevenlh of'the key, but if the tune starts on a chord other than lht lonic, lhen use a V, ot
that chord.
Remember, the introduction should stimulate the interest ofthe listener.
lnterludes serve a number of purpmes. They pro\·ide oontrast: serve as a sprin,.bolrd for the new so10i$t;
allow for theintroduc.tion ornew material; serve as point clmodulation; and provide point:. (or chnnges oft excure,
mood, te.mPo, meter, etc.
Most of the ,ame source$ and m11eritls which are used for introduclians may also be used for interlude.'-.
Pauems built Ol the various tensiOn-producinc: scates(i.e.. the diminished sea.le) make nice material roe
interludes. Frasmen:s which were fonncrly background 1ni.terial often ¢an be 11tilited ro, lnteriud es.
Ending.! also draw Otl the $ sources and m.\terials a., introductions and interludes, However, material
must be introduced to s1ow the modon of a comp0sl1ion lf the ending is 10 be suoccssJul.
A ra1her effective if somewhat cUched technique is 10 use exacd>• the same ending as intrOduction.

Lima Bebe Samba !rom R.S. v:P. (Laurel Record LR-504) David Baker's 21st C,entury Bebop Band
Jto11ne .,.1arieAt thePicture Show from R.S. V.P. (Laurel Record LR-504) David Bo:ker's2I stCentury Bebop
Paf>oSpe from Strurrin' (Laurel Record LR�505) David Baker's 21st Century Bebop Band
/..()}fob from Struirirl.° (Laurel Reool'd LR.SOS) OilVid Baku's 21st Cen1ury Bebop B:t.nd
Another iechnk\uc is lhat ol repetition o( I.he final This mi.ght mean the mekdic or hannOflic phrase.
(example J)
Stretching the final phrase via a ta_g or a tum.back is also quite useful. There an a number or standard
tumbacks (see "tunbact" chapter) and t� which are virtually public domain. (example l)
Repetition of introdue1ory or inuTl'ude mate.rial can be most anuctive if used sparingly.
Abrupt endinp, (example 3), fadeaways (c:wnp1e 4), and s-pecial effects (�le 5) art also uscfuJ ir
used judicioutlY,
Back2rounds thou.Id be used sP&rinelY because they 1end to inhibtt the jan sdowt. The backJ!;round
instrumentation sMllk:I conuast the soloist(i.e., brass soloist vs. reed background or a \' thal is reed heavy).
Tbc backg:rc)\lnd shouJd not stay in lhe com.rortable register or the $0loist. If the s:>lo instrument and the
background instrument a,e in the same oom(ortable range, obtain conttast by using oc•er dcYiccs. (i.e., punch
backgrounds. muted unisons, wide open voicings, etc.) Variatt0n$ ofthe same bnck$found may be w:ed. A\'Oid
the exact repetition ,:,fan ides.
Before the ske1cb of tbe arrang,emcnt is, countermclodics or secondary mekdies must be dealt with.
In m051compositi00i, but pal"UC\l.larly i..icompositions where tonal resources and instl'll.Mntal forces are limited,
secondary melodics muse be classified and dispensed with. In general, mck>dies fall .nto two classes;
I. Maio mckldics
2. Subordinate melodies which include:
a. Bass parts
b. Countfflllelodies
c. Inside partS
d Accompaniment parts
c. Embenisltn&•t)'pe material

B,us paru should be <:arcfully written, intertsting to listen lo and play. A ,c.ounlcnnclody ls subordinate
only to the theme in impc)lUnOe. It does nOl usually have autonomy. I t should sound good with aJI olher
parU, contrast the main melody, be idiomatic for the imtrwnent to \\'hi<:h it is assign ed, and be sc:ored in su<:h a
way as to oot interfere with the rt'orward thrust o( the main mcJody.
In,idc parts.,, uNally rh:ythmi< and hannon� miller than molodic. They ,uppon the main melody.
A<:compani.mC-01 p.·ut.i imppon the m:1in melody a.nd are essentially rhylhmic rather than melodic.
Embellishing.type m,nerial mi&ht include rim, of the theme, and melodies based on the harmony
or rhythm of the tune.
In making the ac,tual sketch-don't forget-work foroontrast. Uthe melody is in uin&)e inmument. back it
up with harmony parts in tbe ocher instrument$, If the A section of o. tune is scored for brass. then score B for
woodwinds; ir A is loud make B soft. Al••Yl wo.-k for eon1r11SL
Every transition from one order to another-number of parts., type: of sco-ring. <:hange of mood, etc.,­
sbou1d coincide with the introduction of a new idea. theme or phrase.
Modulations for the s.ake of moduJstion should be avoided. The techn1quc of modulation in a jazz
composition of normal length i! so dichcd u to warrant avoidinrit e11c.irely. However, in pOp tunes and behind
vocalists. it still ean be used dfccrive1y.
One otber thing should b c altended to in order to make YQUr arrange.meat effective and exciting: the "shoul"
chonas. The"shout'' chorusi seit'.her the penultimate chorus or the 6.n.a.l chorus of an arrangement oroomp0sition.
1n comparison with the rest of the arrangement the "shout,. chorus is usually:
l. Louder
2. Much more active rhythmL<:ally.
l. HellVY on tutti ensemble writing.
4, The point of greatest arranged denshy, intensity and complexity.
S. Somewhere between a half chorus and two choruses loog,
6. Built on tune material or new material and often the melody. Of\cn the "shout" chorus
emphasizes some aspect of the harmony or rhythm oft.he composition.
The purposes ofthc '"shout'' chorus arc lO provide a written climax to the arrangement otthe theme and in
&eneral synthesii.t what has taken place in the arrangement (Study the arrangen,entS included in this book and
other ur-angemer'lts from other s-ources ror examples of"shout" chontSes.)
The Professional Arranger Compost, by Russ Carcia
Composing for 1ht Jau Orchcs1ra by William Russo
Soundt and S«>ra by Henry Mancini
Jan and CommtrdalArmntifl!I, Volume l· Block Wdting Ttchnfquts. Rhythm and Melody by Andrew
Charlton and John M. De Vries
Jazz and Comm�rcialArranglng. Volume II: Accompan.fntt'nl and Harmony by Andrew Charlton and John
M. Dt Vries
Usteo to recordings featuring arnn.t,ements by any good aminger-composcr.
I. Listen to and diag,am scveraJ arrangements rro,n the suggested listening. Make charts ofthe basic rormat.s
2. Write arrang.emcnts in all idioms observing lhc rules put ronh in 1hi.-s chapt- cr.
3. Experiment with different kinds of introductions, interludes and codin.&5 to the same compositiOI\.

Puttinq An Arronguntnt icgt.itltr

Es r }

1. 1if □ b· r 6J J I J , ,1 , - t�

Pmh. •

er' �aj I co
© WAHId El'ffliii bd:t an

F C-+---

"'-. � I


--·· .. "

� ; S«xll

-- v
., I'"
� C
., V

Chapter XIX


Vtry often thejaz, player wilJ fmd it advisablet o uu a different set ofcb on:lsthan lho6e suggested by • piece
ofsheet musi c Of a recording. Tbc:re un be many reasons for making such a decision. among them the following:
l.To relieve Cbc m()OO(.Ony of endless ttpetitions d the samt chord changes
2.To introd\Xc tension into an otherwise static siluation
3.To provide a better (sttooaer) bass line
4.To provide more challenging and inltrestin.g vertical structures oo which t o imp«wisc
5, To make a tune ea.tier or more difficult to play oa
6. To ctuutae the harmonic texture, ror example, simple to complex and vice vena
Sometimes the technique may involve nothing more than re,.interpreting the given c borch(asIn eumple A),
or ocmsoUdatlng changes (as in example- B). or some other timplc task.

Example A: is really

Cr Cr, c., C,("") Cr

EumpleB: wben consolldai.ed equals

Atether times the ttcbnique may involve a much more complex reordering lha.t may chanac the.entire thrustr:1a
set ol chords.
Noo•coate.dllll S11b1dtutlon1
Noa-ooottxwtl substiu.1tions are $Ubs:lilutions that seem lO work relatively indepe.Jdcntly orthe musical
context. Obviously, ii is DOt possible lO operate in a musical manner oonsidering the hannoNC
slJJTOllndingS to some degree.
Major Cbord1 (I): Noo•eootextual subslitutloa postlbRlHu

I c., CN,

J. for the ,:rajor clx>rd subSfflutc the
ruor ""en.ti! cbord • minor third
below the root dthe chord, u in the
foUowina eu�c

2. f'oc lbe major chotd tile
minor seventh chC:rrd • najor third
above the root dthe c.hcrd. as in tltc
i i
followio.g example;

3, For lbe major chord 9Jbstitu.t.e the

dommat1t w,cndi with• raisedeleventh
a petfeet (omt.b above the root of tbe
c:hord, as in the follow.•lng e:umpl«

4. ftor die m-,ior c:bon:I substilllle MY
other� chord

Minor Chords (U): No�contutual substftadoo possibilities

I. For tbe minor chord JGbuiMe �

dominant ,c�tb. the root d which •
wUI be a perfect fou,tll QO\'e the root
of the minor sevcnlh dior d, a, ia the
following e.umple:

l. for tht m.lftor chord substitute the

major chord a mi.nor third Above I.he
root of the chord, as in I.he folJowinJ

1 IU
3. For the ,nil)(lt cflorl subel:titute the
ball diminiihed sev� chord a minor
third below the root ol"itie dlord, •i. io
' n,..
! 3- ..

tbie- followins ex ample:

4. For Ille mioor chord Substitule lhe

other minorSC\'enth chords •·hkh baYc

their roots in the $&me dimini$bcd
chord ud Lhci.r acoomµnyins ruolu-­,u. n in the fdto,,.•i,g exlqllcs;
3 •
Om�. Fini,. Abm�.• ao4Bmi, all have
their roou lo Ilic $&1DC dil'l'linhhcd
chord; therefort, the following sub­ •
stitudoas lor Om� art pmible aocord­
in& to the prcccchng ru'e.

S. For lhc minor cbcri iubsliW1e the

diminishtd chord ordu S8tM Jlamc as
the- minor te-Yentb cbcrd iii que:sdon.,
as in ti-A rolkr,.1111 o:unptc (,-011 c:Al'.I
also u;e any d the in,,ef'Siont ot the
dimillisbcd chord):

6 . For the mi.nor diord .s.ubstil\lte u,y

OfMr min« sevtt1th type cbotd.
1. Por Ille mi.nor chOnl substitute any
domin-1Qt scvcntb type: chord.
8. For lbc m.iftor chord substitute any
dimllllisbed type ctiord.
9. For tbc mioor chord substitute a-ny
balf scvcd. chord (minor
tcveBtll with a Orit S).

Domlllat Seveath Chords (V,: Noo•coatextual 1ubltitutJoo posslbllides

I. For the dominant t&Wt:nth cbad

sub$tlt\l.te tbc miDOr seventh• perfect
�below lllerootofehccbord., uin
tbcc foOowift& eatq>lc:

l. F« the domkwt sevcMb dlcrd

tubflitu tc the n:uijo,c:�Ol"d •whofc st::p
below the root or the cbord, u in Che
fnl.ltvwiwlt flU�

), For the. dorain&M s,evcmh chord

w.bstitutc lhe half dimini died sevcllth
chord amajor thlrd abov• the rooc d
the chord, as 111 the folbwlfl& cumile:

4. For the domlwu sevel'llh chord
sobsd.Wtc tlie othe-1 dcd'linant avcllh
chords wttieh have their roou Jn I.he

,., (;]
ume dimini$h¢d cbord aod their
IOOOC'llp&n.yin:g minor scvcntll chor:la.
u in the ro11ow1tia examples:
o,. Bt>,, Db.,, ud B., au baYC lbeir
roots in tlle same dli:iirlishcd chcrd; G,
therelort,. Ille toUowUlg sobstitutilos
for O, are ponible accordillg to :be
prc,ccdirt1 rut.e.
if •

., . .,,
1 ,1 e.,

S. For the doll'li.Nlna uvffltb cblfd
substiN«: the diimni:slicd chord amajor �
third abcM the rootd lhe cbord, tu In G, G,
the ro1towir11 cumple (you. cu tbo
vu any of lM lt!Vf:rsJoru: of tbt
diminished chord):

6. For lbe dominant sevcctti dlxd

subwwtc IIQY (l(ber c9om-irunt sevo:ath

1. Far the domb:wlt seventh cbotd

rubttltute any mltlor •�ct1lb. chotd.

8. Fos tlle dom.Loat1t HVCtlth choni

al:l\,tliblte a.ny dlmil'lisbcd uvcnth

9. For the dominant seventh cb::ird

substitute uiy Mlfdiminhhcd KVClltb
cbonl (mioor t¢"eatb 'l'it.b a flat!).

Coate:&tul Sabttltutlons
Contextual substitutions are substitutionswhich work only Inspecific con1em. In conte.ttualsubstitutions
• liteor similar chord progression i.s presupposed if oneis to use the s1.1Wtitutions given in the examples which
follow. Additiooal oam_pln d contextual substitutions can be found in chapter XX, The Blue� in the chart
entitled "Blues Sub$C.i1ution CM.rt.,.

1'mi 7 G7 A,
IDmi1 e, IE"'mi N'i •
£mi, F*rni 7

t-m, A, £1111;, It:, Fdod7 e, Amit I

® 1:::: 1:::: I jj,: I :: I (any 1umback is permilltd)

Thebottom line ofe.x.amptc #2 is a set or cf\ang,cs kDown as the Colt..rane ch a�s. As"° be �adily disccmed we
can use these ch.anges over a IVV/1 proa,c.ssion lhat c:ovus four measures, as in the following ex.ample:


Notethatthc second chord(on beat three) ofuch measure iu dominams�enth which resolvesto a majorchord
on but Ot'le or measures 2. 3. &lid 4.
Example #3 is a Illustrating a matrix which J evolved And developed based oo theColtrane ch.anges.

Variou$ chonb can be altered in the chart. as io the following example:

t$ e; c(itll)
•' •, I.

, ,.
Abp G7f<l


I, ,
•I•I t
'• I• •' I

.NJy chord in a.oy column can be 5Ubstiwtcd for any other chord in the same vertical column. as in the
followinJ �xarn,pk

p e ot>,

c. F •E

for mu:imwn variety memorit.e I.his eban. with its combinalOrial possibilities (which are astronomical!),
such as io the followi..oa example:

Dmi, - 0, or F or Bb (set sub&titutioos ror tbe minor 1th chord)

G, = Gt'> or 0 7
:: or 07 !: Or G1 :l
c-Anu or Af orGb

Tht Lydian Chromatic Cotfctpt q/T()nal Organ.fz.ati()tt. pages 44-$0, by George Russell
Tht Proltssionol Arranger Composer by Ruts Garcia
Jazz: An ln1roductif11 tolls Musi' Basis (chapter I) by Avril Dank.worth
Tttlini'ques q/Twtnlieth Ctnt11ry Composition (chapter l I) by Leon Dallin
Jou /mpro..isation b)' David Baku
Advanced Jmpro'fisaion by David Balcer
n, Schillinger Symm ofMusical Composition, Volumt I ond II by Joseph SchiJlioger
Tw,m(fth Ctntury Music ldloms by G. Welton Marquis
CompoJlng/<>r rht h:z by William Russo
lmpro-Pising Jou by Jerry Coker
77r.e C4mplttt Method for Jmproviso.tion by Jerry Coker
l. Know the rea.soas for using chord substitutions.
2. Know the principle cl chord substitution.
3. Write substitutions for any ten $tandards.
4. Expla_ln and exemplify con1e,ctuaJ sub$titution.

Chapter XX


The tenn ..blues'' means to most jazz men a twclv, measure structure of predetcnnined fonn. This form
l.1$Ulllly contains these basic chords arranied in this order.

1, rv, v, IV,
1-4--i 1-2-1 Ill/ /Ill
lbls basic fonn is and has beco used in one of its modificatiOJU by vircually every jau man, rhythm & blues
player, nx:k and roll. and country music play« since before jazz be gan. Blues still comprises a large part of the
modcmjan player's repertoire� It is an sbsotute necessity that thejazz writer be comfortable with the basic bl1.1es
changes and its myriad variations.
Because of the unique nature of blues, this form dcmlllds special attention. There arc a number ofvoicings,
patterns, sc:a.les, cliches, etc., that are necessary tools fer all writers.
One o f t h t most popular blues voicinas ofrnodem vritert folJows: (example I) It's a voicins that can be
heard in the playing pianistsand oft.he writio5of such diversccomposcr.iarrangcrS as Quincy Jones.
Gil Evans, George Russell and George Gershwin.
Wbt.n using lhesc voieine,, a thorough knowledge of the btucs sc.ale is mandatory if ooe is to handle
•ccomS)fiJlying melodies, interlude material, etc. (Rerc-r to Chapter X.) Many times entire melody lines can be
scorod using just the blues voicing. (Interlude from "Tie Professor" follows.) (example 2)
The writer for reasons of varlet)' or oeeessit)'(melcxlie) might deem it advisable onoccasioo to more rigidly
strucwre or restrucru re the blues. The fim step in the restruc; m{aht be the cha.nee 1o the TI V1 progression in
measures rune Md te:n rather than the V to IV chord. t-bw the player should use all oflhe knowledge he has
concerning D V7 progressions, TilC next $lep toward resiruc:1uring might take place in lhe ele,..colh and twelfth
meal\lreS with the inclu.s:ion of some fonn or 1umback, le.• I "nt "VJ "V. etc. (c,a:.ample 3)
,.-or ditt'erent hannoruc approaches to the blues. see fie Chart on pages l .) J • I':il, t'ord1tlerent material to be
used in re&liiina the blue$ changes consult/mpro11isaritnol P4ut.rns: Tht Bluts by David Baker.
Dot Dtrt ................. Bobby Timmons
Dis Heali .... ••••.••••. ,..... ., , ., •••• Bobby Timmons
!>own Home ..............•, ... , , , ., ...., , Curtis full-er
In Walked Horace .., ... , . . ....... ... ..... J . J. Johnson
Mercy Mercy Mercy ....................... Joe Zawinul
Polittly, .........•....................... Bill Hardman
So,k O' Wo, ...................... Cannonball Adderley
Sister Sodie . •. ... . ...... . . Horace Silver
Sonnym(J()n for Two . ... • .. .....•• .•• • •. .. Sonny Rollim;
Work Song ........•.......•.• ,.,,,,,,,,, Nat Adderley
Rhythm & blues tunes, while not aJways blue.s, embace the spirit and geoeral (ec1ing norma)Jy '-=onnccted
with the blues. Most of these tunes have 11ome bask: poin11of agrccmcnt that set them apart from tunes of aoother
et01c. Some commoo points arc:
I. Ostinato t>a,i;s: line. (example 4)
2. Generally relatively uncomplicated chanies. (cximplc S)
3. fu'censive use or che blues scale. (e,wmplc 6)
4. Short riffs. meloctic background patterns. (example 7)
5. Rhythmic priori{)' with melody and hannooy beccxningsecQndary considerations , (T14'0 and three levels of
rhythmic activity.) (example 8)
6. onen vamps arc interspersed. (uample 9 )
7. Very stylii.ed. Us-ullly adheres to one of the dance types C-WTent or olhcrwise. (i..e.• Boo&aloo, Funky
Ch.icten, Yoke, Twist, Popcorn, Four Comets, etc.) (example 10)
8. AJthough the music is oftco perceived as listening music it is always conceived as •· gcbtauchsmwil(."
9. Althou&,h the twles wiU ha\•c difforent names all ortJ.e co1npooitions ofthe same genrc(boogaloo . twist, e1c.)
wut have the same ,sic rhythm pattern ( a.t least in ba$$ Md drums).

I 0. More often than not the electric bass is a part ofthc: instrumental combination because ol hs (aci[ty and
volume capabilities.
l 1, Often the climax U>Such tunes ts achie,·cdtbrough I.he accumulationo(sbOrt riff patterns stacked one on the
O<her. (example 11)


Any -ecording by James Brown
Any 'Jf the Atlantic recordings ofAretha Frantlin
Virtually any recording by Cannonball Adderley, Horace Silver, Jimmy Smith et al
I. Listen to arrangements of blues or all types.
2. Write arrangements of several blues in tbe jau idiQtn for differe-nt combinations of instruments.. Also, try some of the substitute <:ban&u listed.
3. Write some arrang�nts in the rhythm & blues idiom.

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Chapter XXI



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