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Newton Shell Theorem

Newton Shell Theorem

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Christoph Schmida兲

Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Institute for Theoretical Physics, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland

共Received 23 February 2010; accepted 3 January 2011兲

Newton’s “superb theorem” for the gravitational 1 / r2 force states that a spherically symmetric mass

distribution attracts a body outside as if the entire mass were concentrated at the center. This

theorem is crucial for Newton’s comparison of the Moon’s orbit with terrestrial gravity, which is

evidence for the 1 / r2 law. In this paper, we give an elementary geometric proof, which is simpler

than Newton’s geometric proof and more elementary than proofs using calculus. © 2011 American

Association of Physics Teachers.

关DOI: 10.1119/1.3552142兴

Our geometric proof has four elementary steps and is also

Newton’s “superb theorem” for the gravitational 1 / r2 simpler than the proofs using calculus in textbooks 共see, for

force states that a spherically symmetric mass distribution example, Refs. 16 and 17兲. Our proof is suitable for intro-

attracts a body outside as if the entire mass were concen- ductory physics courses without calculus and is accessible to

trated at the center. The name superb theorem was used by good high school students. In typical graduate textbooks on

Chandrasekhar in Newton’s Principia for the Common classical mechanics, the superb theorem is not mentioned.18

Reader1 and by Glaisher.2 See also Cohen and Whitman.3 In Sec. II we give Newton’s elementary geometric proof

The superb theorem is of crucial importance for Newton’s for a test mass inside a spherical mass-shell. The geometry of

comparison of terrestrial gravity 共the fall of the apple兲 with this proof is closely related to the geometry of our new proof

the orbit of the Moon. Newton wrote that4,5 “The same year in Sec. IV for Newton’s superb theorem, that is, for a test

关1666兴 I began to think of gravity extending to the orb of the mass outside a spherical mass-shell. In Sec. III we discuss

Moon … From Kepler’s Rule of the periodical times of the the role of infinitesimals in the method of Newton’s geomet-

Planets … I deduced that the forces which keep the Planets ric proofs, a method that is a reformulation of “the manner of

in their Orbs must 关be兴 reciprocally as the squares of their ancient geometers,” in particular of Archimedes. In

distances from the centers …: and thereby compared the Sec. IV A we convert the problem of the superb theorem to

force requisite to keep the Moon in her Orb with the force of an equivalent problem with the geometry of one point inside

gravity at the surface of the earth, and found them to answer a spherical shell: calculating the spherical average of the

pretty nearly.” The superb theorem is also crucial for an ex- radial accelerations at all observation points at a distance r

act solution of the Kepler problem: Finding the orbit of a from the center due to only one source point. In Sec. IV B

planet under the attraction of the sun 共neglecting the attrac- we give the elementary geometric solution of this equivalent

tions between planets兲 for two spherically symmetric bodies problem and hence the proof of Newton’s superb theorem.

with a 1 / r2 force between mass elements. The geometry of the solution of the equivalent problem is

When Newton first made the comparison of the Moon’s simpler than the geometry of Newton’s derivation. The solu-

orbit with the fall of the apple, he had no knowledge of the tion of the equivalent problem is a geometric derivation of

superb theorem. He assumed that considering the mass of the Gauss’s law in integral form for a closed spherical surface

Earth to be concentrated at the center to obtain the magni- without using vector calculus. In Sec. V we give two more

tude of the gravitational field on the surface of the Earth was propositions of Newton based on the superb theorem, com-

nothing more than an approximation: “It might be … accu- ment on Littlewood’s proof of the superb theorem, and note

rate enough at greater distances … wide off the truth near the that the solution of the equivalent problem, Gauss’s law in

surface of the planet …, where the distances of the particles integral form for Newtonian gravity, is the same as the R00

are unequal ….”6 Newton suspected the superb theorem to Ricci-tensor equation in integral form of Einstein’s gravity

be false until 1685, as he wrote in his letter to Halley of 共general relativity兲 for sources that are nonrelativistic relative

20 June 1686.7 to the observer.

Newton proved the superb theorem in 1685, one year be-

fore finishing the Principia, in which the theorem was pub-

lished as Proposition 71 of Book I in 1687. We know from

Newton’s own words that “he had no expectation of so beau- II. NEWTON’S GEOMETRIC PROOF FOR A TEST

tiful a result till it emerged from his mathematical MASS WITHIN A SPHERICAL MASS-SHELL

investigation.”8 In Chandrasekhar’s words: “The superb

theorem is most emphatically against common sense … un- For a test mass inside a homogeneous spherical shell of

less one had known its truth already.”9 matter, Newton’s Proposition 70 of Book I states: “If to ev-

Chandrasekhar translated Newton’s geometrical proof into ery point of a spherical surface there tend equal centripetal

modern notation.10 See also Refs. 11 and 12. Chandrasekhar forces decreasing as the square of the distances from those

reported the comment by Littlewood that Newton’s geo- points, I say, that a corpuscule placed within that surface will

metrical construction for the proof “must have left its readers not be attracted by those forces any way.”19

in helpless wonder.”13,14 Whiteside characterized Newton’s For the analogous case of the 1 / r2 law of electrostatics,

proof as “opaque and overlong.”15 Newton’s proposition 70 was tested by the null experiment

In this paper, we give a geometric proof of the superb of Henry Cavendish in 1773.20

536 Am. J. Phys. 79 共5兲, May 2011 http://aapt.org/ajp © 2011 American Association of Physics Teachers 536

θ arcs in his plane figure and in his proof. In his notation, he

uses the end points of the small arcs. But Newton empha-

homogeneous spherical Q

sizes that his evanescent arcs can be replaced by straight

shell of matter dS lines: Newton’s evanescent arcs are infinitesimal.

dΩ Throughout the Principia, Newton uses ultimate ratios,

with which he is “solidly in a contemporary tradition of Fer-

mat, Blaise Pascal, Huygens, James Gregory, and Isaac

r = rOQ Barrow.”23 In this scholium, Newton wrote that “I have pre-

observation

point P LP Q

sented these lemmas … to avoid the tedium of … lengthy

proofs by ‘reductio ad absurdum’ in the manner of the an-

Q cient geometers.”24

O

Euclid and Archimedes presented early forms of infinitesi-

θ mal thinking in the “method of exhaustion” 共of Eudoxus兲

dS

combined with “reductio ad absurdum.”25–27 An example is

the proof by Archimedes that the area inside a circle is equal

to the product of the radius times half of the circumference:

In the method of exhaustion one can cut the circular disk

radially into an increasing number N of identical slices, one

compares the thin slices with inscribed 共respectively, circum-

Fig. 1. Newton’s proof for a test mass inside a homogeneous spherical shell scribed兲 triangles; that is, one compares the circular disk

of matter 共Proposition 70兲. O is the center of a homogeneous spherical shell with an inscribed 共respectively, circumscribed兲 N-sided poly-

of matter, P is the position of a test particle, d⍀ is the solid angle of an gon. N can be chosen arbitrarily large. In a simplification by

infinitesimally thin cone with P as the apex, dS, dS⬘ are intersection areas Leonardo da Vinci, one considers N even and reassembles

共around Q and Q⬘兲 of the two sides of the cone with the spherical shell of

the triangles in an alternating sequence to obtain a parallelo-

matter, and equals the two equal angles between PQ and PQ⬘ to the

normals on the matter shell, OQ and OQ⬘. gram. If somebody claimed that the area of the circular disk

is some given number which is smaller than the radius times

half the circumference, one “reduces this to absurdum”

共proof by contradiction兲 by choosing N so large that the total

Newton’s elementary geometric proof of Proposition 70 area of the inscribed triangles is larger than the claimed

共Ref. 19兲 is shown in Fig. 1: With the test body at the obser- result. One then repeats the argument with circumscribed

vation point P as the apex, construct any cone of infinitesi- triangles.

mally small solid angle d⍀ that intersects the spherical Newton’s geometric proofs in the Principia use evanescent

source-shell in both directions by the source-surface areas dS quantities 共that is, infinitesimals兲. But these proofs do not use

and dS⬘ around the source points Q and Q⬘. The attractions the machinery of calculus developed by Newton and Leibniz.

per unit test mass at P by these two areas, dS and dS⬘, are

equal and opposite because 共1兲 the gravitational force de-

IV. THE ELEMENTARY GEOMETRIC PROOF

creases as the square of the distance, while the surface areas

of the source, cut out by the cone of given solid angle d⍀, OF THE SUPERB THEOREM

increase as the square of the distance; and 共2兲 the angles In Sec. IV A we convert the problem of the superb theo-

between the infinitesimally thin cone 共in both directions兲 and rem 共Proposition 71, a test mass outside a homogeneous

the normals to the source sphere at both intersection points spherical shell兲 to an equivalent problem using spherical

共radial lines OQ and OQ⬘兲 are equal. Because the entire solid symmetry. In Sec. IV B we give the elementary geometric

angle around the point P can be divided into such double solution of the equivalent problem using a method similar to

cones, the resultant attraction is zero. Q.E.D. the method used by Newton for Proposition 70 共our Sec. II兲.

PROOFS problem

The superb theorem considers a spherical shell of matter

Newton’s geometric proof of Proposition 70 共our Sec. II兲 as the source of gravity and gives the 共radial兲 acceleration of

uses his “evanescent quantities,” that is, vanishing quantities a test particle at the observation point P outside the source-

共infinitesimals兲, and in particular his “method of ultimate ra- shell 共observation point at a distance r from the center兲, see

tios” 共title of Sec. I of Book I兲:21 In the Scholium at the end Fig. 2共a兲. Instead, we analyze the equivalent problem of one

of this section, Newton explains “… the ultimate ratio of source particle located at Q, as shown in Fig. 2共b兲, and find

evanescent quantities is to be understood not as the ratio of the radial components of the accelerations averaged over a

quantities before they vanish …, but the ratio with which spherical observation surface outside the source particle

they vanish.” Newton emphasizes that “ultimate ratios with

共observation surface at a distance r from the center兲, as

which quantities vanish are not ratios of ultimate quantities,

shown in Fig. 2共b兲. The steps needed for calculating this

but limits with which the ratios of quantities decreasing with-

spherical average are explained before Eqs. 共3兲 and 共4兲.

out limit are continually approaching, and which they can

The proof of the equivalence of the two problems is given

approach so closely that their difference is less than any

in two steps:

given quantity.”22 In the case of the proof of Proposition 70,

it is the ultimate ratio of the magnitudes of the attraction by 共1兲 We consider the average over the spherical observation

the evanescent 共that is, infinitesimal兲 source areas. Newton surface of the radial component of the acceleration,

does not write 共dS , dS⬘兲, instead he discusses the analogous gradial = g · r / r, measured outside the spherical mass-shell

537 Am. J. Phys., Vol. 79, No. 5, May 2011 Christoph Schmid 537

spherical source shell spherical surface of observation points θ

dS

dΩ

r = rOP

r r Q LQP

Q point

source O

(a) (b) surface

Fig. 2. The two equivalent problems. 共a兲 Spherical source-shell 共solid inner

circle兲 and test point mass at observation point P outside the source-shell.

共b兲 Spherical observation surface 共solid outer circle兲 and one source point

mass at Q inside the observation surface: Our proof for the geometry with

one point inside a spherical surface, 共b兲, is simpler than Newton’s proof for Fig. 3. Elementary proof of Newton’s superb theorem 共Proposition 71兲. Q is

the geometry with one point outside a spherical surface, 共a兲. the source point, P is the observation point, O is the center of the observa-

tion surface, is the angle between QP and the normal OP on the observa-

tion surface, d⍀ is the solid angle of the narrow cone with Q as the vertex,

and dS is the surface area of the intersection of the cone with the observation

at the distance r from the center. This average is obtained surface.

by multiplying gradial by the area element dS on the ob-

servation surface, summing the contributions, and then

dividing by the total surface area. The average is equal to

the radial acceleration at any one of the observation gradial共P兲 = − 共Gm/LQP

2

兲cos . 共1兲

points, such as the point P, because of the spherical

symmetry of the source in the first problem, as shown Around this ray from Q to P, we consider a cone starting at

in Fig. 2共a兲. This first step appears trivial, but it is nec- the apex Q and of infinitesimally small solid angle d⍀,

essary to make the second step possible. which will intersect the spherical observation surface by the

共2兲 The spherical average on the observation sphere of the surface area dS given by

radial component of the acceleration yields the same dS = 共LQP

2

兲d⍀/cos . 共2兲

contribution from each single source element of equal

mass in the spherical source-shell, such as Q, because of The first step in calculating the average of the radial accel-

the spherical symmetry of the observation surface 关see erations over the observation sphere is to form the product of

Fig. 2共b兲兴. Hence, it is sufficient to consider the contri- the radial acceleration given by Eq. 共1兲, with the weight 共for

bution of only one source mass-element at the point Q, averaging兲, which is the surface area element dS 共intersected

that is, the equivalent problem of Fig. 2共b兲, and later sum by the cone兲 given by Eq. 共2兲,

over the equal contributions of all other source elements

gradialdS = − Gmd⍀. 共3兲

of equal mass.

Note the two cancellations in 共gradialdS兲, which are the basis

The crucial point is that the geometry is simpler for the so- for the simplicity of our proof:

lution of our equivalent problem, Fig. 2共b兲 共one point inside

a shell兲, than the complicated geometry needed by Newton to 共1兲 The inverse square of the distance in the force law,

solve the original problem, Fig. 2共a兲 共one point outside a 1 / LQP

2 2

, cancels LQP in the surface area dS for a cone with

shell兲. solid angle d⍀.

These steps complete the proof of the equivalence of the 共2兲 The ratio cos of the radial to the total acceleration

two problems. The equivalent problem and its solution in cancels 1 / cos in the surface area dS for a cone with

Sec. IV B is Gauss’s law in integral form for a spherical solid angle d⍀.

surface.

The second step in calculating the spherical average is to

sum 共gradialdS兲 in Eq. 共3兲 over all surface area elements dS,

B. Geometric solution of the equivalent problem

that is, over the entire observation surface. The sum over d⍀

The equivalent problem of Fig. 2共b兲 can be solved with the is 4. The third step in taking the spherical average of gradial

elementary geometric method shown in Fig. 3; the method is is to divide by the total weight for averaging, which is the

analogous to Newtons’s method to prove Proposition 70 total area of the spherical observation surface, 4r2. We thus

共given in Sec. II兲. We use the source point Q as the apex and obtain

consider an arbitrary ray which starts at Q, goes in one di-

具gradial典spherical average

= − Gm/r2 . 共4兲

rection, and hits the spherical surface at the observation point

P. At P, the magnitude of the gravitational acceleration g is This result for the spherical average of the radial accelera-

g P = Gm / LQP

2

, where m is the small 共infinitesimal兲 source tions is the same as if the single point mass m were placed at

mass at Q, and G is Newton’s constant. The angle is the the origin.

angle between the ray QP and the radial direction OP. The The conversion back to the original problem, Newton’s

radial component of the gravitational acceleration at P is superb theorem, now follows. For a spherically symmetric

538 Am. J. Phys., Vol. 79, No. 5, May 2011 Christoph Schmid 538

a兲

source-shell, the acceleration is radial, and because it is the Electronic mail: chschmid@itp.phys.ethz.ch

1

same all over the observation sphere, there is no need to take S. Chandrasekhar, Newton’s Principia for the Common Reader 共Claren-

the average over the spherical observation shell. Therefore, don, Oxford, 1995兲, Secs. 1 and 15.

2

J. W. L. Glaisher, address on the occasion of the bicentenary of the

gជ = −共rជ / r兲GM tot / r2 at every observation point outside the

publication of the Principia, quoted in Ref. 1, pp. 11–12.

source-shell. This result completes our geometric proof of 3

I. Newton, The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philoso-

Newton’s superb theorem. phy. A New Translation, by I. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman, Pre-

Equation 共4兲, which is equivalent to Newton’s superb ceded by a Guide to Newton’s Principia by I. Bernard Cohen 共U. of

theorem, is Gauss’s law in integral form28,29 for a spherical California Press, Berkeley, 1999兲, Book I, Sec. 12, p. 590.

4

surface. Gauss’s law for the flux integral over a closed sur- Reference 1, pp. 1–3.

face S enclosing the volume V, 养Sg · dS = −4GM V, a concept 5

D. T. Whiteside, “Before the Principia: The maturing of Newton’s

from vector calculus, is not taught in undergraduate or high thoughts on dynamical astronomy, 1664–1684,” J. Hist. Astron. 1, 5–19

school courses on Newtonian mechanics. The superb 共1970兲.

6

theorem follows simply from Eq. 共4兲, Gauss’s law in integral Reference 1, p. 12, and Newton’s text after Proposition 8 of Book III.

7

W. W. Rouse Ball, An Essay on Newton’s Principia 共Macmillan, London,

form for a closed spherical surface.

1893兲, pp. 156–159, and Ref. 1, p. 12.

In taking the average of gradial over the observation sphere, 8

Reference 1, p. 12.

we had to sum over all infinitesimal surface area elements 9

Reference 1, p. 6.

dS. This sum is called an “ultimate sum” in the Principia,30 10

Reference 1, pp. 270–273.

which corresponds to an integration in today’s language. In 11

R. Weinstock, “Newton’s Principia and the external gravitational field of

the integration over d⍀, the integrand is a constant, as given a spherically symmetric mass distribution,” Am. J. Phys. 52 共10兲, 883–

in Eq. 共3兲. Therefore, the integration is reduced to calculating 890 共1984兲.

12

the surface of the sphere. J. T. Cushing, “Kepler’s laws and universal gravitation in Newton’s Prin-

cipia,” Am. J. Phys. 50 共7兲, 617–628 共1982兲; see pp. 625–626, and foot-

note 62.

V. COMMENTS 13

Reference 1, pp. 272 and 273.

14

We have given a simple geometric proof of the superb J. E. Littlewood, A Mathematician’s Miscellany 共Methuen, London,

theorem along the lines of Newton’s simple geometric proof 1953兲, p. 97.

15

of Proposition 70. The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton, Vol. 6 (1684–1691), edited by

D. T. Whiteside 共Cambridge U. P., Cambridge, 1974兲, p. 183.

For a source with spherical symmetry and a radius- 16

R. P. Feynman, R. B. Leighton, and M. Sands, The Feynman Lectures on

dependent density, we add up the accelerations outside the Physics 共Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1963兲, Vol. I, Sec. 13-4.

source caused by all shells, and conclude that the result is the 17

J. B. Marion, Classical Dynamics of Particles and Systems, 3rd ed. 共Har-

same as if all the mass was placed at the origin: Newton’s court Brace Jovanovitch, San Diego, 1988兲, pp. 161–163.

Proposition 74. 18

H. Goldstein, C. Poole, and J. Safko, Classical Mechanics, 3rd ed.

For two dissimilar spheres with different spherical radius- 共Addison-Wesley, San Francisco, 2009兲; L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz,

dependent density distributions we add up the contributions Mechanics, 3rd ed. 共Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2004兲; T. W. B. Kibble and F.

of matter shells and conclude that 共in Newton’s words at the H. Berkshire, Classical Mechanics, 5th ed. 共Imperial College Press, Lon-

end of Proposition 76兲 “the whole force with which one of don, 2005兲; A. L. Fetter and J. D. Walecka, Theoretical Mechanics of

these spheres attracts the other will be inversely proportional Particles and Continua, 2nd ed. 共Dover, New York, 2003兲; V. I. Arnold,

to the square of the distance of the centers,” which Newton Mathematical Methods of Classical Mechanics, 2nd ed. 共Springer, New

York, 1989兲.

found “very remarkable.” 19

Reference 1, pp. 269–270.

According to Chandrasekhar,31 “J. E. Littlewood has con- 20

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 3rd ed. 共Wiley, New York,

jectured 共though I do not share in the conjecture …兲 that 1999兲, Sec. I.2.

Newton had perhaps first constructed a proof based on 21

Reference 3, Lemma 1, p. 433, and Scholium on pp. 440–443.

calculus which ‘we can infer with some possibility what the 22

Reference 3, p. 442.

proof was’.” Chandrasekhar gives Littlewood’s conjectured 23

Reference 3, p. 129.

24

proof, which consists of 14 equations. Our geometric proof Reference 3, p. 441.

25

with four steps is simpler than Littlewood’s proof using V. J. Katz, A History of Mathematics 共Pearson, Boston, 2009兲, Secs. 3.8,

calculus. 4.2, and 4.3.

26

R. Thiele, “Antiquity,” in A History of Analysis, edited by H. N. Jahnke

Equation 共4兲 for Newtonian gravity is the same as the R00

共American Mathematics Society, Providence, RI, 2003兲, Secs. 1.3 and

Ricci-tensor equation in integrated form for Einstein gravity 1.4.

共general relativity兲 for sources with v Ⰶ c relative to the ob- 27

H. Wussing, 6000 Jahre Mathematik 共Springer, Berlin, 2008兲, p. 432.

server. This Einstein equation determines the spherical aver- 28

Reference 20, Sec. 1.3.

age of the radial geodesic deviation 共that is, of the radial 29

Reference 16, Sec. 4–5.

accelerations of free-falling test particles relative to a free- 30

Reference 3, Corollary 1 and Lemmas 2–4, pp. 433–435.

31

falling observer兲. Reference 1, pp. 270–271.

539 Am. J. Phys., Vol. 79, No. 5, May 2011 Christoph Schmid 539

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