Está en la página 1de 37


MMB 414

OFFICE: 247/475

Management styles

responsibilities and tasks
Delegation Process
Management Styles

 A management style is a term that refers to the

nature of the relationship between managers and
non-managerial employees.

 There are many different management styles.

 Mazda has identified seven management styles:

Administrators, Time servers, Climbers, Generals,
Supporters, Nice Guys and Bosses. [Homework 1]

 The different styles arise because of the difference in

the personality of the managers concerned.
Management Styles
 Experienced managers have learned to vary their style
to suit the situation.

 It is, however, difficult to adopt a style that is

diametrically opposite to one's own personality. Why?

 Different management styles would be required to

handle different situations, e.g. the means of dealing
with a disciplinary matter will differ from that used in
problem-solving activities.

 Management style required for routine day to day

activities is also said to differ from the one needed for
project management and design activities.
Management Responsibilities and Tasks

Adapted from Mazda (1998, pg. 22)

Management Responsibilities and Tasks
 1. Responsibility to shareholders
 Return on their investments in terms of dividends.

 2. Responsibilities to employees
 Rewards for their labour.
 Good working conditions (health and safety).
 Job that meets career aspirations.

 3. Responsibility to customers
 Receive the goods they need at the right place at the right time
 Both internal and external customers. Internal customers rely
on the manager and his team to provide a product or service to
which they can add value enroute to the customer (value
chain). See diagram below for internal customers.
Management Responsibilities and Tasks
 4. Responsibilities to suppliers
 In time information.
 Prompt payment on goods delivered.

 5. Responsibilities to the community

 Sustainable Development.
 Sustainable and maintained employment.
Management Responsibilities and Tasks
 Management Tasks:

 Management tasks are many and varied, but they can

be for simplicity grouped together as planning,
organizing, integrating and monitoring.

 Planning:
 Define long term goals, objectives and policies (strategy).
 Corporate goals are later broken down up to individual
goals as shown in the diagram below.
 Establishment of processes and setting of performance
standards to be used in the measuring stage.
 Budgets, covering expenses, capital and human resources
are determined here.
Management Responsibilities and Tasks
The formulation of a plan

Adapted from Mazda (1998, pg. 25)

Management Responsibilities and Tasks
 Budgets, covering expenses, capital and human resources are
determined here.
 The business need for change and the process of change is
discussed here and continually evaluated as circumstances

 Organizing:
 Prime activity here splitting work into manageable tasks.
 Allocation of tasks to groups and or individuals.
 Ensuring tasks are coordinated and there is no duplication of
activities by sanctioning of the work.
 Recruitment and training of people to carry out the set tasks
is also done here.
 Customer needs should be thoroughly understood and
continuously communicated to the teams delivering the job.
 Effective delegation should be practiced since the manger
cannot do everything.
Management Responsibilities and Tasks

 Integrating:
 Phase that takes the longest time since this is where the
plan of action is carried out.
 Multiple decisions needs to be taken within very short
periods of time with little time to think the decisions
 It is important here for managers to be able to see and
know the whole picture in order not to take wrong
decisions (needs to separate wood from trees).
 Longer the time decisions can be left to be made the better,
but too long delays missed opportunities arise and problem
gets worse.
 Should act as acknowledged leaders of their groups and
provide direction.
 Good communication skills are very important in this
stage, with facts following up and down the group, also
Management Responsibilities and Tasks
 being able to filter information so as to avoid
misunderstandings to the group.
 Dispute management skills will also be very important
 The manager should also ensure that the team can see and
is focused on the eventual goals that are meant to be

 Measuring:

 Measures should be taken continuously on the project not

only towards the end of the project to check if costs are
according to plan.
 Several items needs to be measured and controlled during
the project such as:
Management Responsibilities and Tasks
 Salaries, expenses and capital.
 Availability of skills and specialized equipment.
 Project progress in terms of milestones and deliverables.
 The quality of the product being produced.

 Methods for taking measures are many and these could

 Formal weekly charts, to show progress against set agreed
 Management by Walking About (MWA) to see first hand what is
going on.

 Some common mistakes that are commonly made during

the measuring phase include:
 Measures are put in place but not fully understood and
accepted by employees and line managers.
Management Responsibilities and Tasks

 Productivity is poor at very low levels of

supervision (A), since the tasks are not then clearly
defined and some minimum guidance is needed .
Management Responsibilities and Tasks
Management Responsibilities and constraints

Adapted from Mazda (1998, pg. 21)

Management Responsibilities and Tasks
Management Responsibilities and constraints

 Competitors:
 Loss of market share and revenues

 Government:
 Direct constraint..? (Health and safety; taxes on
profits; prevention of monopolistic behaviour)
 Indirect constraint..? (government action which
can affect exchange rates and international
 Natural Environment:
 Acts of God..?
 Fire that can close down the factory
 Snow disrupts logistics
 Opportunities can also arise from the natural

 Labour Market:
 Shortage of skilled labour
Management Responsibilities and Tasks
Management Responsibilities and constraints

 Pressure Groups/Environmental Groups/Trade

and User:
 Environmental management systems (e.g. ISO

 Creditors
 Need for short term returns on their lendings
and high interest rates.
Delegation Process
 Delegation: True delegation involves where
subordinates are given a high level of autonomy to
act as they think best, to achieve the results agreed
with the leader. Monitoring of the activity by the
leader would normally occur at agreed points only,
unless the subordinate requested help from the
leader earlier.

 It does not mean when a task is allocated to a

subordinate but the manager retains responsibility
and requires frequent interaction with the
subordinate as the task progresses. Where the
subordinate has less freedom to act, needing to agree
the method of tackling the job with the leader.

 How to Delegate?

 What tasks; to who, and to what level?

Delegation Process
What delegation level…?

 1. Leaders instruct subordinates to do the task, but

to check with them before taking any decisions. This
is not really delegation but task allocation.

 2. Leaders instruct subordinates to do the task and

to keep them fully informed.

 3. Leaders request subordinates to carry out the

task, holding weekly reviews with them.

 4. Leaders delegate the task and say 'let me know if I

can help.'

 5. Leaders abdicate the task by saying: 'Here you are;

do this and let me know when finished.'
Delegation Process
Which tasks and subordinates?

 Tasks that can be clearly defined together with their

expected results and outcomes are the candidates for

 Subordinates who will receive these tasks should be analyzed,

to determine whether they require any special training or

 The content and expected results of the delegated task should

be agreed with the subordinate and also the delegation process
and level to be used.

 Trust should then be exercised on the subordinate to deliver,

no micro management, depending on the level agreed.

 If the subordinate achieves the results then provide reward,

such as praise, promotion, bonus or a bigger assignment.
Delegation Process
What managers should know and do during delegation:

 1. Giving to subordinates some of their own responsibility,

usually for specific tasks and relevant decisions.

 2. Give subordinates sufficient authority to match the

responsibility which has been delegated, to help them achieve
the agreed targets, though some boundaries may be set (e.g.
spending expenditures).

 3. Ensure that subordinates accept accountability for success

or failure of the delegated task, although leaders carry the
ultimate responsibility to the organization for all activities
under them.

 4. Be available to help with advice if called on by subordinates.

It is important to appreciate that they have not abdicated their
responsibility, but only delegated it.

Mazda’s seven management styles

 Administrators:

i. Look to company rules and regulations for solving all


ii. They live 'by the book' and are usually very good employees.

iii. They show total loyalty to the organization and have

probably been with the company for many years.

iv. Administrators are very formal in their approach and

work with strict lines of demarcation between departments
and functions.

v. They are usually not very good communicators, using the

official company channels for all communications, which
are often limited to one level upwards and downwards.
vi. They protect their department and status and look
after their staff.

vii. They are not good at resolving conflict, looking to

company rules for resolving these.

viii. Administrators expect everything to be black and

white, and for practical situations to match theory;
they are at a loss when this does not happen.

ix. They are very logical and practical and have good
planning skills.

x. In spite of their rather mechanistic approach they are

generally respected by their staff, and by peers,
for their organizational loyalty and knowledge.
 Time servers:

i. Are generally older managers who have lost interest in

their job and environment, and are marking time until
retirement or moving to another job.

ii. They take all necessary action to avoid stress, and

maintain a low profile within the company.

iii. Their low personal motivation is reflected in the people

who report to them.

iv. Conflict at all levels is avoided at any cost.

v. Although these managers are not generally lazy, their

low motivation means that they do the minimum
amount of work needed to hold down a job.
vi. Decisions are avoided since they could lead to
mistakes. Personal status is very important to them.

vii. They usually have good management experience, and

if motivated can become a very valuable asset to the

viii. They often consider themselves to be 'father or

mother figures'. They understand people and can
build an effective team if they try.

ix. They recognize achievements in others and are ready

to acknowledge them.
 Climbers:

i. These managers are driven by extreme personal

ambition and will sacrifice everything, including self
and family, to get to the top of the corporate ladder.

ii. They want to achieve and to be seen to have

achieved, especially by those in a superior position.

iii. Will pursue personal advancement by fair means or


iv. However, they become demotivated if this does not

show quick results, and this can eventually lead to

v. Personal knowledge is very important to them, as a

means for advancement, and they will learn from
their staff, pushing themselves at their staff's
expense, if it suits them.

vi. They look after those reporting to them, knowing that

they are measured on the output from their

vii. Self interests come before those of the

organization, and peers will be fought in order to
gain an advantage and to build an empire.

viii. Status is important, but only as a sign of seniority.

 Generals:

i. Are usually younger persons who exhibits lots of


ii. The General likes to rule and manipulate power, but is

achievement oriented: power is used to get tasks done.

iii. Generals work extremely hard, driving themselves and

those under them.

iv. Generals are sociable and mix well at all levels.

v. They usually get their way with peers by overwhelming

them, although peers can resent this if it is done too
vi. Status is important to Generals, but for the luxury
associated with it, not as a symbol of seniority.

vii. They are strong-willed individuals, often with the

same characteristics as a self-made entrepreneur.

viii. Usually they are optimistic about the future,

sometimes wrongly.
 Supporters:

i. Maintain a balanced view about the world, the

organization, subordinates and themselves.

ii. They are usually experienced managers who are

knowledgeable in management techniques and apply
them where they can.

iii. Supporters work through people in achieving their


iv. They are good at delegation and develop their

subordinates by giving them responsibility.
v. The people working under them are highly motivated.

vi. Their personal technical knowledge is usually

lacking, but this is compensated for by the support
they themselves receive from the specialists within
their department.

vii. Supporters are good facilitators and very good at

managing change.

viii. They recognize achievement and reward it.

ix. They are deep thinkers and have excellent

imagination. Often this can lead to a clash between
the goals of the organization and what they believe to
be right.

x. They are good compromisers and exhibit

effective intuition.

xi. They are flexible but very persistent in carrying

out tasks which they believe need to be done.

xii. They can handle stress.

xiii.They tend to be loners and do not mix well with

peers. This means that they can often miss out
on information from the grapevine, so that they
are not always well briefed on organizational
 Nice guys:
i. These managers are usually weak-willed and are more
interested in being liked, by peers and subordinates, than in
achieving targets.

ii. They do not criticize their subordinates, even when they are
poor performers, and may in fact support them too much, so
unconsciously retarding their development.

iii. The productivity of the group under the Nice guy is low and
conflict often simmers under the surface, waiting to burst out.
When it does the manager does not know how to handle it.

v. Very few decisions are made and usually they are very poor,
since the manager is ready to yield to pressure from almost
any source.
 Bosses:
i. These managers are bullies! They like to have their own
way and bully their staff (especially their secretaries) in
order to enhance their own sense of power.

ii. They are a living example of the effect of power on

people, as stated by Primo Levi in his book The Drowned
and the Saved: 'Power is like a drug; the need for
either is unknown to anyone who has not tried
them, but after the initiation ... the dependency and
the need for ever larger doses is born; also born is the
denial of reality and the return to childish dreams of

iii. Bosses occur at every level, often quite low within the

iv. They operate in Administrative mode, playing things by

the book where it suits them. They use the power of
their position, real and imaginary.
v. They drive the people under them but not themselves.

vi. They expect recognition from peers, but often do not

get it.

vii. Bosses are extremely inflexible and are often

mistaken for strong-minded people.

viii. Usually, however, they are only strong talkers, and

hide behind abusive language.

ix. They try to terrorize subordinates and peers, creating

conflict to emphasize their own power.

x. Managers in the Boss category are often brought into

a company to act as 'hatchet men'.
xi. In the short-term they can show results, but long-
term they are very destructive, causing more harm
than good.

xii. They are insecure in themselves and get security by

humiliating others in public.

xiii. They advance by pointing out the mistakes of others,

and not by their own achievements.