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INGLÉS TÉCNICO

MÓDULO ÚNICO
CARRERA: ADMINISTRACIÓN DE EMPRESAS
CURSO: 3º AÑO
CONTADOR PÚBLICO
CURSO: 4º AÑO
PROFESORA:
GRACIELA FIGUEROA DE MORALEDA
SALTA - 2011

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Educación
A DISTANCIA

AUTORIDADES DE LA UNIVERSIDAD

CANCILLER

Su Excelencia Reverendísima
Mons. MARIO ANTONIO CARGNELLO
Arzobispo de Salta

RECTOR

Pbro. Licenciado JORGE ANTONIO MANZARÁZ

VICE-RECTOR ACADÉMICO

Mg. MARÍA ISABEL VIRGILI de RODRÍGUEZ

VICE-RECTOR ADMINISTRATIVO
ADMINISTRA

Ing. MANUEL CORNEJO TORINO

SECRETARIA GENER
SECRETARIA AL
GENERAL

Dra. ADRIANA IBARGUREN

DELEG ADO RECTOR


DELEGADO AL
RECTORAL
del S.E.A.D.

Dr. OMAR CARRANZA

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Indice general

CurrIculum Vitae ............................................. 9 Lesson 3 (Lección 3) ................................... 50


I. Fundamentos ............................................. 13 The Layout of the Company
II. Objetivos ................................................... 13 (El trazado de la compañía)...................... 50
III. Programa de la Asignatura ....................... 14 Buildings in a company
(Edificar una compañía) ........................... 50
IV. Bibliografía ............................................... 16
Extra Practice ............................................... 53
V. Presentación de la asignatura .................. 17
VI. Evaluación y condición para la
regularización ........................................... 19 UNIT III
VII. Guía de trabajos para módulos y apéndice Lesson 1 (Lección 1) .................................... 55
de traducción ............................................ 20 Meeting and Welcoming (Encuentros y
Bienvenidas) ............................................. 55
UNIT I Lesson 2 (Lección 2) .................................... 59
Lesson 1 (Lección 1) .................................... 23 Describing business activities
(Describiendo actividades de negocios) .. 59
Greetings: Saludos ....................................... 23
An invitation for dinner (Una invitacion
Introductions: Presentaciones ...................... 23
para cenar) ............................................... 60
Welcoming: Dando la bienvenida .................. 24
Activities in the office
Asking and giving the name .......................... 24 (Actividades en la oficina) ........................ 60
Lesson 2 (Lección 2) ................................... 26 Activities at the weekend (Actividades el
Asking about cities, countries and fin de semana) .......................................... 60
nationalities (Preguntando sobre Days of the week (Días de la semana) ......... 61
ciudades, países y nacionalidades) ......... 26
Frequency adverbs (Adverbios de
Sking and answering about companies. frecuencia) ................................................ 61
(Preguntando y respondiendo sobre
Grammar structures (See Grammar notes) .. 61
compañías) ............................................... 27
Lesson 3 (Lección 3) .................................... 65
Talking about jobs
(Hablando sobre empleos) ....................... 27 Saying Goodbye (Despidiéndose) ................ 65
Talking about departments in a company Months of the Year ........................................ 65
(hablando sobre Extra Practice ............................................... 68
departamentos/secciones GRAMMAR NOTES ..................................... 71
en una compañía.) .................................... 28
To be - Past tense, negative form
Lesson 3 (Lección 3) .................................... 33 (pasado negativo) ..................................... 81
The Alphabet (El alfabeto) ............................. 33 To be: Past tense, question form
Numbers: 0 to 10 (Números 0 a 10) .............. 33 (Pasado - Forma interrogativa) ................. 81
Numbers: 11 to 100 ....................................... 33 Past tense - Regular Verbs
The time: (La hora) ........................................ 34 (Tiempo Pasado - Verbos regulares) ....... 83
Extra practice ................................................ 38 Past tense: negative form
(Pasado - Forma negativa) ....................... 84
Used to .......................................................... 87
UNIT II
To be + born (nacer) ..................................... 87
Lesson1(Lección1) ....................................... 41
Future tense with “will”
You and your company ................................. 41
(Tiempo futuro con “will”) .......................... 88
Lesson 2 (Lección 2) .................................... 47
Ordinal numbers (Números de orden) .......... 47
APÉNDICE DE TRADUCCIÓN
Numbers 100 to 1000
(Números 100 a 1000) .............................. 47 CAPÍTULO I
Talking about the office (Hablando El artículo indefinido “a” - “an” ....................... 93
hacerca de la oficina) ............................... 47 Plurales ......................................................... 93

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CAPÍTULO II Forma pasiva con “ought to”:
Pronombres personales (sujeto) ................... 97 ought to be + participio ........................... 131
El verbo To be (irregular) .............................. 97 Formas impersonales con “ought to” ......... 131
Verbo To be como ser. Ejercicios ................. 97 Forma pasiva con “should”:
should be + participio pasado ................. 132
Verbo “To be” como estar ............................. 98
Formas impersonales con “should” ............. 132
Verbo “To be” Forma negativa ..................... 99
Forma pasiva con “used to”: ....................... 134
Las formas abreviadas del verbo “To be” ..... 99
Formas impersonales con “used to” ........... 134
“To be” con adjetivos. Ejercicios ................. 100
Otras traducciones de “To be” .................... 100
CAPÍTULO IX
To be: Simple Past Tense
(Pretérito Imperfecto) .............................. 103 El imperativo................................................ 137

CAPÍTULO III CAPÍTULO X


"There is"; "There are": Hay ........................ 105 El tiempo “Present Simple” .......................... 139
There was, There were: hubo, había .......... 105 El tiempo “Past Simple” ............................... 140
“Some, Any” ................................................ 105 Formas impersonales con
“Present Simple” y “Past Simple” ........... 142
The adjective and the adverb: el adjetivo y
CAPÍTULO IV
el adverbio .............................................. 143
Partes principales del verbo ........................ 109
El adverbio .................................................. 144
Grados de comparación del adjetivo y del
CAPÍTULO V adverbio .................................................. 145
Los tiempos “continuos” .............................. 111 Grado Superlativo ....................................... 147
“Present Continuous” con sentido de futuro 112 Adjetivos y adverbios que forman
“Going to” .................................................... 112 comparativo y superlativo
irregularmente ......................................... 148
CAPÍTULO VI Traducción de adverbios y frases
adverbiales ............................................. 149
Voz pasiva .................................................. 113
Palabras en función adjetiva ....................... 150
Los tiempos perfectos ................................. 150
CAPÍTULO VII
Past Perfect ................................................ 152
Pronombres ................................................ 115
Present and Past Perfect Continuous ......... 154
Adjetivos Posesivos ................................... 116
Formas pasivas de los tiempos “Present
Pronombres Posesivos ............................... 116 Perfect” y “Past Perfect” ........................ 154
Pronombres Reflexivos ............................... 118 Formas impersonales de los tiempos
Pronombres y adjetivos demostrativos ....... 119 “Present Perfect” y “Past Perfect” .......... 155
Pronombres recíprocos .............................. 120 Verbos defectivos con “Perfect Tenses” .... 156
Pronombres relativos .................................. 121 Los tiempos futuros ..................................... 156
Omisiones de pronombres relativos ........... 122 Future Continuous ....................................... 157
Future Perfect ............................................. 158
CAPÍTULO VIII Formas pasivas del futuro ........................... 158
Verbos defectivos ....................................... 123 Formas impersonales del Futuro................. 158
Formas impersonales con “can” y “could” .. 125 La forma “ing” .............................................. 159
Formas de voz pasiva con “May” y “Might” 127 Forma pasiva presente ............................... 161
Formas impersonales con “May” y “Might” . 127 Formas perfectas ........................................ 161
Formas pasivas con “must” y “have to” ...... 129 Formas impersonales ................................. 162
Formas impersonales con “must” y Oraciones condicionales ............................. 162
“have to” ................................................ 130 “Ing” ............................................................. 163

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El infinitivo ................................................... 166 Lesson 3 (Lección 3) .................................. 222
Traducciones del infinitivo ........................... 166 Plans for the future (Planes para el futuro).. 222
Infinitivo pasivo ............................................ 167 Objectives of companies (Objetivos de
Infinitivo perfecto ......................................... 168 las compañías) ....................................... 223
Forma continua ........................................... 168 Extra Practice ............................................. 226
Revisión de los tiempos verbales
en voz pasiva ......................................... 169 WRITING
Uso del Diccionario ..................................... 173 First steps to business writing .................... 227
Writing messages ....................................... 227
UNIT IV Writing faxes ............................................... 227
Lesson 1 (Lección 1) .................................. 181 Writing e-mails ............................................. 228
Making arrangements (Planeando) ............. 181 Writing notes ............................................... 232
Prepositions: (Preposiciones) ..................... 182 Writing memos ............................................ 233
Dates ........................................................... 183 Writing a business letter .............................. 235
Lesson 2 (Lección 2) .................................. 187 BIBLIOGRAFÍA ........................................... 239
Confirming arrangements INTRODUCCIÓN ....................................... 240
(Confirmando planes) ............................. 187 ¿Cómo facilitar nuestro trabajo de
Lesson 3 (Lección 3) .................................. 190 traducción? ............................................. 240
Making excuses (Disculpándose) ............... 190 Formación de palabras................................ 242
Apologies (Disculpas) ................................. 190 Accidentes gramaticales ............................. 243
Excuses (Excusas) .................................... 190 Composición ............................................... 244
Accepting apologies Ubicación de la palabra en la oración ......... 245
(Aceptando disculpas) ............................ 190 El Sustantivo ............................................... 247
Grammar Structures: El Verbo ...................................................... 247
See Grammar Notes .............................. 191
Palabras que acompañan al verbo .............. 248
Extra Practice ............................................. 194
Recomendaciones para la lectura de
textos largos ........................................... 252
UNIT V Método para la lectura de textos largos ...... 254
Lesson 1 (Lección 1) .................................. 195 Técnicas de lectura ..................................... 255
Making and receiving calls .......................... 195 A business book ......................................... 258
Lesson 2 (Lección 2) .................................. 199 Human resources ....................................... 276
Directions (Direcciones) ............................. 199 key words ................................................... 276
Lesson 3 (Lección 3) .................................. 203 Cuestionario de Opinión .............................. 283
Entertaining ................................................. 203
Prices .......................................................... 204
Offers and requests .................................... 204
Drinks (Bebidas) ......................................... 204
Food (Alimentos) ......................................... 205
Desserts (Postres) ..................................... 206
Extra Activities ............................................ 210

UNIT VI
Lesson 1 (Lección 1) .................................. 213
Your background (Su historia personal) ..... 213
Lesson 2 (Lección 2) .................................. 218
Company History ........................................ 218

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CurrIculum Vitae
Datos Personales

Apellido y Nombres: Figueroa de Moraleda, Alicia Graciela


D.N.I: 11.283.789
Domicilio: San Juan 2.044 - Salta
Teléfono: 4316788
Lugar y Fecha de Nacimiento: Salta, 30 de Setiembre de 1.954
Estado Civil: Casada
Estudios Primarios: Colegio Nuestra Señora del Huerto
Estudios Secundarios: Colegio Nuestra Señora del Huerto
Estudios Universitarios: Universidad Católica de Salta
Títulos: Profesora en Inglés
Certificado de la Universidad de Oxford (The Oxford Examination in
English as a Foreign Languaje- Preliminary Level)

Cargos Ocupados

- Escuela de Manualidades “Dr. Joaquín Castellanos” -Profesora de In-


glés-
- I.C.I.S (Instituto de Cultura Inglesa Salta) -Profesora de Inglés-
- E.N.E.T Nº 42 “Alberto Einstein” - Jefa Departamento de Inglés-
- Instituto Secundario “Hernando de Lerma” -Profesora de Inglés.
- I.S.I.C.A.N.A -Profesora Niños, adolescentes y adultos-
- I.S.I.C.A.N.A -Secretaria Docente-
- I.S.I.C.A.N.A -Vice Directora-
-.I.S.I.C.A.N.A -Vice Rectora del Profesorado para la Enseñanza de la
Lengua Inglesa a nivel inicial y primario.
- I.S.I.C.A.N.A (Profesorado de Inglés)
- Profesora de la cátedra “Metodología y Observación Pedagógica”
- Profesora de la cátedra “Metodología de la Práctica y Residencia Pe-
dagógica”
- Colegio Santa María - Jefa del Departamento de Inglés- EGB3 y
Polimodal.
- E.N.E.T Nº 42 “Alberto Einstein” -Profesora de Inglés-.

Cargos Actuales

- Colegio de Jesús -Profesora de Inglés-.


- Colegio Santa María -Profesora de Inglés-.

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- Directora de los Cursos de Inglés del Instituto "LIFE", auspiciados por
la Universidad Católica de Salta- Niños, jóvenes y adultos.
- Profesora de la Cátedra "Fundamentos de la Enseñanza y Aprendizaje
de Idiomas Extranjeros" - Universidad Católica de Salta.
- Profesora de la Cátedra "Lengua Inglesa I y II de la Carrera de Secre-
tariado Ejecutivo, Universidad Católica de Salta.
- Profesora de la Cátedra "Inglés Técnico" de la Carrera de Administra-
ción de Empresas, Universidad Católica de Salta.
- Profesora de la Cátedra "Lengua Inglesa I, II y III" de la carrera de
Relaciones Internacionales, Universidad Católica de Salta.
- Profesora de la Cátedra "Lengua Inglesa I y II de la Carrera de Rela-
ciones Pública, Universidad Católica de Salta.
- Directora de estudio Colegio de Jesús. 2006.

Cursos Realizados (posteriores a 1.980)

- Congreso Internacional de coordinadores de Inglés ABS. Bs.As. Agos-


to 2005 - 2006.
- Congreso Internacional de profesora de Inglés ABS. Bs.As. Agosto
2005 - 2006.
- CONTENT BASED INTRUCTION AND THE MÚLTIPLE
INTELLIGENCES. Curso taller. ISICANA, Setiembre, 2001.
- 14th ARTESOL CONVENTION. Annual International Seminar for
Teachers of English. Setiembre, 2000, Tucumán.
- 12th ARTESOL CONVENTION. Annual International Seminar for
Teachers of English. August,1998, Buenos Aires.
- Seminario “How accurate does your English have to be?” dictado por el
Prof. Richard Side, “The use of dictionaries in the English classroom” y
“A cross-curricular, content and task-based approach to the teaching
of English at the Third Cycle, EGB, dictados por la Prof. Martha Frenkel
de Frers.
- Conferencia del Dr. Henry Widdowson PhD: “English, whose English?
Defining the Subject”, auspiciada por Oxford University Press y The
British Council- Setiembre, 1999.
- Licenciatura en Inglés - Marzo a Diciembre, 1999 (Curso a finalizar año
2000).
- Conferencia “Your Classroom Project and Project in the Classroom” -
Agosto, 1998.
- Seminario Anual Internacional de Perfeccionamiento Docente para
Profesores de Inglés: “CBI IN ACTION” - Agosto de 1998.

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- 5th. Annual English Teachers and Students Congress - “Facing the
Challenges of the New Millennium. English for Everyone- Octubre,1997
- Fundación de las Américas- Conferencia “Poder Transformador” dicta-
da por el Licenciado Miguel Angel Cornejo y Rosado, consultor interna-
cional, fundador del Colegio de Graduados en Alta Dirección- Mexico
D.F. - Octubre de 1997.
- “New Ideas for Teaching Young Learners: Towards a Multi Sensory
Approach” (curso dictado por Herbert Puchta) Agosto, 1.994.-
- Primer Encuentro Argentino de Enseñanza de Inglés en la Escuela
Primaria (Disertante: Susan Halliwell) Longman Argentina- Abril, 1.994.
- Curso Taller “Teaching Esol” (George Wilcox)- Abril, 1.994.
- Curso Taller “The Power of Words” (Prof. Luis González). Octubre, 1.993.
- Seminario Nacional de Profesores de Inglés “It’s all a question of
Belief...and Beliefs” (Jane Revell)- Agosto, 1.993.
- Jornada de Estudio sobre la Ley Federal de Educación. Secretaría de
Educación- Agosto, 1.993.
- Curso Taller “Imagination can really make a difference”- Abril, 1.993.
- Seminario Anual Internacional de Perfeccionamiento Docente para
Profesores de Inglés “The Power of Words” (Prof. Stephen Krashen)
I.C.A.N.A Bs. As- Agosto, 1.992.
- Curso Taller “How to Teach Prepositions” (Prof. Luis González)- Junio,
1.992.
- Curso sobre “Languaje Integration” (Prof. Ann Lippincott)- Agosto, 1.991.
- Seminario “Drama Techniques in Languaje Learning (Prof. Celia Zubiri)-
Octubre, 1.990.
- “Seminario Taller” (dictado por Kathleen M. Bailey)- Agosto, 1.990.
- Seminario Internacional Anual de Perfeccionamiento Docente para
Profesores de Inglés: “Mirando al Futuro. Nuevas Técnicas para la
Enseñanza-Aprendizaje del Inglés como lengua extranjera.” I.C.A.N.A
Bs. As.- Agosto, 1.990.
- The Seminar Workshop “Reading in the Natural Approach” (curso dic-
tado por William Grabe) - Setiembre, 1.989.
- “Técnicas y actividades para una efectiva comunicación” (curso dicta-
do por la Dra. Amy Sales).- Setiembre 1.988.
- Curso Taller (con evaluación) “Metodología y Lengua Inglesa” (dictado
por Efrain Davis y George Lewis) - Agosto, 1.988.
- “The Natural Approach (curso dictado por el Prof. Gerald Strei) - No-
viembre, 1.987.
- Seminario “Video in the Teaching of English” - Abril, 1.987.
- “Metodología de Estudio” (Curso dictado por el Profesor Damián Bus-
tos)- Diciembre, 1.986.

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- “Providing a Balanced Languaje Programme” (Curso dictado por Prof.
Jeremy Harmer)- Mayo, 1.986.
- Curso Taller en “Metodología de la Enseñanza del Inglés” (Prof. Efrain
Davis)- Agosto, 1.985.
- Seminario para Profesores de Inglés auspiciado por el Servicio Cultu-
ral de la Embajada de los Estados Unidos- Octubre, 1.984.
- “Three American Novels” (Prof. Olga Flores), Noviembre, 1.981.
- “Communicative Approach and Testing” (Dra. Noemí Colmenero), Oc-
tubre 1.981

Talleres Presentados

- Curso Taller del Seminario “Mirando al Futuro. Nuevas Técnicas para la


enseñanza/aprendizaje del Inglés como lengua extranjera dictado en
Bs. As. I.S.I.C.A.N.A.
- Curso Taller del Seminario “How Reading and Writing make you Smarter”,
dictado en Bs. As. I.S.I.C.A.N.A.

Otras actividades

- Coordinadora de Grupo de programas de Intercambio Cultural auspi-


ciado por “The Experiment in International living” (U.S.A- Virginia, 1.988
y 1990).
- Miembro del Tribunal Evaluador para la asignatura "Inglés" correspon-
diente a la carrera Ingeniería en Informática, Plan de Estudios 1999.
Resolución Nº 009/2001. Febrero, 2001.
- Miembro del Tribunal Evaluador para la asignatura "Inglés" en el Esta-
blecimiento Educativo "IEM" (Universidad Nacional de Salta). Diciem-
bre, 2003.

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Carrera: Administración de Empresas - Contador Público
Curso: 3º Año - 4° Año
Materia: Inglés Técnico
Profesor: Graciela Figueroa de Moraleda
Año Académico: 2011

I. Fundamentos

La competencia comunicativa favorece la autonomía intelectual, el de-


sarrollo de las capacidades necesarias para insertarse en el mundo labo-
ral. Es imprescindible profundizar el desarrollo de competencias
comunicacionales para comprender los procesos globales y manejarse en
un mundo cada vez más complejo y competitivo. En función de esta situa-
ción, resulta indispensable generar capacidades para interactuar de un
modo efectivo. El idioma inglés constituye, en la actualidad, la lengua de
comunicación internacional por excelencia en el contexto de los cambios
económicos y políticos, en la tendencia mundial de la integración de esta-
dos y en el desarrollo tanto de las comuncaciones como de la tecnología.La
asignatura Inglés ha sido planificada pensando en la necesidad del estu-
diante:

- como futuro profesional, de usar la lengua inglesa para comunicarse


efectivamente en forma oral o escrita en sus relaciones internaciona-
les, y
- en su posibilidad de acceder a la lectura de cualquier material escrito
que se relacione a su area de trabajo.

II. Objetivos

• Que el estudiante adquiera la lengua inglesa usada en una amplia


gama de situaciones comunicativas, orales y escritas, importantes
para su desenvolvimiento futuro en el area de relaciones internacio-
nales.
• Que pueda leer material relevante a su area de trabajo con rapidez y
sin mayores complicaciones.
• Que adquiera vocabulario especifico del area.

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III. Programa de la Asignatura

Unit 1

Greetings. Introductions. Welcoming. Asking and giving the name. Asking


about cities, countries and nationalities. Asking and answering about
companies. Talking about jobs. Talking about departments in a company.
The alphabet. Numbers 1 to 100. The time.

Unit 2

You and your company. Ordinal numbers. Numbers to 100 to 1000. The
layout of the company. Buildings in a company.

Unit 3

Meeting and welcoming. Describing business activities. An invitation for


dinner. Activities in the office. Activities at the weekend. Days of the week.
Frequency adverbs. Saying goodbye. Months of the year.

Unit 4

Making arrangements. Dates. Confirming arrangements. Making excu-


ses. Apologies. Accepting apologies.

Unit 5

Making and receiving calls. Directions. Entertaining. Prices. Offers and


requests. Drinks, food and desserts.

Unit 6

Your background. Company history. Plans for the future. Objectives of


the company.

Writing:

Writing messages, faxes, e-mails, notes and memos. Writing a business


letter.

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Grammar structures:

Prersonal pronouns. Verb To Be: Present tense.Verb To Have. Possessive


adjectives. Verb To Be: Past tense. Future tense with "going to". Future
tense with "will". To be born.

Traducción y Comprensión de texto

Técnica de traducción:

- Estudio semántico.
- Estudio morfológico-sintáctico:
a.- Derivación.
b.- Composición.

- Estudio sintáctico:
A.-Bloque nominal:
Identificación de sustantivos.
a.- Vía morfológica.
b.- Vía sintáctica.
B.-Bloque verbal:
Identificación de verbos:
a.- Vía morfológica.
b.- Vía sintáctica.

- Verbos conjugados.
- Identificación sintáctica de verbos no conjugados:
1.- Infinitivo.
2.- Forma -ing.
3.- Participio pasado.

- Manejo del diccionario.


- Organización conceptual del texto.
- Conectores.
- Referentes.

Estudio Gramatical:

- El artículo.
- La preposición.
- La conjunción.

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- El pronombre.
- El sustantivo.
- El adjetivo.
- El verbo:
1.- estudio morfológico.
2.- modo del verbo.
a.- modo indicativo.
b.- modo imperativo.
c.- modo subjuntivo.
3.- Voz pasiva.
4.- Usos especiales de Be, Have y Do.

- El adverbio.
- Expresiones idiomáticas.

Compresión de textos

- Técnicas de lectura comprensiva:

- Scanning (lectura rápida y general).


- Skimming (lectura de ideas principales).
- Predecir lo que está y no está en un texto.
- Referencia: interpretar la relación entre oraciones y palabras.
- Identificar la función comunicativa del texto.

IV. Bibliografía

BIBLIOGRAFÍA OBLIGATORIA

- Módulo: Prof.Graciela Moraleda Grabacion. Ed. Universidad Católica


de Salta. Salta, 2004.
- Cds. del módulo: Silvana De Monte, Patricia Reyes Donoso y
Christopher Vrooman.

BIBLIOGRAFÍA COMPLEMENTARIA

- Business Venture 2: Barnard, Roger and Cady. Ed. Jeff Oxford


University Press, 1992.
- Essential Grammar in Use: Murphy, Raymond. Ed. Cambridge University
Press, 1995.

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- Work in Progress: Hopkins, Andy and Potter, Jocelyn. Ed. Longman,
1997.
- OXFORD Dictionary of Business English of Learners of English: Ed.
Oxford University Press, 1994.
- Diccionario Moderno Inglés/español: Badger, Ian. Ed. Ediciones
Larousse. 1976.
- American Business: Menzies, Pete and Daniel, David. Ed. Macmillan
Publishers. 1994.
- English Program

V. Presentación de la asignatura

Estimado alumno:

Le damos la bienvenida a Inglés Técnico y en esta presentación hare-


mos referencia a diferentes aspectos importantes sobre la asignatura que
va a cursar durante este año lectivo.

√ Características y utilidad de la asignatura

a.La materia es anual y puede cursarla en cualquier momento de su


carrera.
b. Siendo el Inglés un medio internacional de comunicación, esta asig-
natura lo ayudará no sólo a interpretar bibliografía relevante a su
carrera, sino a comunicarse correctamente en el ámbito profesional.

• ¿QUÉ COMPETENCIAS DEBE PONER EN PRÁCTICA PARA EL


APRENDIZAJE?

√ Dedíquele el tiempo necesario a su estudio. Acérquese a la asigna-


tura, con el mismo nivel de compromiso que lo haría con cualquier
otro proyecto, pensando en la utilidad de la misma a corto y a largo
plazo.
√ Tenga siempre a mano un buen diccionario.
√ Dentro de lo posible, forme grupos de estudio, especialmente para
trabajar los ejercicios y realizar la grabación.
√ El aprendizaje cooperativo, facilita y enriquece la tarea.

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• ¿QUÉ COMPETENCIAS DEBE PONER EN PRÁCTICA PARA EL
APRENDIZAJE?

√ Asista a las clases satelitales o utilice la grabación que quedará en


su UG.
√ Participe activamente en el foro planteando todas sus inquietudes
de aprendizaje, compartiendo sus dudas con los compañeros.

• LOS ESPACIOS PARA LA INTERACCIÓN SERÁN

√ Las clases satelitales

Comunicándose en forma directa con el aula satelital por messenger


o por teléfono. Consulte a su Coordinador de aula como hacerlo.

√ El foro

Plantee sus dudas y recibirá una respuesta desde la cátedra.


Participe activamente resolviendo los ejercicios de práctica comple-
mentaria.

En este espacio todos los participantes tienen la posibilidad de com-


partir las diferentes intervenciones, lo que enriquece el aprendizaje.

√ E-mail

Utilícelo en casos especiales por cuanto ésta comunicación es muy


personal.

18
VI. Evaluación y condición para la regularización

IMPORTANTE!!

Los requisitos para regularizar la materia serán informados por el


docente a través de los canales pertinentes de comunicación
(tanto para alumnos regulares como libres):

• Tablón de anuncios
• Foro de la materia
• Cuadros de regularización publicados en la página web

Manténgase atento!!!

• ¿CÓMO SE REGULARIZA LA ASIGNATURA?

Si usted participa, cumple con los plazos indicados y aprueba todas


las instancias evaluativas establecidas, estará en condiciones de re-
gularizar la asignatura.

• El desafío está planteado. Les deseamos mucha suerte, y a tra-


bajar!

Prof. Graciela F. de Moraleda. C.E.: gmoraleda@ucasal.net


Lic. Silvana De Monte. C.E.: sdemonte@ucasal.net
Traductora Teresa Melo. C.E.: tmelo@ucasal.net

19
VII. Guía de trabajos para módulos y apéndice de traducción

UNIDADES

Cada unidad ha sido dividida en tres (3) lecciones. Cada lección está
formada por:

a) Presentación de palabras, frases y estructuras


a usar y repetición oral.
DOS SECCIONES

b) Ejercicios de práctica controlada, práctica guia-


da y de transferencia a situaciones propias.

Se recomienda trabajar de la siguiente manera:

Unidades

1. Lea el contenido de “Words, Phrases and Grammar” hasta que quede


claro.

NOTA: AL FINAL DEL MÓDULO SE ENCUENTRA LA EXPLICACIÓN DE “GRAMMAR


NOTES” CON EJERCICIOS DE APLICACIÓN.

2. Escuche y repita las palabras y frases a continuación, tantas veces


como sea necesario.

3. Una vez que lo anterior está completamente entendido y practicado,


trabaje con los ejercicios de la unidad, siguiendo las instrucciones. Las
mismas están dadas primero en Inglés y luego en castellano.

Listening (Ejercicios para escuchar)

Estos ejercicios están grabados en un CD por unidad y lección.

a) Leer cuidadosamente las instrucciones:

Listen and Repeat (Escuche y repita)

20
Listen and Complete (Escuche y complete)
Listen and write down (Escuche y escriba) etc.

b) Leer el ejercicio a realizar o diálogo a completar


c) Escuchar el ejercicio o diálogo una vez para familiarizarse con el
mismo.
d) Escuchar nuevamente y completar.
e) Escuchar una vez más para controlar.

Apéndice de Traducción

Forma de Trabajo

a) Leer las explicaciones gramaticales.


b) Traducir las oraciones en forma oral, haciendo uso del diccionario sólo
cuando sea necesario (se acompaña una explicación de cómo usar el
diccionario).
c) Traducir los textos o realizar los ejercicios de comprensión.

Espero que desde estas primeras páginas haya respondido a sus in-
quietudes acerca de la asignatura.

Lo invito a comenzar el trabajo...

21
22
UNIT I
Lesson 1 (Lección 1)

Words, phrases and Grammar (Palabras, frases y gramática)

Listen and repeat. (Escuche y repita.)

Listening 1 Greetings: Saludos

Good morning: (Buenos dias)


Good afternoon: ( Buenas tardes)
Good evening: (Buenas noches -a partir de las 18:00 mas o menos)
Good night: (Buenas noches -para despedirse)
Hello/Hi: (Hola)

How are you: (Como esta?)


Fine thanks, and you? (Bien gracias y usted?)

How are things? (Como van las cosas?)


Very well: (Muy bien)
Not very well I’m afraid: (No muy bien me temo.)

Listening 2 Introductions: Presentaciones

A.How do you do (mucho gusto)


B. How do you do

A. Pleased to meet you. (un placer conocerlo)


B. Nice to meet you, too./ It’s nice to meet you.(un placer conocerlo)

Mr.(Mister): Senor (Mr. Brown)


Mrs. (Mistress): Senora (Mrs.Brown)
Miss: Señorita (Miss Brown)
Sir (Señor: se usa sin el apellido)
Madam (Señora: se usa sin el apellido)

23
Listening 3 Welcoming: Dando la bienvenida

Welcome to (Salta) Bienvenido a Salta.

Asking and giving the name

A.Excuse me: (Disculpe)


B. Are you Mr. Trevor? (Es usted el Sr. Trevor?)
A. Yes, I am / No, Iam not (Si lo soy/ No lo soy)
My name is (Lea): Mi nombre es Lea.
First name: (Primer nombre)
Middle name: (Segundo nombre)
Last name: (Apellido)

What is your (first) name? (Cual es su primer nombre?)

Grammar structures: See Grammar notes (Estructuras gramaticales.


Ver notas)

Verb to Be
Personal pronouns

24
UNIT I - LESSON 1UNIT I -
LESSON 2

ACTIVITIES

1. Listen and read. (Escuche y lea)

A. Excuse me.
B. Yes?
A. Are you Mr. Trevor?
B. Yes, I am.
A. My name is Mrs. Rodríguez.
B. How do you do?
A. Pleased to meet you. Welcome to Bariloche.
B. Thank you.

2. Now listen again and repeat. (Ahora escuche nuevamente y


repita)

3. Now complete this dialogue. (Ahora complete este diálogo)

___________me.
___________?
________you Mrs. Brown?
Yes, _________ _________.
_______name’s Mrs. Serrano. _________________to Salta.
____________you.

4. Now write a similar dialogue, changing names and places.


Practice it and then, record it. (Ahora escriba un dialogo similar, cam-
biando nombres y lugares. Practiquelo.)

__________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

25
Lesson 2 (Lección 2)

Words, phrases and grammar


Listen and repeat. (Escuche y repita)

Listening 1 Asking about cities, countries and nationalities


(Preguntando sobre ciudades, países y nacionalidades)

COUNTRY NATIONALITY
Brazil Brazilian
England English
China Chinese
Egypt Egyptian
France French
Hungary Hungarian
Japan Japanese
The USA American
Argentina Argentinian
Canada Canadian

Where are you from, Mrs. Nigon? (De donde es usted, Senora Nigon?)
I’m from Virginia. (Soy de Virginia)

Are you from Canada? (Es usted de Canada?)


No, I live in Canada but I’m from the USA. (No, vivo en Canada pero soy
de los Estados Unidos)

Are you Argentinian? (Es usted Argentino?)


Yes, that’s right. (Si, correcto)

Where do you live? (Donde vive?)


I live in Cordoba. (Vivo en Cordoba)

Where is Mr. Nigon from? (De donde es el senor Nigon?)


Where does he live? (Donde vive?)
He lives in Canada. (El vive en Canada)

26
Listening 2 sking and answering about companies..
(Preguntando y respondiendo sobre compañías)

What company do you work for? (Para que compania trabaja?)


I work for RCD (Trabajo para RCD)
Who are you with?
I’m with RCD

Are you with RCD? (Trabaja ud. para RCD?)


No, I’m not. I’m with MCM (No, trabajo para MCM)
Do you work for MCM? (Trabaja para MCM?)
Yes, Ido / No, I don’t. (Si / No)

I work for an insurance company called “Salta Insurances” (Trabajo para


una compania de seguros que se llama Salta Seguros)

What company does Mr. Nigon work for? (Para que compania trabaja el
senor Nigon?)
He works for... (El trabaja para...)

Is he with....?
Yes, he is.

Does he work for...?


Yes, he does.

Listening 3 Talking about jobs (Hablando sobre empleos)

What do you do? (Que hace ud.?)


I’m an (engineer) (Soy ingeniero)

What does Juan Perez do? (Que hace Juan Perez?)


He works for a company called Blue birds.(Trabaja para una compania
llamada Blue birds.)

Is he an (accountant)? (Es el contador?)


Yes, he is. (Si)

27
Are you an engineer? (Es ud. ingeniero?)
No, I’m not. I’m a lawyer. (No, soy abogado)

What about you? (Y usted?)

Jobs: (empleos)

engineer: ingeniero/a
sales representative: representante de ventas
accountant: contador/a
sales manager: jefe de ventas
finance director: director/a de finanzas
personnel manager: jefe de personal
sales clerk: vendedor/a
travel agent: agente de viajes
business administrator: administrador/a de empresa
psychologist: psicologa/o
security guard: guardia de seguridad
designer: diseñador

a/an: articulo indeterminante (un/una). Normalmente usamos “an” antes


de un sonido de vocal (a,e,i,o,i) y “a” antes de otras letras.

a lawyer / an engineer

Listening 1 Talking about departments in a companyy


(hablando sobre departamentos/secciones en una compañía.)

— finance department: (departamento de finanzas)


— personnel : (personal)

— accounts: (contaduria)

— human resource department: (departamento de recursos humanos)

— international relations department: (departamento de relaciones inter-

nacionales)
— research and development department: (departamento de investigacion

y desarrollo)
— marketing department: (departamento de mercado)

28
Are you in the sales department? (Esta usted en el departamento de
ventas?)
Yes, that’s right. (Si, correcto)

Do you work in accounts? (Trabaja en contaduria?)


No, I don’t. I work in personnel.(No, Yo trabajo en personal)

What department are you in? (En qué area trabaja?)


I am in personnel.

Is he in the manufacturing division? (Esta él en la fabrica?)


Yes, he is.
No, I think he’s in the sales department. (No, creo que esta en el depar-
tamento de ventas)

Do you like your job? (Le gusta su trabajo?)


Yes, I like it very much. (Si, me gusta mucho)
No, I don’t like it very much.(No, no mucho)

Do you know the managing director? (Lo conoce al director gerente?)


Yes, I know him very well. (Si, lo conozco muy bien.)
No, I don’t know him very well. (No, no lo conozco muy bien)
No, not really. (No, no realmente.)
Does she like...?
Yes, she likes ...
No, she doesn’t like ...

Grammar Structures: See Grammar Notes (Ver notas gramaticales)

Verb “To Be”


Simple Present Tense
Object Pronouns
Possessive adjectives

29
UNIT I - LESSON 2

ACTIVITIES

1. Listen and read (Escuche y lea).

A.Where are you from Mrs. Nigon?


B. I’m from Virginia.
A.What company do you work for?
B. I am with AMB
A. What do you do?
B. I am an accountant.
A. Are you in the finance department?
B. No, I’m in the sales department.
A. Do you like your job?
B. Yes, I like it very much.
A. Is Mr. Simpson from the finance department?
B. No, I think he is a receptionist.
A. Do you know him?
B. No, not really.

2. Now listen to the dialogue again and repeat. (Escuche nueva-


mente el dialogo y repita.

3. Now, make up a similar dialogue, but changing information.


Practise it and then record it. (Realice un dialogo similar, pero cam-
biando información. Practíquelo)

4. Now, answer these questions about you. Ahora responda estas


preguntas acerca de usted)

Where are you from?


_________________________________________

What company do you work for?


_________________________________________

What do you do?


_________________________________________

30
Are you in the marketing department?
_________________________________________

Do you like your job?


_________________________________________

5. Read:

His name is Trevor McDonald. He works for Ulysses Construction.


Glasgow. He is from London. He is in the perssonel department. He is a
perssonel manager.

6. Now, write a paragraph about this person. (Ahora escriba un


parrafo sobre esta persona.)

Name: Claudia Mendoza


Country: Argentina
Home: Joaquin V. González- Salta
Company: Exel Petrol
Job: psychologist
Department: Human resources department.
Likes her job: Yes

___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

7. Read:

I´m Lucinda Flores from CB Computing, Chicago. I´m an electrical


engineer. I work in the maintenance department. I live in Chicago, but I am
from California

8. Now write a similar paragraph about you. Practise and record it.
(Ahora escriba un párrafo similar acerca de usted. Practíquelo)
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

31
9. Now, complete this interview. Write the questions (Ahora com-
plete esta entrevista. Escriba las preguntas.)

A. __________________________________
B. Gonzalo Pedrozo.

A. __________________________________
B. I’m from Chile.
A. __________________________________
B. I live in Valparaiso.

A. __________________________________
B. I work for a company called Remson.

A. __________________________________
B. I am in security.

A. __________________________________
B. I am a security guard.

A. __________________________the Managing director?


B. Really, I don’t know him very much.

8. Now practise the dialogue. (Ahora practíque el diálogo)

32
Lesson 3 (Lección 3)

Words, phrases and grammar


Listen and repeat (Escuche y repita)

Listening 1 The Alphabet (El alfabeto)

A B C D E F G H I J K L M

N O P Q R S T U V WX Y Z

How do you spell your (first) name? (Como deletrea su nombre?)


Spell your name, please. (Deletree su nombre por favor)
A-L-I-C-I-A

Listening 2 Numbers: 0 to 10 (Números 0 a 10)

0 (oh) 1 (one) 2 (two) 3 (three) 4 (four) 5 (five)


6 (six)7 (seven) 8 (eight)9 (nine) 10 (ten)

What’s your telephone number? (Cual es su numero de teléfono?)


It’s 0387-4317688

What’s your home /work/mobile number? (¿Cuál es el número de su


casa/trabajo/celular?)

What is your passport number? (Cual es su número de pasaporte?)


What is your flight number? (Cual es su numero de vuelo?)
AA 204

Listening 3 Numbers: 11 to 100

11 (eleven) 20 (twenty) 21 (twenty one)


12 (twelve) 30 (thirty) 32 (thirty two)
13 (thirteen) 40 (forty) 43 (forty three)
14 (fourteen) 50 (fifty) 54 (fifty four)

33
15 (fifteen) 60 (sixty) 65 (sixty five)
16 (sixteen) 70 (seventy) 76 (seventy six)
17 (seventeen) 80 (eighty) 87 (eighty seven)
18 (eighteen) 90 (ninety) 98 (ninety eight)
19 (nineteen) 100 (a/one hundred) 109 (one hundred and nine)

Listening 1 The time: (La hora)

There are different ways of telling the time. (Hay diferentes maneras de
decir la hora)

On schedules, airport and railroad departure boards, we tell the time in


figures. (En horarios, anuncios de partida en aeropuertos y estaciones, deci-
mos la hora en números)

What’s the time?


9:15 It’s nine fifteen

What’s the time?


10:00 It’s ten o’clock

What’s the time?


11:30 It’s eleven thirty

What’s the time?


8:45 It’s eight forty five

What’s the time?


3:50 It’s three fifty

What’s the time?


4:10 It’s four ten

In conversation we often tell the time in a different way. (En conversacion,


a menudo decimos la hora de manera diferente)

half past: y media

a quarter past: y cuarto

34
a quarter to: menos cuarto

(ten) past: y diez

(ten) to : menos diez

9:30 It’s half past nine (Son las nueve y media)

9:15 It’s a quarter past nine (Son las nueve y cuarto)

9:45 It’s a quarter to ten (Son las diez menos cuarto)

9:10 It’s ten past nine (Son las nueve y diez)

9:50 It’s ten to ten (Son las diez menos diez)

35
UNIT III - LESSON 3

ACTIVITIES

1. Listen to the telephone numbers and check the one you hear..
(Marque el número de teléfono que escuche.)

1. 02 - 2354 - 7369 2. 03 - 9518 - 9926 3. 05 - 2028 - 3741


02 - 2356 - 7369 04 - 9518 - 9926 05 - 2038 - 3741

2. Listen to these flight numbers and check the one you hear..
(Marque el número de vuelo que escuche)

1. BA 245 2. AF 404 3. UA 163


AA 245 AX 404 UA 173

3. Listen to the dialogue and write the names and numbers. (Escu-
che el diálogo y escriba los nombres y números)

A. What’s your last name?


B. _________________________________

A. How do you spell it?


B. ___________________________________

A. What’s your passport number?


B. ___________________________________

A. What company do you work for?


B. I work for ___________________________

A. Spell it, please.


B. ___________________________________

36
4. Listen to the dialogues and check the times you hear. (Escuche
los diálogos y marque las horas que escuche)

a. 3:15 or 3:55
b. 5:10 or 4:10
c. 7:05 or 6:05
d. 9:45 or 9:15

5.Now, use the numbers in exercise 4 to tell the time. Write and
record the time. (Ahora, use los numeros en el ejercicio 4 para decir
y escribir la hora)

___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

37
Extra practice

Use the charts to make dialogues

Dialogue 1

Excuse me, are you _____________from ____________?

Yes, I am

or

No, I’m not

Sorry

That’s OK. My name’s_________________


I’m from ___________in _______________
What’s your name?

My name’s_______________I work
for a/an__________________

Nice/Pleased to meet you.


What do you do?

I’m a/an _________________________


I’m in the _______________department

I’m a/an _________________

38
Dialogue 2

What do you do

I work for a/an company called _____________

Are you in the _____________section?/ department?

Yes, I am No, I’m not


I’m in the ____________________
I’m a/an/the __________________

Do you like your job?

Yes, I do No, I don’t like it/very much


I like it ____________

39
40
UNIT II

Lesson1(Lección1)

Words, phrases and grammar


Listen and repeat (Escuche y repita)

Listening 1 You and your company


y

What is the name of the President?


Who is the President?

What company do you work for? (¿Para que compañía trabaja?)


I work for YMCD (Trabajo para YMCD)

What company does he work for? (¿Para qué compañía trabaja el?)
He works for_______(El trabaja para...)

Where do you work? (¿Dónde trabaja?)


I work at MALISA (Trabajo en MALISA)

Where does he work? (¿Dónde trabaja él?)


He works__________(El trabaja...)

What do you do? (¿Qué hace/¿Cuál es su trabajo?)


I’m a computer programmer. (Soy programador.)
I develop programmes for the computer. (Desarrollo programas para la com-
putadora.)

What does he do? (¿Qué hace el?)


He is a clerk. (El es empleado.)
He prepares reports.(El prepara informes.)

What does your company do? (Qué hace su compañía?)


We make cars. (Fabricamos autos)

How many employees does the company have? (Cuántos empleados


tiene la Cia.)
The Company has (20) employees. (La Companía tiene 20 empleados)

41
Who is in perssonel?
Juan Pérez is in perssonel.

We do business in South America (Hacemos negocios en Sudamérica)


What are they doing at the moment? (¿Qué están haciendo en este
momento?)
They are working on a new car. (Están trabajando en un auto nuevo.)

What are you working on at the moment? (En qué están trabajando en este
momento?)
We are working on a new project. (Estamos trabajando en un proyecto
nuevo)

What are you doing here? (¿Que está haciendo aquí?)


I’m doing some work for the computer department. (Estoy realizando un
trabajo para el departamento de computación.)

What is he doing here? (¿Qué está haciendo él aqui?)


He is working__________ (El está trabajando...)

We do business in South America (Hacemos negocios en Sudamérica)

COMPANY ACTIVITIES PRODUCTS


(Actividades de la Compañía) (Productos)
produce/s (producir) food (alimentos)
make/s (hacer) cars (autos)
do/es (hacer) business (negocios)
develop/s (desarrollar) electronic equipment (equipo electrónico)
sell/s (vender) computers (computadoras)
export/s (exportar) shoes (zapatos)

EMPLOYEES’ ACTIVITIES
(Actividades de los empleados)

design/s (Diseña) new models (Nuevos modelos)


organize/s (Organiza) sales (Ventas)
coordinate/s (Coordina) plans (Planes)
check/s (Controla) clients accounts (Cuentas de clientes)

42
Grammar Structures: See Grammar Notes

Present continuous tense

Simple present tense

43
UNIT II - LESSON 1

ACTIVITIES

1. Write sentences about companies in your city and their activities


(Escriba oraciones acerca de compañías en su ciudad y sus activida-
des)

For example: (Por ejemplo)


Mc Donalds produces food.

a. _____________________________________
b. _____________________________________
c. _____________________________________
d. _____________________________________
e. _____________________________________

2. Listen and complete (escuche y complete)

A. What are you doing here?


B. I’m __________ some work for your computer department.
A. Really? What __________ you do?
B. I ___________for TGIF Technology. We __________computers.
A. Oh, I see. Are you _________ for very long?B. No, only for the wee-
kend.

3. Now, record the dialogue.

4. Write sentences about these people and their activities. (Escriba


oraciones sobre estas personas y sus actividades)

NAME DEPARTMENT JOB

Julia Robins Research and designs new models


development

Juan Lazarte Personnel organizes training

Marta Rivas Marketing develops new marketing plans

Elena Bobes Accounts checks clients accounts

44
For example: Julia Robins is in the Research and Development
department. She designs new models.
_________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

5. Now think about a company. Complete this information. (Ahora


piense en una compañía. Complete esta información)

The company name : ___________________


The president : ___________________
The company activity: __________________
The number of employees :_______________
Employees, departments and jobs:
_________________ ______________ ________________
_________________ ______________ ________________
_________________ ______________ ________________

Your job in the company: ___________________

6. Write a paragraph about the preceding information. (Escriba un


párrafo acerca de la información anterior)

The name of the company is


____________________________________________________
The president
________________________________________________________________
The company
________________________________________________________________
The company has
___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

7. Complete this interview about the American Company "Beauty".

A. _______________________________________________?
B. The president is Mr. Nakubasi.
A. _____________________________________________do?
B. We produce cosmetics.

45
A. _______________________________________________?
B. The company has 134 employees.
A. Who is _______________________________________?
B. Anita Tasaki is in production.
A. _______________________________________________
B. She supervises quality control.
A. _______________________________________________?
B. Danny Krowe is in accounts
A. _______________________________________________?
B. He checks invoices.
A. _______________________________________________?
B. Katleen Ferrandi is in the marketing department.
A. _______________________________________________?
B. Her job is to coordinate plans.
A. _______________________________________________?
B. Me? Well, I’m in research and development. I design the
perfume bottles.

46
Lesson 2 (Lección 2)

Words, phrases and grammar


Listen and repeat (Escuche y repita)

Listening 1 Ordinal numbers (Números de orden)

1st first (primero) 11th (eleventh) 21st (twenty first)


2nd second (segundo) 12th (twelfth) 32nd (thirty second)
3rd third (tercero) 13th (thirteenth) 43rd (forty third) etc.
4th fourth (cuarto) 14th (fourteenth)
5th fifth (quinto) 15th (fifteenth)
6th sixth (sexto) 16th (sixteenth)
7th seventh (séptimo) 17th (seventeenth)
8th eighth (octavo) 18th (eighteenth)
9th ninth (noveno) 19th (nineteenth)
10th tenth (décimo) 20th (twentieth)

Listening 2 Numbers 100 to 1000 (Números 100 a 1000)

100 one hundred 700 hundred


200 two hundred 800 hundred
300 three hundred 900 nine hundred
400 four hundred 1000 one thousand
500 five hundred 204 two hundred and four
600 six hundred 325 three hundred and twenty five etc.

Listening 3 Talking about the office (Hablando hacerca


de la oficina)

Where do you work?


I work at Apen Corporation.
Where is the head office? (Donde está la casa central?)
It is in Buenos Aires. (Está en Buenos Aires)
Where is your office? (Donde está su oficina?)

47
It’s in the centre of town. (En el centro de la ciudad)
It’s on the 3rd floor. (En el tercer piso)
Are there any cafes/car parks/bars near your office? (¿Hay algun café/
estacionamien- to/bar cerca de su oficina?)
Yes, there is one on Madison Street. (Sí, hay uno en la calle Madison)
Let me introduce myself. (Permítame presentarme)
Does your company have (a car park)? (Tiene su compañía estaciona-
miento?)
Where are the main offices? (¿Dónde están las oficinas principales?)
They are 5 kilometres north of the city. (Están a 5 kilómetros de la
ciudad)
They are 5 kilometres from downtown. (Estan a 5 kilómetros del centro)

Grammar Structures: See Grammar Notes

Some/Any

Some : se utiliza para la oracion afirmativa

Any: se utiliza para la negacion y la oracion interrogativa (Ver Set de


Traducción)

There is / There are

Present tense of the verb To Have.

Possessive case

48
UNIT II - LESSON 2

ACTIVITIES

1) Listen to the dialogue and complete the information (Escuche


el diálogo y complete la información)

A. Excuse me. Let me introduce myself. My name’s __________________


B. An my name’s __________________________
A. Where do you work?
B. I work in ______________________
A. Oh, really? Where is the company?
B. It’s on _________________________
A. Is it a big building?
B. Yes, it has four floors.
A. Where’s your office?
B. It’s on the _______________floor.
A. Does the company have a car park?
B. __________________, but there is one nearby.
A. I see. Are there any good ___________________near there?
B. Yes, there are .

2) Now practise the dialogue. (Ahora practique el diálogo)

49
Lesson 3 (Lección 3)

Words, phrases and grammar


Listen and Repeat (Escuche y Repita)

Listening 1 The Layout of the Company (El trazado


de la compañía)

This is the Conference centre (Este es el centro de conferencias)


Where is the Conference Centre? (¿Dónde esta el centro de conferen-
cias?)
It is on the left. (Está a la izquierda.)
It is between personnel and the secretary’s office. (Está entre personal
y la oficina de la secretaria)

Listening 2 Buildings in a company (Edificar una compañía)

Conference Centre: (Centro de Conferencias)


Testing area: (Area de Prueba)
Paint shop: (Negocio de pinturas)
Car park: (Estacionamiento)
Main Block: (Edificio Principal)
Canteen: (Bar)
Main production Building (Edificio de Producción)
Workshops : (Talleres)
Stores: (Almacenes)
Main Gate: (Entrada principal)

Grammar Structures: See Grammar Notes

Demonstrative pronouns: this/that/ these/those

Prepositions of place

50
in on next to in front of

behind opposite between


L R L R

on the left of on the right of

51
UNIT II - LESSON 3

ACTIVITIES

1) Look at the diagram of a factory. Complete the sentences. (Mire


el diagrama de una fábrica. Complete las oraciones)

Source: Macmillan English Programme,1995

1. Conference Centre
2. Testing Area
3. Paint Shop
4. Car Park
5. Main Block (Edificio Principal (Canteen 2nd. floor)
6. Main production Building
7. Workshops
8. Stores
9. Main gate

1 2 3

4 5 6

7 8

a. The canteen is _________the Main Block


b. It is __________thesecond floor
c. The main block is _________the main gate
d._____________________behind ___________________
e. _____________________between __________________
f. _____________________on the left of __________________________
g. _____________________next to ____________________________
h. _____________________on the right of ________________________

52
2. Make simple site plan of your company or a company you know
and point out places on it. For example: the manager’s office, the
cafe, the secretary’s office, personnel, the front door, the car park.
Then, describe the plan, using prepositions. (Realice un plano simple
de su compañía o una compañía que conozca y señale los lugares.
Luego, describa el plano, usando preposiciones.)

Extra Practice
Dialogue 1

Where do you work? I work in an/a office/factory near


the centre of town.

Are there any good restaurants/ No, there aren’t. But there’s a good
cafes, nearby ? coffee shop/canteen.

Let’s go there on Saturday.

Good/Great idea.

Dialogue 2

Hello, How are you? Fine, thanks and you?

Very well. What are you doing I’m working on/finishing a project
here/in Salta? for my company.

What company do you work for? I work for/ I’m with_________

What are they working on ?/ They are doing business with


What are they doing? different countries.

53
Dialogue 3

Where is your company’s Our head office is in (Villa María)


main office?

Where is that? It is about _______km from


Córdoba.

And do you have an office No, we don’t


in (Belle Ville)? Yes, we do.

54
UNIT III

Lesson 1 (Lección 1)

Words, phrases and grammar


Listen and Repeat (Escuche y Repita)

Listening 1 Meeting and Welcoming (Encuentros y


Bienvenidas)

I have an appointment with (Mrs. Briones) at 10:00. (Tengo una cita con
la Sra.Briones a la s 10:00)
My name is John Taylor from AGM. (Mi nombre es Juan Taylor de AGM)

Good (morning) Ms. Taylor. (Buenos dias Senorita Taylor.)

Mrs. Briones. Miss Taylor is here. (Sra. Briones. La Srta. Taylor esta
aquí.)

Please, come this way. (Por aquí por favor)


Mrs. Briones is waiting for you. (La Sra. Briones la espera.)

Please, come in. (Entre por favor)


How are you Joan? (Como está Joan?)
I’d like to welcome you to RPE. Bienvenida a RPE)
How was your trip/flight? (¿Cómo estuvo su viaje/vuelo?)
It was OK. ( Estuvo bien)
Was your flight OK? (¿Estuvo bien su vuelo?)
Were your travel arrangements OK? (¿Estuvieron bien sus arreglos de
viaje?)
Yes, everything was alright. (Sí, todo estuvo bien.)

I’d like you to meet (Maria Ferraris) (Quiero presentarle/que conozca a


María Ferraris)
She’s our (marketing consultant.)

Nice to meet you/ Pleased to meet you/How do you do. (Mucho gusto)

55
Please, sit down. (Por favor, siéntese.)
Would you like a cup o coffee, tea? (¿Le gustaría tomar una taza de
café, té ?
Coffee, please. Thanks. (Café por favor. Gracias)

Grammar Structures: See Grammar Notes

Simple Past Tense of the verb “To Be”

56
UNIT III - LESSON 1

ACTIVITIES

1)a. Listen and Read (Escuche y lea)

A. Good morning. I have an appointment with Mrs. Briones at 10:00.


My name is Joan Taylor from AGM.

B. Good morning Mrs. Taylor. Please come this way. Mrs. Briones is
waiting for you.

b. Correct these statements. (Corrija estas oraciones)

* The name of the visitor is Joan Krowe.


_______________________________________

* Her appointment is at 10:30.


_______________________________________________

* She has an appointment with Mr. Briones.


____________________________________

* She works for General Motors.


_____________________________________________

2. Listen and complete. (Escuche y complete)

Secretary: Mrs. Briones, Miss Taylor ________________________


Mrs. Briones: Please, ____________________________________
I’d like to ______________________________to RPE.
Ms. Taylor: ____________________________________________
Mrs. Briones: ___________________________________your trip ?
Ms. Taylor ____________________________OK.
Mrs. Briones: __________________________to meet Maria Ferraris.
She’s our_________________________________.
Ms. Taylor: How do you do.
M. Ferraris: ______________________________
Mrs. Briones: _________ down. ___________________a cup of coffe?
Ms. Taylor: Yes, ___________

57
3. Now you write dialogues similar to number 1 and 2. Change the
names and the time. (Ahora escriba diálogos similares a número 1 y
2. Cambie los nombres y la hora.

58
Lesson 2 (Lección 2)

Words, phrases and grammar.


Listen and Repeat (Escuche y Repita)

Listening 1 Describing business activities


(Describiendo actividades de negocios)

How’s business? (¿Cómo van los negocios?)


How do you like working in Canada? (¿Le gusta trabajar en Canadá?)
It’s great. (Es buenísimo)
Do you like working in Canada? (¿Le gusta trabajar en Canadá?)
Yes, very much. (Sí, mucho)

How long are you here for? (¿Por cuánto tiempo se queda?)

Is this your first visit to Chicago? (¿Esta es su primera visita a Chicago?)

What is your job at BMA like? (¿Cómo es su trabajo en BMA?)


I like it (Me gusta)
I don’t like it. (No me gusta.)
It is a bit tiring, but I like it. (Es un poco cansador, pero me gusta.)

I start work at (9:00) (Comienzo a trabajar a las 9:00)


I finish at________ (Termino a las ________)
In the morning I (attend meetings). (En la mañana, asisto a reuniones)

First/Then/After that I read the mail. (Primero, Luego, Después, yo leo la


correspondencia)
Finally (Finalmente,)
I have lunch in the office. (Almuerzo en la oficina)
I have breakfast/have lunch/ have dinner... (Yo desayuno/ almuerzo/
ceno...)

I hear you are leaving tomorrow. (Asi que parte mañana)


Yes, that’s right. In the morning. (Si, correcto. En la mañana)

In the morning, In the afternoon, In the evening, At night. (En la mañana,


En la tarde, En la noche)

59
Listening 2 An invitation for dinner (Una invitacion para cenar)

What are you doing tonight? (¿Qué va a hacer esta noche?)


I have no plans. (No tengo planes.)
Let’s have dinner together. (Cenemos juntos.)
Would you like to have dinner with me tonight? (¿Le gustaría cenar
conmigo esta noche?)
That would be nice. (Sería agradable)
Yes, thanks. (Sí, gracias.)

Listening 3 Activities in the office (Actividades en la oficina)

read the mail (leer la correspondencia.)


attend meetings: (asistir a reuniones)
phone the suppliers (telefonear a los proveedores)
help clients with problems (ayudar a los clientes con problemas)
write reports (escribir informes)
answer the telephone (contestar el telefono)
give instructions to the staff (dar instrucciones al personal)
visit branches (visitar las sucursales)
have a business breakfast/ business lunch (tener un desayuno/almuer-
zo de negocios)

Listening 4 Activities at the weekend (Actividades el fin


de semana)

What about weekends? (Y los fines de semana?)

I relax with my family (Descanso con mi familia.)


I play (tennis) (Juego al tennis.)
My family and I go (camping) (Vamos de campamento con mi familia.)
I go shopping with my friends. (Voy de compras con mis amigas.)

Do you play any sports? (Juega algun deporte?)


How often do you play tennis? (Con que frecuencia juega al tennis?)

60
Once a week/ Twice a week/ Three times a week (Una vez por semana/
Dos veces por semana/Tres veces por semana.)

On (Monday morning/afternoon/evening ) El lunes por la manana/tarde/


noche)
Every morning/afternoon/evening. (Todas las mananas/tardes/noches)

Listening 5 Days of the week (Días de la semana)

Monday (Lunes)
Tuesday (Martes)
Wednesday (Miercoles)
Thursday (Jueves)
Friday(Viernes)
Saturday (Sabado)
Sunday (Domingo)

Grammar Structures: See Grammar Notes

Listening 6 Frequency adverbs (Adverbios de frecuencia)

Always (siempre) 100%


Usually (usualmente)
Often ( a menudo)
Sometimes (A veces)
Occasionally (Ocasionalmente)
Never (Nunca) 0%

Grammar structures (See Grammar notes)

Present simple

Present Continuous for the future

61
UNIT III - LESSON 2

ACTIVITIES

1. Listen and read (Escuche y lea)

A. Is this your first visit to the States?


B. Yes, it is.
A. How do you like Chicago?
B. Well, it’s great.
A. How long are you here for?
B. I’m leaving tomorrow. In the evening.
A. What are you doing tonight?
B. I have no plans.
A. Let’s have dinner together.
B. Good idea.

2. Read and practise the dialogue. (Lea y practique el diálogo)

3. Are these statements True or False? (Estas oraciones son verda-


deras o falsas?)

* B doesn’t like Chicago. _____________


* She is there for two days ____________
* A and B are having dinner tonight_____________

4.a. Mrs. Mendoza and Mrs. Legarri are talking after dinner. (La Sra.
Mendoza y la Sra. Legarri estan conversando despues de la cena.)
Listen and read (Escuche y lea)

A. What is your job like?


B. Well, it’s a bit tiring, but I like it.
A. What do you usually do at weekends?
B. Well, I relax at home with my family, or go shopping with my friends.
A. Do you play any sports?
B. Yes, tennis and paddle.
A. How often do you play tennis?
B. Twice a week. On Monday and Friday evening.

62
b. Answer these questions about the dialogue. (Responda estas pre-
guntas sobre el diálogo.)

1) Is Mrs. Legarri’s job tiring? __________________________________


2) What does she do at weekends? _____________________________
3) Does she play any sports? _________________________________
4) How often does she play tennis? _____________________________
5) When does she play? _____________________________________

5. Write a similar dialogue. Change the information. Practise the


dialogue. (Escriba un diálogo similar. Cambie la información. Practí-
quelo)

__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

6.a. Mrs. Mendoza is describing her day at her company. Listen. (La
Sra. Mendoza describe su día en su compañía. Escuche)

I start work at 8:00. First I check my mail and then I phone the suppliers.
I always have a meeting with the staff to talk about the activities of the day.
After that, I usually answer urgent messages and I occasionally help clients
with their problems. I usually have lunch at a restaurant near the company
but I never have a business lunch. Once a month I have a business breakfast
with the Board of Directors.

b. Listen again and number the activities in the order you hear
them. (Escuche nuevamente y numere las actividades en el orden
que las escucha)

check the mail ________


start work ________
have a meeting ________
have lunch ________

63
answer urgent messages ________
have a business breakfast ________
help clients ________

7. What about you? Describe your day in the office. Write a paragraph.
(Y usted? Describa su día en la oficina. Escriba un párrafo)

___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

64
Lesson 3 (Lección 3)

Words, phrases and grammar


Listen and Repeat (Escuche y Repita)

Listening 1 Saying Goodbye (Despidiéndose)

Have a good day. (Que tenga un buen día)

Thank you for everything (Gracias por todo)


Thanks for the dinner/ lunch (Gracias por la cena)

Give my regards to your boss/husband/wife (Déle mis saludos a su jefe/


esposo/esposa)
I will (Lo haré)
Have a good flight (Que tenga un buen viaje)

I’ll see you in April (Lo veré en Abril)


I’ll call you in May (Lo llamaré en Mayo)
I’ll visit you in two months.(Lo visitaré en dos meses)

Well, thank you for coming. (Bien, gracias por venir)


Keep in touch (Manténgase en contacto)
I will. Thanks for your help. Lo haré. Gracias por su ayuda.

Don’t forget to send a fax. (No se olvide de enviar un fax.)


Don’t forget to call me. (No se olvide de llamarme.)

Ok. Bye. (Adiós) See you soon. (Bien. Nos vemos pronto)
Bye . (Adiós)

Listening 2 Months of the Year

January (Enero) July (Julio)


February (Febrero) August (Agosto)
March (Marzo) September (Setiembre)
April (Abril) October (Octubre)

65
May (Mayo) November (Noviembre)
June (Junio) December (Diciembre)

Grammar Structures: See Translation Set (Set de Traducción)

Imperatives

66
UNIT III - LESSON 3
Will for promises

ACTIVITIES

1. Listen to the recording and complete the dialogue. (Escuche la


grabación y complete el diálogo)

A. Well, thank you for the ____________.


B. You are welcome. Have a good ___________.
A. Thank you. I’ll call you next _____________.
B. OK. Don’t forget to send the __________
A. I won’t. Give my regards to your boss.
B. I will. See you in _________.
A. See you. _________.
B. Good bye.

2. Practise the conversation (Practique la conversación)

3. Answer these questions. (Responda estas preguntas)

1. Is she thanking for the lunch or for the dinner?

________________________________________

2. Is she travelling by train or by plane?

________________________________________

3. Does she have to send a letter or a fax?

________________________________________

4. Is she giving her regards to her boss or to her husband?

________________________________________

5. Will they see each other in April or in May?

________________________________________

67
Extra Practice

Listen to a manager in Argentina explaining how the company


selects teachers for English Training Courses.

First we advertise in the paper.


Then we interview the applicants
After that we read their Cvs.
Next we make a short list and call them for another interview
Next we choose the best applicant.
Finally we inform our decision to the applicants.

1) Explain how your company selects a member for their staff. Record it.

Dialogue 1

ThisThat is the (main building/ What’s (that place?)


production building) What is (that building?)
Those are the administrative
offices

It’s the (testing area) Where is the (paint shop)?


It’s a warehouse Where are the workshops?

It’s (opposite________)
They are (behind__________)

68
Dialogue 2

Hello/Hi. My name’s ________ Hello/Hi. I’m __________


Nice to meet you/see you Pleased to meet/see you, too

How was your flight/trip? It was (fine)


It was (terrible)

Oh, good./ Oh, dear. Yes, they were.


Were the travel arrangements OK? No, they weren’t

Well/Anyway/ welcome to _______.

Dialogue 3

How are you/ your family? Fine/Verywell.

How is business? Fine/Not bad


Is business going well? Yes. / Not very well,
I'm afraid

Well. How do you like __________? I love/hate it

Is this your first visit to __________? Yes, it is/ No, it isn’t

How long are you here for? Three days


I hear you are leaving (tomorrow Tomorrow, but in the evening
morning)

Nice talking to you. Nice talking to you, too.


Good to see you. Good to see you, too. Bye.

69
Dialogue 4

Thanks for everything/for your My pleasure.


help/for the dinner. You are welcome

I’ll call you (on Monday) Right/OK


I’ll see you in April.

Don’t forget to send the fax I won’t


Keep in touch I will.

Have a good fligh/a good trip Thank you.


Give my regards to ____________ I will.

Good bye. Good bye.

70
GRAMMAR NOTES

Personal Pronouns: Pronombres Personales

I: yo We: nosotros
You: tú You: vosotros
He: él They: ellos
She: ella
It: el/ella (animal/cosa)

Verb To be (Present Tense - Tiempo Presente) (Ser o estar)

I am I’m We are We’re


You are You’re You are You’re
He is He’s They are They’re
She is She’s
It is It’s

Nota: se puede contraer el verbo en la expresión oral.

Write the correct form of the present tense of To be in the blanks. (Escri-
ba la forma correcta del presente del verbo To be en los espacios).

1. I......................a student.
2. Dennis............a student.
3. This.................a good book.
4. John and Pat.........................good accountants.
5. We.................in class now.
6. María .............at work today.
7. Today............Monday.
8. You and Henry.....................sales managers.
9. They..............in my company.
10 She..............a business administrator.

Select the correct form. (Seleccione la forma correcta)

1. John (is/are) a good student.


2. We (am/are) sales managers.
3. The company (is/are) in Bs. As.
4. Ana and I (am/are) in the same class.

71
5. This (is/are) a good exercise.
6. They (is/are) accountants.
7. Mr. Jones (am/is) the Vice-President.
8. I (am/are) with Coca-Cola.
9. He (is/are) in the sales department.

To be: Negative form (forma negativa)

Form the negative of To be by putting not after the verb. (Forme el


negativo agregando not después del verbo)

I am not (I’m not) We are not (We aren’t)


You are not (You aren’t) You are not (You aren’t)
He is not (He isn’t) They are not (They aren’t)
She is not (She isn’t)
It is not (It isn’t).

Change to the negative form. (Cambie a la forma negativa).

1. We are business administrators. We aren’t business administrators.


2. Today is Monday.
3. She and Mary are students.
4. I am a good accountant.
5. They are friends.
6. He is busy today.
7. You and Henry are with Nissan.
8. You are with Chrysler.

To be: Question form (Forma interrogativa)

Place the verb before the subject (Coloque el verbo antes del sujeto).

e.g She is a good student.


Is she a good student?

You and Henry are cousins.


Are you and Henry cousins?

You can answer these questions with Yes or No. (Ud. puede responder
estas preguntas con Sí y No).

72
Yes, she is.
Is she a good student?
No, she isn’t.

Yes, we are.
Are you and Henry cousins?
No, we aren’t.

Change to the question form and answer. (Cambie a la forma interroga-


tiva y responda).

1. They are students.


Are they students? Yes, they are.

2. This lesson is easy.


...........................................? No,.............................. .

3. He is a supervisor.
...........................................?. Yes,............................ .
4. She is a good customer.
...........................................?. No,.............................. .

5. Helen and she are busy.


...........................................?. Yes,............................ .

Verb To have: Present tense


Some meanings (algunos significados)

1. have: tener

breakfast: desayunar
2. have lunch: almorzar
dinner: cenar

3. have a bath: bañarse.

I have We have
You have You have
He has They have
She has
It has

73
Write the correct form of “To have” in the blanks. (Escriba la forma co-
rrecta de “To have” en los espacios).

1. Helen ...............a new hat.


2. I........................many friends in this class.
3. We....................new English books.
4. They.................a computer.
5. She...................lunch at the cafeteria.
6. He....................dinner at home.
7. John and Henry......................a new business.
8. The teacher always................a bath after dinner.
9. This room.....................many windows.
10. You ...........................a good tape recorder.

To have: Negative form (Forma negativa)

To form the negative of “To have”, place do not (don’t) or does not
(doesn’t) before the verb. (Para formar el negativo de “To have” coloque do
not (don’t) or does not (doesn’t) antes del verbo.

I He
You don’t have a car She doesn’t have blue eyes
We It
They *

* Fíjese que al usar “doesn’t” con He, She, It, tiene que escribir “have” y
no “has”.

Change to the negative form

1. She has a new hat. She doesn’t have a new hat.


2. He has red hair.
3. I have two sisters. I don’t have two sisters.
4. They have new computers.
5 We have lunch at home.
6. The room has many windows.

74
To have: question form (forma interrogativa)

To form questions with “To have”, place Do or Does before the subject.
(Para formar preguntas con “To have” coloque Do or Does antes del sujeto.

e.g I have a camera. Do you have a camera?


She has a mobile telephone. Does she have a mobile telephone?

I
Do We You have....?
They

he
Does she have....?
it

You can answer these questions with “Yes” or “No”. (Usted puede res-
ponder estas preguntas con Sí o No).

Yes, I do
Do you have a camera?
No, I don’t.

Yes, she does


Does she have a mobile phone?
No, she doesn’t.

Change to the question form and answer (cambie a la forma interroga-


tiva y responda)

1. She has a new apartment.


Does she have a new apartment? No,

2. We have different books.

Yes,

3. This book has a blue cover.

No,

75
4. They have breakfast at home.

? Yes,

5. You have a bath everyday.

? Yes,

Simple Present Tense

The Simple Present Tense describes an action which goes on everyday,


is a habit or a general truth. In the third person singular “s” or “es” is added
to the verb. (El Presente Simple describe una acción que ocurre todos los
días, es un hábito o una verdad general. En la tercera persona del singular
se agrega “s” o “es” al verbo).

I produce He produces We produce


You produce She produces You produce
It produces They produce

Third Person

* Cuando el verbo termina en “o”:

go goes

* Cuando el verbo termina en “s, sh, ch, x o z”

teach teaches
wash washes
fix fixes

* Cuando el verbo termina en “y” (en este caso, la “y” se cambia por “i”
antes de agregar “es” si la “y” está precedida por una consonante).

study studies

Select the correct form (seleccione la forma correcta)

1. I (study/studies) English everyday.


2. Mr. Brown (checks/check) invoices.

76
3. Mary (work/works) in the production department.
4. The company (sells/sell) computers.
5. They (do/does) market research.
6. You always (comes/come) to work late.
7. He never (smoke/smokes) at the office.
8. We (go/goes) home late on Mondays.

Simple Present Tense Negative Form (Forma negativa)

To form the negative of the Simple Present Tense, place do not (don’t) or
does not (doesn’t) before the verb. (Para formar el negativo del presente
simple, coloque do not (don’t) o does not (doesn’t) antes del verbo.

I do not (don’t) work


You

He
She does not (doesn’t) work (*)
It

We
You do not (don’t) work
They

(*) Fíjese que después de doesn’t el verbo ya no lleva la “s” en la tercera


persona.

Change to the negative form:

1.He studies in class.


He doesn’t study in class.

2. They go to work by car.

3. We deal with customer’s complaints.

4. She works for Coca-Cola.

77
5. The company distributes soft drinks.

6. I organize training.

7. They visit the branches on Fridays.

Simple Present Tense - Question Form (1) (Forma interrogativa)


Form questions in the Simple Present Tense by placing do or does before
the subject. (Forme las preguntas en el presente simple colocando “do” o
“does” antes del sujeto).

I
Do you work?
we
they

he
Does she work (*)
it

(*) Fíjese que en la pregunta con “does” el verbo ya no lleva “s”.

You can answer these questions with “Yes” or “No”.

Yes, I do.
Do you work?
No, I don’t.

Yes, he does.
Does he work?
No, he doesn’t.

Change to the question form and answer (cambie a la forma interroga-


tiva y responda).

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1. He comes to school by bus.
Does he come to school by bus? Yes, he does.

2. They organize training.


Do they organize training? No, they don’t.

3. She checks quality control.

? No,

4. He distributes software.

? Yes,

5. We coordinate plans.

? No,

6. They sell sporting goods.

? Yes,

7. She designs furniture.

? Yes,

Simple Present Tense - Question Form 2

Do or does is used with question words like: (Do o Does se usa con
palabras interrogativas como:)

When? Cuando? What? Qué?


Where? Dónde? How many? ¿Cuántas/os?
Who....for? ¿Para quién?

Write do or does in the blanks:

1. Where...............you work?
2. What company................she work for?

79
3. What.................they do?
4. How many cigarrettes..........he smoke?
5. When...............we start work?
6. What..........she do?
7. Who...........she work for?

Possessive Adjectives (Adjetivos Posesivos)

My (mi) Our (nuestro)


Your (tu) Your (vuestro)
His (su de él) Their (su de ellos)
Her (su de ella)
Its (su de él o ella)

e.g They have their meetings in the morning.


What is your name? My name’s Olga.

Write the correct possessive adjective in the blanks. (Escriba el adjetivo


posesivo correcto en los espacios)

1. He walks to.........................office.
2. The employees have..........................new computers.
3. What is.............address? Her address is 474 Caseros street.
4. I work in...........office.
5. The company sells..........own production.
6. The president likes..........job. We are pleased, too.

Verb To Be - Past Tense (Tiempo pasado)

I was We were
You were You were
He was They were
She was
It was

Change to the past tense (Cambiar al pasado)

1. He is a good student. He was a good student.

2. I am very hungry.

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3. The weather is good.

4. You and Eleni are good friends.

5. There are many students in our class.

To be - Past tense, negative form (pasado negativo)

To form the negative of to be in the past tense, place not after the verb.
(Para formar el pasado negativo del verbo to be, coloque not después del
verbo). Notice how the contractions are formed. (Note cómo se forman las
contracciones).

I was not (wasn’t) We were not (weren’t)


You were not (weren’t) You were not (weren’t)
He was not (wasn’t) They were not (weren’t)
She was not (wasn’t)
It was not (wasn’t)

Change to the negative form. Use the contractions. (Cambie a la forma


negativa. Use contracciones)

1. John was in my class. John wasn’t in my class.

2. The door was open.

3. They were cousins.

4. I was busy yesterday.

5. We were dead tired.

To be: Past tense, question form (Pasado - Forma interrogativa)

To form questions in the past tense of to be, place the verb before the
subject. In there sentences, place the verb before there. (Para formar
preguntas en el pasado de to be, coloque el verbo antes del sujeto. En
oraciones con there, coloque el verbo antes de there.

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You were in Europe last year. Were you in Europe last year?

It was a good movie. Was it a good movie?

There was a pie for dessert. Was there a pie for desert?

1. The exercises were difficult. Were the exercises difficult?

2. There was a book on the table.

3. He was a very intelligent person.

4. Angela was angry with me.

5. You were late for the lesson.

You can answer the questions with Yes or No. (Puede contestar las pre-
guntas con Sí o No.)

Were the exercises difficult? Yes, they were


No, they weren't

Was she angry? Yes, she was


No, she wasn't

Answer these questions with Yes or No. (Responda estas preguntas con
Sí o No)

Was it a small dark object? Yes, it was.

Was the woman a stranger?

Were the windows open?

Were they busy all day?

Was she a businesswoman?

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Past tense - Regular Verbs (Tiempo Pasado - Verbos regulares)

The past tense of regular verbs is formed by adding ed to the simple


form of the verb. (El pasado de los verbos regulares se forma agregando
ed a la forma simple del verbo). e.g:

work worked

Notice the formation of the past tense with these regular verbs. (Note la
formación del pasado con estos verbos regulares.

live lived study studied

When the simple form of the verb ends in “y” preceded by a consonant,
the “y” is changed to “i” before adding “ed”. (cuando la forma simple del
verbo termina en “y” precedida por una consonante, la “y” se cambia a “i”
antes de agregar “ed”.)

Change the verb of each sentence to the past tense. (Cambie el verbo
de cada oración al pasado)

1. He always walk to school. walked

2. Our lesson ends at 2.00.

3. I like chess a lot.

4. They study in our class.

5. The dog follows me everywhere.

Past Tense-Irregular Verbs (Tiempo pasado-Verbos irregulares)


Many verbs in English have special past tense forms.
(Muchos verbos en Inglés tienen formas pasadas especiales)
e.g:
go went buy bought
see saw sleep slept
drink drank eat ate
have had come came
etc.

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Change the following sentences to the past tense. (Cambiar las siguien-
tes oraciones al pasado.)

1. He buys many books. He bought many books.

2. They have a new car.

3. We eat dinner at home.

4. She comes by car.

5. I drink Coke.

* NOTE: Verbs in the past are the same for all the persons. (Los
verbos en el pasado son los mismos para todas las personas)

Past tense: negative form (Pasado - Forma negativa)

To form the negative past tense of all verbs (except to be), place “did
not” before the simple form of the verb. The auxiliary “did” is the same for
all the persons in the past tense. The contraction “didn’t” is generally
used. Para formar el pasado negativo de todos los verbos, (excepto to
be), coloque "did not" antes de la forma simple del verbo. El auxiliar "did"
es el mismo para todas las personas en el pasado. Generalmente se usa
la contracción "didn't".

I did not stop (I didn’t stop)


He did not stop. (He didn’t stop)
They did not stop (They didn’t stop)

Change to the negative form

1. She came to the lesson. She didn’t come to the lesson.

2. He liked French movies.

3. I bought all my books there.

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4. We ate lunch in the cafeteria.

5. They had many friends in the class.

Past Tense: question form (Pasado - Forma interrogativa)

Form the past tense question by placing “did” before the subject and by
changing the verb to its simple form. (Forme el pasado interrogativo colo-
cando “did” antes del sujeto y cambiando el verbo a su forma simple).
e.g:
You went home. Did you go home?

Change to the question form. (Cambie a la forma interrogativa).

1. She waited for us. Did she wait for us?

2. They had dinner at home.

3. You came to school by car.

4. The lesson ended at 8.00.

5. He lived near us.

You can answer the questions with Yes or No. e.g:

Yes, she did.


Did she go to the U.S?
No, she didn’t.

Yes, they did.


Did they have a meeting?
No, they didn’t.

85
Answer these questions with Yes or No.

1. Did she get up early? Yes, she did.

2. Did he buy his car in Europe?

3. Did they write him several letters?

4. Did you know her very well?

Future Tense with “going to” (Futuro con “going to”)


A common way to form the future tense is to use the appropiate form of
“to be going to” and the simple form of the verb. (Una forma común de
formar el tiempo futuro es usar la forma apropiada de “to be going to” y la
forma simple del verbo).

I am finish soon
You are

He
She is going to buy that car
It

We see the new film


You are
They get up early

Write the verb in the future. (Escribir el verbo en futuro).

1. We (study) English next year. are going to study

2. She (buy) a new dress for the dance.

3. They (have) a picnic next Saturday.

4. I (watch) T.V tonight.

5. He (be) a doctor.

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Used to

It is used to indicate an action that one did in the past, bus it is not done
any more. (Se usa para indicar una acción que se hacía en el pasado, pero
no se hace más) e.g:

He used to box. (Solía boxear)


Re-write the sentences using “used to”.

1. I (smoke). I used to smoke.

2. They (live) in a farm.

3. He (work) in a textile factory.

4. We (go) on business trips.

5 She (buy) a lot of chocolate.

To be + born (nacer)

I was
You were in 1978

He was
She was born in Salta
It was

We were
You were two weeks ago
They were

She was born in 1978. Ella nació en 1978.

They were born in Salta. Ellos nacieron en Salta.

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Answer

1. Where were you born?

2. When was your friend born?

3. Were you born 20 years ago?

Future tense with “will” (Tiempo futuro con “will”)

To form the future tense, the auxiliary “will” is used with the simple form
of the verb. (Para formar el tiempo futuro, se usa el auxiliar “will” con la
forma simple del verbo). The contracted form (‘ll) is generally used. (Gene-
ralmente, se usa la forma contraída (‘ll)

I
You run

He
She will walk
It

We ‘ll finish it
You
They phone him this afternoon

e.g:
I’ll walk.

She will phone him this afternoon.

Change to the future tense

1. He studies in this class. He will study in this class.

2.You speak English well.

3. I bring you many presents.

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4. They have lunch in the cafeteria.

5. The train leaves at 8:00.

NOTE: For more grammar information read the “Translation Set”. (Para
mayor información gramatical lea el “Set de Traducción”)

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90
APÉNDICE DE
TRADUCCIÓN

91
92
CAPÍTULO I

El artículo indefinido “a” - “an”


Ambas formas se traducen por un-una.

1. a program 6. an error 11. a light


2. an image 7. a mistake 12. an answer
3. a computer 8. an element 13. a university
4. an exhibitor 9. a newspaper 14. an angle
5. a machine 10. a scientist 15. an aim

El artículo definido “the”: se traduce por los artículos el-la-los-las-lo

the book: el libro the ruler: la regla


the books: los libros the rulers: las reglas
the reasonable: lo razonable

1. the design 11. the beautiful


2. the designs 12. the true
3. the card 13. the good
4. the cards 14 the useful
5. the function 15. the classic
6. the functions 16. the best
7. the system 17. the worst
8. the systems 18. the bad
9. the programmer 19. the interesting
10. the programmers 20. the boring

Plurales

1) El plural de los sustantivos con “s”: se forma agregando una “s”:

girl: girls student: students

2) El plural de los sustantivos con “es”: sustantivos que terminan en o, x,


s, ch, sh forman el plural agregando es.

mango box church


tomato match kiss

93
hero watch dish
brush class
dress lunch
Pero: piano: pianos dynamo: dynamos photo:photos

3) El plural de los sustantivos con “ies”: sustantivos que terminan en “y”


precedida por una consonante forman el plural cambiando “y” por “i” y
agregando “es” (ies).

duty: duties cry battery


fly authority inquiry
country capability laboratory
sky memory lady

Pero cuando la “y” va precedida por una vocal, el plural se forma agre-
gando “s”:

monkey: monkeys day toy


donkey boy

4) El plural de los sustantivos con “ves”: los sustantivos que terminan en


“f” o “fe” pierden la “f” o “f” y se agrega “ves”.

wife: wives half shelf


leaf life knife

Pero hay excepciones:

roofs - handkerchiefs - chiefs - griefs - proofs - cliffs - gulfs

5) Plurales irregulares

child: children tooth: teeth foot: feet


man: men goose: geese louse: lice
woman: women mouse: mice ox: oxen

6) Algunos tienen la misma forma para el singular y plural:

sheep deer fish news Chinese Japanese

94
7) Algunos sustantivos de origen latino retienen los plurales originales:

agendum agenda memorandum memoranda


erratum errata stratum strata
terminus termini basis bases
oasis oases analysis analyses
phenomenon phenomena formula formulae
formulas

radius radii
crisis crises
axis axes
appendix appendices
datum data
Pero: dogma: dogmas.

Posición del adjetivo: generalmente precede al sustantivo y es invariable


en género y número.

1) A risky situation: una situación riesgosa

2) The powerful features

3) A powerful database

4) The unlimited use

5) The unlimited uses

Ejercicios:

1. A fast compiler 16. The old standby


2. The new contract 17. The big old dictionary
3. A large company 18. The big old dictionaries
4. Large companies 19. A couple of days
5. The manageable parts 20. The conference brochures
6. The new library 21. A brilliant speech
7. The new libraries 22. A wide range of possibilities
8. The important information 23. The usual schemes
9. The new versions 24. Some sophisticated systems

95
10. An interesting idea 25. The quarterly report
11. An interesting new project 26. Two very good reasons
12. Some interesting new books 27. The complete procedure
13. Some technical articles 28. The wrong way
14. A standardized highlevel 29. A powerful diagnostic tool
language 30. An amazing speed, power and
15. The automatic discount flexibility

96
CAPÍTULO II

Pronombres personales (sujeto)

En Inglés nunca se omiten.

Singular I you He She It (yo- tu/Ud.- el / ella / depende del sustantivo que
reemplaza).

Plural We You They (Nosotros / Vosotros/Ustedes / Ellos/as)

El verbo To be (irregular)

Como todo verbo puede usarse de tres formas distintas afirmativa, inte-
rrogativa y negativa.

Present Simple Tense (tiempo presente)

a)Forma afirmativa
I am (soy/estoy)
You are
He is
She is
It is
We are (somos/estamos)
You are (sois/son/estais/estan)
They are

Verbo To be como ser. Ejercicios

1. I am an accountant 7. Bussinesses are complicated


2. You are a good boss 8. The next meeting is crucial
3. You are good bosses 9. She is a client.
4. Tom is a programmer. 10. The price is right.
5. They are Chairmen 11. It is fast and complete.
6. Time is money 12. It’s a complete budget

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Nota: el artículo indefinido “a” no se traduce al castellano en los casos en
que el sustantivo exprese nacionalidad, religión o profesión.

Verbo “To be” como estar

Con palabras que indican posición: in, on, under, over, below, above, at,
near ,by, far from, here, there, at the bottom, at the top, belhind, in front of,
opposite, at the back ; el verbo “To be” se traduce por “estar”.

Ejercicios

1. The power is at your fingertips.


2. The system is ready.
3. The problem is under control.
4. The examples are at the top of the page.
5. The diagrams are on the screen.
6. The stapler is behind the folder.
7. The source data are on the right.
8 .The information is in front of you.
9. Informations, opinions, ideas and discussions are in this manual.
10. Precise information is at the end of the page.

Verbo “To be”. Forma interrogativa

Am I? soy?/estoy? Are we?


Are you? Are you?
Is he? Are they’
Is she?
Is it?

Palabras interrogativas

Who: quien Where:dónde


What:qué, cual Why: por qué When:cuando
Which:cual How:cómo

Ejercicios

1. Is flexibility important?

98
2. Why is this issue interesting?
3. Where is the information?
4. What is the name of that manufacturer?
5. Are you ready to write the minutes?
6. What are the different possibilities?
7. Which is the long-term one?

Verbo “To be” Forma negativa

I am not; no soy / no estoy We are not


You are not You are not
He is not They are not
She is not
It is not

Ejercicios:

1. Budget changes are not easy.


2. The graphics are not on the screen.
3. A few changes are not necessary.
4. You are not ready to test the program.
5. Compatibility is no problem.

Las formas abreviadas del verbo “To be”

I am I’m We are We’re I am notI’m not


You are You’re You are You’re You are not You aren’t
He is He’s They are They’re He is not He isn’t
She is She’s She is not She isn’t
It is It’s It is not It isn’t
We are not We aren’t
You are not You aren’t
They are not They aren’t

99
“To be” con adjetivos. Ejercicios

1. This information is irrelevant.


2. The graphics are colourful.
3. The invoice is incorrect.
4. The file is incomplete.
6. The records are updated.

Ejercicios en que “the” se omite en inglés, no así en su traducción al


castellano.

ej:Time is money. El tiempo es oro.

1. Certificates are issued.


2. Life is hard
3. Commercialization is neccesary.
4. Clients are money
5. Photocopiers are expensive.
6. Old buildings are inadequate.
7. Prospective clients are important.
8. Management is an art.
9. Books are good companions

Ejercicios con “this” (este, esta, esto); “that” (ese, aquel, esa, aquella,
aquello); “these (estos estas); “those” (aquellos, aquellas, esos, esas);
“too” (también, demasiado).

1. Those formulae are wrong


2. This book is too difficult. That book is difficult too
3. These colours are too bright
4. This machine is too expensive
5. This issue is free.

Otras traducciones de “To be”

a) “To be” seguido por el infinitivo. Generalmente se traduce por: voy a,


vas a etc., que tiene muchas veces el sentido de obligación u orden. Ej: We
are to go soon: Vamos a ir pronto. We are to go at once: Debemos ir de
inmediato (obligación).

100
Ejercicios:

1. They are to postpone the business


2. He is to replace these three machines
3. They are to install the new system
4. He is to object the plan
5. I am to answer the questions
6. They are to make the effort.

b) “To be” + about + infinitivo: estar a punto de, estar por

Ejercicios

1. He is about to plan the new factory


2. I am about to prepare the new program
3. He is about to spend money for a good printer
4. You are about to be seduced by power and money
5. They are about to replace those desks.

c) Condición física o mental. Para expresar condición o mental “to be” se


traduce por “tengo”, “tienes”, etc. Ej:

I’m cold: Tengo frío


They are hot: Tienen calor
He is hungry: Tiene hambre
She is afraid of computers: Tiene miedo a las computadoras.
We are sleepy: Tenemos sueño
I’m thirsty: Tengo sed

d) Edad: “To be” se traduce por “tengo, tienes, etc.” Ej:

I’m twenty: Tengo 20 años


How old are you? Qué edad tienes?
How old is that machine? Qué antigüedad/tiempo tiene esa máquina?
How old is that baby? He is three days old
How old is that church? It’s four centuries old
This system is two months old

e) Tamaño, peso y dimensión. “Tengo, tienes, etc.” Ej.

How tall is the machine? Qué altura tiene la máquina?

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It’s 50 cm. tall. Tiene 50 cm de alto.
How large is the computer? Qué dimensión/tamaño tiene...
How deep is the well? Qué profundidad ....
How high is that mountain? Qué altura tiene...
How thick is the wall? Qué espesor tiene...
It’s 60 cm. thick. Tiene 60 cm. de espesor

f) Distancia: “Estoy, estás...” La expresión “how far” se traduce por “a qué


distancia”.

Ejemplos:

How far is it to the park? It’s two blocks from here


I’m not far from the next village
How far is it from here to B.A? Qué distancia hay...?

g) Precio y cantidad. Ejemplos:

How much is it? It’s 20 pesos.


It’s not expensive. It’s cheap
How much are the programs?
How many monthly issues are there?

h) Estado atmosférico. “hace”, “esta”, “es”. Ejemplos:

It’s warm in November. Hace calor en noviembre


It’s wet after the rain
It’s a stormy night
It’s cloudy today

i) Para expresar prisa o tardanza. Ejemplos:

You are early. Llegas temprano


You are late
I am in a hurry. Estoy apurado. Tengo prisa

j) Tiempo y fecha. Ejemplos:

Today is Monday. It’s 25th May.


What time is it? It’s 4 o’clock

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The clock is slow/ fast
What year are we in? We are in 1.988

Ejercicios:

1. She is to reduce the number of colours


2. The secretary is in a hurry
3. It’s not a single card
4. How wide is this project?
5. How old is this index?
6. It’s expensive to install a new memory program
7. Accommodation is not available.
8. What is a laser printer?
9. What is the source of information?
10. Auditors are valuable in the company.
11. Performance is all-important when your database grows
12. It is tiring at the end of the year.
13. Fear is a human reaction
14. The surface of the screen is smooth
15. Variety is necessary in advertising.
16. Photocopying is illegal.
17. The aim of the symposium is to consider the influences of commerce
and business in a social and political context
19. My problem is to remember the names of all the applicants.
20. The flat screen is the ideal monitor for many business and educational
applications

To be: Simple Past Tense (Pretérito Imperfecto)

Afirmativo:

I was: fui - era/estuve, estaba


You were
He was
She was
It was
We were
You were
They were

103
Negativo:

I was not
You were not
He was not
She was not
It was not
We were not
You were not
They were not

Interrogativo:

Was I?
Were you?
Was he?
Was she?
Was it?
Were we?
Were you?
Were they?

Ejercicios:

1. Your old computer was powerful and easy to use.


2. It was a good machine but it was slow.
3. The first problem was a message distortion.
4. Those procedures were the best available at the time.
5. They were the first to withdraw the credit facilities.
6. The figures on sales of this product were very high.
7. The plans for the ceremony were clear.
8. Dr. George Lewicki was in charge of the research area.
9. Money wasn’t a real problem.
10. Those managers were honest about past mistakes and current
problems.

104
CAPÍTULO III

"There is"; "There are": Hay

“There is”; “there are”: Hay


Afirmativo: There is, there are
Negativo: There is not, there are not
Interrogativo: Is there? Are there?

Ejercicios

1. There is a meeting on Tuesday.


2. In that company there are shifts.
3. There are comfortable seats in that office.
4. There is an illustration of this process in photo Nº 11
5. There is a big difference between an assisstant and an administrator.
6. There are three points of access.

There was, There were: hubo, había

Afirmativo: There was, there were


Negativo: There was not, there were not
Interrogativo: Was there? Were there?

Ejercicios:

1. There were different kinds of computers in the exhibition.


2. There was not a bilingual secretary in the company.
3. There were differents types of requests .
4. How many visitors were there?
5. There was not a new model of filing cabinets.

“Some, Any”

a) Some in invariable y se traduce por unas, unos, algunas/os, un poco,


algo, algo de ciertos.

105
There are some Italian orders to deal with.
There is some information on the right

Nota: Cuando “some” se repite en una misma oración, el primero se


traduce por unos/as; el segundo por otros/as.
There are many appointments ; some are important, some are not.

b) Any, forma interrogativa. Es invariable y se traduce por alguno/a/os/


as.

Are there any good systems here?


Are there any dificulties in this explanation?
Is there any copy here?

Any, forma negativa. “not...any”. Se traduce en el singular por ningún,


ninguno/a. En el plural preferentemente se omite.

There is not any information here. (No hay ninguna información aquí)
There are not any mistakes in the problem. (No hay ningún error en el
problema. No hay errores en el problema).

Any, forma afirmativa. Se traduce por cualquier, cualquiera


Any suggestion is welcome. (Cualquier sugerencia es bien recibida).

c) No-none. Estas palabras pueden ser usadas con verbos afirmativos


para expresar una negación. Son una construcción alternativa a la del
verbo en forma negativa + any. Ambos términos se traducen por ningún,
ninguna.

There is no information here. No hay ninguna información aquí


There are no important computer markets here
There is none. No hay ninguno

d) Palabras compuestas

SOME: someone: alguien


somebody: alguien
something. algo
somewhere: en alguna parte/lugar

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ANY:
Anyone
Afirmativo Negativo Interrogativo
cualquier/cualquiera nadie alguien

Anybody
cualquier/cualquiera nadie alguien
quienquiera

Anything
cualquier cosa nada algo

Anywhere
cualquier parte/lugar ninguna parte/lugar alguna parte/lugar
NO: no one: nadie
nobody: nadie
nothing: nada
no where: ninguna parte
EVERY:everyone: todos
everybody: todos
everything: todo
everywhere: en todas partes o lugares

Ejercicios:

1. Everrything is ready for the conference


2. There is no time for the next problem
3. There are not any difficult solutions here
4. There is nothing like your new idea.
5. No one was in the Accounts Department yesterday.
6. Everyone is free to go
7. None of the typists are useful for the program
8. Some drawers are full; some are not.

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108
CAPÍTULO IV

Partes principales del verbo

Hay dos clases de verbos en inglés: regulares e irregulares. Tanto los


verbos regulares como los irregulares tienen las siguientes partes princi-
pales: infinitive, past simple, past participle and -ing form.

Verbos regulares son aquellos que forman el “past simple” y el “past


participle” agregando “ed” o “d” a la forma simple.

La forma -ing se forma agregando “ing” al infinitivo. Se usa para los


tiempos contínuos.

INFINITIVE PAST SIMPLE PAST PARTICIPLE -ING FORM


to work worked worked working
to clean cleaned cleaned cleaning
to improve improved improved improving
to study studied studied studying
to play played played playing

Verbos irregulares forman el Past Simple y el Past Participle cambiando


parcial o totalmente la forma del infinitivo. A veces el Past Simple y el Past
Participle tienen la misma forma que el infinitivo.

Ejemplos:

to beat beat beaten beating


to begin began begun beginning
to buy bought bought buying
to cut cut cut cutting
to grow grew grown growing
to come came come coming
etc.

Ejercicio

Fotocopiar o copiar de un diccionario o libro de gramática la lista comple-


ta de verbos irregulares.

109
110
CAPÍTULO V

Los tiempos “continuos”

I) “Present Continuous”: se forma con el presente del verbo “To be” y la


forma “-ing” del verbo. Se traduce por estar + gerundio.

Afirmativo Negativo Interrogativo


I am working I am not working Am I working?
(estoy trabajando)
You are working
He is working
She is working
It is working
We are working
You are working
They are working

Ejercicios:

1. They are assembling a new computer


2. Is he experimenting with new programs?
3. Several thousand people are solving legal problems .
4. Are you trying to elaborate a new report?
5. They are experiencing in logistics.
6. We are living in an age of progress.
7. The author of the book is contrasting two different situations.
8. The bad publicity is affecting our reputation.
9. In the picture two men are buying stocks and shares.
10. The prices are always changing.
11. Now we are always flying direct form Milan.

II) Past Continuous: se forma con el pasado del verbo “to be” y la forma
“-ing”. Se traduce por estaba+ gerundio o a veces por el Pretérito Imper-
fecto del Indicativo.

Afirmativo Negativo Interrogativo


I was working I was not working Was I working?
(Yo estaba trabajando)
You were working You were not working Were you working?

111
He/She/It was working
We were working
You were working
They were working

Ejercicios:

1. He was demonstrating the commercial possibilities of the television


program.
2. He was reading a book about a new educational system.
3. Were you bribing the boss of the company?
4. You were forcing the man to accept the unfavourable conditions.
5. The prices were going up at intervals.
6. The new ideas were changing the face of the company.
7. Our competitor bankrupt was increasing our maket shares..
8. A factory agency was collecting our debts.
9. He was completing the documentation.
10. It was getting difficult to convince the seller.

“Present Continuous” con sentido de futuro

She is coming tomorrow: Viene/ vendrá/ va a venir mañana.


They are arriving next week.

“Going to”

I am going to work tomorrow. Voy a trabajar mañana.


I was going to work yesterday. Yo iba a trabajar ayer.

Ejercicios:

1. They are going to plan the new experiments carefully.


2. She was going to spend a lot of money in a new system.
3. He was going to check the books last week.
4. They are going to improve some methods of leasing.
5. We were going to draw the plans for the new building but there was no
time.
6. When is the board of directors going to modify the plan?

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CAPÍTULO VI

Voz pasiva

En inglés se forma con el presente del verbo “to be” y el participio pasivo
del verbo. Se encuentra de las siguientes maneras:

1) The payment is controlled by the accountant every day.


(El pago es controlado por el contador todos los días.)

The payment was controlled by the accountant every day.


(El pago era controlado por el contador todos los días.)

2) The payment is controlled every day. (se controla)


was controlled (se controlaba)

O sea, que cuando la voz pasiva en inglés va acompañada de la palabra


“by” (por), la oración se traduce literalmente. De lo contrario se traduce al
castellano, siempre que sea posible, con la partícula “se”.

Ejercicios:

1. When the abacus was invented, a bead frame in which the beads are
moved from left to right.
2. Calculus, a branch of mathematics, was independently invented by
both, Sir Isaac Newton, an Englishman and Leibnitz, a German
mathematician.
3. In 1.930, the first analog computer was built by an American named
Vannevar Bush.
4. Mark I, the name given to the first digital computer, was completed in
1.944.
5. The computed results were printed inmediately.
6. Binary arithmetic is based on two digits: 0 and 1.
7. There is no limit on the kinds of things a computer can do: its versatility
is limited only by the imagination of those using it.
8. Programs or data are stored on tapes or disks.
9. Calculations were done using devices that are still used today; the
slide rule (a perfect example), not to mention the ten fingers of the
hands.

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10. It wasn’t until the mid-1.940s that the first digital computer was built.
11. The memory of a computer is used for storing information.
12. Software packages are sold by various vendors and not necessarily
by the computer manufacturer.
13. These packages are coded in machine language on magnetic tapes
or disks which can be purchased, leased or rented by users who
choose the package that most closely corresponds to their needs.
14. Although systems programs are part of the software, they are usually
provided by the manufacturer of the machine.
15. Certain computers (commonly minicomputers and microcomputers)
are used to control directly, things such as robots, aircraft navigation
systems, medical instruments, etc.

114
CAPÍTULO VII

Pronombres

Pron. personales en caso nominativo: Sujeto

I yo
You tu, Ud.
He él
She ella
it
We nosotros/as
You vosotros/as, Uds.
They ellos/as

Pron. personales en caso acusativo: Objeto

me me,mi
you te, le, la; ti, Ud.
him lo. le; él
her la, le; ella
it le, lo, la; él, ella, ello
us nos; nosotros/as
you os, les, vosotros/as; Uds.
them les, los, las; ellos, ellas

Nota: it es un pronombre neutro que generalmente no se traduce.

Ejercicios:

1. There is a book for me at the post office.


2. They are telling us how they were projected
3. George was coming to see her that afternoon.
4. I am pleased to know that you are giving us every encouragement.
5. Thank you for your recent note.
6. We can’t do anything about it, so we can’t give you any money back.
7. I acknowledge receipt of your letter of 5 January.
8. This computer is for her, those are for them.
9. She showed them how to pack the goods.

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Adjetivos Posesivos

Concuerdan en género y número con el poseedor, no con lo poseído,


como en castellano.

my mi, mis
your tu, tus; su,sus (de Ud.)
his su, sus (de él)
her su, sus (de ella)
its su, sus (neutro)
our nuestro/a nuestros/as
your vuestro/a/as/os, sus (de Uds)
their suyos, sus (de ellos/as)

Ejercicios:

1. She gave me her advice on how to invest.


2. Our research was about consumer attitudes.
3. After a practical demonstration my instructions were easy to follow.
4. She has found work in his investment firm.
5. We have changed our premises to new ones in Lombard Street.
6. The job I’m doing at the moment is very difficult. I’m responsible for its
reliability.
7. They owe me four months’ salary in arrears.
8. They often experience problems with their computer network.

Pronombres Posesivos

mine mío/a; míos/as


yours tuyo/a/os/as; suyo/a/os/as; de Ud.
his suyo/a/os/as; su, sus; de él
hers suya/o/os/as; su; sus; de ella
ours nuestro/a/os/as
yours vuestro/a/os/as; suyo/de Uds.
theirs suyos; de ellos/as

Los pronombres posesivos también concuerdan en género y número


con el poseedor, no con lo poseído como en castellano.

116
Ejercicios:

1. What colour is your book?, Mine is red, but hers is black.


2. The papers were corrected yesterday. Ours were right but theirs were
wrong.
3. We are relatives of hers.
4. The house opposite ours is hers.
5. That is my chart, the graph is mine too.
6. She is carrying out her plan. Ours is not correct.
7. My pencils are on the table. His are lying on the floor.
8. The car next door is theirs.
9. My work is poor, but yours is bad.

Caso posesivo. Se forma añadiendo al sustantivo singular o plural (plu-


rales irregulares) una “s” precedida de apóstrofe. Ejemplo:
The company’s strategy was unclear. (La estrategia de la compañía...)
Men’s clothes stores are on the next floor.

Cuando el sustantivo poseedor es plural se coloca solamente el após-


trofe después de la “s”. Ejemplo:

The employees’s salaries are in the safe deposit box.


Otra forma de expresar posesión es usando la preposición “of”. Ejemplo:
The capital of the company.

Ejercicios:

1. First draw the organigram of Archer Electronics’ Board of Directors.


2. The management organization of the company was led by the president..
3. Baker’s orders were to drive the visitors to and from the factory.
4. Most of the sales today are for the new product.
5. The finance manager’s observations of the selling system were a
great contribution to the company.
6. The philosophy of the company is easy to understand.
7. As a wedding present she received 33.3%of the company’s shares.
8. Redundancy pay depends both on salary and length of service.
9. You can choose the company’s name, what it makes and how and
where it operates.

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Pronombres Reflexivos

myself me ourselves nos


yourself te, se yourselves se
herself se themselves se
himself se oneself se
itself se

Estos pronombres se traducen al castellano de tres formas distintas.

a) Como un simple reflexivo castellano: me, te, se, nos, os, se. Ejemplo:
I was looking at myself in the mirror. (Me estaba mirando en el espejo).

Ejercicios:

1. She was developing the new project herself.


2. He was running the hotel by himself.
3. We were transmitting ourselves a wide variety of regularly up-dated
information.
4. The poor client was talking to himself.

b) Como expresión de énfasis. Se traduce por: yo mismo, tu mismo,


él mismo, etc. o “en persona”. Ejemplo:

I myself was to blame for the mistake. (Yo mismo/a (tengo la culpa/soy
culpable del error).

Ejercicios:

1. He himself was forced to do the delivery.


2. We were compelled to carry out the survey ourselves.
3. The secretary herself was delivering the minutes of the meeting.
4. The president himself is going to open the new branch.

c) Cuando va precedido de “by” significa “solo” o “por sí mismo”,


“sí mismo”, etc. Ejemplo:

I was going to the leisure center by myself. (Iba al club sola).

118
Ejercicios:

1. The programmes were planned by the presidents themselves.


2. I made this program by myself.
3. The fax machine stopped suddenly by itself.
4. He lives here by himself.
5. A good result comes back by itself.

Pronombres y adjetivos demostrativos

Son invariables en género pero no en número

Singular
This este, esta, esto
That ese, esa, eso, aquel, aquello/a

Plural
These estos, estos
Those esos, esas, aquellos, aquellas

Ejemplos:

This is my boss; these are my co-workers.


(Este es mi jefe; estos son mis companeros de trabajo)
That’s an old subsidiary and it is still working properly.
(Aquella es una subsidiaria vieja y todavia trabaja corrrectamente).

Those services were offered last year. (aquellos/esos servicios se ofre-


cieron el ano pasado).

a) Las formas acentuadas éste, ese, aquél, ésta. esa, aquella corres-
ponden generalmente al inglés “this one”, “that one”, o sea el demostrativo
correspondiente seguido de “one”.

I like this one, not that one. (Me gusta éste, no aquél).

b) Cuando los pronombres demostrativos castellanos este, aquel, etc.


son sinónimos de “el último”, “el primero”, corresponden a las formas in-
glesas “the former”, “the latter”. Ejemplo:

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Those books are expensive, these are cheap; the former are illustrated,
the latter are not. (Aquellos/Esos libros son caros, estos son baratos; los
primeros están ilustrados, los últimos no).

Ejercicios:

Finance and Human Resources are divisions of the company. The former
is concerned with money, the latter with employees.

Life is defined by men of science and by philosophers. The former are


discussing it from the point of view of a scientific possibility. The latter are
considering it from two different angles: moral and religious.

Ejercicios (Adjetivos y pronombres demostrativos)

1.This decision would raise your product price.


2.That new phenomenon attracted considerable attention.
3. Wha are the advantages and disadvantages of these offers?
4. Those potential clients were considered for the interview.
5. Progress in those under developed countries is not steady.
6. In these two cases, only the feasible schemes were considered. Those
which were not feasible were discarded.
7. These calculations were of inestimable value not only to investors but
also to savers.

Pronombres recíprocos

Son los siguientes: one another, each other (el uno al otro, entre sí). Se
usan indistintamente y se colocan después del verbo. Ejemplo:

At present, the members of the club are helping one another. (Actual-
mente, los miembros del club se están ayudando mutuamente).

Ejercicios:

1. They were studying each other carefully at the meeting.


2. They are copying from each other.
3. While I was there, they were speaking to one another only when it was
necessary.

120
Pronombre personal indefinido One uno, una. Ejemplo
One is never sure of the result. (Uno nunca esta seguro del resultado).
One is always thinking of tomorrow.

Pronombres relativos

Who quien, que, cual (se refiere solamente a personas)


Whom que, cuya, quien (personas)
Whose cuyo/a/os/as (personas)
Which que, cual (animales, cosas, personas)
What lo que
That lo que

Ejemplos:

1. My uncle, who is coming tomorrow, is a lawyer.


2. (Mi tío, que viene mañana, es abogado).
3. The lady from whom this package was obtained is in London.
4. (La dama de quien se obtuvo este paquete está en Londres).
5. John, whose briefcase was stolen yesterday, lives next door.
6. (John, cuyo portafolios fue robado ayer, vive al lado).
7. I was not able to decide which was better.
8. (No pude decidir cuál era mejor.
9. What she is saying is incorrect.
10. (Lo que ella dice es incorrecto).

Ejercicios:

1.The International Conference Centre which was opened las year, seats
3,000 people.
2. The new manager who is a natural leader is also very imaginative.
3. The methods which were used there were faultless.
4. You have to organize a Trade Fair for organizations who train people in
using all forms of new technology.
5. What is shown in the graph is sugar production on a small scale.

121
Omisiones de pronombres relativos

En inglés el pronombre relativo puede omitirse, quedando sobreenten-


dido. En castellano no se omite.

This is the company (of which I was speaking).


(I was speaking of)

The man (to whom I was speaking) is very reliable.


(I was speaking to)

1. I was just organizing the meeting he was speaking of.


2. Here is the brochure you were asking for.
3. That is the convention I was talking about.
4. The explanation she is giving to the members of the commitee is not
correct.

122
CAPÍTULO VIII

Verbos defectivos

Son verbos que no tienen variantes en su declinación y que sólo poseen


uno o dos tiempos verbales:

CAN - COULD- MAY- MIGHT - MUST- SHOULD - OUGHT TO

Sus formas interrogativas se logran invirtiendo el verbo con el pronom-


bre personal. Sus formas negativas se logran agregando luego del sujeto
y el verbo la partícula negativa “not”.

Can: se traduce por el presente Indicativo del verbo poder. (Yo puedo, tu
puedes, etc.). Ej:

- Forma afirmativa: He can decide which characteristic is important (El


puede decidir que caracteristica es importante).
- Forma interrogativa: Can he decide which characteristic is important?
(Puede el decidir que caracteristica es importante?)
- Forma negativa: He cannot decide which characteristic is important.
(El no puede decidir...).

Ejercicios:

1.He cannot invest in new technology.


2.She can apply for transfer to another section.
3.Can they work under stress?
4.A computer can do many kinds of calculation quickly and accurately.
5.The new secretary can solve a problem faster than any other in the
company.
6.He can be made redundant if his work is not profitable.
7.The production process can be automatized.
8.A customer engineer can help users solve the computer problems.

Could: se traduce al cstellano según el sentido de la oración por: yo


podía/pude/podría. Ejemplo:

123
Could he be accepted is he is efficient?
(¿Podría ser aceptado si es eficiente?).

The parent company could encourage a generous budget for training.


(La compañía pudo alentar un generoso presupuesto para entrena-
miento.

Ejercicios:

1.He could not understand the meaning of the graph.


2.The project could be an important source of income if managers could
find a way to control it.
3.No one could describe the new job as monotonous.
4.Could they analyse how time and money were spent?

“To be able to”: esta forma verbal no es defectiva. Suple los tiempos de
que carece “can”. Puede usarse en presente y en pasado. Se traduce por:
poder, ser capaz. Ejemplo:

The president is able to express his feelings in precise terms through


voice or gesture.

Ejercicios:

1.He is not able to create an atmosphere which produces good teamwork.


2.Why is their performance able to affect the managers’ success?
3.They were able to define the ideal candidate
4.The essential quality of that definition is that we are able to apply it to
all cases.
5.You were unable to act in any other way.

Formas de la voz pasiva con “can” y “could”

Can
+ be + participio pasado
Could

Ejemplos:

Priorities can be identified easily. (Se pueden identificar las prioridades


facilmente).

124
Priorities could be identified easily. (Se pudo/podría/podía identificar las...)
(Las prioridades se pudieron/podían/podrían ser identificadas fácilmente).

Ejercicios:

1.Ideas can be presented persuasively.


2. Giving a presentation cannot be planned in two days.
3. There are advertising methods which can be evaluated with some
accuracy.
4. His ways of managing stress are inefficient. How could their efficiency
be increased?
5. A big problem can be solved by solving a number of little problems -
one after another.
6. Tapes and disks are devices that can be stored for future use.
7. Only one course can be held in two days.
8.Many lines are printed simultaneously, and speeds of 20.000 lines per
minute can be attained.
9. Main storage and the CPU are connected to a console, where manual
control operations can be performed by an operator.

Formas impersonales con “can” y “could”

There can be It can be


There could be It could be

Ejemplos:

There can be no objections to the plan


No puede haber objeciones al plan.

There could be no objections to the plan.


No pudo/podía/podría haber objeciones...

It can be said that foreign consultants are expensive.


Se puede decir que los consultores extranjeros son caros.

It could be said that foreign consultants are/were expensive.


Se pudo/podía/podría decir que los consultores extranjeros son/fueron
caros.

125
Ejercicios:

1. It can be said that all are basically the same.


2. It could be said that computers are limited by man’s imagination.
3. There can be no doubt that one of your potential clients is that
international hotel chain.

May: expresa permiso o posibilidad de hacer algo. Se traduce por: yo


puedo, tu puedes, etc., o tal vez.

Ejemplo:

The relocation package may include his hotel expenses.


El paquete de reubicacion puede incluir sus gastos de hotel. Tal vez el
paquete de reubicacion incluya .....

Ejercicios:

1.The computers of the future may be quite different from those in use
today.
2.The result of this programe may change the whole course of your
researches.
3.What may the possible consequences be?
4.A belief may be wrong even though it may seem reasonable.
5.In terms of its effects, we may think that the machinery is up-dated.

Might: expresa posibilidad o probabilidad más remota que “May”. En el


presente se traduce por: podría/as...y pudiera/se....etc. Ejemplo:

Some people might consider the new policy lucrative, but this is not
accurate.
Algunos podrían considerar la nueva politica lucrativa, pero esto no es
correcto.

Ejercicios

1. The production process in the company might produce pollution.


2. He said that it might work.
3. He is not here. He might be in a meeting.

126
Formas de voz pasiva con “May” y “Might”
Se forman:

may
be + participio pasado
might

Foreign books may be translated accurately.


(Los libros extranjeros pueden ser traducidos con precisión). (Se puede
traducir...)

Foreign books might be translated in class.


(Los libros extranjeros podrían ser traducidos en clase. Se podrían tra-
ducir los...).

Ejercicios:

1.An engineering project may be applied in your area..


2. This article may be discussed in two parts.
3. At the rate the company is improving the quality of its product, it might
reduce the cost of its production.
4. The easiest solution may be to lay off the workforce in the recently
acquired factory.

Formas impersonales con “May” y “Might”

There may be It may be


+ participio pasado
There might be It might be

There may be foreign books in the library.


(Puede haber libros extranjeros en ....)
There might be foreign books in the library.
(Podría haber libros...)
It may be said that foreign books are expensive.
(Se puede decir que los libros....).
It might be said that foreign books were scarce in 1.900.
(Podría decirse que los libros extranjeros eran escasos en 1.900).

127
Ejercicios:

1.There might be unknown factors which may change the result of the
contract.
2.It may be said that anger is always characterized by some aggresive
response.
3.Usually, there may be no legal obligation to change your process.

Must: expresa una obligación ineludible. Se traduce por el Presente del


Indicativo “debo/es...etc, o tengo , tienes....que, etc.”

All new project must have a time to prove its validity.

Ejercicios:

1.Sometimes we must reduce the cost of the production to make the


product uncompetitive.
2. We must work out the details of a problem before reaching a solution.
3. We must be able to play an active part in the project.
4.You must make a flexi-time proposal.
5. You must read this book. It’s really excellent.
6. Tell her that she must be here by six. I insist on it.

To have to: esta no es una forma defectiva. Se usa para suplir todos los
tiempos verbales de los que carece “must”. Se traduce por “tener que”. Se
conjuga de la siguiente manera:

Presente Simple

I have to: tengo que


You have to
He has to
She has to
It has to
We have to
You have to
They have to

Pasado Simple

I had to: tuve, tenía que

128
You had to
He had to
She had to
It had to
We had to
You had to
They had to

I have to read these books to pass the examination.


(Tengo que leer estos libros...)

I had to read those books to pass the examination.


(Tuve que leer esos libros...)

Ejercicios:

1.During that time they had to negotiate for a long-term and valuable
contract.
2. The law officer had to investigate a case of bribery.
3. They have to decide on a price which can be both attractive to the
consumer and profitable to them.
4. I hadn’t enough money and I had to pay by cheque.
5. You have to take off your shoes to go in their houses.

Formas pasivas con “must” y “have to”

must
have to + be + participio
had to

Foreign books must be read....


Se deben leer libros extranjeros....

This foreign book has to be read.


Se tiene que leer este libro....

Ejercicios:

1. The greatest care must be exercised in order to eliminate errors.

129
2. All information must be prepared in such a way that the computer can
understand it.
3.The meetings must be programmed in order to be useful.
4.Even the most careful employee must be told what to do.
5.What provision have to be made with regard to holiday work?
6.Instructions must be given to the new staff.
7.Employees must be motivated to learn quickly.

Formas impersonales con “must” y “have to”

There must be: debe haber


There has to be: tiene que haber
There have to be: tiene que haber
There had to be: tenía que haber/tuvo que haber

It must be Debe decirse/Se debe decir


It has to be + participio Tiene que decirse
It had to be (said) Se tuvo que decir

Ejercicios:

1. There must be foreign books in lthe library. (Debe haber libros....)


2. There has to be a technical dictionary here.
3. There have to be foreign books here.
4. There had to be suggestions to be judged.
5. It must be said that that area is attractive.
6. It has to be kept in mind that there might be over building costs.
7. It must be remembered to rank them in order of importance.
8. There must be no doubt about the limitation of the scheme.
9. There has to be a solution to your problem.

Ought to: indica obligación moral. (No ordena ni prohíbe. Aconseja y


recomienda lo que es deseable, correcto y adecuado). Se traduce por:
debiera, debería, etc.

You ought to analyse why the sales of your product are declining.
Debería (Debiera) analizar...

130
Ejercicios:

1. Which consequences ought we take into account?


2. Don’t you think we ought to examine it first?
3. Everybody ought to be able to solve this problem.
4. You ought to finance the production of that revolutionary product.

Forma pasiva con “ought to”: ought to be + participio

Foreign books ought to be read for the translation course.


Debieran o deberían ser leídos....
Se debieran/deberían leer.

Ejercicios:

1. Those methods ought to be used with precaution.


2. They ought to specialise in arranging conferences and conventions.

Formas impersonales con “ought to”

There ought to be
It ought to be + participio pasado

There ought to be foreign books in the library.


Debería/debiera haber libros....

It ought to be realized that foreign books are necessary for this course.
Se debería/debiera considerar que los libros extranjeros son necesarios...
Debería/debiera decirse que los libros extranjeros son necesarios...

Ejercicios:

1.There ought to be remembered that it is difficult to accomodate so


many people for the conference.
2.There ought to be a suitable text for translation students.
3.It ought to be considered that our need for training courses is constantly
increasing.

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Should: se traduce por “debe, debiera/se, debería”. En traducciones
científicas generalmente por “debe”.

Only doctors should prescribe vitamins.


Sólo los médicos deben/deberían recetar....

Ejercicios:

1.Handwriting should be legible and in possible attractive.


2.The forces should be equal to produce a balance.
3.You should not intervene unless they ask you to.
4.When a right-handed person is writing, the light should come from his
left.
5.The manager should have an active mind, imagination, tact and the
ability to control others.
6.You should be very careful and exact in recording the true observation.
7.In planning a series of conferences one should be aware of the
difficulties.

Forma pasiva con “should”: should be + participio pasado

Foreign books should be read in this course


Los libros extranjeros deben/debieran/deberían ser leídos en este curso.
Se deben/debieran/deberían leer libros extranjeros....

Ejercicios:

1. Goods should be paid in advance.


2. How should employees be selected, trained and paid?
3. Decisions should never be taken without the advice of a consultant..
4. The recording of data should be carefully checked.

Formas impersonales con “should”

There should be
It should be + participio pasado

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There should be foreign books in the library.
Debe/debiera/debería haber libros....

It should be kept in mind that errors in measurement are common.


Debe/debiera/debería tenerse en cuenta que....
Se debería tener en cuenta que....

Ejercicios:

1.It is very important that there should be no errors of spelling or grammar.


2.It should be kept in mind that there should be no mistakes when such
a project is performed.
3.It should be remembered that the Cv should be clear and attractive to
read.
4.There should be a clause in t he contract to specify what amounts of
money should be paid to the her.
5.It should be remembered that computers can process information at
extremely rapid rates.
6.There should be a multicolor graphic to emphasize contrast.

Used to:

The students used to read many foreign books for the translation course.
Los estudiantes solían leer muchos libros....

A pesar de no ser un verbo defectivo propiamente dicho, es por tener


una sola forma y por lograrse sus formas afirmativa, interrogativa y nega-
tiva de la misma manera que los defectivos, que se lo trata aquí. Se
traduce por “solía/as....”, etc.

Ejercicios:

1.When he was a little boy he used to live in the country. He used to get
up early everyday. There was a little dog in the house and he used to
play with him all morning. At twelve o’clock he used to have his lunch.
2.He always used to drink fresh milk. After lunch he used to go swimming
in the river. He could swim very well, and he used to swim across the
river from one side to the other. Back at home, he used to eat dinner
and then take a short walk. He always used to go to bed early.

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Forma pasiva con “used to”:

Used to be + participio pasado

Foreign books used to be read for the translation course.


Libros extranjeros solían ser leídos para...
Libros extranjeros solían leerse para el curso...

Ejercicios:

1.It must be remembered that formal language is used por public


meetings.
2.Substantial resourses used to be brought for the campaign by the
agency.
3.Many books used to be sent abroad.
4.The majority of senior managers used to be men.
5.The photocopier used to break down very often.

Formas impersonales con “used to”

There used to be
It used to be + participio pasado

There used to be foreign books in the library.


Solía haber libros...

It used to be said that the Earth was flat.


Solía decirse que la Tierra....

Ejercicios:

1.It used to be thought that that was the strategy of the company.
2.There used tobe a reduction in price every two years.
3.It used to be thought that it was necessary to delegate.
4.At other times there used to be unofficial strikes rather than collective
bargaining.

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Ejercicios generales:

1. Now scientists and inventors are able to build machines to help us do


almost any kindof work.
2. The National Gas industry was privatized by the government.
3. The market can be said to be bearish or bullish.
4. It was said that she was selling most of her portfolio.
5. She must build up a database of customer records on her computer
system.
6. Could I come back and see you in a month’s time?
7. Visitors may visit the workshops by prior arrangement.
8. You may well be right.
9. The commitee meeting may be cancelled as most of the members
are going to be away.
10. We could not start the project without additional staff.

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136
CAPÍTULO IX

El imperativo

a)El imperativo afirmativo singular y plural se forma usando el infinitivo


de un verbo sin “to”.

Read the book. Lea el libro.

b)El imperativo negativo se forma colocando “do not” delante del infinitivo
sin “to”.

Do not read the book. No lea el libro.

Otra forma de expresar el imperativo es con el verbo “let”.

a) “Let us” se usa en la primera persona plural para hacer una sugerencia.
Let us read the book. Leamos el libro.

b) Let seguido de “me, him, her, it, them”, se traduce por “permitir, dejar”.
Let me read the book. Déjeme/Permítame leer el libro.

Ejercicios:

1.Explain the meanings of the words underlined and discuss the general
style of the passage.
2.Do not make new changes unless they’re necessary.
3.Let me give you some advice.
4.Go ahead with the plan after his confirmation.
5.Ask the technician to clean the machine.
6.Make your agent pay for local advertising and promotion.
7.Obtain bank references for open accounts customers.

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138
CAPÍTULO X

El tiempo “Present Simple”

Forma afirmativa

I work (trabajo)
You work
He works
She works
It works
We work
You work
They work

Forma negativa

I do not work (no trabajo)


You do not work
He does not play
She does not work
It does not work
We do not work
You do not work
They do not work

Forma interrogativa

Do I work?
Do you work?
Does he work?
Does she work?
Does it work?
Do we work?
Do you work?
Do they work?

a) Tiene una sola persona variante en la conjugación y es la “s” o “es” de


las terceras personas del singular.

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Con el verbo “to go”:

I go - You go- He goes - She goes - It goes - We go - You go - They go

b) Para el interrogativo y negativo usamos los auxiliares “do” y “does”


para la tercera persona del singular. “Do” y “does” no afectan la traducción
al castellano del verbo principal.

Ejercicios:

1. How do computers work?


2. He works for a major firm in the city of London..
3. ABC manufactures a wide variety of adhesives.
4. The prices have full insurance cover.
5. How often do they have a departamental meeting?
6. What does it have branches?
7. I don’t understand how the profit margin is calculated.
8. I realize that there has been a breakdown.
9. Mantex owns over 50% of the shares.
10. We assure you that your request will receive our best attention.

El tiempo “Past Simple”

Se forma en los verbos regulares agregando “d” o “ed” a la forma del


Present Simple; y en los verbos irregulares, como su nombre lo indica,
irregularmente. Se conjuga así:

Afirmativo

I worked (trabajé)
You worked (trabajaste)
He worked
She worked
It worked
We worked
You worked
They worked

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Negativo

I did not work


You did not work
He did not work
She did not work

It did not work


We did not work
You did not work
They did not work did not: didn’t

Interrogativo

Did I work?
Did you work?
Did he work?
Did she work?
Did it work?
Did we work?
Did you work?
Did they work?

Ejercicios:

1. What project did you work on?


2. They believe in free trade.
3. I enclosed a detailed quotation.
4. They suggested they look at the figures very careful.
5. We did not produce semi conductors in the sixties.
6. When did they move to noew premises?
7. After she paid death duties, she invested most of her capital.
8. She dealt with the problem already.
9. Nobody told me about the decision.
10. Mr. Weston asked her to send a telex.
11. When did they decide to close the office in Brussels?
12. Did she show them how to pack the goods?

Nota: hemos visto hasta ahora que los auxiliares “do”, “did”, “does”,
cuando se encuentran en oraciones negativas e interrogativas no afectan
la traducción del verbo principal. Pero cuando el auxiliar “do”, “does”, “did”

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va en oraciones afirmativas precediendo al verbo principal toma un senti-
do enfático y se lo traduce por “sí”, “si que....”, “claro que....”.

They do work on the project everyday.


Sí/sí que/claro que trabajan en el proyecto todos los días.

He does work on the project everyday.


Si/si que/claro que trabaja en el....

They did work on the project everyday.


Sí/si que/claro que trabajaron en el proyecto....

Ejercicios:

1. The board did send you an official reply.


2. We do feel you should spend more time on training.
3. We did pay the expenses.

Formas impersonales con “Present Simple” y “Past Simple”

There
+ present simple
It
There seems (parece)
It exists (existe)

There
+ past simple
It

There seemed (pareció, parecía)


It existed (existió, existía)
“It” y “There” no se traducen.

Ejercicios:

1. It seems that he was wrong.


2. There exist some very serious problem in that company.

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3. There came a time when we had high hope for the nex model.
4. It seemed that his influence on the young author was good.

The adjective and the adverb: el adjetivo y el adverbio

El adjetivo en Inglés es invariable en género y número y se antepone


generalmente al sustantivo.

The modern building is near the river.


El edificio moderno está cerca del río.

The modern buildings are near the river.


Los edificios modernos están cerca del río.

* Hay palabras que son adjetivos propiamente dichos. Por ejemplo: pretty,
red, good, bad, few, fat, thin, large, small, short, heavy, etc.

* Pero hay adjetivos que se forman de otras palabras al agregarles un


sufijo:

a) Sufijo “y”

rain rainy (lluvia - lluvioso)


cloud cloudy (nube - nublado)
water watery (agua - acuoso)
storm stormy (tormenta - tormentoso)

b) Sufijo “able”

consider - considerable (considerar - considerable)


count - countable (contar - contable)
measure - measurable (medir - medible)

c) Sufijo “ful”

doubt - doubtful (duda - dudoso)


care - careful (cuidado - cuidadoso)
beauty - beautiful (belleza - bello)
use - useful (uso - útil)

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d) Sufijo “less” (tiene sentido negativo)

use - useless (uso - inútil)


care - careless (cuidado - descuidado)
doubt - doubtless (duda - indudable)
fault - faultless (error - intachable/sin error)
end - endless (fin - sin fin/infinito)

e) Sufijo “en”

ash - ashen (ceniza - ceniciento)


lead - leaden (plomo - plomizo)
silk - silken (seda - sedoso)
gold - golden (oro - dorado)

f) Prefijo “un” (sentido negativo)

countable - uncountable (contable - incontable)


common - uncommon (común - no común)
certain - uncertain (cierto - incierto)
conscious - unconscious (consciente - inconsciente)

El adverbio

Adverbios propiamente dichos: always, never, sometimes, often, almost,


perhaps, seldom, here, here, there, now, soon, today, tomorrow, once,
twice, very, etc.

Adverbios derivados: la mayoría de los adverbios de modo se forman


agregando el sufijo “ly” (mente) a ciertos adjetivos:

easy - easily (fácil - fácilmente)


silent - silently (silencioso - silenciosamente)
quick - quickly (rápido - rápidamente)
slow - slowly (lento - lentamente)
constant - constantly (constante - constantemente)

Nótese que hay varios adjetivos también terminados en “ly”•:

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daily - daily (diario - diariamente)
weekly - weekly (semanal - semanalmente)
monthly - monthly (mensual - mensualmente)
yearly - yearly (anual - anualmente)
friendly - friendly (amistoso - amistosamente)
only - only (sólo/único - solamente/únicamente

fast - fast (veloz - velozmente)

near - near (cercano - cerca)


nearly (casi)

hard - hard (duro/difícil - mucho)


hardly (apenas)

Grados de comparación del adjetivo y del adverbio

a) Comparativo de Igualdad

Forma afirmativa as...as (tan...como) (la misma que)

Forma negativa: not as...as (no tan, tanto...como)


not so...as

Madrid is almost as big as Barcelona.


Madrid es casi tan grande como Barcelona.

Russian is not so difficult as Chinese.


El ruso no es tan difícil como el chino.

He came as quickly as he could.


Vino tan rápido como pudo.

Ejercicios:

1.Output rose four times as much as in 1982.


2. Frankfurt is as expensive as the others.
3.They are working as hard as last year.

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b) Comparativo de Superioridad

Se forma agregando la terminación “er” al adjetivo o adverbio seguido o


no de “than”, o bien colocando la palabra “more” delante del adjetivo o del
adverbio, a su vez seguido o no de “than”. Generalmente se agrega “er” a
las palabras de una o dos sílabas y “more” a las palabras de más de dos
sílabas.

In February the days are longer than in July.


En Febrero los días son más largos que en Julio.

The English are more conservative than the Americans.


Los ingleses son más conservadores que los americanos.

Leasing is becoming more popular nowadays.


Leasing se está volviendo más popular hoy en día.

Ejercicios:

1. Robots are faster than human beings.


2. The TD9 is cheaper than the CFT20
3. She speaks spanish more fluently than english.
4. Hours of work now are longer than 30 years ago.
5. Typewriters are slower than word processors.

c) Comparativo de Inferioridad

Se forma colocando la partícula “less” delante del adjetivo o adverbio


seguido o no de “than”. Se traduce por: menos...que.

1.It takes less time to send a document.


Lleva menos tiempo enviar un documento.

2.Five is less than seven.


Cinco es menos que siete.

3.He comes less often than he used.


Viene menos seguido que antes.

Nota: las siguientes formas de los comparativos de superioridad y de


inferioridad:

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the + comparativo............the + comparativo. Ejemplo:

The more he earns, the more he wants.


Cuanto más gana, tanto más quiere.
The less he works, the less money he gets.
Cuanto menos trabaje, tanto menos gana.

The higher we get the more we work.


Cuanto más alto llegamos, mas trabajamos.

Grado Superlativo

Se forma agregando “est” al adjetivo o adverbio precedido de “the” o


anteponiendo al adjetivo o adverbio las palabras “the most” (el más, la
más, lo más, los más, las más) o “the least” (el menos, la menos, lo
menos, los menos, las menos).

Ejemplos:

1.April is the busiest month.


Abril es el mes más ocupado.

2.Our shares fell to the lowest level in nine months.


Nuestras acciones cayeron al nivel más bajo en nueve meses.

3.The chemicals division was the most profitable last year.


La división de químicos fue la que mas ganancia tuvo el año pasado.

Ejercicios:

1. 29 June is the earliest date I can manage.


2. They have the fewest telephone lines.
3. Which machines holds the most numbers in its memory?
4. Which is the best value for money?

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Adjetivos y adverbios que forman
comparativo y superlativo irregularmente

Positivo

good (bueno)
well (bien)
bad (malo)
badly, ill (malo)
little (poco)
many (mucho)
much (mucho)
far (lejos)
far (muy, mucho)
old (viejo)
out (afuera)
up (arriba)
in (dentro)

Comparativo

better (mejor)
better (mejor)
worse (peor)
worse (peor)
less (menos)
more (más)
more (más)
farther (más, lejos)
further (más, adicional)
older (más viejo, mayor)
outer (exterior)
upper (superior)
inner (interior)

Superlativo

best (lo mejor)


best (lo, el mejor)
worst (lo, la, el peor)

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worst (lo, la, el peor)
least (el, la, lo menos)
most (lo, la, el más)
most (lo, la, el más)
farthest (lo, la, el más lejos)
furthest (lo, la, el más lejos)
oldest (la, el más viejo) (la, el mayor)
outermost (lo más exterior)
uppermost (superior)
innermost (lo más interno)

Traducción de adverbios y frases adverbiales

ever since: desde entonces, desde que


at last: al fin, finalmente
at length: a la larga, extensivamente
at once: enseguida, inmediato
all at once: inmediato
at present: actualmente
presently: pronto, luego, ahora
as yet: hasta ahora
by and by: luego, más tarde, después de un rato
forever: para siempre
in time: a tiempo, en su tiempo
on time: a horario, puntualmente
now and then: de vez en cuando
like: como, igualmente
unlike: a diferencia de
likely: probable/mente
likewise: también, asimismo
in short: en resumen
shortly: en breve, en pocas palabras
afterwards: más tarde
by degrees: gradualmente
not at all: de ninguna manera, en absoluto, nada
after all: después de todo
at least: al menos, por lo menos
not in the least: en absoluto, en lo más mínimo
not even: ni aún, ni tampoco

149
any longer: más, ya no, no más
no longer: no más
any farther: más (lejos)
any further: más
of course: por supuesto, naturalmente
every other day: día por medio
long ago: hace mucho tiempo
long since/ever since: desde entonces
by the way: de paso, a propósito, entre paréntesis
by all means: de todas maneras, por supuesto
hence: de allí, desde entonces
pretty: pasablemente, bastante
however much/however many: por mucho/os

Palabras en función adjetiva

Cuando el sustantivo va acompañado de adjetivos o palabras en función


adjetiva no existe una regla precisa para su traducción. No obstante puede
decirse que se traducen primero aquellas palabras que más restringen el
significado del sustantivo.

The Eastern region is the most densely populated part of the country.
La región Este es la parte del país más densamente poblada.

Ejercicios:

1. There was a row of perfectly executed graphics on the screen.


2. Half-erased diagrams could be seen on the blackboard.
3. Radio-waves have higher frequencies than sound waves.

Los tiempos perfectos

Present Perfect: se forma con el Simple Present del verbo “to have” y el
“past participle” de los verbos. Se conjuga de la siguiente manera:

150
Afirmativo

I have lived (yo he vivido)


You have lived
He has lived
She has lived
It has lived
We have lived
You have lived
They have lived

Negativo

I have not lived


You have not lived
He has not lived
She has not lived
It has not lived
We have not lived
You have not lived
They have not lived

Interrogativo

Have I lived?
Have you lived?
Has he lived?
Has she lived?
Has it lived?
Have we lived?
Have you lived?
Have they lived?

Present Perfect - Ejercicios:

1. We have sold 25,000 units so far.


2. Computers have changed the way in which we live.
3. Unemployment has not been so low since 1982.
4. We have not contacted them for over a year.
5. Has she ever been to Algeria?
6. I have now received your letter placing the order..

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7. As requested we have sent you a proforma invoice.
8. They have agreed to a 5% discount.
9. She has worked on that report all day.
10. Money is a factor which has played an important part in establishing
the pattern of modern scientific investigation.

Past Perfect

Este tiempo se forma con el “Simple Past” del verbo “to have” y el “Past
Participle” de los verbos. Se conjuga así:

Afirmativo

I had lived (había vivido)


You had lived
He had lived
She had lived
It had lived
We had lived
You had lived
They had lived

Negativo

I had not not lived


You had not lived
He had not lived
She had not lived
It had not lived
We had not lived
You had not lived
They had not lived

Interrogativo

Had I lived?
Had you lived?
Had he lived?
Had she lived?

152
Had it lived?
Had we lived?
Had you lived?
Had they lived?

In the year 1.500 Europe knew less about science than Archimides had
known in 212 B.C. En el año 1.500 Europa sabía menos de ciencia que lo
que Arquímides había sabido en 212 A.C.

Ejercicios:

1.She told me she had dealt with the problem already.


2.We had spent thirty hours in delicate negotiations before we concluded
the deal.
3.They decided to use the money they had inherited from their father.
4.As soon as the accountant had discovered his error, he made the
necessary corrections to his figures.

Nota: cuando los tiempos "Present Perfect" y "Past Perfect" van con
“just”, se traducen:

He has just come: El acaba de llegar.

He had just come: El acababa de llegar.

Y cuando van con For, se traducen:

I have lived here for years.


He vivido aquí durante años.
Hace años que vivo aquí.

I had lived there for years.


Había vivido allí durante años.
Hacía años que vivía allí.

La construcción have/object/Past Participle se usa para expresar ora-


ciones del siguiente tipo: “empleé alguien para que haga algo para mí”.

I have the fax machine controled every two months.


Hago controlar el fax cada dos meses.
Es decir: empleo a alguien para que pcontrole la maquina.

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I had the fax machine controlled before they came.
Hice controlar el fax antes que vinieran.

Ejercicios:

1. They have just gone.


2. We have just studied the use of program in France.
3. For years they have studied the way to improve the business.
4. I had an extra room added close to the study.
5. We had the offices painted every summer.

Present and Past Perfect Continuous

Se forman:

have
been +.....ing
had

I have been studying: He estado estudiando.

I had been studying: Había estado estudiando.

Ejercicios:

1. It was obvious that she had been studying the project for weeks.
2. All these years they have been trying to remodel the company.
3. I had been thinking of moving for a long time and then I got a job at ICL.

Formas pasivas de los tiempos “Present Perfect” y “Past Perfect”

Se forman:

have
been + Past Participle
had

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The technique has been developed by a German scientist.
La técnica ha sido desarrollada por un científico alemán.

Ejercicios:

1. Has Mr.Wess been informed?


2. They had been consulted earlier.
3. The production line has been automated.

Formas impersonales de los tiempos “Present Perfect” y “Past


Perfect”

There has been a book on the table for weeks.


Ha habido un libro sobre la mesa.....

There have been books on the table for weeks.


Han habido libros sobre la mesa.....

There had been books on the table before she came.


Había habido libros sobre la .....

Impersonal pasiva:

It has been thought that there is a product to launch.


Se ha pensado que hay un producto para lanzar.

It had been thought that the plans had been stolen but then they were
found.
Se había pensado que los planos habían sido robadas pero luego fue-
ron encontrados.....

Ejercicios:

1.It has been said that the essential components will be delivered to the
factory.
2.It has been explained that the meetings are held on Monday morning.
3.It has been proved that premiums must be increased.
4.There has been great progress in the field of human resourses recently.
5. There have been times when she sent a copy of the report every day.

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Verbos defectivos con “Perfect Tenses”

Los verbos defectivos con “Perfect Tenses” guardan el siguiente orden


dentro de la oración:

could
may
must have + Past participle
ought to
should

I could have gone to Chile: Pude haber ido a Chile.

Ejercicios:

1. She must have done all the paperwork.


2. They might have thought unnecessary another meeting.
3. He ought t to have faced the fact before it was too late.
4. They should have lowered the price.
5. She must have tried to pay with a crossed cheque.

Los tiempos futuros

Simple Future: se forma anteponiendo al verbo principal los auxiliares


“shall” (primeras personas del singular y plural) y “will” para todas las de-
más, o bien “will” para todas las personas del singular y plural.

I shall go: iré


I will go: iré
You will go: irás
He will go
She will go
It will go
We shall go
We will go
You will go
They will go

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Negativo

I shall not go
You will not go
etc.
Interrogativo

Shall I go?
Will you go?
etc.

I shall be away for a week.


Estaré ausente durante una semana.

Ejercicios:

1. I will do whatever I can to help.


2. The company will be 50 years old next Monday.
3. We wil become the world’s leading manufacturer.
4. I will give you a lift if you like.

Future Continuous

Se forma:
shall
be + .....ing
will

By this time tomorrow he will be travelling to Europe.


A esta hora mañana él estará viajando a Europa.

Ejercicios:

1. He will be inaugurating the company by this time tomorrow.


2. What will he be doing on Friday evening?
3. Within a few weeks they will be finishing with the survey.

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Future Perfect

Se forma:
shall
have + Past Participle
will

By next Tuesday I will have controlled all the figures.


Antes del Martes, habré controlado todos los números.

Ejercicios:

1. In a week or two, the company will have moved to a new premise.


2. Will they have decided by then, what advertising media to use?
3. In a fortnight’s time, we will have taken our examination.
4. She will have cancelled the appointment by tomorrow.
5. The students will have completed the project by the end of this month.

Formas pasivas del futuro

Se forman:

Future simple pasive: shall/will/be/Past Participle


Future perfect pasive: shall/will/have/been/Past Participle

The book wil have been read by the end of the year.
El libro habrá sido leído antes de fin de año.

Ejercicios:

1. The AGM will be held in Frankfurt..


2. Profits will have increased by about 15 %..

Formas impersonales del Futuro

There will be new books in the library next week.


Habrá libros nuevos en la biblioteca la semana que viene.

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It will be impossible to interview so many people in two days.
Será imposible entrevistar a tanta gente en dos dias.

There will have been many debates on the subject by the end of the
year.
Habrá habido muchos debates sobreel tema para fin de ano.

La forma “ing”

I) “ing” como sustantivo: se traduce al castellano generalmente como


otro sustantivo, por un infinitivo o por “-ando, “-iendo”. Y puede ser:

a) Sujeto de la oración: se traduce generalmente por un sustantivo o por


un infinitivo.

Rising costs have contributed to our deficit.


La suba de costos ha contribuido a nuesto déficit.

Ejercicios:

1. Studying B A is very demanding.


2. Resigning to the company was not a good idea.
3. We know that printing the invoices was expensive.
4. Meeting the new staff was very shocking.

b) Objeto de la oración: se traduce generalmente por infinitivo.

I like reading detective stories.


Me gusta leer novelas policiales.

Ejercicios:

1. The president cannot risk delaying the launching of the product.


2. They stopped sending messages with him.
3. They suggested using a different way of trading.

c) Objeto de la proposición: se traduce por

i. Un infinitivo..

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His success consisted of speaking a lot with his staff..
Su triunfo consistio en hablar mucho con su gente.

ii. Las preposiciones “on”, “in”, “when”, seguidas de “-ing” se traducen


generalmente por “al + inifinitivo”.

It is essential to be careful in choosing books about that subject.


Es esencial tener cuidado al elegir libros acerca de esa materia.

iii. La preposición “by” seguida de “-ing” se traduce por la forma “ando”,


“iendo” y “al + infinitivo”.

He made a lot of money by specializing in that topic.


Hizo mucho dinero especializándose en ese tema.

Ejercicios

1. In designing computers, mathematicians have had to develop new


techniques.
2. We got a second hand fax, by bargaining its price.
3. Let us begin by examining what is done by each activity.
4. Investigating the strength and uses of the sources is an example of
the interaction of basic an applied research.

II) “ing” en función adjetiva: se traduce al castellano generalmente por:

a)We left a burning question without answer.


Dejamos una pregunta candente sin respuesta.

b)The interesting fact is that manufacturing costs are going down.


El hecho interesante es que los costos de fabricación están bajando.

Ejercicios:

1.A suprising idea was presented to the board of Directors.


2.The secret is to have manufacturing capacity in place before the
competition.
3.They have had to increase prices in order to cover rising costs.

160
c) Por la forma “que + verbo conjugado”

The gardens surrounding the office are well-kept.


Los jardines que rodean la oficina están bien conservados.

Ejercicios:

1.A Bill of Exchange requiring them to pay on a future date is drawn up


2.Theories describing the nature of the universe are constantly revised
by scientists.
3.The force holding all the staff together is the manager.

Nota: la forma “ing” precedida de las siguientes expresiones, se traduce por:

- It is worth considering this point as the main subject of the book.


Vale la pena/Es digno de considerar este punto como el tema principal
del libro.

- It is worth while waiting for the results of the experiment.


Vale la pena esperar los resultados del experimento.

- It is no use discussing this matter any longer.


No vale la pena discutir más este asunto.

La forma “ing” tiene también: a) forma pasiva presente; b) formas per-


fectas y c)formas impersonales.

Forma pasiva presente

being + past participle = siendo + participio pasado

The dog, being mistaken for a wolf, was killed.


El perro, al ser confundido por un lobo, fue muerto.

Formas perfectas

1) Activa: having + past participle (ando-iendo + participio pasado)


2) Pasiva:

161
having been + past participle (ando-iendo + sido + participio pasado)
infinitivo + past participle (infinitivo + sido + participio pasado).

Having left her contract in the office she had to postpone the meeting.
Habiendo dejado su contrato en la oficina, tuvo que posponer la reunión.

He was accused of having stolen the plans.


Fue acusado de haber robado los planos.

Ejercicios:

1.After having been offered the position he refused it.


2.I remember having been told that that post had an irresistible attraction
for young professionals.
3.He denied having seen the budget before.

Formas impersonales

There being (traducción variable de haber)


It being: siendo, estando.

He denied there being anything wrong with the machine.


Negó que hubiera algo anormal en la máquina.

It was a cheap lodging house, and, it being holiday time, owner and
tenants went away.

Era una casa de pensión barata, y siendo época de vacaciones, el due-


ño y los inquilinos estaban ausentes.

There not being much time left, she called for a meeting.
No habiendo mucho tiempo disponible, ella llamó a una reunión.

Oraciones condicionales

Tipo I, se forma:

If + Simple Present.......................Future.

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Si + Presente del Indicativo............Futuro.

If there is an increase in sales, we will increase production.


Si hay un aumento en las ventas, aumentaremos la producción.

Ejercicios:

1. If we pay our workers better, we will become a popular employer.


2. If you come, we’ll discuss it in detail.
3. The product will be a success if we have good advertising.
4. If we reach agreement we will sign the contract the same day.
5. If payment comes late, we can make other arrangements.

Variantes del Tipo I

a) Cuando expresamos leyes naturales o resultados autónomos, se usa:

If + Present................Present
Si + Presente..............Presente

If a company pays well, it attracts good workers.

b)If + Present....................Imperative
Si + Presente..................Imperativo

If there is a major problem, go back to the starting point.

“Ing”

1.Leading a team is a key management function.


2.You should consider upgrading the system to make the software run
faster.
3.That would involve redesigning many of the programmes.
4.After reading through the accounts, we noticed a number of curious
entries in your books.
5.We are interested in hearing about the new RD 230
6.We’ve spent a lot of time getting the quality right.
7.We are used to paying local prices.

163
Tipo II, se forma:

If + Past Simple....Should, would, could, might + forma simple del verbo.


Si + Pretérito Imp. Subjuntivo....Potencial

If we paid our workers better, we would become a popular employer.


Si pagáramos mejor a nuestros trabajadores, seríamos un empleador
popular.

Ejercicios:

1.If you had a serious accident you would have to stop work.
2.If you stopped work, there would not be any protection for your family.
3.If you had to stay in hospital, there would not be enough money to pay.
4.If the house caught fire the insurance wuld be insufficient to cover the
lost items.

Tipo III, se forma:

If + Past Perfect....should/would/might/could + have + Past Participle


Si + Pluscuamperfecto....Potencial del Subjuntivo
If we had paid our workers well, they wouldn’t have left the company.
Si le hubieramos pagado bien a nuestros trabajadores, no hubieran
dejado la compañía.

Ejercicios:

1.If the supplier had delivered late, a penalty clause would have been
applied.
2.We would have terminated the contract if the customer had refused to
accept the goods.
3.If we had taken your advice, we would not have spent more money.

Las oraciones condicionales pueden ser introducidas por:

If (si): If you are ready, we shall leave.


Si estás listo, partiremos.

supposing (suponiendo):

164
Supposing the supplier were to deliver late, a penalty clause would be
applied.
Suponiendo que el proveedor entregara tarde, se aplicaria una clausula
penal.

in case: (en caso de que):

Customers are reminded to keep proof of purchase in case they wish to


make a complaint.

Se les recuerda a los clientes que guarde la comprobacion de la compra


en caso de que quiera reclamar.

so long as (con tal de que)

The buyer would be entitled to a refund so long as he returned the goods


within 7 days.

El comprador tendra derecho a un reembolso con tal que devuelva la


mercadería dentro de los 7 días.

provided: (a condición (de) que):

(con tal (de) que)


(siempre que)

We will replace the equipment, on condition that the purchaser follows


the service schedule.

Reemplazaremos el equipo siempre que el comprador silla el programa


de servicio.
unless, if not: (excepto, a menos que, a no ser que)

We will not renew our contract unless you are able to offer better
conditions.
No renovaremos en contrato a menos que pueda ofrecer mejores con-
diciones.

but for, if it was not for: (si no fuera por)

165
If it was not for the manager, we would have lost the business.
Si no fuera por el gerente, hubiéramos perdido el negocio.

as though:(como si)

He spoke as though it was his last day in the company.


El hablaba como si fuera su último día en la compañía.

El infinitivo

Las formas del infinitivo son las siguientes:

Activo: to make (hacer)


Pasivo: to be made (ser hecho)
Perfecto: to have made (haber hecho)
Pasivo perfecto: to have been made (haber sido hecho)
Infinitivo progresivo: To be making (estar haciendo)

El infinitivo en inglés puede ir, o no, precedido de la partícula “to” que no


tiene traducción. Cuando la oración en inglés comienza con un infinitivo
siempre lleva la partícula “to”.

To get up early is healthy. Levantarse temprano es saludable.

Cuando el infinitivo no comienza la oración puede o no llevar “to”.

I begin to work in the morning. Comienzo a trabajar por la mañana.

They made us go. Nos hicieron ir.

Traducciones del infinitivo

Se traduce al castellano por un infinitivo. A veces por el infinitivo solo y


otras por el infinitivo precedido de las preposiciones “a”, “para”, “de”.

I saw him leave the office. Lo ví salir de la oficina.


They began to talk early. Empezaron a hablar temprano.

166
I want a book to read. Quiero un libro para leer.
We should try to avoid it. Deberíamos tratar de evitarlo.
He sat in the front row in order to listen to the speech well.
so as to see
Se sentó en la primera fila para escuchar el discurso bien.

Ejercicios:

1. A business success, to be accurate, must be based on readings and


reports from a large number of people.
2. Some years ago, Americans considered it impossible to operate
successfully in that area.
3. We should try to avoid acquiring habits that will be harmful to us.
4.An opinion pool is used to know what the people think.

Con los verbos que expresan deseo, orden, consejo, ruego, se encuen-
tra el infinitivo en inglés colocado de la siguiente manera:

verbo + acusativo + infinitivo

y se traduce por un infinitivo o un subjuntivo.

They advised him to go. Ellos le aconsejaron ir. Ellos le aconsejaron que
fuera.

Ejercicios:

1.The representatives wanted the government to give them more power


to solve the problem by themselves.
2.The asked him to consider the alternatives.
3.The board was asked to leave the decision for the following day.

Infinitivo pasivo

to be + past participle

To be considered educated one must have a certain amount of knowledge.


Para ser considerado educado se deber tener un cierto grado de cono-
cimientos.

167
Ejercicios:

1. Meetings ought not to be held when it is not necessary.


2. People seemed to be impressed by the new regulations.
3. There are considerations to be looked at before you make a decision.

Infinitivo perfecto

to have + past participle (haber + part. pasado) (que + verbo conjugado)


to have been + past participle (haber sido + part. pasado).

He seems to have considered himself a great businessman.


Parece que se consideraba un gran hombre de negocios.

He seems to have been considered a great businessman


El parece haber sido considerado un gran hombre de negocios.

Ejercicios:

1.The bribery appears to have been committed by a man in the company.


2.The plan is considered to have been the most useful one in the last few
years.
3.The research seems to have been very expensive.
4.To have recorded his impressions, was a great help to him.

Forma continua

Se forma: to be + ing

The Parliament claimed to be defending rights which the Reign had long
possessed.

El Parlamento sostuvo que estaba defendiendo/defendía derechos que


el Reino había poseído durante mucho tiempo.

168
Ejercicios:

1.We seem to be tending to turn the state into a great industrial and
financial corporation.
2.The company seems to be speeding the conversations about falling
sales.

Revisión de los tiempos verbales en voz pasiva

Presente
When time is short, the goods are sent by plane.
Cuando el tiempo es poco, se envía la mercadería por avión.
The figures are prepared by the new accountants.
Las cifras son preparadas por los nuevos contadores.

Pasado
The finished products were packed into boxes.
Se empacaron en cajas los productos terminados.

Verbos Defectivos
A new branch can be set up here.
Se puede establecer una nueva sucursal aquí.

could - must - should - ought to - may - might - used to

Perfect Tenses (present and past)


A new plan has been developed recently.
Se ha desarrollado un nuevo plan recientemente.

A new plan has been developed by the firm recently.


Un nuevo plan ha sido desarrollado por la firma recientemente.

A new plan had been developed before the company broke.


Se había desarrollado un nuevo plan antes que la compañía quebrara.

Future Tenses (simple - perfect)


A new plan will be developed next year.
Se desarrollara un nuevo plan el ano próximo.

169
A new plan will be developed by the firm next year.
Un nuevo plan será desarrollado por la firma el año próximo.

A new plan will have been developed by the next year.


Se habrá desarrollado un nuevo plan para el año próximo.

A new plan will have been developed by the firm by the next year.
Un nuevo plan habrá sido desarrollado por la firma para el año próximo.

Imperativo
Develop a plan for the production area.
Desarrolle un plan para el area de producción.

Let a plan be developed for the production area.


Desarróllese un plan/que se desarrolle un plan para el área de produc-
ción.

Conditional (simple - perfect)


A new plan por the production area will be developed if it were necessary.
Se desarrollaría un nuevo plan para el área de producción si fuera nece-
sario.
A new plan for the production area will be developed by the firm if it were
necessary.
Un nuevo plan para el área de producción sería desarrollado por la firma
si fuera necesario.

A new plan would have been developed if it had been necessary.


Se habría desarrollado un nuevo plan si hubiera sido necesario.

A new plan would have been developed by the firm if it had been
necessary.
Un nuevo plan habría sido desarrollado por la firma si hubiera sido necesario.

Infinitivo
Any plan to be developed is risky.
Cualquier plan que se desarrolle es riesgoso.

The plan seems to have been developed by a famous business


administrator.
El plan parece haber sido desarrollado por un administrador de empre-
sas famoso.

170
Impersonal
It is said that there is a new plan for the production area.
Se dice que hay un nuevo plan para el área de producción.

It was said that there was a new plan for the production area.
Se dijo/decía que había un nuevo plan para el área de producción.

Ejercicios en contexto:

1.Our company produces electronic components for washing machines.


We are based in Singapore and we have subsidiaries in Korea, Malaysia
and Japan. We sell our products throughout Europe and our biggest
customers are in Europe. At present we are setting up a new distribution
centre in France. Our department is working on the design plans and
at the moment I am studying different plant layouts.

2.On Monday at 16.30 a construction worker was hurt at the Iribas plant.
The foreman said that four men were working on a roof when a crane
hit the wall of the building. One of the men slipped and fell to the
ground. The crane driver was trying to lift a metal pipe when he lost
control. A preliminary report identifies three factors which contributed
to the accident: the injured worker was not wearing a safety harness.
The crane was working in a prohibited area. It was raining, so work
should have been stopped.

3.JBM is a Financial Services Company. The managing Director is Martina


Pavlovski. Here is an extract from a speech she made to shareholders
at the AGM.

“For our sector, recent times have been difficult. However, it is clear
that we are not alone. The world economy has suffered a downturn
and all sectors of industry have experienced difficulties. But this year
we have already seen signs of improvement; I am sure you know that
especially in Asia there has been increased growth and this will benefit
us greatly. Also, turning to insurance, we have been involved in the
insurance market for only a relatively short time, but it is good to see
that this sector has grown rapidly since 1991.

171
4. Deposit and payment:
No holiday booking will be accepted unless accompanied by the
necessary deposit. A confirmation will then be issued once the deposit
has been received. The balance may be paid at any time provided it is
not later than eight weeks before departure.

5.The consultant said falling sales was a problem. She suggested changing
the advertising strategy and improving the products. She said there
was a quality deficit. This could be improved by introducing a new
quality control system.

6. Antibiotics today
The conference, which will discuss the action of antibiotics on diseases,
will be held at University College, whis is one of the oldest colleges in
the city. People who wish to attend should send an application form to
the President of the Society, who is in charge of bookings. Anyone who
is presenting a paper at the conference will automatically receive full
details.

7.“Each day we process hundreds of orders. Every order comes by


telephone. All orders are entered into our computer network. Each
request is checked with our current stock. Every order is immediately
transferred to the warehouse. All orders are despatched within one
hour.”

8.This is an opportunity to work in a research organisation publishing


economic surveys on Eastern Europe. This is a new position created
to meet growing demand for products in this area. Those applicants
with a good economics degree, experience in publishing and a good
knowledge of the region should write with a concise CV to Steven
Wright, Personnel Officer, PO Box 456, London SE 22 5RF.

9.After experiencing a period of instability, the company recruited a new


Finance Manager. Since she arrived, the company has gone from
strength to strength. Whenever she sees problems she has an
innovative solution. As soon as she decides on a change, it is readily
absorbed by her colleagues. Until the department was reorganised,
there were repeated problems. Since she has worked for the company,
there has been a period of unprecedented expansion.

172
10. We need to increase the quality of our research. Increasing the quality
of our research will be expensive. Our present research is on a new
pocket-sized communications device. The research we are presently
engaged in is potentially very exciting. A major technological advance
is possible.

11. There are four production plants. One is responsible for 50 per cent
of the total production of the company. This one is in Athens. The
smallest plant, in Thessalonika, is also the newest. It was opened in
1992. A new plant is to be opened near Athens next year.

12. The National Bank will probably decide today to raise the cost of
borrowing. Interest rates will increase by 2.0 per cent. Many companies
already have large debts and are paying heavy costs. Any new increase
will definitely make problems worse. A representative of the Indus-
trial Federation said “Many businesses will close. Profits are non-
existent for many companies. This new increase in the cost of
borrowing is a disaster.”

Uso del Diccionario


I) Normas a tener en cuenta

El diccionario es una herramienta muy importante para la traducción de


idiomas extranjeros. Para usarlo correctamente es conveniente tener en
cuenta los siguientes consejos:

a. Detectar la función gramatical que cumple en la oración la palabra a


buscar, pues en distintas funciones puede tener diferentes significados.

Tomaremos como ejemplo la palabra “mean”.

1. Como verbo to mean: significar, intentar, pensar, destinar, querer decir.

2. Como sustantivo, mean: promedio, (matemát.) media.


means: medios, manera.

3. Como adjetivo, mean: inferior, pobre, vil, medio.

173
b. Una vez cumplido el paso a. se debe elegir dentro de todos los signi-
ficados que presenta esa palabra en esa función, el que vaya mejor con el
contexto. Ejemplo:

1.Swanson’s report on the mean body weights of 1.072 women in Iowa


reflects the difficulty in maintaining a desired weight in adulthood.

En este contexto la palabra “mean” en función de adjetivo se debe tra-


ducir como «medio» (promedio) Traducción:

El informe de Swanson de los pesos corporales promedios (o medios)


de 1.072 mujeres adultas en Iowa refleja la dificultad en mantener un peso
deseado en la adultez.

2.Don’t be mean!
En esta oración “mean” significa malo, vil. Traducción: ¡No seas malo!

c. Las palabras que funcionan como verbos pueden variar mucho en su


significado si van seguidas de preposiciones o adverbios (estas combina-
ciones se vieron como Frases Verbales, pág. 40). Por esta razón es acon-
sejable buscar en el diccionario la combinación del verbo más la preposi-
ción o adverbio aunque se conozca con seguridad el significado del verbo
por un lado y el de la preposición o adverbio por el otro. Ejemplo:

to look: mirar
to look to: ocuparse de
to look after: cuidar
to look for: buscar
to look down (on something): despreciar
to look into (something): investigar (algo)
to look like: parecerse a

d) Otros puntos a considerar son:

1. El conocimiento de prefijos y sufijos ayuda a deducir el significado de


ciertas palabras formadas con los mismos, pues buscando el significado
de la raíz y uniéndolo con el del sufijo o prefijo tenemos el significado de
esa palabra conmbinado. Ejemplo:

weight: peso
overweight: sobrepeso

174
underweight: peso insuficiente
weightless: sin peso
weightlessness: ingravidez

2. Otro problema es que algunos verbos presentan su forma de Pasado


o Participio Pasado igual al infinitivo de otro verbo que tiene un Pasado o
Participio Pasado muy diferente. Ejemplo:

Infinitivo Pasado Part. Pasado


(encontrar) to find found found
(fundar) to found founded founded

3. Los verbos conjugados se buscan en su forma de infinitivo pero en el


caso de que un verbo en pasado o participio pasado no sea reconocido
por el alumno, el diccionario le indicará si es el pretérito o participio pasado
de tal infinitivo.

Entonces buscará el infinitivo y a ese significado se lo pondrá en el


tiempo que corresponda. Ejemplo:

The architects drew the plan of the factory.


Los arquitectos dibujaron el plano de la fábrica.

El alumno busca: drew


Diccionario: drew = pret. de draw.
El alumno busca: draw = (pret. drew, part. p. drawn)
arrastrar, tirar, sacar, alargar,
atraer, derramar, aspirar, robar
(naipes), girar (cheque), dibujar,
trazar, cobrar, empatar, etc.

4. Los sustantivos deben ser buscados en la forma singular pues la


mayoría de los diccinarios no tienen los plurales. Ejemplo:

Plural Buscar singular


buildings building
leaves leaf
compatibilities compatibility
nuclei nucleus

175
II) Afijos

Prefijos y sufijos: Son partículas que preceden o siguen, respectiva-


mente, a ciertas palabras para modificar su significado, o bien para cam-
biar su función en la oración.

A. FORMACIÓN DE SUSTANTIVOS
1. PREFIJOS:

un- (denota negación) unbelief: incredulidad


mis- (denota error en una acción) mistake: error

mal- (mal) malformation: malformación


im- (negación) inmutability: inmutabilidad
in- (negación) incapacity: incapacidad

2. SUFIJOS:

-er, or, (our), ar operator: operador


(denota agente) engineer: ingeniero
saviour: salvador
vicar: vicario

-el, le (denota instrumento) shovel: pala


-der (denota instrumento) ladder: escalera

-dom: i. denota condición wisdom: sabiduría


ii.dominio, grupo de personas
Kingdom: Reino

-red (denota sustantivo abstracto) hatred: odio

-ship (denota sustantivo abstracto) relationship: relación

-ing (denota una acción) working: trabajando

-ance (la acción de...) appearance: apariencia


-ment (la acción de...) arrangement: arreglo

-ness (denota sust. abstracto) correctness: corrección

176
-th (denota estado o condición) length: largo

-ter (denota sust. abstracto) laughter: risa

-let (denota diminutivo) starlet: estrellita

-en (denota plural) children: niños

-s (denota plural) tools: herramientas

-ie, y (denota diminutivo o afecto) auntie: tía (diminutivo)


baby: bebé

-wright (denota agente) playwright: dramaturgo

-ves (denota plural) leaves: hojas

-ity (denota calidad de) electricity: electricidad

-ist (la persona que practica


una ciencia, profesión,etc) physicist: físico

B. FORMACIÓN DE ADJETIVOS
1. PREFIJOS:

un- (denota negación) unsystematic: no-sistemático


unequal: desigual

dis- (denota negación) dissimilar: distinto


mal- (negativo) malcontent: descontento

in- (negativo) inconvenient: inconveniente

2. SUFIJOS:

-ed (denota cond.) tired: cansado

-en (significa “hecho de”) wooden: hecho de madera

-ern (denota dirección u orientación) northern: norte

177
-fold (denota un número de veces) twofold: doble, duplicado
-ful (significa “lleno de”) useful: útil

-less (significa desprovisto de) stainless: inoxidable, limpio

-ly (significa “semejante a”) friendly: amistoso

-ant, ent (formación de


adj. y sust.derivados resistant: resistente
de verbos) dependent: subordinado

-al (la condición de


perteneciente a) chemical: químico

-like (denota semejanza) warlike: bélico

-some (sign. “lleno de” troublesome: lleno de pro-


blemas

-y (sign. “lleno de”,


“perteneciente a”) purity: pureza

-ish (denota pertenencia) English: Inglés

-th o d (denota orden) third: tercero


fifth: quinto

-er (denota comparación entre dos) prettier: más linda


-est (denota comparación entre más de dos) prettiest: la más linda

-ic (formación de adj.) electrolitic: electrolítico

C. FORMACIÓN DE VERBOS
1. PREFIJOS:

a- (denota negación) abase: degradar


be-:
i. convierte verbos
intransitivos en transitivos befall: suceder
ii. sirve para formar verbos
transitivos de adj. o sust. befit: convenir

178
iii. enfatiza el significado
de verbos transitivos. beseech: suplicar

for- (denota negación) forbid: prohibir

fore- (con la idea de “antes de” foretell: predecir


de- (despojado de) decrease: bajar

mis- (denota error en la acción) mistake: equivocarse

un- (denota el reverso de la acción) undress: desvertirse

with- (con la idea de contra) withdraw: sacar

out- (con la idea de sobrepasar) outlive: sobrevivir

over- (con la idea de


“por encima de” o “demasiado” overthrow: demoler

under- (con la idea de “por


debajo” o “demasiado poco” undersell: vender a bajo
precio

2. SUFIJOS:

-er (denota acción repetida o enfática) chatter: charlar

-el,le (con idea de acción


repetida o de diminutivo) snivel: llorar como criatura

-en (con el sentido de


“hacerse” o convertirse”) lengthen: alargarse

-ed (denota pasado


o part. pasado) played: jugó - jugado

-ed (denota pasado


o part. pasado) danced: bailó - bailado

-en (denota part. pasado de verbo) broken: quebrado, roto

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-ing (denota gerundio) hammering: martillando

D. OTRAS PALABRAS
1. PREFIJOS:

off- (sign. falto de) off-colour: sin color

2. SUFIJOS:

-ward(s) (con la idea de


“hacia”, “en la dirección de” forward(s): hacia adelante
-ly (para formar adverbios,“mente”) quickly: rápidamente

-’s (denota posesión) John’s: de John

-teen (con la idea de diez) sixteen: dieciséis

-ty (con la idea de


multiplicado por diez) thirty: treinta

-wise (con la idea de


“manera”, “forma”) clockwise: en el sentido de
las agujas del reloj

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UNIT IV
Lesson 1 (Lección 1)

Words, phrases and grammar


Listen and repeat (Escuche y repita)

Listening 1 Making arrangements (Planeando)

Hello, this is Maria Ferraris from AGM. (Hola. Habla Maria Ferraris de
AGM)

Good morning, Ms. Ferraris. What can I do for you?( Buenos días seño-
rita Ferraris. ¿Qué puedo hacer por usted?)

Can I speak to Mrs. Tasaki? (Puedo hablar con la señora Tasaki?)

Mrs. Tasaki speaking. (Habla la señora Tasaki)

How can I help you? (En que puedo ayudarla?)

Could I meet you sometime next week? (Podría verla en algún momento
la próxima semana?)

I´d like to ... (Me gustaría...)

...talk about the new project. (hablar sobre el proyecto nuevo)

...discuss a few things. (discutir unas cuantas cosas)

...show you our new catalogue. (mostrarle nuestro catálogo nuevo)

...go over the plan. (analizar el plan)

Certainly. When do you have in mind? (Seguro. Cuando piensa que


puede ser?)

Could I visit you tomorrow? (¿Puedo visitarla mañana?)

181
Are you free tomorrow? (Está desocupada mañana?)

No, but I´m free today. (No, pero estoy desocupada hoy)

Could we meet some time next week? (Nos podríamos encontrar en


algún momento la semana próxima?)

Can you make Monday? (Puede ser el Lunes?)

How / What about Monday at 4:00? (¿Qué le parece el Lunes a las 4:00?)

Next week will be fine. (La próxima semana está bien)

I´ll see you next Monday at 4:00 (La veré el próximo lunes a las 4:00)

I´m afraid I can´t / I’m afraid I can´t make it. (Me temo que no puedo)

I´m sorry I can´t in the morning. (Lo siento, no puedo en la mañana.)

I´m busy all day. I´m sorry. (Estoy ocupado todo el día. Lo siento)

That´s a little difficult. I´m busy all afternoon. ( Es un poco difícil. Estoy
ocupado toda la tarde.)

Then how about the morning? Say 9:30? (Entonces qué le parece en la
mañana? Digamos a las 9:30?)

Let me see... (Dejeme ver...)

That would be fine. (Estaría bien.)

See you then.(Lo veo entonces.)

Listening 2 Prepositions: (Preposiciones)

See you / I´ll see you ...

...at four o´clock ( a las cuatro)


...in the morning. (en la mañana)

182
...on Wednesday. (el miércoles)
...in January (en enero)
...on January the 27th , 1993 (el 27 de enero de 1993)

Listening 3 Dates

1492 fourteen ninety two (se dice el año en dos etapas)


1999 nineteen ninety nine
2001 twenty oh one

April 4, 1996 April fourth, nineteen ninety six


15/ 4 / 99 the fifteenth of April, nineteen ninety nine.
4 / 15 / 99 April the fifteenth, nineteen ninety nine.

Grammar structures: See Grammar Notes

Can / Can´t

183
UNIT IV - LESSON 1

ACTIVITIES

1. Say the following dates: (Diga las siguientes fechas)

3/7/56 _______________________________
2/6/98 _______________________________

27th November ________________________


November 27th ________________________

2. Listen and write the dates. (Escuche y escriba las fechas)

A. Please, let me know when they are meeting.


B. Yes, I think it is on _______________

A. When was that contract signed?


B. The date here is __________________

A. Was the letter received on Monday 7th or Tuesday 8th?


B. _________________

A. When did the project start?


B. I guess it was _________________

3. Listen to the telephone conversation and read (Escuche la


conversa ción telefónica y lea)

A. Good morning BB Systems. Can I help you?


B. Hello. This is Maria Ferraris from AGM.
A. Hello, Ms. Ferraris. This is Mrs. Tasaki . How can I help you?
B. Could I meet you sometime this week? I´d like to show you our
new catalogue.
A. Certainly. When do you have in mind?
B. Can you make Thursday morning?
A. Let me see... I´m sorry I can´t. I have a conference.
B. Well, what about the afternoon? Say 5:30?
A. Five thirty is fine.

184
B. So, see you Thursday at 5:30. Good bye.
A. Good bye.

4. Listen again and repeat. Record the dialogue. (Escuche


nuevamente y repita. Grabe el diálogo)

5. Now, listen and complete. (Ahora escuche nuevamente y


complete) Use the words in the box. (Use las palabras en la caja)

then speaking mind about morning week speak fine

A. Good ____________. Nexus S.A. May I help you?


B. Could I _____________to Mrs. Mendoza, please? This is Ms.
Legarri.
A. Mrs. Mendoza _______________. How can I help you ?
B. Could I visit you this ____________? I´d like to discuss a few
things.
A. Fine. When do you have in _______________?
B. What ______________ Tuesday morning? Say 9:30?
A. Just a moment. That´s ____________.
B. Well, see you ________. Good bye.
A. Good bye.

6. Now, make up your own dialogues. Use the following


information. (Ahora realice sus propios diálogos. Use la siguiente
información)

a. discuss the sales figures - tomorrow - 10:00

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185
b. go over the project - Friday - 10:00

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c. show you our new plan - next Monday - 9: 30 a.m. / afternoon 5:30

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186
Lesson 2 (Lección 2)

Words, phrases and grammar


Listen and repeat. (Escuche y repita)

Listening 1 Confirming arrangements (Confirmando planes)

Iam (I´m) calling / phoning to / in order to ... (Llamo para...)

Iam writing to... (Escribo para...)

...confirm Wednesday meeting / the meeting (Llamo para confirmar la


reunión del miércoles / la reunión)

...confirm the details of our meeting. (confirmar los detalles de nuestra


reunión)

Can you still make it? ( Es todavía posible?)

Can I check the time? (puedo confirmar la hora?)

What time is... (A qué hora es...)


...the meeting? (la reunión?)
...the appointment? (la cita?)
...the conference ? (la conferencia?)
...lunch ? (el almuerzo?)
...my meeting with Mr Brown ? (mi reunión con el Sr. Brown.)
... my flight? (mi vuelo?)

Where is it ? (¿Dónde es?)

Is it in (your office?) (Es en su oficina?)

187
UNIT IV - LESSON 2

ACTIVITIES

1. Listen and read. (Escuche y lea)

A. Hello.
B. Mrs. Robin?
A. Speaking.
B. This is Clara Schiff calling.
A. Oh, hello Ms. Schiff.
B. Mrs. Robin, I´m calling to confirm the meeting on Friday at 10:00.
A. The meeting? Oh yes, about the new project.
B. Can you still make it?
A. Yes, Friday at 10:00 is allright.
B. Then, see you on Friday.
A. See you. Bye.
B. Bye.

2. Now listen and repeat. Record the conversation. (Ahora


escuche y repita. Grabe la conversación)

3. Look at this chart and make up dialogues confirming day,


time and place.(Mire el cuadro y realice diálogos confirmando día,
hora y lugar.

Day Time Room


meeting Tuesday 4:30 Conference room
Appointment Thursday 11:00 MD´s office
lunch Friday 1:20 La Casona

e.g. A. Hello, Marcia?


B. Speaking.
A. I´m phoning to confirm the meeting.
B. Yes. How can I help you?
A. Is it still on Tuesday?
B. Yes, that´s correct.

188
A. What time is it?
B. At 4:30.
A. And where is it?
B. I think it is at the conference room.
A. Thanks a lot.
B. You´re welcome.

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----------------

189
Lesson 3 (Lección 3)

Words, phrases and grammar


Listen and Repeat (Escuche y Repita)

Listening 1 Making excuses (Disculpándose)

Apologies (Disculpas)

I´m sorry ... (lo siento..)


...I´m late. (llego tarde)
... I missed our appointment this morning. (falté a nuestra cita esta mañana)
...I didn´t bring the project . (No traje el proyecto)
...I didn´t call you yesterday. (No lo llamé ayer)
...I don´t have the financial report. (No tengo el informe financiero)

Listening 2 Excuses (Excusas)

I couldn´t find a parking space. ( No pude encontrar estacionamiento)


I missed the plane. (Perdí el vuelo )
I had to finish some other work (Tenía que terminar otro trabajo)
I forgot it in the office. (Lo olvidé en la oficina)
I had a cold. (Estaba resfriado)
I finished very late.(Terminé muy tarde)
I couldn´t find your number / your address .(No pude encontrar su nú-
mero / dirección)
I lost your number (Perdí su número)
I´m still working on it. (Todavía estoy trabajando en él)

Listening 3 Accepting apologies (Aceptando disculpas)

That´s OK. (Está bien)


Don´t worry.(No se preocupe)
Oh, that´s all right (Oh, está bien)

190
Grammar Structures: See Grammar Notes

Simple past tense (Pasado simple)

Present Past

Miss (perder) missed


Park (estacionar) parked
Bring (traer) brought
Call (llamar) called
Finish (terminar) finished

Present Past

Find (encontrar) found


Forget (olvidar) forgot
Work (trabajar) worked
Have (tener) had
Lose (perder) lost

191
UNIT IV - LESSON 3

ACTIVITIES

1. Make dialogues with the information below. Record the


dialogues (Grabe los diálogos)

e.g. A: Good morning Mr. Takashi. I´m sorry I missed the train.
B. That´s OK.

1.afternoon / Mrs. Sallis / didn´t call this morning / lost your number

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--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
------------------------------

2.evening / Miss Merani / forgot the report /in the office

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--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
------------------------------

3.morning / Mrs. Mendoza / don´t have / marketing report

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--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
------------------------------

2. Listen to the messages in the answer machine and complete


them. (escuche los mensajes en el contestador y complételos.)

Dear Peter,
I´m sorry I missed your _________on________. I lost the _________
and I didn´t have your ____________ _______________.

Dear Mara,
I´m sorry I missed our ________________ on 1st ________. I had to
finish ________ _______and I´m afraid I forgot to ________ ________.

192
Dear Mr. Briones,

I´m sorry I didn´t send you the ____________. I am working on it but


it is not ______________.

193
Extra Practice
Dialogue 1

Can you make the( meeting/ appointment) on (Friday 27th?)

What time is it? At _________


When is it? On _________

No, I´m afraid I can´t

How about__________?
What about__________?

Yes, I can make it.


Yes, that´s OK
Yes, no problem.

See you then.


See you on _________

Dialogue 2

I´m sorry I´m late


I´m sorry I missed the appointment yesterday.
I´m sorry I forgot the meeting yesterday morning.

Did you miss the plane?


Did you finish late?

Yes, I did.
No, I didn´t. I ____________

That´s OK / Don´t worry / Never mind.

194
UNIT V
Lesson 1 (Lección 1)

Words, phrases and grammar (Palabras, frases y Gramática)


Listen and Repeat (Escuche y repita)

Listening 1 Making and receiving calls

Hello, can / could I speak to Mrs Merani? (Hola, puedo / podría hablar
con la Sra. Merani?

Is it possible to speak to Mrs Merani? (Es posible hablar con la Sra.


Merani?)

Is that Mrs Merani? (Habla Mrs. Merani?)

Who is calling, please? (¿Quién habla, por favor?)

It´s Mrs. Schiff. (Habla la Sra. Schiff.)

This is Mrs. Schiff from ABC. (Habla la Sra. Schiff de ABC)

Just a moment, please. I´ll put you through. (Un momento por favor. La
conectaré.)

One moment, please. (Un momento por favor.)

Hold on, please. (Espere por favor.)

You are through (Está conectado)

Mrs. Merani speaking. (Habla la Sra. Merani.)

I´m calling about the conference in La Pampa. (Estoy llamando por la


conferencia en La Pampa)

195
Grammar Structures

This and That in telephone calls: We use This to introduce ourselves


and That to refer to the people or offices on the other sideo of the line.
(Usamos This para presentarnos y That para referirnos a las perso-
nas u oficinas del otro lado de la línea.)

196
UNIT V - LESSON 1

ACTIVITIES

1. Rewrite the following sentences using Can/Could...? or Is it


possible to...?

Can I speak to Mr. Vini?


____________________________________?
Is it possible to have Mr. Merani´s telephone number?
__________________________________________?
Could you hold on, please?
__________________________________________?

2. Listen to the calls to ABC telephone operator and complete


the information about the caller. (Escuche las llamadas a la operadora
de ABC y complete la información sobre la persona que llama)

Name: Marcia Norton


Company: ____________________
About ________________________
_____________________________

Name: ________________________
Company: Rim S.A.
In connection with: ________________________
____________________

Name: _________________________
Company: ______________________
About: the seminar in July.

3. Order the dialogue.(Ordene el diálogo). Practise it and record


it. (Practíquelo y grábelo)

1. K-A-V-A-C-K _______
2. Hold on, please. _______
3. Who´s calling? _______
4. Is it possible to speak to Mr. Brown? _______

197
5. How do you spell that? _______
6. My name´s John Kavack from AGM. _______
7. You are through. _______
8. Speaking. _______
9. Is that Mr. Brown? _______
10. Good morning John. _______
11. This is John Kavack. _______

198
Lesson 2 (Lección 2)

Words, phrases and Grammar


Listen and Repeat (Escuche y repita)

Listening 1 Directions (Direcciones)

Excuse me. How do I get to ABM company? (Disculpe. ¿Cómo llego a la


compañía ABM?)

Excuse me. Can you tell me the way to the bank? (Me puede indicar el
camino al banco?)

Excuse me , can you tell me how to get to the nearest hotel? (Como
llego al hotel más cercano?)

How can I get to the restaurant ? (Cómo llego al restaurant?)

Go along this street. (Siga derecho esta calle)

Go straight. (Vaya derecho)

Turn left / Turn right on (Madison Avenue) (Doble a la izquierda, derecha


en la Avenida Madison)

Turn left at the bank. (Doble a la izquierda en el banco.)

Take the (second )turning on the right. (Tome la segunda a la derecha)

It´s on the left/right. (Está a la izquierda /derecha)

It´s next to / across from / between the (post office) and the (bank).
(Está al lado / cruzando / entre la oficina de correos y el banco)

You´ll see the bank on the corner. (Verá el banco en la esquina)

Go past the hotel. (Pase el hotel)

199
The office is around the corner. (La oficina está a la vuelta de la esquina)

Go down / up Pacific Road. (Vaya hacia abajo /arriba de Pacific Road)

Grammar Structures. See the Translation set. (Vea el Set de Traduc-


ción)

Imperatives (Imperativos)

Prepositions (Preposiciones)

200
UNIT V - LESSON 2

ACTIVITIES

1. Listen to the conversation and complete the map.

A. Excuse me. Can you tell me the way to ABM company?


B. Sure. Go along this street. Take the second turning on the right.
A. It is just across from the International Bank.
B. Thanks.
A. You´re welcome.

2. Now you write your dialogue. Find out the location of the post
office. (Ahora escriba su diálogo. Averigue la ubicación de la oficina
de correos.)

3. Find out the location of different places in the map (Averigüe


la ubicación de distintos lugares del mapa).

4. Getting to the office. Follow the arrows (—à ) on the map. Put
the directions in order. (Llegando a la oficina. Siga las flechas en el
mapa. Coloque las direcciones en orden)

___ You´ll see the Bank of Boston on the corner.


___ When you leave the subway, cross the street in front of you.

201
___ After you cross Madison Street, go past the post office to the
corner of Broadway and Forest Road.
___ Turn right and then go down Pacific for two blocks.
___ Turn left at the bank and then go straight.
___ Turn left on Forest and our office is around the corner, next to the
post office.

202
Lesson 3 (Lección 3)

Words, phrases and grammar


Listen and repeat (Escuche y repita)

Listening 1 Entertaining

Would you like to go out for lunch? / dinner? (Le gustaría salir a almor-
zar, cenar?)

Can I have the menu please? (El menu, por favor)

Can I take your order?

What would you like to drink? (¿Qué le gustaría tomar?)

Would you like something to drink? (¿Quiere tomar algo?)

Would you like a cup of coffee? Tea? (¿Quiere una taza de café, té?)

How do you like it? (¿Cómo le gusta?)

Black, please. (Negro, por favor)

Sugar? Milk? Cream? (¿Azúcar, Leche, Crema?)

Sugar, please. (Two) spoonfuls. (Azúcar, por favor. Dos cucharadas)

No, thanks. (No, gracias.)

Would you like something to eat? (¿Quiere comer algo?)

What would you like to eat? (¿Qué le gustaría comer?)

Can I have some cake? (¿Puedo comer torta?)

A coffee, please. (Un café, por favor)

203
I´d like a beer. (Quisiera una cerveza.)

Could I have some milk? (¿Podría tomar leche?)

Anything else? (¿Algo más?)

The bill, please. (La cuenta, por favor)

Here you are. (Aquí está – su café, su té, su pedido, la cuenta, etc.)

Listening 2 Prices

It´s ...

$ 54.50 Fifty four dollars and fifty cents.

$ 2.99 Two ninety nine.

Listening 3 Offers and requests

Would you like...? (Le gustaría...?, Quiere...?)

What would you like? (¿Qué le gustaría...? ¿Qué quiere...?)

Can I have ...? (Quiero..., ¿Puedo comer...?)

Could I have....? Quisiera..., ¿Podría comer...?)

I´d like... (Me gustaría...)

Listening 4 Drinks (Bebidas)

Coffee, (café) black (sin azúcar or crema) with milk /with cream (con
leche / con crema)

204
Tea (té) cold / hot (frío / caliente ) with lemon (con limón)

Milk (leche)

Whiskey (whiskey) with ice (con hielo ) straight up (sólo)

a lemonade (una limonada)


orange juice (jugo de naranja)
beer(cerveza)
white wine (vino blanco)
red wine (vino tinto)

Listening 5 Food (Alimentos)

Toast ( tostadas)
Butter (manteca)
Jam (jalea / mermelada)
A hamburger (una hamburguesa)

a cheese sandwich (un sandwich de queso) a ham sandwich (un sand-


wich de jamón)

a beef sandwich (un sandwich de carne) a chicken sandwich ( un sand-


wich de pollo)

chicken (pollo)

meat ( carne)

fish (pescado)

vegetables (vegetales)

salad (ensalada) tomato and lettuce salad (de tomate y lechuga)

205
Listening 6 Desserts (Postres)

- Vanilla cake (torta de vainilla)

- strawberry icecream (helado de frutillas)

- fruit salad (ensalada de frutas)

a (chocolate) pudding (un budín de chocolate)

206
UNIT V - LESSON 3

ACTIVITIES

1. Listen to the dialogue and Repeat. (Escuche el diálogo y


repítalo)

A. Would you like something to drink? Tea? Coffee?


B. I´d like some coffee, please.
A. How do you like it?
B. With sugar, please. Two spoonfuls.
A. Here you are.
B. Thank you.

2. Practise the dialogue and record it. (Practique el diálogo y


grábelo)

3. Now, you complete this dialogue. (Ahora usted complete este


diálogo)

A. __________you like _______________to eat? A hamburger? A


sandwich?
B. I´d ___________a sandwich, please
A. A cheese or a_____________sandwich?
B. A ham sandwich, ___________
A. Here _________ _________.
B. ____________

4. Now, record the dialogue. (Ahora grabe el diálogo)

5. A. Look at this menu. (Mire este menú)

LA PASTA RESTAURANT

Breakfast Snacks

Croissant Sandwiches
Toast, butter, jam (cheese, chicken, beef)
Eggs (boiled, fried, scrambled)

207
Main Courses Salad

Grilled steak (lettuce, tomato, olives)


Chicken supreme
Fried fish

Desserts Drinks

Icecream (vanilla, chocolate, strawberry) Coffee, tea, beer, wine,


Apple pie Orange juice, milk
Lemon pie
Chocolate pudding
Fruit salad

b. Elsa Kaplun invites Ana Tasaki to the restaurant. Listen and


read. (Escuche y lea)

A. What would you like to eat?


B. The chicken, please. With a tomato salad.
A. And to drink?
B. White wine.
C. Would you like dessert?
D. Hmm. I don´t know.
E. What about icecream?
F. Well, good idea. Some vanilla icecream.
G. Anything else?
H. Coffee, please.

6. Now make up your own dialogue and record it. (Ahora realice
su propio diálogo y grábelo)

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

208
7.Write the prices.

$25.95 ____________________________________
$62.50 ____________________________________
$80.25 ____________________________________

Note: In English they use the decimal point where we use the comma
and viceversa. (En inglés se usa el punto decimal donde nosotros usamos
coma y viceversa)

209
Extra Activities
Dialogue 1

Hello, can /could I speak to _________?


Hello. Is it possible to _____________?

Who´s calling, please?

It´s ______________
This is ___________

Just a minute. / One moment, please.

You are through, now.

Hello. Is that ____________?

Speaking.
Yes, who´s that?

Hello. This is ____________


From __________. I´´m calling
about ____________________

210
Dialogue 2

Would you like to go out for dinner


tonight?

Thank you. That would be very nice.

Great. Do you like Italian food?


What about Italian food?

Yes, I love it.


Yes, I like it very much.

Good. There´s an excellent Italian


Restaurant near the company.

How can I get there?


Where is it?

It´s called (La Pasta) and it´s


On (Madison Avenue), (just across from
The post office.)

What time shall we meet?


(When shall we meet?)

Is 9:00 OK with you?


(What about 9:00?)
We can meet at _______________

(9:00) is fine. See you at _________


(See you then.) Good bye.

Good bye.
(See you.) Good bye

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Dialogue 3

What would you like to drink?


Would you like a ____________?

Tea, please.
Yes, please.

How do you like it?


Do you take sugar/ lemon?

With lemon and sugar, please.


Sugar. Not lemon, please.

Anything else?
Would you like anything else?

Yes, more tea please.


No, thanks.

212
UNIT VI
Lesson 1 (Lección 1)

Words, phrases and Grammar


Listen and Repeat (Escuche y repita)

Listening 1 Your background (Su historia personal)

What´s your name? (Cuál es su nombre? )

My name´s_______ (Mi nombre es...)

How old are you ? (Cuantos años tiene?)

I´m (36) (Tengo 36)

What do you do? (Qué hace usted?)

I work for an (advertising) company. (Trabajo para una compañía de publicidad)

I´m responsible for the (designs). (Estoy a cargo de los diseños)

Who do you work for? (¿Para quién trabaja?)

A company called AGM (Una compañía llamada AGM)

Which department are you in? (¿En qué departamento está?)

Design. (En diseño)


Where did you study? (¿Dónde estudió?)
At the Bellas Artes School. (En la escuela de Bellas Artes)

Where did you go to university? (¿Dónde fue a la universidad?)

The Catholic University (La Universidad Católica)

What qualifications do you have? (¿Qué titulo tiene?)

213
I have a degree in Business Administration (Tengo el título en Adm. de
Empresas)

I studied International Relations. (Estudié Relaciones Internacionales)

Where are you from? )¿De dónde es?

Salta, Argentina. (Salta, Argentina)

Where were you born? (¿Dónde nació?)

I was born in Resistencia, Chaco. (Nací en Resitencia, Chaco.)

Where do you live? (¿Dónde vive?)

In Santa Fe. (En Santa Fe)

Are you married ? (¿Es casado?)

Yes, I am / No, I´m not. (Sí - No)

I´m single / engaged / separated / divorced. (Soy soltero / comprometi-


do/separado / divorciado)

Do you have any children? (¿Tiene chicos?)

Yes, I have (two children) (Sí, dos)

No, I don´t. (No)

How old are they? (¿Cuántos años tienen?)

One is (three) and the other is (five)

(Three) and (five). (3 y 5)

What do you do in your free time? (¿Qué hace en su tiempo libre?)

I (play tennis) (spend my free time with my family.)


(Juego al tenis/paso mi tiempo libre con mi familia)

214
UNIT VI - LESSON 1

ACTIVITIES

1. Listen and read. (Escuche y lea)

Betty Molino, aged 32, our new human resources manager, is a


former student of Catholic University, where she studied psychology.
She previously worked at a consultant company. She is single and
she doesn´t have any children. She lives in Salta. In her free time she
enjoys studying English and doing exercises.

2. Now answer the questions.

a. How old is Betty Molino?


_________________________________

b. What is her new job?


_________________________________

c. What qualifications does she have?


_________________________________

d. Where did she work before she joined the company?


_________________________________

e. Is she married?
________________________________________

f. What does she do in her free time?


_________________________________

3. Look at Betty Molino´s resumé (Mire el Curriculum Vitae de


Betty Molino)

215
BETTY MOLINO PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE

2044 San Juan Street 2000-Present GFM


4400 Salta Salta
Tel: (0387) 4317254 Human Resource Dep.
E-mail: bemolino@sinectis.com Personnel Manager

1998-2000 CONSULTORA S.A.


Buenos Aires
Finance Department

EDUCATION
1993-1997 Catholic University,
Salta.
Psychology

SKILLS
Computers: Good user of Microsoft
Word, Exel, Tango.
Languages: French (fluent), English
(Basic)

REFERENCES ON REQUEST

4. Now write your resumé (Ahora escriba su Curriculum Vitae).


Follow the preceding example. (Siga el ejemplo anterior)

5. Your name is at the top. (Su nombre va arriba)

6. Include your full postal address. (Incluya su dirección postal


completa)

7. Your phone number goes above the e-mail address. (Su


número de teléfono va arriba del correo electrónico.)

8. Write the most recent information first. (Escriba la información


más reciente primero)

9. Don´t include your high school education.(No incluya su


educación en escuela secundaria)

216
10. Don´t mention your hobbies and interests. (No nombre sus
hobbies o intereses)

217
Lesson 2 (Lección 2)

Words, phrases and grammar


Listen and Repeat (Escuche y repita)

Listening 1 Company Historyy

They founded the company in Buenos Aires . (Ellos fundaron la compa-


ñía en Buenos Aires)

...started production in ______ (Ellos comenzaron la producción en...)

... expanded in the 90s (...se expandieron en los años 90)

... entered the American market in_______ (... entraron al mercado


americano en...)

... opened a branch in_______ (... abrieron una sucursal en ...)

... bought a plant___________ (...compraron una planta ...)

...moved their headquarters _____ (trasladaron su sede principal...)

Where did they found the company? (¿Dónde fundaron la Cia.?)


They founded the company in (Salta).

When did they founded the company (¿Cuándo fundaron la Cía.?)


They founded the company in (1992).

When did they expand? (¿Cuándo se expandieron?)


In (1993)

When did they enter the american market?


In (February)

What did they buy?


They bought a new plant

218
The installation of the first centre (La instalación del primer centro)

They hired (2 teachers). (Ellos emplearon 2 profesores)


On the west side of the city. (En la zona oeste de la ciudad)

219
UNIT VI - LESSON 2

ACTIVITIES

1. a. Read the story of this company. (Lea la historia de esta


compañía.)

1995 LIFE INSTITUTE founded in Salta, Argentina, to teach English


to people from university.

1996 The installation of the first centre. The teaching to adults started.

1997 Teaching expanded. A branch opened on the west side of city.

2000 Hired two new teachers.

2001 LIFE bought new computers for teaching.

A group of teachers founded LIFE in Salta in 1.995, to teach English


to people from the university.

They installed the first centre in 1.996 and they started teaching adults.

Teaching expanded in 1.997 and they opened a branch on the westside


of the city.

LIFE hired 2 new teachers in 2.000 and in 2.001 LIFE bought new
computers for teaching.

b. What are the questions for these answers? (¿Cuáles son las
preguntas para estas respuestas?)

1. They founded it in Salta.


_______________________

2. They installed it in 1996.


_______________________

3. On the west side of the city.


_______________________

220
4. Two new teachers.
_______________________

5. New computers for teaching.


_______________________

2. Write a paragraph about the history of your company ( Escriba


un párrafo acerca de la historia de su compañía) Then,record it (Luego
grábelo).

221
Lesson 3 (Lección 3)

Words, phrases and grammar


Listen and repeat (Escuche y lea)

Listening 1 Plans for the future (Planes para el futuro)

What is the project for? (¿Para qué es el projecto?)

We want to build a new school (Queremos construir una escuels nueva)

Where is it going to be? (¿onde se llevará a cabo?)

How long is it going to take? (¿Cuánto llevará?)

How big is it going to be? (¿Qué tamaño tendrá?)

When are you going to open? (¿Cuando la inauguran?)

Is it going to have a conference room /a cafeteria / a library? (Va a tener


una sala de conferencias / una confitería / una biblioteca)

I am planning to go on holiday / to go on a trip. (Estoy planeando ir de


vacaciones / ir de viaje)

Yes, that´s right (Sí, cierto)

When are you going to travel? (¿Cuándo va a viajar?)

Where are you going to travel? (¿Adonde va a viajar?)

I´m going to visit (La falda) (Voy a visitar La Falda)

How are you going to travel? (¿Cómo va a viajar?)

I´m going to travel by plane / car / bus. (Voy a viajar en avión / auto /
colectivo)

222
Where are you going to stay? (¿Dónde se quedará?)

At a hotel / At a friend´s house. (En un hotel / casa de amigo)

How long are you going to stay? (¿Cuánto tiempo se quedará?)


(Two weeks) (Dos semanas)

What are you going to do in the evening? (¿Qué hará por la noche?)

I am going to go to restaurants and discos. (Iré a restaurantes y discos)

Listening 2 Objectives of companies (Objetivos de las compañías)

Open / close branches (Abrir / cerrar sucursales)

Hire more staff (Emplear más personal)

Increase the turnover (Aumentar la ganancia anual)

Reduce prices (Reducir los precios)

Reduce costs (Reducir los costos)

223
UNIT VI - LESSON 3

ACTIVITIES

1. Listen to the dialogue and complete the information (Escuche


el diálogo y complete la información)

A new School project


Place: _____________________________________
Starting: ___________________________________
Finishing: __________________________________
Size: ______________________________________
Sports facilities : ____________________________
Other facilities : _____________________________

2. Now write a paragraph with the information. Record it (Ahora


escriba un párrafo con la información. Grábelo). Begin like this.
(Comience así)

The government is planning a new school .


__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

3. Complete the dialogue with the correct questions. (Complete


el diálogo con las preguntas correctas.)

A. So, you are taking a trip.


B. Yes, that´s right.
A. ____________________________________?
B. In July.
A. ____________________________________?
B. I´m not sure, but Chile or Brazil.
A. ____________________________________?
B. In a hotel of course. I want to relax.
A. ___________________________________?
B. By plane.
A. ____________________________________?
B. Two or three weeks, it depends on the weather.
A. ____________________________________?

224
B. At night? Imagine. Go to expensive restaurants and I´m going to
visit the best discos.
A. Well, enjoy yourself.
B. Thanks a lot.

4. Write about one of your company´s objectives. It can be real


or imaginary.

e.g. Our objective is to give English courses to the staff.


To do that, we are going to hire English teachers.
We are also planning to set up a language laboratory in the
company.

Our objective is to _______________________________________


To do that, we are going to ________________________________
We are also planning to ___________________________________

225
Extra Practice
Dialogue 1

Interview a candidate for a job. (Entreviste un candidato para un


trabajo). Ask about:

Personal information;

Past job;

Studies;

Skills.

Dialogue 2

Interview the owner of a company where you live about :

The name of the company;

The activity of the company;

When and how the company started;

The location of the company;

The size and the facilities;

The number of employees;

The plans for the future.

Write te dialogues and record them (Escriba los diálogos y grábe-


los)

226
WRITING
First steps to business writing
Writing messages

1. Follow the examples and write the messages. Use the correct
prepositions. (Siga los ejemplos y escriba los mensajes. Use las preposi-
ciones correctas)

e.g. meet me /10:00am / Monday.


Please meet me at ten o´clock on Monday.

1. call Mr.Legarri / 11.00 /morning.


2. send the fax / Monday afternoon
3. come / 9.00 / evening
4. don´t cancel /meeting with Ms. Tasaki / Saturday.

Writing faxes

1.Read this fax message (Lea este fax)

GFM CONSULTANTS

Riobamba 1040– Buenos Aires – Argentina- 1000


Tel/Fax (011) 4234 5620

To: ABM Food Corporation Attention: Mrs. Norma Legarri


From: Ana Tasaki Subject: My visit to the company
Date: May 17

Dear Mrs. Legarri,

Thank you for your letter of May 10, and your invitation to visit your
company. I am arriving at 3.00 on May 20. My flight number is AA 465.

I look forward to meeting you.

Sincerely,
Ana Tasaki

227
2. Now write a similar fax. You are going to visit a car factory. Use the
information below. (Ahora escriba un fax similar. Usted va a visitar un
fabrica de autos. Use la información a continuación)

GFM CONSULTANTS
Riobamba 1040 – Buenos Aires – Argentina –1000
Tel/Fax: 011- 42234 5620

To: ______________________ Attention: __________________


From: ___________________ Subject: ___________________
Date:_____________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Writing e-mails

1. Read these e-mail messages

Dear Mr. Aramayo,

The project for the new school is ready, and I would like to discuss a
few things with you. Can we meet at your office at 10.00 am on Monday
next week?

Best wishes,
Betty Villalba

228
Dear Mrs. Villalba,

Thank you for your e-mail about the project for the new school. 10.00
am on Monday next week at my office would be fine.

I look forward to seeing you then.

Best wishes
Jose Aramayo

2.Now read the e-mail you received yesterday afternoon. Answer it.
(Ahora lea el e-mail que recibió ayer a la tarde. Respóndalo)

Dear __(your name)__________

The arrangements for the conference are finished. I would like to show
them to you. Could you come to my office at 3.00 on Friday, May 25?

Best wishes
Magdalena Nallar

Dear_________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

229
3. Read this e-mail message (Lea este e-mail)

Date: Thur, 17 May 2001 7:30


From: gmoraleda @ucasal.net
To: ccruz @ ucasal.net
Subject: Saturday meeting

Cecilia

Regarding our conversation yesterday, I would like to confirm the


details of our meeting on Saturday to discuss the new exam dates. I
will be at your office at 11.30 am. I look forward to seeing you then.

Regards

Graciela

4. Now write a similar e-mail. Use this information.(Ahora escriba un e-


mail similar. Use esta información.)

Gloria Crespo called Cecilia Cruz . She wants to meet on Monday morning
to discuss the teleconferences schedules. They agreed to meet at 9.30
am. Complete Gloria´s e-mail message to Cecilia Cruz confirming the details
of the meeting.

Date: Friday, 18 May 2001 3:30


From: Gloria Crespo gcrespo @ ucasal.net
To: ccruz @ ucasal.net
Subject:__________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

230
5.Read the e-mail message (Lea este e-mail)

Dear Ms. Mendoza

I am looking forward to meeting you on Friday, May 25 during your trip


to Buenos Aires. I would like to invite you to lunch on Saturday after
the conference. It will give me the possibility to know more about your
company.

Please let me know if this will be convenient.

Best wishes
Jose Aramayo

6. Now write a similar e-mail. Use your name and this information. (Ahora
escriba un e-mail similar. Use su nombre y esta información)

Write to Maria Ferraris. She is going to give a lecture in your company


next Wednesday. Invite her to dinner after the lecture. You want to talk about a
new lecture in three months time.

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

7.Read Ms. Mendoza´s reply to Jose Aramayo. (Ahora lea la respuesta


de la señorita Mendoza a Jose Aramayo)

Dear Mr. Aramayo,

Thank you very much for your invitation. I would love to have lunch
with you on Friday. I look forward to seeing you in Buenos Aires next week.

Claudia Mendoza

231
8. Now write an e-mail replying to this invitation. Use your own name.
(Ahora escriba un e-mail contestando a esta invitación. Use su nombre)

I am looking forward to meeting you on Tuesday, June 12 , during your


trip to Salta. I would like to invite you to dinner on Tuesday evening at
my place. This will give you the opportunity to meet my family. Please
let me know if this will be possible.

Jorge Figueroa

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Writing notes

1. Read this note (Lea esta nota)

Magdalena,

I am very sorry but I can´t make the meeting on Friday at 3.00 because
of a doctor´s appointment. Is it OK if we meet next Monday?

Thank you
Connie

2. Now write a similar note to a business acquaintance.

You had a meeting on Monday at 5.00 pm. You can´t make it because of
a trip to Corrientes. (Ahora escriba una nota similar a un conocido de
negocios).

232
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Writing memos

1.Read this memo (Lea este memorándum)

To: All Training officers

From: Claudia Mendoza


Human Resources Manager

Date: 17 May 2001

There will be a meeting on Friday 25 May to discuss the English training


course. Please invite all the managers in the company.

Thank you

2.Now use the note below to write a memo to all staff in the Finance
Department. (Ahora use la nota a continuación para escribir un memo a
todo el personal del Departamento de Finanzas)

Elsa,

Could you organise a meeting at 9.30 am on Monday with all the


Finance Department to discuss our new financial project and then
send a memo to inform them about it?

Thanks.

233
MEMO
To: Finance Dept.
From:

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

3. Walter Echazu is going to be the new Human Resources Manager at


your company.

He is going to visit your office to learn more about the company.

Write a memo to all staff: (Escriba un memo a todo el personal)

* explain who he is (explique quien es él)


* say when he will be in the office (diga cuando estará en la oficina)
* ask the staff to introduce themselves to him.(pídale al personal que se
presenten)

MEMO

To: All staff

From:_________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

234
Writing a business letter

1. Read this letter

CCIM
PRODUCTIONS

Daniel Krowe
SPA Ltd.
345 Silver Ridge Drive
Virginia

Dear Mr. Krowe,

I am visiting Virginia in June and I would like to meet you to discuss the
plans for the new hotel. I am free on June 10, 11 and 12. Can we meet
any of these days?

I look forward to hearing from you.

Sincerely

Patricia Saenz
Designer Manager

2. Now write a similar letter. Use your name and this information.(Ahora
escriba una carta similar. Use su nombre y esta información)

You are visiting IAC in July. The address is 3555 Congreso Street. You
would like to meet Cecilia Barni to discuss the new transmissions. You are
free on 9, 10, and 11 July.

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

235
236
Estimado alumno:

Esta sección ha sido preparada con la convicción de


que Usted ya ha trabajado exhaustivamente con el Set de Traducción que
acompañó al Módulo Nº1 y que completó un estudio gramatical del idioma.

En consecuencia, se eligió material extraído de li-


bros específicos para la enseñanza del idioma, como así también material
auténtico de periódicos, libros de texto e informes.

El objetivo es proporcionarle habilidades, estrategias


y vocabulario que lo ayudarán a leer material más específico del área más
eficientemente.

Lea cuidadosamente la Introducción, como también


las distintas técnicas.

237
238
BIBLIOGRAFÍA

- Revel, Rod and Sweeney, Simon. IN PRINT . Reading Business English.


Cambridge University Pres. Great Britain, 1993.

- Badger, Ian – Menzies, Pete and Daniel, David. AMERICAN BUSI-


NESS ENGLISH PROGRAM. Macmillan Publishers. Hong Kong, 1994.

- Badger, Ian and Menzies, Pete. MACMILLAN BUSINESS ENGLISH


PROGRAMME. Hong Kong, 1993.

- Bach, George. ECONOMICS. Fourth Edition. Prentice Hall Inc., 1963.

- Duckworth, Michael. GRAMMAR & PRACTICE. Oxford University Press.


China, 1998.

- Buenos Aires Herald Magazine. May 5, 2001.

- Buenos Aires Herald newspaper. April and May, 2201.

- BEC 1. Sample Papers. University of Cambridge. Local Examination


Syndicate.

- Perino, Inés y otros. Introducción a la Lectura en Inglés. Date Editores.


Bs. As., 1.994.

239
INTRODUCCIÓN

En el mundo de los negocios, hay siempre mucho material para leer


(distintos tipos de texto, artículos) y no hay tiempo suficiente para leer todo.

El objetivo que debemos perseguir es aprender a leer mejor. Esto no


significa simplemente leer más rápido. Significa pasar el menor tiempo,
consiguiendo la máxima comprensión de lo que leemos.

Tenga siempre una opinión positiva. Lea tanto como sea posible en
Inglés y trate de seguir las técnicas que se explicarán y practicarán en este
Módulo.

¿Cómo facilitar nuestro trabajo de traducción?

Antes que nada debemos considerar a las palabras ...

Por su significado:

Se debe tener en cuenta el significado de las pala-


bras, y ver si las mismas expresan un concepto o no.

Por ejemplo:

“The staff” The (El) es una palabra estructural


staff (personal) es una palabra conceptual

Las palabras conceptuales (sustantivo, verbo, adjetivo , adverbio)


expresan ideas o conceptos del mensaje.

Las palabras estructurales (preposiciones, artículos, adjetivos de-


terminantes, conjunciones, pronombres) sirven de unión entre las ideas
o conceptos y le dan coherencia al texto.

Por su forma:

Se debe tener en cuenta la forma de la palabra para


saber qué función cumple en la oración y que significado tiene.

240
Por ejemplo:

“ employ” (verbo) emplear


“ employee” (sustantivo) empleado
“ unemployed” (adjetivo) desempleado

Por su ubicación en la oración:

Se determina que función gramatical


cumple (sustantivo, verbo, adjetivo, adverbio, preposición, artículo, adjeti-
vo determinante, conjunción o pronombre)

Por ejemplo:

“They never smoke in the office” (Ellos nunca fuman en la oficina)


smoke: verbo
the: artículo (delante de sustantivo)

“Smoke is coming out of the room” (Sale humo de la habitación)


smoke: sustantivo

Veamos en este ejemplo las palabras conceptuales:

“Employees reject new offer “


sust. verbo adj. sust.

(“Empleados rechazan nueva oferta”)

Agreguemos a la oración las palabras estructurales para conectar el


mensaje.

“The employees reject the new offer”


art. sust. verb art. adj. sust.

(“Los empleados rechazan la nueva oferta”)

En esta oración podemos observar que hay palabras que son claves
para el mensaje:

Employees reject offer


(Empleados rechazan oferta)

241
Podemos entonces como en castellano delimitar dos partes importan-
tes en la oración:

• sujeto: cuyo núcleo es un sustantivo. Puede ser tambien un pro-


nombre (referente) o un verbo en función de sustantivo.

• predicado: cuyo núcleo es un verbo

Veamos nuevamente la oración :

/The employees / reject the new offer/


sujeto predicado

Hacemos un análisis más completo:

The employees / reject / the new offer /

Formación de palabras

La forma de la palabra brinda información acerca de su función. Por


ejemplo:

Employ (verbo ) employee (sustantivo)

Hay dos maneras importantes para formar nuevas palabras:

Derivación:

Se forman nuevas palabras agregando prefijos (partículas que se agre-


gan delante de la palabra), sufijos (partículas que se agregan al final de la
palabra) y flexiones (partículas que marcan los accidentes que sufren las
palabras)

Por ejemplo:

Employ____________employment (empleo)

Employ ___________unemployment (desempleo)

242
Employ ___________employs (presente 3ra persona del singular)

Employ____________ employed (pasado regular)

Nota: Ver ejemplos de prefijos y sufijos en módulo 1 (set de traducción)

Accidentes gramaticales

1.Número: (singular y plural)

Por ejemplo:
Report reports (informe / informes)
Company companies (compañía / compañías)
Box boxes (caja / cajas)
Excuse excuses (excusa / excusas)

2.Género (masculino y femenino)

Por ejemplo:

Steward stewardess (camarero / camarera de un barco)

3.Caso posesivo

Por ejemplo:

Mr. Brown´s report (El informe del sr. Brown)

4.Grado (comparativo y superlativo)

Por ejemplo:

Fast / faster / the fastest

243
5.Tiempo y Persona

Por ejemplo:

Presente (3ª persona del singular)


I report He reports (Yo informo El informa)
Pasado (todas las personas iguales)
They report They reported (Ellos informan / Ellos informaron)

6.Modo (subjuntivo)

Por ejemplo:

They would improve if they had the money.


(Ellos mejorarían si tuvieran el dinero)

Nota: es muy importante conocer cómo se forman palabras por deriva-


ción y los accidentes que sufren para buscar las mismas en el diccionario.

Por ejemplo:

- Si vamos al diccionario a buscar la palabra “companies”, no la vamos


a encontrar por que está en plural. Sí vamos a encontrar la palabra en
singular “company”.

- Puede que la palabra “unemployment” no figure. Entonces le quita-


mos la partícula “un-” y buscamos “employment” (desempleo). Si sa-
bemos que la partícula “un-” es negativa, reconocemos que la palabra
significa “desempleo”.

Composición

Las palabras compuestas se forman por dos o más palabras, que tambien
pueden usarse independientemente la una de la otra.

A saber:
Sustantivos compuestos: firearms (armas de fuego)
Adjetivos compuestos: tax-free (libre de impuesto)

244
Verbos compuestos: go down (bajar)
Adverbios compuestos: sometime (en algún momento)

Estas palabras compuestas indican una idea en su totalidad. Es decir


que debemos determinar su función en la oración como un todo.

Por ejemplo:

Car production costs (costos en la producciòn de autos)


Sustantivo sustantivo (car production modifica a costos)

Si necesitamos traducir (car production) por que no entendemos debe-


mos buscar las palabras por separado:

Car: auto production: producción

Las palabras que forman la palabra compuesta no siempre tienen la


misma función gramatical.

Por ejemplo:

A high-class market (un mercado de clase alta)


adj. sust.

La última palabra de la palabra compuesta (production, class) determi-


nan la función gramatical.

Ubicación de la palabra en la oración

Al estudiar la ubicación de la palabra en la oración se puede determinar


su función gramatical.

Por ejemplo:

Pat Baker is an administrative assisstant.

(artículo delante de sustantivo adjetivado)

245
Jennifer Brown is a systems analyst.

systems: (sustantivo en función de adjetivo)


analyst: (sustantivo)

• Es fácil reconocer el sustantivo y el verbo porque son los que denotan


concepto por sí mismos.

Por ejemplo:

Meetings (sustantivo: Reunion


Start ! (verbo imperativo: Comience )
To start (forma imperativa del verbo: comenzar

• El adjetivo siempre aparece relacionado con:

Un sustantivo: early meeting..................reunión temprana


adj. sust.

Un verbo: The meeting is early............La reunión es temprano.


Sust. V adj.

• El adverbio modifica a:

Un verbo: The meeting starts early ......La reunión comienza temprano.


Sust. V adv.

Un adjetivo: the meeting is very early. .....La reunión es muy temprano.


Sust. V adv adj.

Otro adverbio: The meeting starts very early ................La reunión


comienza muy temprano.

El pronombre, la preposiciòn, la conjunción y el artículo se conec-


tan con otras funciones gramaticales sustituyendo, relacionando,
uniendo o determinando.

246
El Sustantivo

Se lo reconoce por:

Su forma

1)sustantivo en plural –s, (-es, -ies)


reports, boxes, companies.

2)´s / s´corresponde a un sustantivo en caso posesivo


Mr. Brown´s report / Carlos´idea.

3) Algunas terminaciones más comunes: -in / ment / -ing / -ance / ship / -age
Competition / arrangement / training / assisstance / relationship / patronage

Su posición y las palabras que lo acompañan:

at work: en el trabajo (preposición + sustantivo)

the project: el proyecto (artículo + sustantivo)

interesting project: proyecto interesante (adjetivo + sustantivo)

staff available: personal disponible (sustantivo + adjetivo)

company secrets: secretos de la compañía (sustantivo + sustantivo)

completely wrong idea: idea completamente errónea (adverbio + ad-


jetivo + sustantivo)

El Verbo

Se lo reconoce por:

Su forma

Terminación de la tercera persona del singular( -s / (-es / -ies)

247
¨Mr. Jones works for a major firm in the City of London” (El señor Jones
trabaja para una gran firma en la ciudad de Londres)

Terminación del pasado y el participio pasado de los verbos regu-


lares (-ed)

“They expanded the business (Ellos expandieron el negocio)


They have expanded the business (ellos han expandido el negocio)
The business was expanded (El negocio se expandió)
When expanded, the business did very well. (Cuando se expandió el
negocio anduvo muy bien)

Terminación del participio presente (-ing)

They are expanding the business. (Ellos están ampliando el negocio)


This idea is useful for expanding the business. (Esta idea es buena para
expandir el negocio)

Terminaciones de verbos más comunes:

-ify, -en, -ate, -ize/ise, et.


Classify / strengthen / create / categorize / practise

Los verbos irregulares forman el pasado y el participio pasado


modificandose en una o más letras, completamente o no modificándose.
Para poder determinar que es un verbo en pasado o participio pasado,
debemos ir a una lista de verbos, buscar el verbo que necesitamos y luego
ir al diccionario.

Palabras que acompañan al verbo

Pronombres sujeto y pronombres objeto

They are considering the new plan (Ellos están considerando el plan nuevo)
Pron verbo

They must consider the new plan (Ellos deben considerar el nuevo plan)

248
It is necessary to consider the new plan (Es necesario considerar
el nuevo plan)

They have to consider it inmediately. (Deben considerarlo


inmediatamente)
Pron.

Verbos que acompañan al verbo principal:

Be (am – is – are- was- were- bee- being)

Be + verbo con –ing (estar + -ando/ endo)

The directors are considering the plan (Los directores están consideran-
do el plan)

Be + verbo en participio pasado (voz pasiva) (ser + -ado / -ido)

The plan is considered (El plan es considerado / se considera )

Have + participio pasado (tiempo perfecto) (haber + -ado / -ido)

They have considered the plan (Ellos han considerado el plan)

Do / Does + sujeto + verbo (tiempo presente interrogativo)

Do they consider the plan? (Consideran ellos el plan?)

Does he consider the plans? ( El considera el plan?)

Did + sujeto + verbo (tiempo pasado interrogativo)

Did they consider the plans (Consideraron el plan?)

Shall / Will (futuro)

We shall consider the plan (Consideraremos el plan)

They will consider the plan (Ellos considerarán el plan)

249
Would (potencial)

The plan would be necessary (El plan sería necesario)

Should (deber / debería / debiera)

They should consider the plan (Deberían considerar el plan)

Must / Ought to ( Deber)

He must consider the plan (El debe considerar el plan)

Can / May (Poder)

She can consider the plan (Ella puede considerar el plan)

Could / Might (Podría)

We could consider the plan (Podríamos considerar el plan)

Verbo en infinitivo (Cómo se traduce)

A + infinitivo

He comes to consider the plan (El viene a considerar el plan)

Para + infinitivo

He is here to consider the plan (El está aquí para considerar el plan)

De + infinitivo

They tried to consider the plan (Ellos trataron de considerar el plan)

En voz pasiva

The plan is said to be very useful (Se dice que el plan es muy útil)

250
For + noun + to + infinitive

This plan is ready for the company to evaluate it (Este plan está listo
para que la compañía lo evalúe)

To + infinitivo (a veces no se traduce)

It is his job to study the possibility of the plan (Es su tarea estudiar la
posibilidad del plan)

To study the possibility of the plan takes time (Estudiar la posibilidad del
plan lleva tiempo)

Verbo + -ing (Cómo se traduce)

Preposición + -ing (Traducir como: Preposición + infinitivo)

They are paid for considering the plan (Les pagan para considerar el
plan)

By considering his plan, the company is giving him a good possibility. (Al
considerar su plan, la compañía le está dando una buena posibilidad )

He must be cautious in considering the plan (Debe ser cuidadoso al


considerar el plan)

By + -ing ( No traducir la preposición y traducir el verbo como –


ando / -endo)

You can start by considering his plan (Puede comenzar considerando su


plan)
Al comienzo de la oración

Considering plans is one of his tasks. ( Considerar planes es una de sus


tareas)

En mitad de la oración

They accepted the plan, considering that it was possible. (Ellos acepta-
ron el plan, considerando que era posible)

251
Sustantivo + -ing

They are the staff considering the new plan. (Ellos son el personal que
considera el plan nuevo)

When / While + -ing

When considering the plan, they didn´t like it. (Cuando consideraron el
plan no les gustó)

After / Before +-ing

After considering the plan, they accepted it. (Despues de considerar el


plan lo aceptaron)

Después de verbos como: begin / stop / prefer / finish, etc.

Finish + -ing

They will finish considering the plan in a couple of hours. (Terminarán de


considerar el plan en un par de horas)

Verbo en participio pasado (Cómo se traduce)

If considered carefully, the plan is useful. (Si se considera cuidadosa-


mente, el plan es útil)

Considered this way, the plan is useful (Considerado de esta forma, el


plan es útil)

Recomendaciones para la lectura de textos largos

- Use páginas de contenido, índices, cuadros, listas, etc. para ubicar


partes de un libro, manual o informe que sean de especial interés.

- No fije sus ojos en cada palabra. Debe permitir que se muevan sobre
el texto a una velocidad constante mirando a varias palabras a la vez.

252
- No lea en voz alta. Este tipo de lectura es una habilidad diferente, útil
para practicar pronunciación y como parte de preparación para dar
presentaciones.

- No lea la misma oración o párrafo repetidas veces. Despreocúpese de


cualquiere parte que no sea de interés o sea imposible de entender.
Sin embargo, puede Usted pasar más tiempo en partes, o párrafos de
especial interés.

- Para una lectura comprensiva debe tener en claro estos términos y


saberlos determinar en cualquier libro o revista.

1) un título 2) un 3) un párrafo 4) un cuadro


encabezamiento

5) un capítulo 6) una página de 7) un índice 8) un diagrama


contenido

9) una introducción a un 10)una conclusión a un


libro / capítulo / artícu- libro / capítulo / artí-
lo culo

253
Método para la lectura de textos largos

Contenidos
Entrada o Indice

Lea / realice Scan: mire


Mire el texto
algo diferente rápidamente

Título / Longitud
No es interesante encabezamiento
figuras

Interesante

Skim:lea breve-
Lea introducción mente buscando Lea conclusión
ideas principales

Lea resumen

Mire figuras / diagramas


cuadros en más detalle

Decida si el texto Partes


No es importante
es importante importantes

Todo importante
Mire brevemente /
busque más
Lea brevemente buscan- partes importantes
do ideas principales en
cada párrafo

Lea / estudie
Lea / estudie esas partes
en detalle

Tome notas
si quiere

254
Técnicas de lectura

Scanning: significa mirar brevemente un texto antes de leerlo para ver


si (o donde) contiene información específica que usted está buscando.
Cuando encuentra la información que usted quiere, lea la sección en más
detalle.

Ejemplos:

- Mirar brevemente un horario de trenes para averiguar horario de par-


tida.

- Mirar brevemente la lista de contenidos de un periódico para encon-


trar el número de página de las noticias financieras.

- Mirar brevemente un informe anual para encontrar el párrafo que trata


de un producto en particular.

Skimming: significa leer un texto sin atención a los detalles pero sólo
buscando ideas principales. Esto incluirá prestar atención al título, enca-
bezamientos, introducción y conclusión, como así también a los puntos
principales en los párrafos.

Ejemplos:

- Mirar brevemente un periódico para entender los puntos principales


de las noticias.

- Leer un informe de 20 páginas en 10 minutos para buscar las ideas


claves.

- Leer sólo los encabezamientos, la introducción, conclusión, o resu-


men de un informe, y mirar a las figuras, gráficos, etc.

Predecir lo que está y no está en el texto

Esta técnica es muy importante porque al entender el título podemos


comenzar a pensar acerca de la información que encontraremos y dónde
la encontraremos.

255
Entonces, cuando haya seleccionado algo para leer, primero mire el
título, encabezamientos y la letra acentuada (negrita). Mire la longitud y
cualquier figura o material gráfico, por ejemplo diagramas, cuadros, etc.
Luego pregúntese: ¿ qué me contará este artículo? o ¿qué información es
probable en el mismo?. Esto es predicción.

Identificación de puntos principales en un texto

Una manera de identificar los puntos principales en un texto es leer


solamente el primero o segundo párrafo y el último o los dos últimos. Esto
especialmente en caso de artículos largos donde usted podrá ver las
palabras Introduction (introducción), Summary (resumen) o Conclusion
(conclusión). No lea todo el texto en detalle en esta etapa. Lea solamente
la introducción, o el primer párrafo cuidadosamente. Luego lea la parte
final del texto o los dos últimos párrafos. El comienzo y el final de los textos
largos a menudo tienen la información más importante.

Predicción: ¿qué viene a continuación en el texto?

Ya vimos una técnica de predicción por medio de los encabezamientos


y letra negrita. Las palabras específicas o una frase en particular (parte de
una oración) puede también ayudarnos a predecir qué viene a continua-
ción. Frases como "The first thing to do is ..." (Lo primero que hay que
hacer es ...), "Secondly" (En segundo lugar ...), "The last stage is ... (La
última etapa es ...). Reconocer y entender estas palabras y frases pueden
ayudarlo a leer más eficientemente. Ellas ayudan también a entender la
estructura de un texto.

Referencia: Interpretar la relación entre oraciones

Lo primero que se debe hacer es leer el texto, buscando sólo las ideas
principales. Al hacerlo, se dará cuenta que algunos textos contienen pala-
bras que se refieren a otras en el mismo. Esto también puede ocurrir de un
párrafo a otro. Reconocer e interpretar esta relación lo ayudará a entender
la estructura interna del texto.

Vocabulario: predecir el significado de una palabra del contexto.

Usar el diccionario para averiguar el significado de cada palabra que no


sepa, toma mucho tiempo y reduce la eficacia de su lectura. Es importante
tratar de suponer el significado. Generalmente, el contexto (el resto del

256
texto y especialmente las palabras y oraciones cercanas a las desconoci-
das) lo ayudarán a decidir su posible significado. Sólo busque una palabra
en el diccionario si no tiene idea de lo que significa y está seguro que es
necesario entenderla para conseguir la información que necesita.

SOURCE: ADAPTED FROM INPRINT, CUP, 1.993.

257
A business book

ECONOMICS
An Introduction to Analysis and
Policy
FOURTH EDITION
George Leland Bach
CONTENTS
Copyright 1954, 1957, 1960 and PART FOUR
1963 THE DISTRIBUTION OF INCOME
by PRENTICE-HALL, INC.,
Page 470
Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.
28
All rights reserved. HOW IS INCOME DISTRIBUTED?, page 470
No part of this book 29
may be reproduced in any form, WAGES AND SALARIES, page 483
by mimeograph or any other means,
30
without permission in writing
from the publisher. LABOR UNIONISM AND COLLECTIVE BARGAINING, page
Printed in 502
the United States of America. 31
L.C. Cat. Nº: 63-10591
GOVERNMENT AND LABOR, page 524
Third printing ..... February, 1964 32
PROPERTY INCOMES-RENT AND INTEREST, page 537
Designed by Harry Rinehart 33
Ilustrations by Felix Cooper PROFITS, page 552
22740-C
34
WAGES, PROFITS, AND STABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH, page
562

Appendix to Part Four: CURRENT RESEARCH,


page 575

258
Actividad Nº 1

Aproximación al texto

1. Título del libro:


2. Autor:
3. Edición:
4. Editorial
5. Tipo de lector
6. Tema de la parte Nº4:
7. Escriba el título de cada capítulo de la parte 4 en castellano.
8. ¿Qué capítulo se podrá consultar para leer sobre: "cambios tecnoló-
gicos, salarios y desempleo"?

259
Actividad Nº 2

Read the dialogues and choose the correct alternative (A,B or C)

DIALOGUE 1

• What does Mr. Cash want to drink?


A. Beer
B. Water
C. Orange juice

X. Would you like a drink Mr. Cash? A beer perhaps?

Y. Thanks, but I´d rather just have a glass of water, if that´s all right.

X. Waiter, a glass of water and I´ll have an orange juice, please.

DIALOGUE 2

X. Attention all passengers waiting at Gate 17 for flight BA203 to Bangkok.


Please proceed immediately to Gate 12 where your plane will be
boarding shortly.

Which is the Gate number for the flight to Bangkok?

A. Gate 3

B. Gate 12

C. Gate 17

Source: University of Cambridge - Local Examinations Syndicate


(Sample papers).

260
Actividad Nº 3

Read the conversation between a manager and her assistant


discussing the agenda for a meeting and then write the missing
numbers in the spaces.

M. There are just a couple of extra points to add to the agenda.


A. OK. Is this for the December meeting?
M. Yes, that´s right. The one on the 19th. Two more points about the
budget. I´ve just been told what we can have for social events, and for
anyone who wants to attend any of those conferences I put up on the
board. For the social events we get $100 more than last year, which
means we´ll have $500 this year. Then for the conferences. Only 4 of
us went to conferences last year so we´re only allowing $200 this
year.
A. Right. Is that it? How many copies do you want?
M. Yes. Well. It´s 19. Plus one for you and me. That´s 21. To be given out
in advance please. Thanks.

Points to add to the agenda for the meeting of _____________December:

Money available this year for a: social events: $ ______________

b: conferences: $ ______________

Number of copies to be distributed: _____________

Read this conversation and complete the form

Caller: Hello. Could I speak to the Manager please?


Secretary: I´m afraid he´s not available at the moment. Can I help you?
Caller: Yes. I´d like to make an appointment to see him.
Secretary: Can I take your name?
Caller: It´s F E N T O N. And that´s Mrs.
Secretary: Do you have an account with us already?
Caller: Yes. I´ve had a business account since 1993.
Secretary: An what is your business?

261
Caller: I run a restaurant in Highfield Old Town.
Secretary: Well. The Manager could see you on the 14th. August at 10.30
a.m.
Caller: What day is that?
Secretary: Wednesday.
Caller: Yes, that´s fine.
Secretary: Can I ask what it´s about?

Caller: Well. I wanted to talk about a loan. I wrote to him a couple of


weeks ago and. He asked me to come in and see him.
Secretary: That´s great. Thanks very much.

PHONE MESSAGE

Name of caller: Mrs ____________________

Type of account: ______________________

Occupation: _____________________Manager.

Date of appointment: 10.30 am _________________________

Purpose of appointment: to talk about ____________________

Source: University of Cambridge -(Local Examinations Syndicate)


(Sample papers)

262
Actividad Nº 4

Look at questions 1-5.

• In each question, which phrase or sentece is correct?


• For each questions, ma
• Mark one letter A, B or C .

Example: Don´t forget –

Flight BA692 6.45 pm

The plane arrives at

A quarter to seven in the morning.


B quarter past six in the evening.
C quarter to seven in the evening.

The correct answer is C.

1.You will receive the full amount as soon as the work is complete

A. You should finish all the work quickly.


B. Full payment will be made soon.
C. When you finish the work you will be paid.

2.For further copies of this guide, please phone 01279 662714.

Call this number if you want to

A. get more details


B. receive extra leaflets.
C. Photocopy this brochure.

263
3. FLIGHTS FROM TOKYO TO LONDON HEATHROW

Flight number Dep.Time

JAL 415 08.45


JAL 425 12.15
JAL 435 16.30

Mr Muriyama is travelling to London after a lunch-time meeting in Tokyo.


Which flight will he catch?

A JAL 415
B JAL 425
C JAL 435

4. 13.4.01

Dear Mr Parker,
Thank you for telephoning yesterday about...

Mr. Parker called on

A 12 April
B 13 April
C 21 April

5.We are pleased to announce the promotion of our Sales Manager,


Mr. Tannerman, to Regional Sales Director.

A The Sales Manager will become the new Regional Sales Director.
B The Regional Sales Director is looking for a new Sales Manager.
C Mr Tannerman will be appointed as the new Sales Manager.

Source: University of Cambridge -(Local Examinations Syndicate)


(Sample Papers)

264
Actividad Nº 5

Look at the notice below. It shows the departments in a company.

For questions 1-5, decide which department A-H each employee should
contact.

· For each questions, mark one letter A-H.


· Do not use any letter more than once.

MOLEWORTH PLC
CABERRA, AUSTRALIA

Ground Floor: A Wages & Salaries


B Marketing
C Quality Control

First Floor: D Typing Service


E Exports
F Purchasing

Second Floor G Personnel


H Training

1.Ms Williams needs to send a large order to an important customer in


the USA.

2.John Carter needs extra staff to help with an unexpected order.

3.Mr Wales wants to discuss advertising for his new product

4.Mary Walden thinks she has been charged too much tax on her pay.

5.Ian Whittaker has a box of faulty goods which a shop has sent back

Source: University of Cambridge -(Local Examinations Syndicate)


(Sample Papers)

265
Actividad Nº 6

Read the text below, which is a talk about training courses for new
staff.

“These four introductory training courses will generally last two or


three hours each and will be timetabled over the first two weeks of
your employment. For all of the courses, you should go to the Training
Centre, except for the Health and Safety Course, which is held in
Room 301. You will be shown key places such as the post room,

The first course will begin with a tour of the building. the first aid
room and the Chief Executive´s office.

Everyone must attend the second course, on health and safety. This will
include what to do in case of fire. Any employees who would like to
follow a course on emergency first aid should tell their instructor
after this talk.

The third course covers company goals, plus information on the structure
of the company and the senior management team.

The final course looks at hours of work, salaries and sick leave. However,
we will not be able to discuss individual contracts and job descriptions.
If you have any doubts about what your job includes, please, speak to
your department Head.”

Source: University of Cambridge (Local Examinations Syndicate)

Now, answer these questions about the text. You can answer in
Spanish or in English.

1.How many courses will there be?


____________________________
2.How long will they last?
____________________________
3.When will they be timetabled?
____________________________

266
4.Where should you go for the Health and Safety Course?
_____________________________
5.Where should you go for all the other courses?
_____________________________
6.How will the first course begin?
_____________________________
7.What will you be shown?
________________________
8.Is it possible not to attend the second course on health and safety?
____________________________
9.What will this include?
____________________________
10. Who should you tell if you are interested in an emergency first aid
course?
___________________________
11. What does the third course cover?
___________________________
12. What does the final course look at?
____________________________
13. Will they be able to discuss individual contracts with the staff on that
course?
___________________________
14. Who do you have to speak to if you have doubts about what your job
includes?
_____________________________

Now, read the text above again, and decide:

• Are sentences 1-7 “Right” or “Wrong”?


• If there is not enough information to answer “Right” or “Wrong”,
choose “Doesn´t say”.
• For each sentence 1-7, mark one letter A, B or C.

1. Each training course is two weeks long.

A Right B Wrong C Doesn´t say

2. Only one training course will be in Room 301.

A Right B Wrong C Doesn´t say

267
3. The tour begins with a visit to the post room.

A Right B Wrong C Doesn´t say

4. You do not have to go to the first aid course.

A Right B Wrong C Doesn´t say

5. On the third training course, you will meet a member of the senior
management team.

A Right B Wrong C Doesn´t say

6. On the final training course, you will talk about what you will do in your
own job.

A Right B Wrong C Doesn´t say

7. If you can attend none of the training courses, you should talk to your
department Head.

A Right B Wrong C Doesn´t say

268
Actividad Nº 7

Read this extract from an annual report, written by the Managing Direc-
tor of a toy company called Bambinos, and answer questions 1-B A-13 .

1996 began well for Bambinos, with the purchase in January of National
Toy Shops Ltd for $2.3 million. All departments avoided job losses, except
Sales, where both companies had previously had agents serving the same
areas. In the Production department, eighty temporary workers were
taken on in February to work on a contract with a new client in Japan.
These jobs will probably disappear by the beginning of the summer, though
staffing levels may rise again soon afterwards when we launch the new
robot toy, Roboman.

The export order to Japan has been a major success, but it cannot hide
the problems we have had in this area. Despite the huge amounts we have
invested in designing world-leading toys and in the distribution of our
products, I am disappointed to see we are losing customers to rival
firms, especially in Asia. We do not seem able to offer the same quality
of service as our rivals. I want to see a system for improving the way we
deal with calls form customers wanting information or help, checking on
details of products, or making complaints. I would like to see major
improvements in this area as soon as possible.

There are many achievements to be proud of. The increase in annual


profits in 1996 was partly the result of Mr Bec´s new system of producing
and following up on invoices for company accounts. But I am particularly
pleased to see the 50% growth in the number of staff who are now
able to use computers for major parts of their work. This is an excellent
result for the small amount of money invested last year in staff training. We
have now advertised for a new Training Manager and will be increasing the
amount spent in this area to over 3% of annual profits. This will provide a
variety of courses for staff in all departments.

Finally, I would like to mention Roboman. Many of our future plans depend
on the success of this project, which will go into production in February. In
1993 our engineers in the Research and Development department had
already succeeded in producing one of the world´s smallest radio-controlled
robots, so efficient that the batteries do not need to be changed for at least

269
25 hours of use. What makes this new one particularly exciting is that
it is controlled simply by the user giving it spoken instructions. It is
this, rather than sales techniques or pricing policy, that will make Roboman
the bes-selling toy for the next five years.

Source: University of Cambridge (Local Examinations Syndicate)

Answer these questions about the text.

1. What did Bambinos buy in 1996?

2. How many temporary workers were taken on in the Production


department?

3. What were they going to work on?

4. When will these jobs probably disappear?

5. Has the export order to Japan been a success?

6. Have they invested a lot of money in designing world-leading toys?

7. Have they spent a lot of money in the distribution of their products?

8. Are they still losing customers to rival firms?

9. Have the annual profits in 1996 increased?

10.What percentage of people in the company are now able to use


computers to do their work?

11. Did the company invest a lot of money in staff training last year?

12. What do many of their future plans depends on?

13. What is it that makes Roboman particularly exciting?

Now, for questions 1-4 choose the correct answer.

• For each question, mark one letter A, B or C.

270
Extra staff were employed for

A a new order from overseas.

B an increase in demand over the summer.

C the development of a new toy.

The main problem during 1996 was

A the increase in distribution costs.

B competition form other companies.

C the high level of staff turnover.

The company has improved

A its advertising methods.

B communication between departments.

C the computer skills of its staff.

The most important development in the new Roboman is that

A it doesn´t need batteries.

B it responds to speech.

C it is very small.

271
Actividad Nº 8

Look at the charts below. They show the number of passengers using
eight different airlines over a three-month period.

Which chart does each sentence 1 to 8 describe?


For each sentence, mark the correct letter (A – H)
Do not use any letter more than once.
Passengers Passengers Passengers

0.75 m 0.75 m 0.75 m

0.5 m 0.5 m 0.5 m

0.25 m 0.25 m 0.25 m

1 2 3 Month 1 2 3 Month 1 2 3 Month


A B C

Passengers Passengers
0.75 m 0.75 m

0.5 m 0.5 m

0.25 m 0.25 m

1 2 3 Month 1 2 3 Month
D E

Passengers Passengers Passengers


0.75 m 0.75 m 0.75 m

0.5 m 0.5 m 0.5 m

0.25 m 0.25 m 0.25 m

1 2 3 Month 1 2 3 Month 1 2 3 Month


F G H

1. The number of passengers climbed steadily throughout the period.


2. There was a sharp drop in the number of passengers in the second
month.
3. The number of passengers was constant for months two and three.

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4. The number of passengers rose very slightly each month.
5. The number of passengers fell dramatically in the third month.

Source: University of Cambridge (Local Examinations Syndicate)

273
Actividad Nº 9

Read the text below about working at home, and answer the
questions

Working at home rather than in an office has received considerable


attention from people in business, with some reports suggesting that places
where people work together will soon be a thing of the past. However, a
recent survey carried out by an international property consultant, Larry
Newson, finds that only eight per cent of office staff actually work form
home more than one day a week. The percentage has increased little over
the last few years, and only 17 % of all office workers said they would want
to work from home regularly.

Separate findings, from an insurance company, stress one of the main


areas of concern. Paul Orchard, the firm´s senior partner, says, “People
enjoy meeting other people at work, and working at home is a lonely
alternative”. One bank employee who took part in home working found that
this loneliness lowered the quality of her work, as she was unable to
concentrate. Other problems she experienced included computer failures,
which meant she had to go into the office anyway. Joe Seer, in his research
for a trade union, reported: ¨” I studied one particular home worker from a
public relations firm. She would go into the office for meetings because of
loneliness and to get help from other staff, but would find that they thought
she was just avoiding work. They considered home working the lazy way of
doing things, and this caused several arguments.”

Some of these problems may be caused simply by the fact that such
patterns of work are unfamiliar. That does not help people such as one
publishing worker, who was allowed to work from home, but then had to
accept a 2000 pounds pay cut. Another employee, a senior marketing
consultant, had a whole list of complaints, including no assistance
with the extra cost of electricity and the phone, and being contacted 24
hours a day, even in the evenings and at weekends. Home working may
seem an attractive idea, but when faced with problems like these, it is not
surprising that relatively few people actually choose to do it.

Source: University of Cambridge (Local Examinations Syndicate)

274
1. What did Larry Newson´s survey contain? (Leer todo el texto)

A numbers of people working at home


B main reasons why people dislike working at home
C suggestions for ways of increasing numbers of home workers

2. Recently, the number of people working at home has

A fallen very little.


B stayed exactly the same.
C risen only slightly.

3. How was the bank employee affected by loneliness?

A She did not enjoy her work.


B Her work was not as good as before
C She did not want to contact her office

4. The marketing consultant wants more

A help with his expenses


B contact with his office.
C technical support for his work.

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Human resources
key words

appointment paycheck factory


assignment recruitment turnover
employee salary venture
to earn survey expenses
to compare survival
to negotiate tax

Actividad Integradora
Nº 1: una las palabras apropiadas

1. salary a) turnover
2. annual b) negotiations
3. to earn c) a survey
4. to claim d) expenses
5. to conduct e) a living
6. to pay f) an appointment
7. to fix g) tax
8. a joint h) venture

1).......... 2)......... 3)......... 4).........

5) ......... 6) ........ 7) ........ 8) .........

Nº 2: Traduzca las frases del ejercicio anterior.

1) 5)

2) 6)

3) 7)

4) 8)

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Nº 3: Lea rápidamente el siguiente extracto de un libro llamado
"Going International". ¿Qué título le daría a la historia?

a) How to do business in Saudi Arabia.

b) Too many cups of coffee.

c) Learning the hard way.

When the Saudi government announced another day". He was particularly


that it was going to invest several million unsettled by the Arab habit of straying
dollars in communications technology, from the subject. After a month he ran
an American businessman went to Riyadh into an old army buddy who introduced
to "get something going". His plane fare him to the basic rules of Saudi etiquette
and expenses for a week were projected and how to do business with the Arabs.
to be $3700. He arrived on a Monday, He was horrified to discover that he had
checked into his hotel and began making repeatedly insulted his contacts by his
phone calls to the "obvious points of thinly disguised impatience, refusal to
contact". To his surprise he could not take coffee, rush to talk business,
track down anyone to see regarding his aggressive selling, occasional swearing,
business. By Wednesday he discovered exposing the sole of his shoe when
that most offices were closed on sitting on the floor, and even when he
Thursday afternoon and on Friday, the conversationally asked an Arab official
Islamic day of prayer. There was nothing about his wife. By now his trip had cost
he could do but extend his stay and hope well over $13,000 and he had only
for better luck next week. established himself as an arrogant, rude
Eventually he made several and untrustworthyAmerican. He learned
appointments, but in each case he was too late the three secrets to successful
frustrated by hour-or-more waits, business in Saudi Arabia: patience,
interrupted meetings endless cups of relationship building, and respect for
coffee, and instructions to "come back the Arab and his ways.

Source: INPRINT - CUP, 1.993.

Nº 4: Answers this questions. (En castellano o inglés)

1) Where did the American businessman go?


2) How much were his expenses projected to be?
3) Could he contact the people inmediately?

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4) What did he discover by Wednesday?
5) What was he frustrated by?
6) What did the old army buddy introduce him to?
7) What did he discover?
8) How had he repeteadly insulted his contacts?
9) How much had his trip cost by that time?
10)How had he established himself?
11)What are the three secrets to successful business in Saudi Arabia?

Nº 5: ¿Cuál es el significado de los siguientes conectores en el


texto?

Línea 1: When =
Línea 9: To his surprise =
Línea 11: By =
Línea 17: Eventually =
Línea 23: After: =
Línea 34: By now =

Texto Nº 2

Actividad Nº 6: el siguiente texto de la revista "International Management"


también da ejemplos de problemas en negocios internacionales. Léalo
detenidamente para encontrar la siguiente información:

1) ¿Qué problema tuvo el empresario americano en Arabia Saudita?

No conocía las reglas.

2) ¿Cuál fue el resultado del problema?

Gastó demasiado y no realizó ningún negocio.

3) Explique cuál fue la causa del problema con el gerente americano y


su personal japonés y cuál fue el resultado.

278
4) ¿Porqué pidió el gerente japonés ser transferido?

5) ¿En qué se especializan algunas firmas consultoras?

6) Cuál es el significado de:

"Never show the sole of your shoe to an Arab"

"Never arrive on time for a party in Brazil"

"Don't think "yes" means "yes" Japan"

7) ¿Qué han producido Copland y Grigs?

8) ¿Cómo pueden ser las penalidades por ignorar diferentes formas de


pensar?

279
THE PRACTICE OF MANAGEMENT

BUILDING BRIDGES
OVER THE
CULTURAL RIVERS
A growing number of multinationals are
training their staff to work in other,
particularly oriental, cultures, hoping to
avoid the waste from no-communication

An Asian engineer is assigned to a U.S laboratory and almost suffers a nervous


breakdown. A U.S executive tells his staff he's going to treat them fairly -and
creates dissension. A Japanese manager is promoted by his British president,
but within six months asks for a transfer.

Each of this real-life cases involved people who were regarded as superior
employees, but were ill-equipped to cope with the complexities and dangers
of intercultural management.

"Multinational companies have studied everything else; now they're finally


looking at culture", says Clifford Clarke, founder and president of the California-
based IRI International Inc., one of a small but growing number of consulting
firms that specialise in teaching business people from differing cultures how
to communicate and work with each other.

"Never show the sole of your shoe to an Arab; never arrive on time for a party
in Brazil; and in Japan, don't think 'yes' means 'yes' " , advise U.S consultants
Lennie Copland and Lewis Brown Griggs, who have produced a series of films
and a book to help managers improve their international business skills.

But simply learning the social "dos" and "don'ts" is not the answer, according
to the new culture specialists. The penalties for ignoring different thinking
patterns, they point out, can be disastrous.

For example, the American manager who promised to be fair thought he was
telling his Japanese staff that their hard work would be rewarded; but when
some workers received higher salary increases than others, there were
complaints. "You told us you'd be fair, and you lied to us", accused one
salesman. "It took me a year and a half", sighed the American, "to realise that
'fair', to my staff, meant being treated equally".

The Asian engineer who suffered in America was the victim of another
mistaken expectation. "He was accustomed to the warm group environment so

280
typical in Japan", said his U.S manager. "But in our company, we're all expected
to be self-starters who thrive on working alone. For him, it was emotional
starvation. He's made the adjustment now, but he'd be humiliated if I told you
his name. That's another cultural difference".

The Japanese manager who failed to respond to his promotion couldn't bring
himself to use the more direct language needed to communicate with his
London-based superiors. "I used to think all this talk about cultural
communication was a lot of baloney", says Eugene J. Flath, president of Intel
Japan Ltd., a subsidiary of the American semiconductor maker.. "Now, I can
see it's a real problem". Miscommunication has slowed our ability to coordinate
action with our home office".

That's why Intel, with the help of consultant Clarke, began an intercultural
training programme this spring which Flath expects will dramatically reduce
decision-making time now lost in making sure the Americans and the Japanese
understand each other.
Copyright International
Source: Inprint Cambridge University Press, 1.993

281
Actividad Nº 10

Read the text below and give the meaning of these words:

However:
Actually:
Though:
When:
While:
According to:
Overall growth:
Gains:
Work force:

THE MIDDLE CLASS DIVIDE

(By Kevin Carrell Footer) BA Herald magazine . May, 2001

....The aura of gloom today in Argentina is in many ways a direct result


of three long years of recession – and more recent political turmoil,. However,
there are actually fewer people below the poverty line today than in 1989
– though poverty has increased slightly since 19998 when the current
recession began.

But while fewer are imporverished, the distribution of income is less


equal today than in 1990-. According to a World Bank report on poverty in
Argentina, “The deterioration of income distribution reflects the fact that
while overall growth has been positive, an average per capita income has
risen, the gains have gone largely to the more skilled and educated in the
work force.”...

282
Cuestionario de Opinión

Estimado alumno:

Mediante este cuestionario solicitamos su colabora-


ción para evaluar este material.

Sus opiniones serán valiosas porque contribuirán de


este modo a la evaluación del sistema “A Distancia” del cual Ud. está
participando.

Muchas Gracias

CONSIGNA: marque la opción que corresponda

1. Utilizó la guía para el estudio de la materia

Sí No

Si Ud. ha respondido “sí” en la opción anterior, califique de 0 a 10 puntos


cada uno de los aspectos planteados a continuación referidos a la guía.

2. La introducción y las orientaciones generales

3. Los contenidos de la guía

4. Las actividades de aprendizaje

5. Las grabaciones

Realice las sugerencias que crea convenientes para mejorar la com-


prensión de las guías de aprendizaje.

283
284
FICHA DE EVAL
EVAL
ALUUACIÓN
MÓDULO ÚNICO

Sr. alumno/a:

El Instituto de Educación Abierta y a Distancia, en su constante preocupación por mejorar la


calidad de su nivel académico y sistema administrativo, solicita su importante colaboración para
responder a esta ficha de evaluación. Una vez realizada entréguela a su Tutoría en el menor
tiempo posible.

1) Marque con una cruz

MÓDULO En gran medida Medianamente Escasamente

1. Los contenidos de los módulos fueron


verdadera guía de aprendizaje (punto 5
del módulo).

2. Los contenidos proporcionados me ayu-


daron a resolver las actividades.

3. Los textos (anexos) seleccionados me


permitieron conocer más sobre cada
tema.

4. La metodología de Estudio (punto 4 del


módulo) me orientó en el aprendizaje.

5. Las indicaciones para realizar activida-


des me resultaron claras.

6. Las actividades propuestas fueron acce-


sibles.

7. Las actividades me permitieron una re-


flexión atenta sobre el contenido

8. El lenguaje empleado en cada módulo fue


accesible.

CONSULTAS A TUTORIAS SI NO

1. Fueron importantes y ayudaron resolver mis dudas y actividades.

2) Para que la próxima salga mejor... (Agregue sugerencias sobre la línea de puntos)

1.- Para mejorar este módulo se podría ................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................................................................................

3) Evaluación sintética del Módulo.

.......................................................................................................................................................................................................
Evaluación: MB - B - R - I -

4) Otras sugerencias.............................................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................................................................................

285