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PRINCIPLES

of
COOKING
COOKING
• Cooking can be defined as the transfer of
energy from a heat source to a food.
• Energy alters the food’s molecular
structure, changes its texture, flavor,
aroma, and appearance.
• When food is cooked, the process
destroys microorganisms and makes
food easier to ingest and digest.
Heat Transfer
To cook foods successfully, you must understand
the ways in which heat is transferred: conduction,
convection & radiation.
CONDUCTION

• The transfer of heat between substances


that are in direct contact with each other.
The better the conductor, the more rapidly
heat will transfer
CONVECTION
• the transfer of heat from one place to
another by the movement of fluids, a
process that is essentially the transfer of
heat via mass transfer.
RADIATION
• Radiant heat is transferred in the form of
electromagnetic waves or particles from a
hot object, such as the heating element of
your broiler or toaster, to food. This
transmission does not need the help of
a medium like water or air.
EFFECTS of HEAT
Proteins coagulate
EFFECTS of HEAT
Starches gelatinize
EFFECTS of HEAT
Sugars caramelize
EFFECTS of HEAT
Water evaporates
EFFECTS of HEAT
Fats melt
Cooking Methods
• Dry-heat
• Moist-heat
• Combination
Dry Heat Cooking Methods
Any cooking method that does not
use moisture as a cooking medium
Dry Heat Cooking Methods

Broiling
- uses radiant heat
from an overhead
source to cook
foods.
Dry Heat Cooking Methods
• Grilling - is a dry heat
cooking method similar
to broiling, except
grilling uses a heat
source beneath the
cooking surface.
Dry Heat Cooking Methods
• Baking - dry heat cooking
methods surround the food with
dry, heated air in a closed
environment. Heat is transferred
by convection to the food's
surface, and then penetrates the
food by conduction. The
surface dehydrates, and the
food browns from
caramelization.
Dry Heat Cooking Methods
• Roasting – cook
usually in an enclosed
unit such as oven or
barbecue pit or on a
revolving spit before an
open flame.
» Searing method
» Low temperature or
constant heat
temperature
» Resting
Dry Heat Cooking Methods
• Sautéing - is a dry heat
cooking method that uses
conduction to transfer heat from
a hot saute pan to food with the
aid of a small amount of fat.
Foods are usually cut into small
pieces and high temperatures
are used in sauteing.
• Stir-frying is a variation
of sauteing. A wok is used
instead of a saute pan.
Dry Heat Cooking Methods
• Pan-Frying - is similar to
sautéing and deep-frying. It
is a dry heat cooking
method in which heat is
transferred by conduction
from the pan to the food,
using a moderate amount
of fat. Foods to be pan-
fryed are usually breaded.
Dry Heat Cooking Methods

• Deep-Frying - is a dry
heat cooking method
that uses conduction
and convection to
transfer heat to food
submerged in hot fat.
Deep Frying Methods

1. Basket method - Product is placed in the


basket and lowered into the fat in the basket.
2. Double basket method- Same as 1., but a
second basket is placed over the product to
keep it from floating.
3. Swimming method- product is dropped directly
into the fat and allowed to float freely; usually
done with battered foods that might stick to the
basket
Moist Heat
Cooking Methods
Use water or steam to transfer
heat through convection
Moist Heat
Cooking Methods
• Poaching- to gently cook in flavored
liquid. It usually applies to eggs, fruit,
or fish. These foods do not require
lengthy cooking times.
» The food is placed in a liquid at
temperatures between 160 –
180°F. The surface of the liquid
should show slight movement,
but no bubbles.
Two Methods of Poaching
• Submersion poaching means the food is
completely covered with the liquid.
• Shallow poaching means the food is
placed in just enough liquid to come
halfway up the sides. Shallow poaching
combines aspects of poaching and
steaming.
Moist Heat
Cooking Methods
• Simmering - is one of the
most widely used moist heat
cooking methods. Properly
simmered foods should be
very moist and tender. The
liquid temperature should be
from 185 - 205 °F.
Moist Heat
Cooking Methods
• Blanch - to scald or parboil in water or
steam
– process wherein the food substance, usually
a vegetable or fruit, is plunged
into boiling water, removed after a brief, timed
interval, and finally plunged into iced water or
placed under cold running water (shocked) to
halt the cooking process.
Moist Heat
Cooking Methods
• Boiling - is probably the most
widely used of the moist heat
cooking methods. It uses the
process of convection to
transfer heat from a liquid to a
food. Boiling uses large
amounts of rapidly bubbling
liquid to cook foods.
Moist Heat
Cooking Methods
• Steaming- is a moist heat
method that uses the steam to
the food being cooked. Fish &
vegetables are most
associated with steaming.
Steaming tends to enhance
a food's natural flavor and
helps retain its nutrients.
Combination Cooking Methods
These involve both dry and
moist heat cooking methods.
Combination Cooking Methods
• Braising – to cook meat by browning in fat and
simmering gently in a covered pan with a liquid.
» Foods to be braised are usually large pieces such
as meats.
Combination Cooking Methods

• Stewing - usually uses smaller pieces of


food, which are first cooked either by
browning in fat or oil. Cooking is finished
in a liquid or sauce.
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