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N. ear Mermin Senertain poate _ Selence IE e es Oe E OX EOD) a ry ry ry cS @ ra © more information —www.cambridge.org/9780521876582 CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, $i Paulo Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York www.cambridge.org Tnfermation on this til ‘ww cambrid ge-org/97805218 76502 © N, D. Mermin 2007 ‘This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements ho reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press First published 2007 Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge A catalog record for this publication is avaiable from the British Library ISBN 978.0-521-87658-2 hardback Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence ar accuracy of URLs for extemal or thitd- party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any‘ content an such websites is, orwill remain, accurate oF appropriate. Contents Preface A note on references 1 Cbits and Qbits “What isa quaniuns computer? “Chits and their states Reversible operations on Chits Manipulating aperations on Cbits Qbits and their states Reversible operations on Qhits Circuit diagrams Measurement gates and the Born rule “The generalized Born rule (0. Measurement gates and state preparation 1 Constructing arbitrary 1- and 2-Qbit states 12. Summary: Qhits versus Cbits 1 12 13 1d Ls. 16 17 18 19 1 1 1 2 General features and some simple examples 2.1 "The general computational process 2.2 Deutsch’s problem 2.3 Why additional Qhits needn't mess things up 2.4. ‘The Bemstein-Vazirani problem 2.5. Simon's problem 2.6 Constructing Toffoti gates 3 Breaking RSA encryption 3.1 Period finding, factoring, and cryptography Number-thearetie preliminaries RSA encryption Quantum period finding: preliminary remarks 3.5 ‘The quantum Fourier transform 3.6. Eliminating the 2-Cbit gates nding the period 3.8 Calculating the periodic function 3.9 The unimportance of small phase errors 3.10 Period finding and factoring 4 Searching with a quantum computer 4.1 The nature of the search 4.2. ‘The Grover iteration 43 How to constructW 44 Generalization to several special numbers 4.5 Searching for one out of four items 5 Quantum error correction 5.1. ‘The miracle of quantum eror coreetion 5.2 A simplified example 5.3. ‘The physics of error generation 5.4 Diagnosing error syndromes Copyrighted material