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(Present Tenses)

Present Simple Tense

It is used to express an acion in present time, habitual or usual actions


or daily event or universal fact. It is used to express an action in
present time which is usually done on a regular basis. For example a
student says, "I go to school". It is a daily activity of a student to go
to school, so such actions are axpressed by present simple tense. Another
example is, "I work in a factory". It tells about a usual action of a
person that he works in a factory on regular basis.

Structure of Sentences

Positive or Affirmative Sentence:

* Subject + 1st form of verb + object.

Note: If the subject in a sentence is "He, She, It, Singular or Proper


name" then "S" or "es" is added to the firs form of verb in the sentence.

Examples:

I write a letter.
He gets up early in the morning.
Sun rises in east.

Negative Sentence:

* Subject + do not / does not + 1st form of verb + object.

Note: In negative sentence auxiliary verb "do or does" along with "not"
is used. If the subject in a sentence is "He, she, it, singular or proper
name", then "does not" is used after subject in sentence. If subject is
"I, we, you, they or plural" then "do not" is used after subject in
sentence. "S" or "es" is not added to main verb in negative sentence.

Examples:

I do not write a letter.


He does not get up early in the morning.
Sun does not rise in east.

Interrogative Sentence:

* Do / Does + Subject + 1st form of verb + object?

Note: If the subject in a sentence is "He, she, it, singular or proper


noun" the sentence is started with auxiliary verb "Does". If the subject
in a sentence is "I, we, you, they or plural" the sentence is started
with auxiliary verb "Do". "S" or "es" is not added to main verb in
interrogative sentence.

Examples:

Do I write a letter?
Does he get up early in the morning?
Does sun rise in east?
Present Continuous Tense

It is used to express a continued or ongoing action at present time. It


expresses an action which is in progress at the time of speaking. For
example, a person says, " I am writing a letter". It means that he is in
the process of writing a letter right now. Present continuous tense is
also called Present Progressive Tense.

Rules: Auxiliary verb "is, am or are" is used in sentence. First form of


verb or base verb + ing (Present Participle) is used as main verb in
sentence.

Structure of Sentences

Positive or Affirmative Sentence:

* Subject + is / am / are + 1st form of verb + ing + object.

Note: If the subject is "I" then auxiliary verb "am" is used after
subject in sentence. If the subject is "He, she, It, singular or proper
name" then auxiliary verb "is" is used after subject in sentence, If
subject is "You, we, they or plural" then auxiliary verb "are" is used
after subject in sentence. The Participle "ing" is added to the 1st form
of verb, i.e. going (go), writing (write).

Examples:

I am playing cricket.
They are reading their lessons.

Negative Sentence:

* Subject + is / am / are + not + 1st form of verb + ing + object.

Examples:

I am not playing cricket.


He is not driving a car.
They are not reading their lessons.

Interrogative Sentence:

* Is / Am / Are + Subject + 1st form of verb + ing + object?

Note: For making interrogative sentence, the sentence is started with


auxiliary verb rather than putting auxiliary verb inside the sentence. If
the subject is "I" the sentence starts with auxiliary verb "am". If the
subject is "He, she, it, singular or proper name" the sentence starts
with auxiliary verb "is". If subject is "You, we, they or plural" the
sentence starts with auxiliary verb "are".

Examples:

Am I playing cricket?
Is he driving a car?
Are they reading their lessons?

Present Perfect Tense


It is used to express an action which happened or completed in past but
usually the action which happened or completed at a short time before now
(near past) not a very long time before now. Specific time such as two
years ago, last week or that day is usually not used in the sentences of
in this tense. It means that this tense expresses the action whose time
when it happened, is not exactly specified but it sounds to refer to some
action that happened or completed in near past.

Rules: Auxiliary verb "has or have" is used in sentence. 3rd form of verb
(Past Participle) is used as main verb in sentence.

Structure of Sentences

Positive or Affirmative Sentence:

* Subject + has / have + 3rd form of verb + object.

Note: If the subject is "He, she, it, singular or proper name" then
auxiliary verb "has" is used after subject in sentence. If subject is
"You, we, they or plural" then auxiliary verb "have" is used after
subject in sentence.

Examples:

I have eaten meal.


She has learnt a lesson.

Negative Sentence:

* Subject + has / have + not + 3rd form of verb + object.

Examples:

I have not eaten meal.


She has not learnt a lesson.

Interrogative Sentence:

* Has / Have + Subject + 3rd form of verb + object?

Note: Interrogative sentence starts with auxiliary verb. If the subject


is "He, she, it, singular or proper name" then the sentence starts with
auxilary verb "Has". If subject is "You, we, they or plural" then the
sentence starts with auxiliary verb "have".

Examples:

Have I eaten meal?


Has she learnt a lesson?

Present Perfect Continuous Tense

It is used to express a continued or ongoing action that started in past


and is continued until now. There will be a time reference, such as
"since 1980, for three hours etc" from which the action has been started.
A sense of time reference is found in these sentences which gives an idea
that action has been continued from some time in past till now. Such time
reference or sense of time reference is the identity of present perfect
continuous tense because it tells that action has started from a
particular time in past. For example, "He has been reading in this school
since 2005", so it means that he started his education in this school in
2005 and he is studing in this school till now.

Note: If the time reference is exactly known such as 1995, 4 O'clock then
"since" is used before the time in sentence. If the time reference is not
exactly known such as three hours, six years, for days, then "for" is
used before the time in sentence. Time reference such as 3 hours or 5
days is not exactly known because we don't know that about which three
hours a day is told in sentence or about which 5 days in a month is told
in sentence. While the 1995 is exactly known time.

Structure of Sentences

Positive or Affirmative Sentence:

* Subject + has been / have been + 1st form of verb + ing + object + time
reference "since or for".

Note: If the subject is "He, she, it, singular or proper name" then
auxiliary verb "has been" is used after subject in sentence. If subject
is "I, you, we, they or plural" then auxiliary verb "have been" is used
after subject in sentence.

Examples:

He has been watering the plants for two hours.


I have been studying since 3 O'clock.

Negative Sentence:

* Subject + has not been / have not been + 1st form of verb + ing +
Object + time reference "since or for".

Examples:

He has not been watering the plants for two hours.


I have not been studying since 3 O'clock.

Interrogative Sentence

* Has / Have + Subject + been + 1st form of verb + ing + object + time
reference "since or for" ?

Note: Interrogative sentence starts with auxiliary verb "Has or Have". If


the subject is "He, she, it, singular or proper name" then the sentence
starts with auxiliary verb "Has" and auxiliary verb "been" is used after
subject. If subject is "I, we, you, they or plural" then the sentence
starts with auxiliary verb "Have" and "been" is used after subject.

Examples:

Has he been watering the plants for two hours?


Have I been studying since 3 O'clock?

Compiled by Badar Muneer (Shining Moon) Nazimabad Karachi Pakistan.

(Past Tenses)
PAST SIMPLE TENSE

It is used to express an action that happened or completed in past.

Structure of sentences

Positive or Affirmative sentence:

* Subject + 2nd form of verb + object.

Examples:

I killed a snake.
He ate a mango.

Negative sentence:

* Subject + did not + 1st form of verb + object.

Examples:

I did not kill a snake.


He did not eat a mango.

Interrogative sentence:

* Did + Subject + 1st form of verb + object + ?

Examples:

Did I kill a snake?


Did he eat a mango?

(Past Continuous Tense)

It is used to express a continued or ongoing action in past, an ongoing


action which occurred in past and completed at some point in past. Past
continuous tense is also called past progressive.

Sturcture of Sentences

Positive or Affirmative sentence:

* Subject + was/were + 1st form of verb + ing + object.

Examples:

She was crying yesterday.


They were climbing on a hill.

Negative Sentence:

* Subject + was/were + not + 1st form of verb + ing + object.

Examples:

She was not crying yesterday.


They were not climbing on a hill.
Interrogative sentence:

* Was/Were + subject + 1st form of verb + ing + object + ?

Examples:

Was she crying yesterday?


Were they climbing on a hill?

Note: The interrogative sentence starts with the auxiliary verb if the
subject is "He, she, it, I, Singular or proper noun" then the sentence
starts with helping or auxiliary verb "Was". If Subject is "You, we, they
or plural" then the sentence starts with helping verb "Were".

(Past Perfect Tense)

It is used to express an action which has occurred in past (usually, a


long time ago) and action occurred in past before another action in past.

For example:
I had lived in Pakistan. (The sence of time in this sentence refers to a
completed action in past and especially a long time ago).

The students had gone before the teacher came. (The first part of
sentence "The students had gone" is sentence of past perfect tense, it
says about an action which occurred before another action in past which
is "the teacher came". The second part "the teacher came" is sentence of
past simple tense. So such a sentence which express an action in past
before another action in past comprises two parts where the first part of
sentence is past perfect tense).

Structure of Sentences

Positive or Affirmative Sentence:

* Subject + had + 3rd form of verb + object.

Examples:

He had taken the exam last year.


A thief has stolen my watch.

Negative Sentence:

* Subject + had + not + 3rd form of verb + object.

Examples:

He had not taken the exam last year.


A thief had not stolen my watch.

Interrogative Sentence:

* Had + Subject + 3rd form of verb + object + ?

Examples:
Had he taken the exam last year?
Had a thief stolen my watch?

(Past Perfect Continuous Tense)

It is used to express a continued or ongoing action that started in past


and continued until sometime in past. (Remember, an ongoing action in
past which continued till sometime in past) There will be a time
reference, Such as "since 1980, for three hours etc" from which the
action had started.
Rules: An auxiliary or helping verb "had been" is used in sentence. 1st
form of verb + ing is used as main verb in sentence. "since" or "for" is
used before the "time reference" in sentence. If the time reference is
exacctly known such as 1995, 4 O'clock then "since" is used before the
time in sentence. If the time reference is not exactly known such as
three hours, six years, for days, then "for" is used before the time in
sentence. Time reference such as 3 hours or 5 days is not exactly known
because we don't konw that about which three hours a day is told in
sentence or about which 5 days in a month is told in sentence. While the
1995 is exactly known time.

Structure of Sentences

Positive or Affirmative Sentence:

* Subject + had been + 1st form of verb + ing + object + time reference
"since or for"

Examples:

I had been waiting for him for an hour.


She had been playing chess since 7 O'clock.

Negative Sentence:

* Subject + had not been + 1st form of verb + ing + object + time
reference "since or for"

Examples:

I had not been waiting for him for an hour.


She had not been playing chess since 7 O'clock.

Interrogative Sentence:

* Had + subject + been + 1st form of verb + ing + object + time reference
"since or for" + ?

Examples:

Had I been waiting for him for an hour?


Had she been playing chess since 7 O'clock?

Compiled by Badar Muneer (Shining Moon) Nazimabad Karachi Pakistan.

(Future Tenses)
Future Simple Tense

It is used to express an action which has not occured yet and will occur
after saying or in future. For example, "I will go to zoo tomorrow", in
this sentence the person intends for tomorrow's visit to zoo. In short ,
these sentences express actions which will be done in future.

Rules: Auxiliary verb "will" is used in sentence. 1st form of verb or


base form is used as main verb in sentence.

Structure of Sentences

Positive or Affirmative Sentence:

* Subject + will + 1st form of verb + object.

Examples:

I will buy a computer tomorrow.


They will come here.

Negative Sentence:

* Subject + will + not + 1st form of verb + object.

Examples:

I will not buy a computer tomorrow.


They will not come here.

Interrogative Sentence:

* Will + Subject + 1st form of verb + object?

Examples:

Will I buy a computer tomorrow?


Will they come here?

Future Continuous Tense

It is used to express a continued or an ongoing action in future. For


example, "I will be waiting for you tomorrow", it conveys ongoing nature
of an action (waiting) which will occur in future.

Rules: Auxiliary verb "will be" is used in sentence 1st form of verb +
ing (Present Participle) is used as main verb in sentence.

Structures of Sentences

Positive or Affirmative Sentence:

* Subject + will be + 1st form of verb + ing + object.

Examples:

I will be waiting for you.


You will be feeling well tomorrow.
Negative Sentence:

* Subject + will not be + 1st form of verb + ing + object.

Examples:

I will not be waiting for you.


You will not be feeling well tomorrow.

Interrogative Sentence:

* Will + Subject + be + 1st form of verb + ing + object?

Examples:

Will I be waiting for you?


Will you be feeling well tomorrow?

Future Perfect Tense

It is used to express an action which will occur in future and is thought


to be completed in future. For example, "Abdulrab will have gone
tomorrow". It shows a sense of completion of an action (go) which will
occur in future (tomorrow).

Rules: Auxiliary verb "will have" is used in sentence. 3rd form of verb
is used as main verb in sentence.

Structure of Sentences

Positive or Affirmative Sentence:

* Subject + will have + 3rd form of verb + object.

Examples:

She will have finished the work on Wednesday.


You will have started the job.

Negative Sentence:

* Subject + will not have + 3rd form of verb + object.

Examples:

She will not have finished the work on Wednesday.


You will not have started the job.

Interrogative Sentence:

* Will + Subject + have + 3rd form of verb + object?

Examples:

Will she have finished the work on Wednesday?


Will you have started the job?

Future Perfect Continuous Tense


It is used to express a continued or ongoing action that will start in
future and is thought to be continued till sometime in future. There will
be a time reference such as "Since 2018, for three hours" from which the
action will start in future and will continue. A sense of time reference
is found which gives an idea that action will start at sometime such time
reference or sense of time reference is the identity of future perfect
continuous tense because it tells that action will start at a particular
time in future. For example, "He will have been studying in this school
since 2019", so the it means that he will start studying in this school
in 2019 and will study in this school till sometimes in future.

Rules: An auxiliary verb "will have been" is used in sentence. 1st form
of verb + ing is used as main verb in sentence. "since" or "for" is used
before the "time reference" in sentence. If the time reference is exactly
known such as 2018, 4 O'clock then "since" is used before the time in
sentence. If the time reference is not exactly known such as three hours,
six years, four days, then "for" is used before the time in sentence.

Structure of Sentences

Positive or Affirmative Sentence:

* Subject + will have been + 1st form of verb + ing + object + time
reference "since or for".

Examples:

I will have been waiting for him for an hour.


She will have been playing football since 2020.

Negative Sentence:

* Subject + will not have been + 1st form of verb + ing + object + time
reference "since or for".

Examples:

I will not have been waiting for him for an hour.


She will not have been playing football since 2020.

Interrogative Sentence:

* Will + Subject + have been + 1st form of verb + ing + object + time
reference "since or for"?

Examples:

Will I have been waiting for him for an hour?


Will she have been playing football since 2020?

Compiled by Badar Muneer (Shining Moon) Nazimabad Karachi Pakistan