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ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT

MMB 414

LECTURER:
Dr L. SEBONI
OFFICE: 247/475
sebonils@ub.ac.bw
INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT
LECTURE AGENDA

Management styles

Management
responsibilities and tasks
Delegation Process
Management Styles

 A management style is a term that refers to the


nature of the relationship between managers and
non-managerial employees.

 There are many different management styles.

 Mazda has identified seven management styles:


Administrators, Time servers, Climbers, Generals,
Supporters, Nice Guys and Bosses. [Homework 1]

 The different styles arise because of the difference in


the personality of the managers concerned.
Management Styles
 Experienced managers have learned to vary their style
to suit the situation.

 It is, however, difficult to adopt a style that is


diametrically opposite to one's own personality. Why?

 Different management styles would be required to


handle different situations, e.g. the means of dealing
with a disciplinary matter will differ from that used in
problem-solving activities.

 Management style required for routine day to day


activities is also said to differ from the one needed for
project management and design activities.
Management Responsibilities and Tasks

Adapted from Mazda (1998, pg. 22)


Management Responsibilities and Tasks
 1. Responsibility to shareholders
 Return on their investments in terms of dividends.

 2. Responsibilities to employees
 Rewards for their labour.
 Good working conditions (health and safety).
 Job that meets career aspirations.

 3. Responsibility to customers
 Receive the goods they need at the right place at the right time
 Both internal and external customers. Internal customers rely
on the manager and his team to provide a product or service to
which they can add value enroute to the customer (value
chain). See diagram below for internal customers.
Management Responsibilities and Tasks
 4. Responsibilities to suppliers
 In time information.
 Prompt payment on goods delivered.

 5. Responsibilities to the community


 Sustainable Development.
 Sustainable and maintained employment.
Management Responsibilities and Tasks
 Management Tasks:

 Management tasks are many and varied, but they can


be for simplicity grouped together as planning,
organizing, integrating and monitoring.

 Planning:
 Define long term goals, objectives and policies (strategy).
 Corporate goals are later broken down up to individual
goals as shown in the diagram below.
 Establishment of processes and setting of performance
standards to be used in the measuring stage.
 Budgets, covering expenses, capital and human resources
are determined here.
Management Responsibilities and Tasks
The formulation of a plan

Adapted from Mazda (1998, pg. 25)


Management Responsibilities and Tasks
 Budgets, covering expenses, capital and human resources are
determined here.
 The business need for change and the process of change is
discussed here and continually evaluated as circumstances
change.

 Organizing:
 Prime activity here splitting work into manageable tasks.
 Allocation of tasks to groups and or individuals.
 Ensuring tasks are coordinated and there is no duplication of
activities by sanctioning of the work.
 Recruitment and training of people to carry out the set tasks
is also done here.
 Customer needs should be thoroughly understood and
continuously communicated to the teams delivering the job.
 Effective delegation should be practiced since the manger
cannot do everything.
Management Responsibilities and Tasks

 Integrating:
 Phase that takes the longest time since this is where the
plan of action is carried out.
 Multiple decisions needs to be taken within very short
periods of time with little time to think the decisions
through.
 It is important here for managers to be able to see and
know the whole picture in order not to take wrong
decisions (needs to separate wood from trees).
 Longer the time decisions can be left to be made the better,
but too long delays missed opportunities arise and problem
gets worse.
 Should act as acknowledged leaders of their groups and
provide direction.
 Good communication skills are very important in this
stage, with facts following up and down the group, also
Management Responsibilities and Tasks
 being able to filter information so as to avoid
misunderstandings to the group.
 Dispute management skills will also be very important
here.
 The manager should also ensure that the team can see and
is focused on the eventual goals that are meant to be
achieved.

 Measuring:

 Measures should be taken continuously on the project not


only towards the end of the project to check if costs are
according to plan.
 Several items needs to be measured and controlled during
the project such as:
Management Responsibilities and Tasks
 Salaries, expenses and capital.
 Availability of skills and specialized equipment.
 Project progress in terms of milestones and deliverables.
 The quality of the product being produced.

 Methods for taking measures are many and these could


include:
 Formal weekly charts, to show progress against set agreed
deliverables.
 Management by Walking About (MWA) to see first hand what is
going on.

 Some common mistakes that are commonly made during


the measuring phase include:
 Measures are put in place but not fully understood and
accepted by employees and line managers.
Management Responsibilities and Tasks

 Productivity is poor at very low levels of


supervision (A), since the tasks are not then clearly
defined and some minimum guidance is needed .
Management Responsibilities and Tasks
Management Responsibilities and constraints

Adapted from Mazda (1998, pg. 21)


Management Responsibilities and Tasks
Management Responsibilities and constraints

 Competitors:
 Loss of market share and revenues

 Government:
 Direct constraint..? (Health and safety; taxes on
profits; prevention of monopolistic behaviour)
 Indirect constraint..? (government action which
can affect exchange rates and international
business).
 Natural Environment:
 Acts of God..?
 Fire that can close down the factory
 Snow disrupts logistics
 Opportunities can also arise from the natural
environment…?

 Labour Market:
 Shortage of skilled labour
Management Responsibilities and Tasks
Management Responsibilities and constraints

 Pressure Groups/Environmental Groups/Trade


and User:
 Environmental management systems (e.g. ISO
14001)

 Creditors
 Need for short term returns on their lendings
and high interest rates.
Delegation Process
 Delegation: True delegation involves where
subordinates are given a high level of autonomy to
act as they think best, to achieve the results agreed
with the leader. Monitoring of the activity by the
leader would normally occur at agreed points only,
unless the subordinate requested help from the
leader earlier.

 It does not mean when a task is allocated to a


subordinate but the manager retains responsibility
and requires frequent interaction with the
subordinate as the task progresses. Where the
subordinate has less freedom to act, needing to agree
the method of tackling the job with the leader.

 How to Delegate?

 What tasks; to who, and to what level?


Delegation Process
What delegation level…?

 1. Leaders instruct subordinates to do the task, but


to check with them before taking any decisions. This
is not really delegation but task allocation.

 2. Leaders instruct subordinates to do the task and


to keep them fully informed.

 3. Leaders request subordinates to carry out the


task, holding weekly reviews with them.

 4. Leaders delegate the task and say 'let me know if I


can help.'

 5. Leaders abdicate the task by saying: 'Here you are;


do this and let me know when finished.'
Delegation Process
Which tasks and subordinates?

 Tasks that can be clearly defined together with their


expected results and outcomes are the candidates for
delegation.

 Subordinates who will receive these tasks should be analyzed,


to determine whether they require any special training or
coaching.

 The content and expected results of the delegated task should


be agreed with the subordinate and also the delegation process
and level to be used.

 Trust should then be exercised on the subordinate to deliver,


no micro management, depending on the level agreed.

 If the subordinate achieves the results then provide reward,


such as praise, promotion, bonus or a bigger assignment.
Delegation Process
What managers should know and do during delegation:

 1. Giving to subordinates some of their own responsibility,


usually for specific tasks and relevant decisions.

 2. Give subordinates sufficient authority to match the


responsibility which has been delegated, to help them achieve
the agreed targets, though some boundaries may be set (e.g.
spending expenditures).

 3. Ensure that subordinates accept accountability for success


or failure of the delegated task, although leaders carry the
ultimate responsibility to the organization for all activities
under them.

 4. Be available to help with advice if called on by subordinates.


It is important to appreciate that they have not abdicated their
responsibility, but only delegated it.
HOMEWORK 1

Mazda’s seven management styles


ADMINISTRATORS
 Administrators:

i. Look to company rules and regulations for solving all


problems.

ii. They live 'by the book' and are usually very good employees.

iii. They show total loyalty to the organization and have


probably been with the company for many years.

iv. Administrators are very formal in their approach and


work with strict lines of demarcation between departments
and functions.

v. They are usually not very good communicators, using the


official company channels for all communications, which
are often limited to one level upwards and downwards.
ADMINISTRATORS
vi. They protect their department and status and look
after their staff.

vii. They are not good at resolving conflict, looking to


company rules for resolving these.

viii. Administrators expect everything to be black and


white, and for practical situations to match theory;
they are at a loss when this does not happen.

ix. They are very logical and practical and have good
planning skills.

x. In spite of their rather mechanistic approach they are


generally respected by their staff, and by peers,
for their organizational loyalty and knowledge.
TIME SERVERS
 Time servers:

i. Are generally older managers who have lost interest in


their job and environment, and are marking time until
retirement or moving to another job.

ii. They take all necessary action to avoid stress, and


maintain a low profile within the company.

iii. Their low personal motivation is reflected in the people


who report to them.

iv. Conflict at all levels is avoided at any cost.

v. Although these managers are not generally lazy, their


low motivation means that they do the minimum
amount of work needed to hold down a job.
TIME SERVERS
vi. Decisions are avoided since they could lead to
mistakes. Personal status is very important to them.

vii. They usually have good management experience, and


if motivated can become a very valuable asset to the
organization.

viii. They often consider themselves to be 'father or


mother figures'. They understand people and can
build an effective team if they try.

ix. They recognize achievements in others and are ready


to acknowledge them.
CLIMBERS
 Climbers:

i. These managers are driven by extreme personal


ambition and will sacrifice everything, including self
and family, to get to the top of the corporate ladder.

ii. They want to achieve and to be seen to have


achieved, especially by those in a superior position.

iii. Will pursue personal advancement by fair means or


foul.

iv. However, they become demotivated if this does not


show quick results, and this can eventually lead to
stress.
CLIMBERS

v. Personal knowledge is very important to them, as a


means for advancement, and they will learn from
their staff, pushing themselves at their staff's
expense, if it suits them.

vi. They look after those reporting to them, knowing that


they are measured on the output from their
department.

vii. Self interests come before those of the


organization, and peers will be fought in order to
gain an advantage and to build an empire.

viii. Status is important, but only as a sign of seniority.


GENERALS
 Generals:

i. Are usually younger persons who exhibits lots of


energy.

ii. The General likes to rule and manipulate power, but is


achievement oriented: power is used to get tasks done.

iii. Generals work extremely hard, driving themselves and


those under them.

iv. Generals are sociable and mix well at all levels.

v. They usually get their way with peers by overwhelming


them, although peers can resent this if it is done too
often.
GENERALS
vi. Status is important to Generals, but for the luxury
associated with it, not as a symbol of seniority.

vii. They are strong-willed individuals, often with the


same characteristics as a self-made entrepreneur.

viii. Usually they are optimistic about the future,


sometimes wrongly.
SUPPORTERS
 Supporters:

i. Maintain a balanced view about the world, the


organization, subordinates and themselves.

ii. They are usually experienced managers who are


knowledgeable in management techniques and apply
them where they can.

iii. Supporters work through people in achieving their


aims.

iv. They are good at delegation and develop their


subordinates by giving them responsibility.
SUPPORTERS
v. The people working under them are highly motivated.

vi. Their personal technical knowledge is usually


lacking, but this is compensated for by the support
they themselves receive from the specialists within
their department.

vii. Supporters are good facilitators and very good at


managing change.

viii. They recognize achievement and reward it.

ix. They are deep thinkers and have excellent


imagination. Often this can lead to a clash between
the goals of the organization and what they believe to
be right.
SUPPORTERS

x. They are good compromisers and exhibit


effective intuition.

xi. They are flexible but very persistent in carrying


out tasks which they believe need to be done.

xii. They can handle stress.

xiii.They tend to be loners and do not mix well with


peers. This means that they can often miss out
on information from the grapevine, so that they
are not always well briefed on organizational
matters.
NICE GUYS
 Nice guys:
i. These managers are usually weak-willed and are more
interested in being liked, by peers and subordinates, than in
achieving targets.

ii. They do not criticize their subordinates, even when they are
poor performers, and may in fact support them too much, so
unconsciously retarding their development.

iii. The productivity of the group under the Nice guy is low and
conflict often simmers under the surface, waiting to burst out.
When it does the manager does not know how to handle it.

v. Very few decisions are made and usually they are very poor,
since the manager is ready to yield to pressure from almost
any source.
BOSSES
 Bosses:
i. These managers are bullies! They like to have their own
way and bully their staff (especially their secretaries) in
order to enhance their own sense of power.

ii. They are a living example of the effect of power on


people, as stated by Primo Levi in his book The Drowned
and the Saved: 'Power is like a drug; the need for
either is unknown to anyone who has not tried
them, but after the initiation ... the dependency and
the need for ever larger doses is born; also born is the
denial of reality and the return to childish dreams of
omnipotence.‘

iii. Bosses occur at every level, often quite low within the
organization.

iv. They operate in Administrative mode, playing things by


the book where it suits them. They use the power of
their position, real and imaginary.
BOSSES
v. They drive the people under them but not themselves.

vi. They expect recognition from peers, but often do not


get it.

vii. Bosses are extremely inflexible and are often


mistaken for strong-minded people.

viii. Usually, however, they are only strong talkers, and


hide behind abusive language.

ix. They try to terrorize subordinates and peers, creating


conflict to emphasize their own power.

x. Managers in the Boss category are often brought into


a company to act as 'hatchet men'.
BOSSES
xi. In the short-term they can show results, but long-
term they are very destructive, causing more harm
than good.

xii. They are insecure in themselves and get security by


humiliating others in public.

xiii. They advance by pointing out the mistakes of others,


and not by their own achievements.