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# Chapter 6 Solutions

Page 1 of 29

## 6.1 a. Dimension lumber, S = 30.66 in.3, I = 111.1 in.4

b. Fb = 1000 psi; Fv = 180 psi; E = 1.7 x 106 psi
c. CD = 1.25, CM = Ct = CL = Cr = 1.0, CF = 1.3
Fb' = (1000)(1.25)(1.3) = 1625 psi
Fv' = (180)(1.25) = 225 psi
L
E ' = (1.7 x10 6 )(1.0) = 1.7 x10 6 psi; Δallow = = 0.267 in.
360
d. fb = M = ( PL / 4) / S x = (48000 in. - lb) / 30.66 = 1566 psi
Sx
3 V 3 (P / 2 ) 3 ⎛ 1000 ⎞
fv = = = ⎜ ⎟ = 59.1 psi
2A 2 A 2 ⎝ 25.375 ⎠
PL3 (1600)(8 x12) 3
Δ= = = 0.156in.
48 EI 48(1.7 x10 6 )(111.1)
e. 1625 > 1566 psi bending ok
225 > 59.1 psi shear ok
0.267 > 0.156 in. defl. ok
f. φb = 0.85, φv = 0.75
Fbn = FbKF = (1.00)(2.16/0.85) = 2.54 ksi
Fvn = FvKF = (.180)(2.16/0.75) = .518 ksi
En = E = 1.7x106 psi
g. λ = 0.8, CM = Ct = CL = Cr = 1.0, CF = 1.3
Fbn' = (2.54)(0.85)(0.8)(1.3) = 2.25 psi
Fvn' = (.518)(0.75)(0.8) = .311 ksi
L
E ' = (1.7 x10 3 )(1.0) = 1.7 x10 3 ksi; Δallow =
= 0.267 in.
360
h. M’n = F’bn S = (2.25)(30.66) = 68.68 k-in.
2 2
V’n = F’vn A = (0.311)(25.375) = 5.26 k
3 3
i. Pu = 1.2PD + 1.6PLr = 1.2(400) + 1.6(1600) = 3040 lb = 3.04 k
Mu = PuL/4 = 6.08 k-ft = 72.96 k-in.
Vu = Pu/2 = 1.52 k
Δ = 0.195 in. (service loads)
j. 68.68 < 72.96 k-in. bending no good
5.26 > 1.52 k shear ok
0.267 > 0.156 defl. ok

## 6.2 CM (bending) = 0.85; CM (shear) = 0.97; CM (defl.) = 0.9

c. Fb' = 1625(0.85) = 1381 psi
Fv' = 225(0.97) = 218 psi
E ' = 1.7 x10 6 (0.9) = 1.53 x10 6 psi
Chapter 6 Solutions
Page 2 of 29

## d. Δ = 0.156 / 0.9 = 0.173 in.

e. 1381 < 1566 psi bending no good
218 > 59.1 psi shear ok
0.267 > 0.173 in. defl. ok
g. F’bn = (2.24)(0.85) = 1.90 ksi
F’vn = (0.311)(0.97) = 0.302 ksi
E 'n = (1.53x103 ) ksi
h. M’n = F’bn S = (1.90)(30.66) = 58.25 k-in.
2 2
V’n = F’vn A = (0.302)(25.375) = 5.11 k
3 3
j. 58.25 < 72.96 k-in. bending no good
5.11 > 1.52 k shear ok
0.267 > 0.173 defl. ok
All other calculations unchanged.

## 6.3 l u = 48 in. l e = 1.11l u = 53.28 in.

= (53.28)(7.25)
l ed
RB = = 5.62
b2 (3.5) 2
'
E min = .62 X 10 6 psi
'
1.2 E min 6
Fbe = = (1.2)(.62 x10 ) = 23,556 psi
'

Rb2 (5.62) 2
Fb* = (1000)(1.25)(1.3) = 1625 psi
2
1+
FbE ⎡1 + FbE ⎤ FbE
F ⎢ *
Fb*
⎥ Fb*
CL= − ⎢ b
⎥ − = 0.996
1.9 ⎢ 1.9 ⎥ 0.95
⎣ ⎦
c. Fb = (1625)(0.996) = 1619 psi
'

## e. 1619 > 1566 psi bending ok

'
FbEn = 1.2 E min n = (1.2)(930ksi ) = 35.3 ksi
Rb2 (5.62) 2
Fbn* = (2.54)(1.3)(.85)(.8) = 2.25 ksi
2
1+
FbEn ⎡1 + FbEn ⎤ FbEn
Fbn* ⎢ Fbn* ⎥ Fbn*
CL= − ⎢ ⎥ − = 0.996
1.9 ⎢ 1 . 9 ⎥ 0 . 95
⎣ ⎦

## g. F’bn = (2.25)(.996) = 2.24 ksi

F’vn = 0.311 ksi
E ' n = (1.7 x10 3 ) ksi
Chapter 6 Solutions
Page 3 of 29

## h. M’n = F’bn S = (2.25)(30.66) = 68.7 k-in.

2 2
V’n = F’vn A = (0.311)(25.375) = 5.26 k
3 3
j. 68.7 < 72.96 k-in. bending no good
5.26 > 1.52 k shear ok

## All others calculations unchanged

lu
6.5 l u = 96 in.; = 13.2 > 7; l e = 1.37l u + 3d = 153.3 in.
d
RB = 9.52 ; Fb* = 1625 psi ; Fbe = 8,202 psi
CL = 0.988
c. Fb' = (1625)(.988) = 1606 psi
e. 1606 > 1566 psi bending ok
l
l u = 96 in.; u = 13.2 > 7; l e = 1.37l u + 3d = 153.3 in.
d
RB = 9.52 ; Fbn = 2.25 ksi ; FbEn = 12.31 ksi
*

CL = 0.989
g. F’bn = (2.25)(.989) = 2.23 ksi
h. M’n = F’bn S = (2.23)(30.66) = 68.37 k-in.
j. 68.37 < 72.96 k-in. bending no good

## All other calculations unchanged.

6.6 a. Fbx+ = 2400 psi; FV = 265 psi; Ex = 1.8 x 106 psi; Ey = 1.6 x 106 psi;
S = 229.7 in3; I = 2411.7 in4
1

## b. C D = 1.15, C L = 1.0; CV = ⎡15,498 ⎤ 10

= 0.98
⎢⎣ (24 x12)(21)(3.125)⎥⎦
Fbx' = (2400)(1.15)(0.98) = 2705 psi
Fv' = (265)(1.15) = 305 psi
L (24 x12)
E x' = 1.8 x10 6 (1.0) = 1.8 x10 6 psi; Δ allow = = = 1.20 in.
240 240
E y' = 1.6 x10 6 (1.0) = 1.6 x10 6 psi

M ( )
PL
4 = 470 psi
c. fb = =
S x 229.7

fv =
3V 3
=
P ( )
2 = 17.1 psi
2 A 2 65.625
Chapter 6 Solutions
Page 4 of 29

PL3 PL3
Δ= = = 0.115 in.
48E x I 48(1.8 x10 6 )(2411.7)
PL3
Δ DL = = .058 in.
48(1.8 x106 )(2411.7)
d. 2705 > 470 psi bending ok
305 > 17.1 psi shear ok
1.20 > 0.115 in. defl. ok
Camber: 1.5Δ DL = 1.5(.5 x 0.058) = 0.04 in. upward
e. Fbxn+
= 6.1 ksi; Fvn = .763 ksi; Exn = 1.8 x 103 ksi; Eyn = 1.6 x 103 ksi;
S = 229.7 in3; I = 2411.7 in4
f. F’bn = (6.1)(.98)(0.85)(.8) = 4.065 ksi
F’vn = (.763)(.75)(.8) = 0.458 ksi
E ' xn = (1.8x103 ) ksi
E ' yn = (1.6 x10 3 ) ksi
+
g. M’n = Fbxn S = (4.07)(229.7) = 933.7 k-in.
2 2
V’n = F’vn A = (.458)(65.63) = 20.04 k
3 3
h. Pu = 1.2PD + 1.6PLr = 1.2(500) + 1.6(1000) = 2200 lb = 2.2 k
Mu = PuL/4 = 13.2 k-ft = 158.4 k-in.
Vu = Pu/2 = 1.1 k
ΔL = 0.115 in. (service loads)
Δ DL = .058 in.
i. 933.73 > 158.4 k-in. bending ok
20.04 > 1.1 k shear ok
1.2 > 0.115 defl. ok
Camber: 1.5Δ DL = 1.5(.5 x 0.058) = 0.04 in. upward
Defl. same as ASD

## 6.7 C M = 0.8 (bending); C M = 0.875 (shear); C M = 0.833 (modulus of elasticity)

b. Fbx+ ' = 2705(0.8) = 2164 psi
Fv' = 305(0.875) = 267 psi
E x' = 1.8 x10 6 (0.833) = 1.5 x10 6 psi
E y' = 1.6 x10 6 (0.833) = 1.3 x10 6 psi
c. Δ L = 0.115
0.833 = 0.138
Δ DL = .069 in.
d. 2164 > 470 psi bending ok
Chapter 6 Solutions
Page 5 of 29

## 267 > 17.1 psi shear ok

1.20 > 0.138 in. defl. ok
Camber: 1.5 (0.069) = 0.1 in. upward
'+
f. Fbxn = (6.1)(.98)(0.85)(.8)(.8) = 3.252 ksi
F’vxn = (.763)(.75)(.8)(.875) = 0.401 ksi
E ' xn = (1.8x10 6 ) psi (.833) = 1.5x103 ksi
E ' yn = (1.6 x10 6 ) psi (.833) = 1.3x103 ksi
'+
g. M’n = Fbxn S = (3.252)(229.7) = 746.98 k-in.
2 2
V’n = F’vn A = (.401)(65.625) = 17.54 k
3 3
i. 746.98 > 158.4 k-in. bending ok
17.54 > 1.1 k shear ok
Defl. Same as ASD

## All other calculations unchanged

le d
6.8 l u = 144 in.; l e = 1.11l u = 160 in.; RB = = 18.54
b2
1.2 E y min
E y' min = .83 X 10 6 psi FbE = 2 = 2898 psi; Fbx* = 2400(1.15) = 2760 psi
R B
2
1+
FbE ⎡1 + FbE ⎤ FbE
F *
⎢ Fbx ⎥
*
Fbx*
CL = bx
− ⎢ ⎥ − = 0.836 < CV = 0.98 Use CL
1.9 ⎢ 1.9 ⎥ 0.95
⎣ ⎦
+'
b. Fbx = (2400)(1.15)(0.836) = 2307 psi
d. 2307 > 470 psi bending ok
'
E y' min n = .83 X 10 3 (1.5 / .85)(.85) = 1.245 X 10 3 ksi FbEn = 1.2 E y min n 2 = 4.35 ksi;
RB
*
Fbxn = 2.4(2.16 / .85)(.85)(.8) = 4.15 ksi
2
1+
FbEn ⎡1 + FbEn ⎤ FbEn
*
Fbxn ⎢ *
Fbxn ⎥ *
Fbxn
CL = − ⎢ ⎥ − = 0.836 < CV = 0.98
1.9 ⎢ 1 . 9 ⎥ 0 . 95
⎣ ⎦
+
f. F 'bxn = (4.15)(.836) = 3.47 ksi
'+
g. M’n = Fbxn S = (3.47)(229.7) = 797.06 k-in.
i. 797.06 > 158.4 k-in bending ok

## All other calculation unchanged

Chapter 6 Solutions
Page 6 of 29

## 6.10 a. Dimension lumber, S = 49.9in.3, I = 230.8 in.4

b. Fb = 1400 psi ; Fv = 150 psi; E = 1.6 x 106 psi
c. CD = 1.25, CF = 1.2 (bending)
Fb' = 1400(1.25)(1.2) = 2100 psi
Fv' = 150(1.25) = 187 psi
10 ⋅ 12
E ' = 1.6 x10 6 psi; Δ allow = L = = 0.33 in.
360 360
Δ allow =L = 0.5 in.
240
M wL2
d. f b = = = 1353 psi
S 8(49.9)

fv =
3V 3
=
wl ( )
2 = 104.2 psi
2 A 2 (32.375)
⎛ d ⎞
reduced shear: V ' = V − ⎜ w ⋅ ⎟ = 1902 lb
⎝ 12 ⎠

3 ⎛ 1902 ⎞
f 'v = ⎜ ⎟ = 88.2 psi
2 ⎝ 32.375 ⎠
5wLr L4
Δ Lr = = 0.152in.
384 EI
(
5 0.5WD + WLr L4 )
Δ KD + Lr = = 0.213in.
384 EI
e. 2100 > 1353 psi bending ok
187 > 104 psi shear ok without reduced shear V’
0.33 > 0.152 in.
0.5 > 0.213 in. defl. Ok
f. Fbn = 1.4ksi(2.16/.85) = 3.56 ksi
Fvn = .150ksi(2.16/.75) = .432 ksi
En = 1.6x103ksi
g. F’bn = 3.56(1.2)(.85)(.8) = 2.91 ksi
F’vn = .432(.75)(.8)= .259 ksi
E’n = 1.6x103ksi
Defl. same as ASD
h. M’n= F’bnS =2.91(49.9) = 144.96 k-in
V’n = (2/3) F’vnA = 5.59 k
i. wu = 1.2(200plf)+1.6(250plf) = 640plf
Mu = wuL2/8 = 96 k-in
Vu = wuL/2 = 3.2 k
Defl. same as ASD
j. 144.96 > 96 k-in bending ok
Chapter 6 Solutions
Page 7 of 29

## 5.59 > 3.2 k shear ok

Defl. same as ASD

## 6.11 CM = 0.85 (bending); CM = 0.97 (shear); CM = 0.9 (modulus of elasticity)

c. Fb' = 2100(0.85) = 1785 psi
Fv' = 187(0.97) = 181 psi
E ' = (1.6 x10 6 )(0.9) = 1.44 x10 6 psi
d. Δ Lr = 0.152 / 0.9 = 0.169 in.
k=1.0
⎛ 450 ⎞
Δ kD+ Lr = 0.169⎜ ⎟ = 0.304 in.
⎝ 250 ⎠
e. 1785 > 1353 psi bending ok
181 > 104 psi shear ok
0.33 > 0.169 in.
0.5 > 0.304 in. defl. ok.
g. F’bn = 2.91(.85) = 2.47 ksi
F’vn = .259(.97) = .251 ksi
E’n = 1.6x103(.9) = 1.44x103 ksi
h. M’n= F’bnS = 123.25 k-in
V’n = (2/3) F’vnA = 5.42 k
j. 123.25 > 96 k-in bending ok
5.42 > 3.2 k shear ok
Defl. same as ASD

lu
6.12 l u = 60 in.; = 6.5 < 7; l e = 2.06l u = 123.6 in.
d
le ⋅d 1.2 ⋅ E min
RB = 2
= 9.66; FbE = 2
= 7458 psi; Fb* = 2100 psi
b RB
2
1+
FbE ⎡1 + FbE ⎤ FbE
Fb*
⎢ Fb ⎥
*
Fb*
CL = − ⎢ ⎥ − = 0.981
1.9 ⎢ 1.9 ⎥ 0.95
⎣ ⎦
c. Fb = 2100(0.981) = 2061 psi
'

## e. 2061 > 1353 psi bending ok

f. Eminn = .58x103(1.5/.85) = 1.02x103 ksi
g. E’minn = 1.02x103(.85) = .87x103 ksi
FbEn = 1.2 E’minn/RB2 = 11.19 ksi
F*bn = 2.91 ksi
CL = .983
Chapter 6 Solutions
Page 8 of 29

## Fbn' = 2.91(0.983) = 2.86 ksi

h. M’n= F’bnS = 142.51 k-in
j. 142.51 > 96 k-in bending ok

## All other calculations unchanged.

6.14 a. Fbx+ = 2400 psi; Fv = 210 psi; E x = 1.7 x10 6 psi; E y = 1.3x10 6 psi; S = 309in.3;
I = 2972 in.4
1
⎡ 15498 ⎤ 20
b. C D = 1.15; C M = C t = C L = 1 .0 Cv = ⎢ ⎥ = 0.98
⎣L ⋅ d ⋅b⎦
Fbx+ ' = 2400(1.15)(0.98) = 2705 psi
Fv' = 210(1.15) = 241 psi
L
E x' = 1.7 x10 6 psi Δs = = 0.667 in.
360
L
E y' = 1.3x10 6 psi Δ kD+ s = = 1.0 in.
240
M wl 2
c. fb = = = 972 psi
S 8(309)
3 V 3 wl
fx = = = 77.9 psi
2 A 2 2(96.25)

Δs =
5wl 9
= 12
(
5 300 l 4 )
= 0.214 in.
384 EI 384(1.7 x106 ) (2972)

Δ kD+ S =
[
5 0.5 x 200 + 300 l 4
12
]
12 = 0.285 in.
6
384(1.7 x10 )(2972)
d. 2705 > 972 psi bending ok
241 > 77.9 psi shear ok
0.667 > 0.214
1.0 > 0.285 defl. ok
+
e. Fbxn = 2.4(2.16 / .85) = 6.1 ksi; Fvn = .21(2.16 / .75) = .605 ksi;
E xn = 1.7 x103 ksi; E yn = 1.3x10 3 ksi; S = 309 in.3;
I = 2972 in.4
'+
f. Fbxn = 6.1(.98)(.85)(.8) = 4.07ksi
Fvn' = .605(.75)(.8) = .363 ksi
E xn' = 1.7 x103 ksi
'
E yn = 1.3x10 3 ksi
Chapter 6 Solutions
Page 9 of 29

## g. M’n= F’bnS = 1255 k-in

V’n = (2/3) F’vnA = 23.29 k
h. Mu = wuL2/8 = 432 k-in
Vu = wuL/2 = 7.2 k
i. 1255 > 432 k-in bending ok
23.29 > 7.2 k shear ok
Defl. same as ASD

## 6.15 CM = 0.80 (bending); 0.875 (shear); 0.833 (modulus of elasticity)

b. Fbx+ ' = 2705(0.80) = 2164 psi
Fv' = 241(0.875) = 211 psi
E x' = 1.7 x10 6 (.833) = 1.42 x10 6 psi
E y' = 1.3x10 6 (.833) = 1.08 x10 6 psi
c. Δ S = 0.214 = 0.257 in.
0.833
k = 1.0; kD + S = 500; by proportion
⎡ 500 ⎤
Δ kD + S = 0.257 ⎢ = 0.428 in.
⎣ 300 ⎥⎦
d. 2164 > 972 psi bending ok
211 > 77.9 psi shear ok
0.667 > 0.257 in.
1.0 > 0.428 in. defl. ok
'+
f. Fbxn = 6.1(.98)(.85)(.8)(.8) = 3.25 ksi
Fvn' = .605(.75)(.8)(.875) = .318 ksi
E xn' = 1.7 x103 (.833) = 1.42x103 ksi
'
E yn = 1.3x10 3 (.833) = 1.08 x10 3 ksi
g. M’n= Fbxn
'+
S = 1004 k-in
V n = (2/3) F’vnA = 20.4 k

## i. 1004 > 432 k-in bending ok

20.4 > 7.2 k shear ok
Defl. same as ASD.

## All other calculations unchanged

lu
6.16 l u = 120 in.; = 6.2 < 7.0; l e = 2.06l u = 247.2 in.
d
le ⋅ d
Fbx+* = 2400(1.15) = 2760 psi R B = = 13.8;
b2
Chapter 6 Solutions
Page 10 of 29

## 1.2 ⋅ E y' min

E '
y min = .67 X 10 psi ; FbE =
6
2
= 4221 psi
RB
2
1+
FbE ⎡1 + FbE ⎤ FbE
+*
Fbx ⎢ Fbx ⎥
*
Fbx*
CL = − ⎢ ⎥ − = 0.928
1.9 ⎢ 1.9 ⎥ 0.95
⎣ ⎦
C L = 0.928 < CV = 0.98; therefore use CL
b. Fbx+ ' = 2400(1.15)(0.928) = 2561 psi
d. 2561 psi > 972 psi
f. E’ymin = .67x103(1.5/.85)(.85) = 1.005x103 ksi
FbEn = 1.2E’min/RB2 = 6.33 ksi
*+
Fbxn = 4.15 ksi
CL = .928
'+
Fbxn = 3.85 ksi
g. M’n= Fbxn'+
S = 1189 k-in
i. 1189 > 432 k-in bending ok
All other calculations unchanged.

## 6.18 a. Dimension lumber, S = 73.8 in.3, I = 415.3 in.4

b. Fb = 1900 psi; Fv = 175 psi; E = 1.8x106 psi
c. C D = 1.0, CF = 1.1 (bending), CM = 1.0
L 2L
Fb' = 1900(1.1) = 2090 psi ; Δ freeend = 2 = 2 = 0.267 in.
180 360
L
Fv' = 175 psi; E = 1.8x10 6 psi; Δ mainspan = = 0.267 in.
360
d. Mmax= -96 k-in. @ rt. support
Vmax = 2k on cant. end
M 96000
fb = = = 1301 psi
S 73.8
3 V 3 2000
fv = = = 76.2 psi
2 A 2 39.375
PL2
Δ freeend = '2 ( L1 + L2 ) = .296 in. ↓
3E I
0.06415PL2 L12
Δ mainspan = = 0.076 in. ↑
E⋅I

## e. 2090 > 1301 psi bending ok

175 > 76.2 psi shear ok
0.267 < 0.296 in. defl. no good (free end)
0.267 > 0.076 in.
Chapter 6 Solutions
Page 11 of 29

## f. Fbn = 1.9 (2.16/.85) = 4.83 ksi

Fvn = .175(2.16/.75) = .504 ksi
En = 1.8x103 ksi
g. F’bn = 4.83(1.1)(.85)(.8) = 3.61 ksi
F’vn = .504(.75)(.8) = .302 ksi
E’n = 1.8x103 ksi
h. M’n = F’bnS = 266.5 k-in
V’n =(2/3)F’vnS = 7.92 k
i. Mu = 145.92 k-in
Vu = 3.04 k
j. 266.5 > 145.92 k-in bending ok
7.92 > 3.04 k shear ok
Defl. same as ASD

## 6.19 CM = 0.85 (bending); CM = 0.97 (shear); CM = 0.9 (modulus of elasticity)

c. Fb' = 2090(0.85) = 1776 psi
Fv' = 175(0.97) = 170 psi
E = 1.8x10 6 (0.9) = 1.62 x10 6 psi
d. Δ freeend = 0.296 = .329 in. ↓
0 .9
Δ mainspan = 0.076 = 0.084 in. ↑
0 .9
e. 1776 > 1301 psi bending ok
170 > 76.2 psi shear ok
0.267 < 0.329 defl. no good (free end)
0.267 > 0.084
g. F’bn = 3.61(.85) = 3.07 ksi
F’vn = .302(.97) = .293 ksi
E’n = 1.8x103(.9) = 1.62x103 ksi
h. M’n = F’bnS = 226.5 k-in
V’n =(2/3)F’vnS = 7.69 k
Defl. same as ASD
j. 226.5 > 145.92 k-in bending ok
7.69 > 3.04 k shear ok
Defl. same as ASD

## All other calculations unchanged.

lu
6.20 l u = 96 in.; = 8.5 > 7.0; l e = 1.63 ⋅ l u + 3d = 190.2 in. ; RB = 13.21
d
Fb* = 2090 psi; Emin = 660,000 psi; FbE = 1.2 ⋅ E min 2 = 4539 psi
RB
Chapter 6 Solutions
Page 12 of 29

2
1+
FbE ⎡1 + FbE ⎤ FbE
Fb* ⎢ Fb* ⎥ Fb*
CL = − ⎢ ⎥ − = 0.962
1.9 ⎢ 1.9 ⎥ 0.95
⎣ ⎦
c. F b = 2090 ( 0 . 967 ) = 2011 psi
'

## e. 2011 > 1301 psi bending ok

’ 3
g. E minn = .99x10 ksi
FbEn = 1.2 E’minn/RB2 = 6.81 ksi
Fbn* = 3.61 ksi
CL = .952
Fbn' = 3.61(.952) = 3.44 ksi
h. M’n = F’bnS = 253.82 k-in
j. 253.82 > 145.92 k-in bending ok

## 6.22 a. Assume 2 x 12, Dimension lumber, S = 31.6 in.3, I = 178 in.4

b. Fb = 975 psi; Fv = 150 psi; E = 1.5x106 psi
c. C D = 1.0; C F = 1.0; C M = 1.0; C L = 1.0; C r = 1.15 (repetitive member)
Fb' = 975(1.15) = 1121 psi ; E ' = 1.5x10 6 psi
Fv' = 150 psi Δ allow = L = 0.467 in.
360
Δ allow = L = 0.70 in.
240
f b = M ⋅ 12 = 844 psi
2
d. M = wl = 2222 ft − lb;
8 S
wl 3V
V= = 635 lb; fv = = 56.4 psi
2 2A
⎛ wd ⎞ 3V'
reduced shear : V ' = V − ⎜ ⎟ = 550 lb, f v' = = 48.9 psi
⎝ 12 ⎠ 2 A
5wL L4 5
ΔL = = 0.216 in.; Δ kD+ L = (0.5wD + wL )L4 = 0.255 in.
'
384 E I 384 E ' I
1121 > 844 psi bending ok
150 > 56.4 and 48.9 psi shear ok
0.467 > 0.216 in.
0.70 > 0.255 in. defl. ok
e. Fbn = .975(2.16/.85) = 2.48 ksi
Fvn = .150(2.16/.75) = .432 ksi
En = 1.5x103 ksi
f. Fbn' = 2.48 (1.15)(.85)(.8) = 1.94 ksi
Chapter 6 Solutions
Page 13 of 29

## Fvn' = .432(.75)(.8) = .259 ksi

En' = 1.5x103 ksi
g. M’n = F’bnS = 61.4 k-in
V’n =(2/3)F’vnA = 2.91 k
Defl. same as ASD
h. wu = 1.2(.018)(16/12)+1.6(.050)(16/12) = .135 klf
Mu = wuL2/8 = 39.83 k-in
Vu = wuL/2 = .95 k

## 61.4 > 39.83 k-in bending ok

2.91 > .95 k shear ok
Defl. same as ASD

Since moment and shear are considerable greater than needed, assume a 2x10:
S = 21.4 in3 ; I = 98.9 in4 ; A = 13.9 in2 ; CF = 1.1 for a 2x10
Fbn' = 2.54 (1.1)(1.15)(0.85)(0.8) = 2.13 ksi
Mn' = 45.6 k-in
Vn' = 2.40 k
45.6 k-in > 39.83 k-in OK
2.40 k > 0.95 k OK
live load deflection = 0.388 in < 0.467 in OK
total load deflection = 0.458 in < 0.7 in OK
Therefore, a 2x10 is adequate for LRFD.

d
6.23 a. NDS Sec. 4.4.3: notch depth ≤
4
b. NDS Sec. 4.4.3: notch depth ≤ d in the outer thirds of the span.
6
Notches not permitted in middle third of span. See Fig. 4A of NDS.

2 2
⎡2 ⎤⎡ d ⎤ ⎡2 ⎤ ⎡11.25 − 1⎤
Vr' = ⎢ Fv ' bd n ⎥ ⎢ n ⎥ = ⎢ (150 )(1.5)(11.25 − 1)⎥ ⎢ = 1276 lb
⎣3 ⎦⎣ d ⎦ ⎣3 ⎦ ⎣ 11.25 ⎥⎦

d
6.24 a. NDS 5.4.4; notch depth ≤ or 3" (lesser) on tension side
10
2d
notch depth ≤ and not into middle third of span
5
b. no notches in interior of span

## See NDS Sec. 5.4.4

Chapter 6 Solutions
Page 14 of 29

## 6.25 AT = 2 x14 = 28 < 200ft 2 ; Lr = 20 psf; wLr = 40 plf; S = 13.1 in.3

14 ⎛ 14.76 ⎞
L2 = 14 ft; L' = 160 = 14.76 ft ; wD = 12(2)⎜ ⎟ = 25.3 plf
12 ⎝ 14 ⎠
a. Assume 2 x 8; Dimension lumber
b. Fb = 900 psi; Fv = 180 psi
c. C D = 1.25; C F = 1.2; Cr = 1.15
Fb' = 900(1.25)(1.2)(1.15) = 1552 psi
Fv' = 180(1.25) = 225 psi
2 2
d. M = wL2 = (25.3 + 40) ⋅ 14 = 1600 ft − lb.
8 8
M 1600(12)
fb = (12) = = 1466 psi < 1552 psi ok
S 13.1
V = wL2 = (25.3 + 40) 14 = 457 lb
2 2
3 V 3 457
fv = = = 63 psi < 225 psi ok
2 A 2 10.875
e. Fbn = .900(2.16/.85) = 2.29 ksi
Fvn = .180(2.16/.75) = .518 ksi
f. Fbn' = 2.29(1.2)(1.15)(.85)(.8) = 2.15 ksi
Fvn' = .518(.75)(.8) = .311 ksi
g. M’n = F’bnS = 28.11 k-in
V’n =(2/3)F’vnA = 2.25 k
h. wu = 1.2(.0253)+1.6(.040) = .094 klf
Mu = wuL2/8 = 27.74 k-in
Vu = wuL/2 = .66 k

## 28.11 > 27.74 k-in bending ok

2.25 > .66 k shear ok

[Note: no details given for notch, but should be checked in final design check.
Also, horizontal projection method is conservative for shear.]

## 6.26 C r = 1.0; wD = 25.3x 3 = 75.9 plf; wLr = 40x3 = 120 plf

a. Assume 2 x 16, Dimension lumber; CF = 0.9
b. Fb = 900 psi , Fv = 180 psi
c. Fb' = 900(1.25)(0.9) = 1013 psi
(1600 x3)(12)
d. fb = = 991 psi < 1013 psi ok
58.1
Chapter 6 Solutions
Page 15 of 29

3 (457 x3)
fv = = 90 psi < 225 psi ok
2 22.875
C r = 1.0; wD = 25.3x3 = 75.9 plf; wLr = 40 x3 = 120 plf

## e. Assume 2 x 18, Dimension lumber; CF = 0.9

S = 74.4 in3; A = 25.875 in2
Fbn = .900 K F = 2.29 ksi , Fvn = .180 K F = .518 ksi
f. Fbn' = 2.29(.9)(.85)(.8) = 1.40 ksi
Fvn' = .518(.75)(.8) = .311 ksi
g. M’n = F’bnS = 104 k-in
V’n =(2/3)F’vnA = 5.36 k
h. wu = 1.2(.076)+1.6(.120) = .283 klf
Mu = wuL2/8 = 83.23 k-in
Vu = wuL/2 = 1.98 k

## 104 > 83.23 k-in bending ok

5.36 > 1.98 k shear ok

## See 6.25 for other calculations.

Alternatively, a 4x10 No.2 grade Douglas Fir-Larch (CF = 1.2) is also adequate.

⎡14.76 ⎤
6.27 wD = 15( 2) ⎢ = 31.6 plf (See solution to 6.25)
⎣ 14 ⎥⎦

## a. Assume 2 x 12; Dimension lumber, S = 31.6 in.3

b. Fb = 1000 psi, Fr = 180 psi
c. C D = 1.15, C F = 1.0, C r = 1.15 (rep. use)
Fb' = 1000(1.15)(1.15) = 1323 psi; Fv' = 180(1.15) = 207 psi
2 2
d. M = wl = (131.6) 14 = 3224 ft ⋅ lb
8 8
M 3224(12)
fb = (12) = = 1224 psi < 1323 psi ok
S 31.6
V = wl = 131.6(14) = 921 lb
2 2
3 V 3 921
fv = = = 82 psi < 207 psi
2 A 2 16.875
e. Fbn = 1.0 K F = 2.54 ksi , Fvn = .180 K F = .518 ksi
f. Fbn' = 2.54(1.15)(.85)(.8) = 1.99ksi
Fvn' = .518(.75)(.8) = .311 ksi
Chapter 6 Solutions
Page 16 of 29

## g. M’n = F’bnS = 62.9 k-in

V’n =(2/3)F’vnA = 3.50 k
h. wu = 1.2(31.6)+1.6(100) = 197.9 plf
Mu = wuL2/8 = 58.2 k-in
Vu = wuL/2 = 1.39 k

## 62.9 > 58.2 k-in bending ok

3.50 > 1.39 k shear ok

[Note: no details given for notch, but should be checked in final design check.
Also, horizontal plane method is conservative for shear.]

## 6.28 a. Fbx+ = 2400 psi; E y = 1.6 x10 6 psi; S = 168.8 in.3

1 1 1
⎛ 21 ⎞ 10 ⎛ 12 ⎞ 10 ⎛ 5.125 ⎞ 10
C D = 1.0, Cv = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = .992;
⎝L⎠ ⎝d ⎠ ⎝ b ⎠
l u = 150 in.; l e = 1.11l u = 166.5 in.
le ⋅d 1.2 ⋅ E y min '

## RB = = 17.52; E y' min = .83x10^6 psi FbE = = 3245 psi

b 2
Rb2
Fbx* = 2400(1.0) = 2400 psi
2
1+
FbE ⎡1 + FbE ⎤ FbE
Fb* ⎢ Fb* ⎥ Fb*
CL = − ⎢ ⎥ − = 0.907
1.9 ⎢ 1 . 9 ⎥ 0 . 95
⎣ ⎦
+'
use CL vs. Cv; Fbx = 2400(0.907) = 2177 psi
M = Fbx ⋅ S = 30.5 k ⋅ ft
P = 4 M = 4.88 k
L
+
b. Fbxn = 2.40 K F = 6.10 ksi; E y min n = .83 x10 3 K F = 1.465 x10 3 ksi
S = 168.8 in.3
1 1 1
⎛ 21 ⎞ 10 ⎛ 12 ⎞ 10 ⎛ 5.125 ⎞ 10
Cv = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = .992;
⎝L⎠ ⎝d ⎠ ⎝ b ⎠
l u = 150 in.; l e = 1.11l u = 166.5 in. ;
E ' y min n = 1.465 x10 3 (.85) = 1.245 x10 3 ksi
le ⋅d 1.2 E y' min n
RB = = 17.52; FbEn = = 4.87 ksi
b2 Rb2
*
Fbxn = 6.10(.85)(.8) = 4.15 ksi
Chapter 6 Solutions
Page 17 of 29

2
1+
FbE ⎡1 + FbE ⎤ FbE
Fb* ⎢ Fb* ⎥ Fb*
CL = − ⎢ ⎥ − = 0.873
1.9 ⎢ 1 . 9 ⎥ 0 . 95
⎣ ⎦
+'
use CL vs. Cv; Fbxn = 4.15(0.873) = 3.62 ksi
+'
M u = Fbxn ⋅ S = 50.94k − ft
4M u
Pu = = 8.15 k
L

## 6.29 a. Fbx+ = 2400psi , E y = 1.6 x10 6 psi , S = 158.4 in.3

1 1 1
⎛ 21 ⎞ 10 ⎛ 12 ⎞ 10 ⎛ 5.125 ⎞ 10
C D = 1 ; CV = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 1.00 ;
⎝L⎠ ⎝d ⎠ ⎝ b ⎠
l u = 72in. l e = 2.06 l u = 148.3in.
'
le ⋅d 6 1.2 E y min
RB = = 21.51; E '
y min = .83x10^ psi F = 2
= 2153 psi
b2
bE
RB
Fbx* = 2400(1) = 2400 psi
2
1+
FbE ⎡1 + FbE ⎤ FbE
Fb* ⎢ Fb* ⎥ Fb*
CL = − ⎢ ⎥ − = 0.769
1.9 ⎢ 1 . 9 ⎥ 0 . 95
⎣ ⎦
+'
Fbx = 2400(0.769) = 1845 psi
M ' = Fbx+ ' ⋅ S = 24.4 k ⋅ ft
P' = 4 M ' = 4.06 k
L
+
b. Fbxn = 2.40 K F = 6.10 ksi; E y min n = .83 x10 3 K F = 1.465 x10 3 ksi
S = 158.4 in.3
1 1 1
⎛ 21 ⎞ 10 ⎛ 12 ⎞ 10 ⎛ 5.125 ⎞ 10
Cv = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 1.00;
⎝L⎠ ⎝d ⎠ ⎝ b ⎠
l u = 72 in.; l e = 2.06l u = 148.3 in. ;
E ' y min n = 1.465 x10 3 (.85) = 1.245 x10 3 ksi
le ⋅d 1.2 E y' min n
RB = = 21.51 ; F = = 3.23 ksi
b2 Rb2
bEn

*
Fbxn = 6.10(.85)(.8) = 4.15 ksi
Chapter 6 Solutions
Page 18 of 29

2
1+
FbE ⎡1 + FbE ⎤ FbE
Fb* ⎢ Fb* ⎥ Fb*
CL = − ⎢ ⎥ − = 0.698
1.9 ⎢ 1 . 9 ⎥ 0 . 95
⎣ ⎦
+'
use CL vs. Cv; Fbxn = 4.15(0.698) = 2.90 ksi
+'
M u = Fbxn ⋅ S = 38.21 k-ft
4M u
Pu = = 6.37 k
L

6.30 a. Fbx+ = 2400 psi , E y = 1.6 x10 6 psi , CD=1.15, Sx = 159.8 in.3
1 1 1
⎛ 21 ⎞ 20 ⎛ 12 ⎞ 20 ⎛ 5.125 ⎞ 20
Cv = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = .998 ; l e = 166.5 in.
⎝L⎠ ⎝d ⎠ ⎝ b ⎠
le ⋅d 6 1.2 ⋅ E y' min
RB = = 18.18 ; E y min = .83x10^ psi FbE =
'
2
= 3014 psi ;
b2 RB
Fbx* = 2400(1.15) = 2760 psi
2
1+
FbE ⎡1 + FbE ⎤ FbE
F ⎢ *
Fb*
⎥ Fb*
CL = − ⎢ ⎥ − = 0.850
b

## 1.9 ⎢ 1.9 ⎥ 0.95

⎣ ⎦
+'
Fbx = 2760(0.850) = 2346 psi
M ' = Fbx+ ' ⋅ S = 31.2 ft ⋅ k
4M '
P' = = 4.96 k
L
+
b. Fbxn = 2.40 K F = 6.10 ksi; E y min n = .83 x10 3 K F = 1.465 x10 3 ksi
S = 159.8 in.3
1 1 1
⎛ 21 ⎞ 20 ⎛ 12 ⎞ 20 ⎛ 5.125 ⎞ 20
Cv = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = .998;
⎝L⎠ ⎝d ⎠ ⎝ b ⎠
E ' y min n = 1.465 x10 3 (.85) = 1.245 x10 3 ksi
le ⋅d 1.2 E y' min n
RB = = 18.18 ; F = = 4.52 ksi
b2 Rb2
bEn

*
Fbxn = 6.10(.85)(.8) = 4.15 ksi
Chapter 6 Solutions
Page 19 of 29

2
1+
FbEn ⎡1 + FbEn ⎤ FbEn
Fbn* ⎢ Fbn* ⎥ Fbn*
CL = − ⎢ ⎥ − = 0.850
1.9 ⎢ 1 . 9 ⎥ 0 . 95
⎣ ⎦
+'
use CL vs. Cv; Fbxn = 4.15(0.850 ) = 3.53 ksi
+'
M u = Fbxn ⋅ S = 46.94 k-ft
4M u
Pu = = 7.51 k
L

## See Problem 6.29

6.31 bearing width = 3.5 in.; bearing length = 1.5 in.; Ab = 5.25 in2
P 700
a. bearing stress; f c = = = 133psi
A 5.25
b. Lb = 1.5 < 6.00
L + 0.375
Cb = b = 1.25 ; Fc⊥ = 335 psi ; CD = 1.0 for Fc ⊥
Lb
Fc'⊥ = 335(1.25) = 419 psi > 133 psi ok
⎛ 12 ⎞
c. θ = tan-1 ⎜ ⎟ = 63.435 0 ; Fc = 1050 psi ; C D = 1.15
⎝6⎠
Fc' = 1050(1.15) = 1207 psi
Fc' Fc'⊥
Fθ' = = 482 psi > 133 psi ok
Fc' sin 2 θ + Fc'⊥ cos 2 θ

## d. Pu = 1.2(.140) + 1.6(.560) = 1.064 k

e. Lb = 1.5 < 6.00
L + 0.375
Cb = b = 1.25 ; Fc ⊥n = .335K F = .697 ksi
Lb
Fc'⊥n = .697(1.25)(.9)(.8) = .627 ksi
Pc'⊥n = .627(5.25in 2 ) = 3.29 k > 1.064k
⎛ 12 ⎞
f. θ = tan-1 ⎜ ⎟ = 63.435 0 ; Fcn = 1.05K F = 2.52 ksi
⎝6⎠
Fcn = 2.52(.9)(.8) = 1.81 ksi
'

Fcn' Fc'⊥n
Fθ'n = = .721 ksi
Fcn' sin 2 θ + Fc'⊥n cos 2 θ
Pθ'n = .721(5.25) = 3.79 k
Chapter 6 Solutions
Page 20 of 29

## 6.32 C D = 1.25 , Fc⊥ = 625 psi ; Fc = 1350 psi

a. f c = 133 psi (see Problem 6.31)
b. C b = 1.25 (see 6.32); C M = 0.67 ; No CD for comp. perp. to grain
Fc'⊥ = 625(1.25)(0.67) = 523 psi
c. θ = 45 0 ; CM = 0.8; Fc' = 1350(C D )(C M ) = 1350 psi
Fc' Fc'⊥
Fθ' = = 754 psi > 133 psi ok
Fc' sin 2 θ + Fc'⊥ cos 2 θ
d. Pu = 1.2(.140) + 1.6(.560) = 1.064 k
L + 0.375
e. Cb = b = 1.25 ; Fc ⊥n = .625K F = 1.30 ksi
Lb
Fc'⊥n = 1.30(1.25)(.67)(.9)(.8) = .785ksi
Pc'⊥n = .785(5.25in 2 ) = 4.12k > 1.064k ok
⎛ 12 ⎞
f. θ = tan-1 ⎜ ⎟ = 45 0 ; Fcn = 1.35K F = 3.24 ksi
⎝ 12 ⎠
Fcn = 3.24(.8)(.9)(.8) = 1.87ksi
'

Fcn' Fc'⊥n
Fθ'n = = 1.11 ksi
Fcn' sin 2 θ + Fnc' ⊥ cos 2 θ
Pθ'n = 1.11(5.25) = 5.80 > 1.064 k ok

## 6.33 a. Fc⊥ = 625 psi ; b = 3.5”; A = 12” > 3”, B = Lb = 5” < 6”

L + 0.375
Cb = b = 1.075
Lb
Fc'⊥ = 625(1.075) = 672 psi; R = Fc'⊥ ⋅ b ⋅ Lb = 11,758 lb.
b. Fc⊥ = 650 psi; b = 5.125" ; A = 0" < 3" ; B = Lb = 12" > 6" Cb =1.0
C M = 0.53; Fc'⊥ = 650(0.53) = 345 psi
R = Fc'⊥ ⋅ b ⋅ Lb = 21,187 lb
c. Fc⊥ = 625 psi; b = 5.5" ; A = 8" > 3" ; B = Lb = 10" > 6" C b = 1. 0
'
C M = 0.67; Fc⊥ = 625(0.67) = 419 psi
R = Fc'⊥ ⋅ b ⋅ Lb = 23,031 lb.
d. 0.04 in.

## 6.34 a. Fc ⊥ n = .625K F = 1.30 ksi ; b=3.5”; A = 12” > 3”, B = Lb = 5” < 6”

L + 0.375
Cb = b = 1.075
Lb
Chapter 6 Solutions
Page 21 of 29

## Fc'⊥n = 1.30(1.075)(.9)(.8) = 1.01 ksi; Ru = Fc'⊥n ⋅ b ⋅ Lb = 17.6 k

b. Fc ⊥ n = .650K F = 1.35 ksi; b = 5.125" ; A = 0" < 3" ; B = Lb = 12" > 6"
Cb =1.0
C M = 0.53; Fc'⊥n = 1.35(0.53)(.9)(.8) = .516 ksi
Ru = Fc'⊥n ⋅ b ⋅ Lb = 31.8 k
c. Fc ⊥ n = .625K F = 1.30 ksi; b = 5.5";
A = 8" > 3" ; B = Lb = 10" > 6" C b = 1.0
'
C M = 0.67; Fc ⊥n = 1.30(0.67)(.9)(.8) = .628 ksi
Ru = Fc'⊥n ⋅ b ⋅ Lb = 34.5 k
d. 0.04 in.

+ −
6.35 From a structural analysis: M max = 32 k ⋅ ft; M max = −10.6 k ⋅ ft; Vmax = 5.3 k
S x = 324.8 in.3 ; A = 99.94 in.2
+
M max M− 3 Vmax
f b+ = = 1182 psi; f b− = max = 392 psi; f v = = 79.5 psi
S S 2 A
Fbx+ = 1600 psi; Fbx− = 925 psi; Fvx = 195 psi; C D = 1.15; E y min = 0.57 x10 6 psi
1 1 1
⎛ 21 ⎞ 10
⎛ 12 ⎞ 10
⎛ 5.25 ⎞ 10
Cv = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
⎝L⎠ ⎝d⎠ ⎝ b ⎠

Positive Moment:
Use L = 27.85 ft to inflection pt from structural analysis
CV = 0.926 (if L = 30, then Cv is conservative); CL = 1.0 ( full support)
Fbx+ ' = 1600(0.926)(1.15) = 1704 psi > 1182 psi ok

Negative Moment:
Use L = 6.15 ft to inflection pt; CV = 1.08>1; CV = 1.00
l
l u = 4 ft ; u = 2.462 < 7; l e = 1.87l u = 89.8 in.
d
le ⋅ d −
K bE ⋅ E y'
RB = = 8.17; Fbx = Fbx C D = 1064 psi; FbE =
*
2
= 10,264 psi
b2 RB
2
1+
FbE ⎡1 + FbE ⎤ FbE
Fb*
⎢ Fb ⎥
*
Fb*
CL = − ⎢ ⎥ − = 0.994
1.9 ⎢ 1.9 ⎥ 0.95
⎣ ⎦
−'
Fbx = 925(0.994)(1.15) = 1057 psi > 392 psi ok
Chapter 6 Solutions
Page 22 of 29

## Fvx' = 195(1.15) = 224 psi > 79.5 psi ok

+ −
6.36 From a structural analysis: M max = 48.5k ⋅ ft; M max = −16 k ⋅ ft; Vmax = 8 k
S x = 324.8 in.3 ; A = 99.94 in.2
+ −
Fbxn = 1.60K F = 4.07 ksi; Fbxn = .925K F = 2.35 ksi; Fvxn = .195 K F = .561 ksi;
E y min n = .57 x10 3 K F = 1x10 3 ksi
1 1 1
⎛ 21 ⎞ 10
⎛ 12 ⎞ 10
⎛ 5.25 ⎞ 10
Cv = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
⎝L⎠ ⎝d⎠ ⎝ b ⎠

Positive Moment:
Use L = 27.87 ft to inflection pt from structural analysis
CV = 0.926 (if L = 30, then Cv is conservative); CL = 1.0 ( full support)
+'
Fbxn = 4.07(0.926)(.85)(.8) = 2.56 ksi
' +'
M n = Fbxn ⋅ S = 69.29 k - ft > 48.5 k-ft bending ok

Negative Moment:
Use L = 6.13 ft to inflection pt; CV = 1.00
l
l u = 4 ft ; u = 2.462 < 7; l e = 1.87l u = 89.8 in.
d
l ⋅d
R B = e 2 = 8.17; Fbxn *
= 2.53(.85)(.8) = 1.60 ksi;
b
E y' min n = 1x10 3 (.85) = 855 ksi;
1.2 E y' min n
FbEn = 2
= 15.37 ksi
RB
2
1+
FbE ⎡1 + FbE ⎤ FbE
Fb* ⎢ Fb* ⎥ Fb*
CL = − ⎢ ⎥ − = 0.994
1.9 ⎢ 1 . 9 ⎥ 0 . 95
⎣ ⎦
−'
Fbxn = 1.60(0.994) = 1.59 ksi
' −'
M n = Fbxn ⋅ S = 42.98 k - ft > 16 k-ft bending ok
F '
vxn = .561(.75)(.8) = .337 ksi
Vn' = (2 / 3)337(99.94) = 22.45 k > 8 k shear ok

## 6.37 a. AT = (2 ft)(8 ft) = 16 ft 2 < 200 ft 2 ; R' = 1 , R2 = 1 (flat); Lr = 20 psf

wD = (7.0 psf)(2 ft) = 14 plf; wLr = (20 psf)(2) = 40 plf; wTL = 54 plf
Fb = 1200 psi , Fv = 180 psi; E = 1.8x106 psi; C D = 1.25, C F = 1.5 , C r = 1.15
Chapter 6 Solutions
Page 23 of 29

## S = 3.06 in.3 , I = 5.36 in.4 , A = 5.25 in.2

Fb' = 1200(1.25)(1.5)(1.15) = 2588 psi
Fv' = 180(1.25) = 225 psi
L ⋅ 12
E ' = 1.8 x10 6 psi; Δ L = = 0.4 in; Δ L = 0.533 in.
240 240 180

w ⋅L 2
M
M = TL = 432 ft ⋅ lb = 5184 in ⋅ lb; f b = = 1694 psi < 2588 psi ok
8 S
w L 3V
V = TL = 216 lb; f v = = 61.7 psi < 225 psi ok
2 2A
5wLr L4
Δ Lr = = 0.382 in. < 0.4 in. ok
384 E ' I
5w L4
Δ TL = TL ' = 0.516 in. < 0.533 in. ok
384 E I

## b. AT = (20 ft)(8' ) = 160 ft 2 < 200 ft 2 ; R' = 1 , R2 = 1 (flat ); Lr = 20 psf

wD = (8.5 psf)(8 ft) = 68 plf ; wLr = (20)(8) = 160 plf ; wTL = 228 plf
A = 46.38 in.2 ; S = 102.41 in.3 ; I = 678.48 in 4
Fb = 1200 psi , Fv = 180 psi , E = 1.8 x10 6 psi , C D = 1.25 , C F = C r = 1.0
Fb' = 1200(1.25) = 1500 psi ; Fv' = 180(1.25) = 225 psi
E ' = 1.8 x10 6 psi; Δ L = 1.0 in. , Δ L = 1.33 in.
240 180
wTL ⋅ L M
M= = 11400 ft ⋅ lb; 136,800 in ⋅ lb; f b = = 1336 psi < 1500 psi ok
8 S
w ⋅L 3V
V = TL = 2280 lb ; f v = = 73.7 psi < 225 psi ok
2 2A
5wLr L4
Δ Lr = = 0.472 in. < 1.0 in. ok
384 E ' I
Δ TL = 0.672 in. < 1.33 in. ok

## c. AT = (50)(20) = 1000 ft 2 > 600 ft 2 ; R' = 0.6 ; R2 = 1.0 ; Lr = 20(0.6) = 12 psf

wD = (10)(20) = 200 plf ; wLr = 12(20) = 240 plf ; wTL = 440 plf
Fbx+ = 2400 psi , Fvx = 265 psi ; E x = 1.8x106 psi
1
Assume a 5 x 30 ; A = 153.75 in.2 , S = 768.8 in.3 , I = 11531.9 in.4
8
1 1 1
⎛ 21 ⎞ 10 ⎛ 12 ⎞ 10 ⎛ 5.125 ⎞ 10
C D = 1.25 ; C v = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 0.837
⎝L⎠ ⎝d⎠ ⎝ b ⎠
Fb' = 2400(1.25)(0.837) = 2510 psi
Fv' = 265(1.25) = 331 psi
Chapter 6 Solutions
Page 24 of 29

## E ' = 1.8x10 6 psi ; Δ L = 2.5 in. ; ΔL = 3.33 in.

240 180
wTL ⋅ L
M= = 137,500 ft ⋅ lb = 1.65(106 ) in. ⋅ lb ;
8
M
fb = = 2146 psi < 2510 psi ok
S
w ⋅L 3V
V = TL = 11,000 lb; f v = = 107.3 psi < 331 psi ok
8 2A
5wLr L4
Δ Lr = = 1.63 in. < 2.5 in. ok
384 E ' I
Δ TL = 2.98 in. < 3.33 in. ok

## d(a). LRFD design

AT = ( 2 ft)(8 ft) = 16 ft 2 < 200 ft 2 ; R' = 1 , R2 = 1 (flat); Lr = 20 psf
wD = (7.0 psf)(2 ft) = 14 plf; wLr = (20 psf)(2) = 40 plf; wu = 80.8 plf
Fbn = 1.20K F = 3.05 ksi , Fvn = .180K F = .518 ksi; En = 1.8x103 ksi;
C F = 1.5 , C r = 1.15
S = 3.06 in.3 , I = 5.36 in.4 , A = 5.25 in.2
Fbn' = 3.05(1.5)(1.15)(.85)(.8) = 3.58 ksi
Fvn' = 1.52(.75)(.8) = .311 ksi
M’n = F’bnS = .912 k-ft
V’n =(2/3)F’vnA = 1.09 k
L ⋅ 12
E ' = 1.8 x10 3 ksi; Δ L = = 0.4 in; Δ L = 0.533 in.
240 240 180

w ⋅L 2
Mu = u = .646 k − ft < .912 bending ok
8
wL
Vu = u = .323 k < 1.09 shear ok
2
5wLr L4
Δ Lr = = 0.382 in. < 0.4 in. ok
384 E ' I
5w L4
Δ TL = TL ' = 0.516 in. < 0.533 in. ok
384 E I

## d(b). AT = ( 20 ft)(8' ) = 160 ft 2 < 200 ft 2 ; R' = 1 , R2 = 1 (flat ); Lr = 20 psf

wD = (8.5 psf)(8 ft) = 68 plf ; wLr = (.020)(8) = .160 klf ; wu = .338 klf
A = 46.38 in.2 ; S = 102.41 in.3 ; I = 678.48 in 4
Fbn = 1.20K F = 3.05 psi , Fvn = .180K F = .518 ksi; En = 1.8x103 ksi;
C F = C r = 1.0
Fbn' = 3.05(.85)(.8) = 2.07 ksi
Chapter 6 Solutions
Page 25 of 29

## Fvn' = .518(.75)(.8) = .311 ksi

M’n = F’bnS = 17.69 k-ft
V’n =(2/3)F’vnA = 9.62 k
'
E n = 1.8 x10 3 ksi; Δ L = 1.0 in. , Δ L = 1.33 in.
240 180

wu ⋅ L2
Mu = = 16.88 k − ft < 17.69 bending ok
8
wL
Vu = u = 3.38 k < 9.62 shear ok
2
5wLr L4
Δ Lr = = 0.472 in. < 1.0 in. ok
384 E ' I
Δ TL = 0.672 in. < 1.33 in. ok

## d(c). AT = (50)(20) = 1000 ft 2 > 600 ft 2 ; R1 = 0.6 ; R2 = 1.0 ; Lr = 20(0.6) = 12 psf

wD = (10)(20) = .200 klf ; wLr = 12(20) = .24 klf ; wu = .624 klf
+
Fbxn = 2.40K F = 6.10 ksi , Fvxn = .265 K F = .763 ksi ; E xn = 1.8x10 3 ksi
1
Assume a 5 x 30 ; A = 153.76 in.2 , S = 768.8 in.3 , I = 11531.9 in.4
8
1 1 1
⎛ 21 ⎞ 10 ⎛ 12 ⎞ 10 ⎛ 5.125 ⎞ 10
Cv = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 0.837
⎝L⎠ ⎝d⎠ ⎝ b ⎠
'+
Fbxn = 6.10(.837)(.85)(.8) = 3.47 ksi
Fvn' = .763(.75)(.8) = .458 ksi
M’n = F’bnS = 222 k-ft
V’n =(2/3)F’vnA = 46.95k
E ' n = 1.8x10 6 psi ; Δ L = 2.5 in. ; ΔL = 3.33 in.
240 180

wu ⋅ L2
Mu = = 195 k − ft < 222 bending ok
8
wL
Vu = u = 15.6 k < 46.95 shear ok
2

5wLr L4
Δ Lr = = 1.63 in. < 2.5 in. ok
384 E ' I
Δ TL = 2.98 in. < 3.33 in. ok

6.38 Fbx+ = Fbx− = 2000 psi (bal. layup); Fvx = 210 psi ; E x = 1.5x106 psi ;
E y = 1.2 x10 6 psi
a. WD = (16 psf)(24' ) = 384 plf ; WLr = (20 psf)(24') = 480 plf ; WTL = 864 plf
Chapter 6 Solutions
Page 26 of 29

## Optimum Cantilever: Lc = 0.172 ⋅ L = 6.88 ft

From structural analysis: Vmax = 20.25 k ; M max = M max = 118.5 k ⋅ ft
1
Assume 5 x 28.5 ; A = 146.1 in.2, S = 693.8 in.3; I = 9886.6 in.4
8 1 1 1
⎛ 21 ⎞ 10 ⎛ 12 ⎞ 10 ⎛ S .125 ⎞ 10
C D = 1.25 ; C v = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 0.876
⎝L⎠ ⎝d⎠ ⎝ d ⎠
lateral stability: assume lateral support at column. l u = 6.88 ft
lu le ⋅d
= 2 .9 < 7 ; l e = 154.4 in. ; RB = = 12.94
d b2
6 1.2 ⋅ E y' min
E '
y min = .62x10^ psi; FbE = 2
= 4443 psi ;
RB
Fbx* = (2000)(1.25) = 2500 psi
2
1+
FbE ⎡1 + FbE ⎤ FbE
FbE Fbx* ⎢ Fbx* ⎥ Fbx*
= 1749 ; CL = − ⎢ ⎥ − = 0.946
Fbx* 1.9 1.9 0.95
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
Use CV, not CL
Fbx' = 2500(0.876) = 2191 psi
M
fb = = 2055 psi < 2191 psi ok
S
Fvx' = Fvx ⋅ C D = 237 psi
3V
fv = = 208 psi < 237 psi ok
2A
1
5 x 28.5 20F – 1.5E Balanced DF glulam (Member AD)
8

## b. Lc = 0.2L = 8 ft (optimum Lc changes when unbal. loading is considered)

Suspended load: Lsus = L – Lc = 32 ft; AT = 32 x 24 = 768ft 2 > 600
Lr = 20 R' R2 = 20(0.6)(1.0) = 12 psf ; WLr = 12(24) = 288 plf
WTL = 672 plf ; with reduced Lr , must check unbal. load from analysis:
1. Full D + Lr on all spans:
+ −
Vmax = 16.13k ; M max = 86k ⋅ ft ; M max = 107.6k ⋅ ft
2. Lr on left span only:
+ −
Vmax = 11.9k ; M max = 105.4k ⋅ ft ; M max = 61.8k ⋅ ft
3. Lr on right span only:
+ −
Vmax = 16.12k ; M max = 86k ⋅ ft ; M max = 108k ⋅ ft
+ −
Design for Vmax = 16.13k , M max = 105.4k ⋅ ft ; M max = 108k ⋅ ft
Chapter 6 Solutions
Page 27 of 29

Fbx+ = Fbx− = 2000 psi (bal. layup); Fvx = 190 psi ; E x = 1.5x106 psi ;
E y = 1.2 x10 6 psi
1
Assume same size as “a”, 5 x 28.5 , CV = 0.876
8
l u = 14ft (critical distance from column to inflection pt, load case 3)
lu le ⋅d
= 6.2 < 7 l e = 1.87l u = 314.2 in. ; R B = = 17.97
d b2
6 1.2 ⋅ E y' min
E '
y min = .62x10^ psi; FbE = 2
= 2304 psi ; Fbx* = Fbx ⋅ C D = 2500 psi
Rb
2
1+
FbE ⎡1 + FbE ⎤ FbE
Fb*
⎢ Fb ⎥
*
Fb*
CL = − ⎢ ⎥ − = 0.782 , use CL vs. CV
1.9 ⎢ 1.9 ⎥ 0.95
⎣ ⎦
Fbx = 2500(0.782) = 1955 psi
'

M 108
fb = = = 1868 psi < 1955 psi ok
S 693.8
Fvx' = 237 psi
3V
fv = = 165 psi < 237 psi ok
2A

+ −
c. Fbxn = Fbxn = 2.00K F = 5.08 ksi (bal. layup); Fvxn = .210 K F = .605 ksi ;
E xn = 1.5x10 3 ksi ; E y min n = .62 x103K F = 1.09x10 3 ksi
WD = (.016 ksf)(24' ) = .384 klf ; WLr = (.020 ksf)(24' ) = .480 klf ;
Wu = 1.23 klf
Optimum Cantilever: Lc = 0.172 ⋅ L = 6.88 ft
+ −
From structural analysis: Vmax = 28.83 k ; M max = M max = 169.25 k ⋅ ft
1
Assume 5 x 28.5 ; A = 146.1 in.2, S = 693.8 in.3; I = 9886.6 in.4
81 1 1
⎛ 21 ⎞ 10 ⎛ 12 ⎞ 10 ⎛ S .125 ⎞ 10
Cv = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 0.876
⎝L⎠ ⎝d⎠ ⎝ d ⎠
lateral stability: assume lateral support at column. l u = 6.88 ft
lu le ⋅d
= 2.9 < 7 ; l e = 154.4 in. ; R B = = 12.94
d b2
E y' min n = 1.09x10 3 (.85) = .93x10 3 ksi
1.2 E y' min n
FbEn = 2
= 6.67 ksi ; Fbxn
*
= 5.08(.85)(.8) = 3.46 ksi
RB
Chapter 6 Solutions
Page 28 of 29

2
1+
FbE ⎡1 + FbE ⎤ FbE
Fbx* ⎢ Fbx* ⎥ Fbx*
CL = − ⎢ ⎥ − = 0.973
1.9 ⎢ 1 .9 ⎥ 0.95
⎣ ⎦
Use CV, not CL
Fbxn'
= 3.46(0.876) = 3.03 ksi
M n = F’bnS = 175 k-ft > 169.25 k-ft

bending ok
'
Fvxn = 605(.75)(.8) = .363 ksi
V’n =(2/3)F’vnA = 35.36 k > 28.83 k shear ok
1
5 x 28.5 20F – 1.5E Balanced DF glulam (Member AD)
8

## d. Lc = 0.2L = 8 ft (optimum Lc changes when unbal. loading is considered)

Suspended load: Lsus = L – Lc = 32 ft; AT = 32 x 24 = 768ft 2 > 600
Lr = 20 R' R2 = 20(0.6)(1.0) = .012 ksf ; WLr = 12(24) = .288 klf
Wd = 1.2(.384) = .46 klf
Wu = .922 klf ; with reduced Lr , must check unbal. load from analysis:
4. Full D + Lr on all spans:
+ −
Vmax = 22.12k ; M max = 118k ⋅ ft ; M max = 147.28k ⋅ ft
5. Lr on left span only:
+ −
Vmax = 20.27 k ; M max = 14.32k ⋅ ft ; M max = 73.68k ⋅ ft
6. Lr on right span only:
+ −
Vmax = 22.12k ; M max = 33k ⋅ ft ; M max = 147.28k ⋅ ft
+ −
Design for Vmax = 22.12k , M max = 149.32k ⋅ ft ; M max = 147.28k ⋅ ft
+ −
Fbxn = Fbxn = 2.00K F = 5.08 ksi (bal. layup); Fvxn = .210 K F = . 605 ksi ;
E x = 1.5x103 ksi ; E y min n = .62 x10 3 K F = 1.09x10 3 ksi
1
Assume same size as “a”, 5 x 28.5 , CV = 0.876
8
l u = 16ft (critical distance from column to inflection pt, load case 3)
lu le ⋅d
= 6.74 < 7 l e = 1.87l u = 359.04 in. ; RB = = 19.74
d b2
1.2 E y' min n
FbEn = 2
= 2.86 ksi ; Fbxn
*
= 5082(.85)(.8) = 3.46ksi
RB
2
1+
FbEn ⎡1 + FbEn ⎤ FbEn
Fbn* ⎢ Fbn* ⎥ Fbn*
CL = − ⎢ ⎥ − = 0.73 , use CL vs. CV
1.9 ⎢ 1.9 ⎥ 0.95
⎣ ⎦
'−
Fbxn = 3.46(0.730) = 2.53 ksi
Chapter 6 Solutions
Page 29 of 29

M’n = Fbxn
'−
S = 146.1 k-ft > 147.28 k-ft bending no good
F = .605(.75)(.8) = .363 ksi
'
vxn
V’n =(2/3)F’vnA = 35.36 k > 22.13 k shear ok