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A Layman's Commentary on

The Book of Exodus


Author: T.O.D. Johnston
Publisher: Owen Johnston

1st Edition 2018

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Table of Contents

Lesson I - Exodus chapter 1 - 7


Lesson II - Exodus chapter 2 - 12
Lesson III - Exodus chapter 3 - 19
Lesson IV - Exodus chapter 4 - 25
Lesson V - Exodus chapter 5 - 32
Lesson VI - Exodus chapter 6 - 37
Lesson VII - Exodus chapter 7 - 44
Lesson VIII - Exodus chapter 8 - 51
Lesson IX - Exodus chapter 9 - 59
Lesson X - Exodus chapter 10 - 68
Lesson XI - Exodus 11:1-12:20 - 76
Lesson XII - Exodus 12:21-51 - 85
Lesson XIII - Exodus chapter 13 - 94
Lesson XIV - Exodus chapter 14 - 99
Lesson XV - Exodus chapter 15 - 108
Lesson XVI - Exodus chapter 16 - 116
Lesson XVII - Exodus chapter 17 - 125
Lesson XVIII - Exodus chapter 18 - 131
Lesson XIX - Exodus chapter 19 - 137
Lesson XX - Exodus chapter 20 - 143
Lesson XXI - Exodus chapter 21 - 150
Lesson XXII - Exodus chapter 22 - 157
Lesson XXIII - Exodus chapter 23 - 164
Lesson XXIV - Exodus chapter 24 - 172
Lesson XXV - Exodus chapter 25 - 176
Lesson XXVI - Exodus chapter 26 - 185
Lesson XXVII - Exodus chapter 27 - 192
Lesson XXVIII - Exodus chapter 28 - 198
Lesson XXIX - Exodus chapter 29 - 207
Lesson XXX - Exodus chapter 30 - 218
Lesson XXXI - Exodus chapter 31 - 226
Lesson XXXII - Exodus chapter 32 - 231
Lesson XXXIII - Exodus chapter 33 - 241
Lesson XXXIV - Exodus chapter 34 - 247
Lesson XXXV - Exodus chapter 35 - 257
Lesson XXXVI - Exodus chapter 36 - 263
Lesson XXXVII - Exodus chapter 37 - 268
Lesson XXXVIII - Exodus chapter 38 - 270
Lesson XXXIX - Exodus chapter 39 - 275
Lesson XL - Exodus chapter 40 - 280

Bibliography - 286

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A Layman's Commentary on Exodus – T.O.D. Johnston - www.biblestudylessonspdf.info

A Layman's Commentary on The Book of Exodus

1st Edition - 2018

Written by T.O.D. Johnston


Published by Owen Johnston
www.biblestudylessonspdf.info

Dedicated for knowledge, understanding, and inspiration as we seek to follow Our


Lord & Savior Jesus Christ.

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Preface

After reading many scholarly commentaries on different books of


Scripture, it became my mental habit to sift through the minute
discussions of individual words and/or phrases, and the quoting of
various scholars of the past of many differing opinions, and center
on the most logical and inspirational truths that remained. Thus I
relied on the studied scholarship of those who had learned the
original languages and had read all the previous scholars that had
written to get the best possible understanding of Scripture that I,
as a non-scholar, could. It seemed that most church members would not
attempt to read scholarly works - but would benefit from their
knowledge if presented in a plain and straightforward manner, the
truths they had perceived. The following commentary is my attempt to
do this. May God bless my efforts to the extent that they increase
the understanding and faith of the reader.
T.O.D. Johnston
2005

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Lesson I

Introduction.

Exodus means “the going forth”. There are 2 distinct parts: 1st
(chapters 1-19) details the circumstances of up to and includes the
deliverance of Israel from Egypt. 2nd (chapters 20-40) includes the
giving of the Law, and the other institutions that completely
organized the people as a holy nation under God Almighty.
The narrative connects with that of Genesis. A considerable
amount of time has gone by. The situation of the people of Israel is
dramatically different.
There are many smaller sections or sub-divisions. Moses is
accepted as author. He also is the central figure and eyewitness to
everything recorded in the narrative. This includes descriptions of
himself in unique detail. This also included the miracles sent by
God, supernaturally.
The narrative also includes details of Egypt: their religion,
and practices which Moses was raised with. This was also seen in the
making of the Tabernacle: supplies used and skills needed in its
construction would have been learned also in Egypt.
The Chronology of Exodus. Exodus 12:40 gives 430 years for the
time of the Israelites in Egypt. The approximate date of the
beginning of the Exodus was 1490 B.C.

Exodus chapter 1.

Verses 1-11.

1 Now these are the names of the children of Israel, which came
into Egypt; every man and his household came with Jacob.
2 Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah,
3 Is'sachar, Zeb'ulun, and Benjamin,
4 Dan, and Naph'tali, Gad, and Asher.
5 And all the souls that came out of the loins of Jacob were
seventy souls: for Joseph was in Egypt already.
6 And Joseph died, and all his brethren, and all that generation.
7 And the children of Israel were fruitful, and increased
abundantly, and multiplied, and waxed exceeding mighty; and the land
was filled with them.
8 ¶ Now there arose up a new king over Egypt, which knew not
Joseph.
9 And he said unto his people, Behold, the people of the children
of Israel are more and mightier than we:
10 come on, let us deal wisely with them; lest they multiply, and
it come to pass, that, when there falleth out any war, they join also
unto our enemies, and fight against us, and so get them up out of the
land.
11 Therefore they did set over them taskmasters to afflict them
with their burdens. And they built for Pharaoh treasure cities,
Pithom and Raam'ses.

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Commentary.

Verses 1-7. “Now” literally “And”, indicates a continued connect


with the narrative of Genesis. The fulfillment of God’s promises of
Genesis 46:3.
The descriptions of the number of people of Israel includes all
the families of the sons and grandsons of Jacob. This number was
considerable and continued to increase abundantly. This was an
important fact leading to the Exodus.
70 souls when Jacob settled in Egypt. But over the time til the
new Pharaoh, the Israelites’ population increased more than anywhere
else. There had not been any noted problems or stress between them
and the Egyptians.

Verse 8. The new king had no knowledge of Joseph. This makes the
time since Joseph’s death several generations. It also implies that
the new king did not follow the traditions of his predecessors.
The majority of Egyptian scholars consider this king was head of
the 184th Dynasty: named Amosis I.

Verse 9. The king called together the important people of Egypt


(princes, nobles, ministers of the state) to stir them up with
inflammatory exaggeration of the number and power of these foreigners
– more to the point of their rebelling and wishing to take over all
Egypt. Something must be done to prevent such a danger.

Verse 10. He says, “Come on,” get with it, no delay. They must
deal wisely with them, to weaken and diminish their numbers and their
power.
The other great fear; if another nation rises up against Egypt,
the Israelites might join them against us, and then get up and leave
Egypt. The Egyptians didn’t want that to happen – they wanted to keep
the benefits that these industrious and fruitful people provided.

Verse 11. The solution: taskmasters to burden them as an


affliction. This would be similar to tax collectors: they would place
a burden on them to diminish their wealth and oblige them to hard
working to satisfy them.
The increase provided the Pharaoh enough to build two “treasure
cities”. This could have included ornaments, fortifications, as well
as to store the Pharaoh’s treasures, granaries, and storehouses for
corn.

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Verses 12-22.

12 But the more they afflicted them, the more they multiplied and
grew. And they were grieved because of the children of Israel.
13 And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with
rigor:
14 and they made their lives bitter with hard bondage, in mortar,
and in brick, and in all manner of service in the field: all their
service, wherein they made them serve, was with rigor.
15 ¶ And the king of Egypt spake to the Hebrew midwives, of which
the name of the one was Shiphrah, and the name of the other Pu'ah;
16 and he said, When ye do the office of a midwife to the Hebrew
women, and see them upon the stools, if it be a son, then ye shall
kill him; but if it be a daughter, then she shall live.
17 But the midwives feared God, and did not as the king of Egypt
commanded them, but saved the men children alive.
18 And the king of Egypt called for the midwives, and said unto
them, Why have ye done this thing, and have saved the men children
alive?
19 And the midwives said unto Pharaoh, Because the Hebrew women are
not as the Egyptian women; for they are lively, and are delivered ere
the midwives come in unto them.
20 Therefore God dealt well with the midwives: and the people
multiplied, and waxed very mighty.
21 And it came to pass, because the midwives feared God, that he
made them houses.
22 And Pharaoh charged all his people, saying, Every son that is
born ye shall cast into the river, and every daughter ye shall save
alive.

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Commentary.

Verse 12. The harder labor caused the Israelites to become more
numerous, not less. They spread still more in the land. The point was
to work the men to weaken their ability and make them unfit to
procreate. They had become stronger and procreated more children.

Verse 13. The Egyptians’ new plan was to make them serve under
heavier burdens and add cruelty and fierceness to the way were
treated. This was to break their strength and their spirit.

Verse 14. The Egyptians made sure that they had no ease of body
or peace of mind. Their lives were made bitter to them.
They were made to build treasure cities or Pharaoh. This
included making the brick and mortar as well. They carried all the
supplies to the cities, then built also walls about the cities. They
were sent to a variety of locations, always from home and family for
long periods. They were kept working as much as humanly possible.
Their taskmasters were cruel, punished any slackers that didn’t or
couldn’t keep up the proper pace. Any weak or unable (worn out or
injured) were tossed aside as now worthless.

Verse 15. The king of Egypt had another bright idea. This
involved midwives. He called for the two most prominent midwives of
the Hebrew women. They would then be responsible to instruct the rest
concerning the king’s orders.

Verse 16. The order was, that when they perform the office of
midwife for the Hebrew women who about to give birth. They would set
up the special “birthing stool” the women about to give birth sat
upon to aid in the birth. The midwives sat on the floor in front to
he stool and aided in the birth. She would also be the first one to
see the baby and whether it was male or female. If it was male, she
was to give the male child a private, deadly pinch while in their
hands, making it appear that its death was because of a difficult
birth. It would appear as a “natural” not a planned occurrence. Only
male children were threats, who could eventually procreate themselves
and continue the growing population of Israelites. The female
children were to be allowed to live. They would be absorbed into the
general population of Egyptians in time.

Verse 17. The Hebrew midwives feared God rather than a king. The
would not take the life of any human child. They saved them all
alive.

Verse 18. It didn’t take long for it to become obvious that the
king’s order was not followed by the midwives. He called for them and
demanded to know why they had done the opposite of his orders. They
had done everything for the health and welfare for all the children
of the people of Israel.

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Verse 19. The midwives had a ready answer. They said that Hebrew
women were stronger, “more lively” than the Egyptian women. They were
as skilled as the midwives concerning babies and giving birth. They
had their babies before the time it took to send for a midwife, and
for her to arrive.
It is possible that the midwives had revealed the king’s order
to the Hebrews so that they made arrangements so they did not call
the midwives. They got any help they needed from their families or
lose neighbors.

Verse 20. God approved of their behavior and “dealt well with
the midwives”. They might have given God the credit for the Hebrew
women being so strong and “lively”, therefore they had strong and
healthy babies.

Verse 21. God rewarded the midwives for their faith and their
actions: their households were secure and prosperous, their families
“built up”.

Verse 22. The Pharaoh had been completely defeated in his plan
with the midwives. Now he turns to his own people, the Egyptians. A
general command to all people of Egypt: they are to throw into the
Nile all male children of the Hebrews, all daughters “ye shall save
alive”.

Next, the birth of Moses and his preservation as God’s plan.

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Lesson II

Exodus chapter 2.

Verses 1-11.

1 And there went a man of the house of Levi, and took to wife a
daughter of Levi.
2 And the woman conceived, and bare a son: and when she saw him
that he was a goodly child, she hid him three months.
3 And when she could not longer hide him, she took for him an ark
of bulrushes, and daubed it with slime and with pitch, and put the
child therein; and she laid it in the flags by the river's brink.
4 And his sister stood afar off, to wit what would be done to him.
5 And the daughter of Pharaoh came down to wash herself at the
river; and her maidens walked along by the river's side: and when she
saw the ark among the flags, she sent her maid to fetch it.
6 And when she had opened it, she saw the child: and, behold, the
babe wept. And she had compassion on him, and said, This is one of
the Hebrews' children.
7 Then said his sister to Pharaoh's daughter, Shall I go and call
to thee a nurse of the Hebrew women, that she may nurse the child for
thee?
8 And Pharaoh's daughter said to her, Go. And the maid went and
called the child's mother.
9 And Pharaoh's daughter said unto her, Take this child away, and
nurse it for me, and I will give thee thy wages. And the woman took
the child, and nursed it.
10 And the child grew, and she brought him unto Pharaoh's daughter,
and he became her son. And she called his name Moses: and she said,
Because I drew him out of the water.
11 ¶ And it came to pass in those days, when Moses was grown, that
he went out unto his brethren, and looked on their burdens: and he
spied an Egyptian smiting a Hebrew, one of his brethren.

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Commentary.

Verse 1. This was Amram, son of Kohath, grandson of Levi. He


married one Jochebed also of the tribe of Levi as proper, to keep the
tribes distinct from one another.

Verse 2. The woman conceived and had a son. Not her first: she
had Aaron and Miriam before Moses. She looked on him with great
pleasure for he was “exceeding fair and beautiful” as Stephen says it
(in Acts 7:20).
For three months she kept him hidden in her husband’s house to
preserve his life.

Verse 3. When he was 3 months old, she having been observed as


pregnant, there would be inquiries very soon to find out about her
outcome. She could no longer hide him. Also at that age he would be
very active and loud at times. Now, to save the child had had an
idea. She made a little boat of reeds, most likely of papyrus, that
grew on the banks of the Nile. She daubed it with waterproofing
compounds (slime and pitch). She placed the child within and
certainly left him in God’s providential hands. She placed it in the
water near the shore of the Nile, among the reeds, so it wouldn’t be
drawn into the river’s stream, and where someone coming to the river
bank could notice it.

Verse 4. His sister, Miriam, was told to keep an eye on what


would happen, from a discreet distance so she wouldn’t be noticed.
She is thought to be at least 10 years old at the time.

Verse 5. The Pharaoh’s daughter came down to wash herself in the


coal water of the river. She she went down she noticed the little ark
floating among the plants (reeds) growing there. She sent her
servants to fetch it and bring it to her.

Verse 6. The ark was closed and covered. She opened it and found
the child, now crying. She felt compassion on him. She knew of the
edict of her father concerning the Hebrew children. She also observed
the form and beauty of the baby.

Verse 7. Several writers suggest that several maids gathered


about Pharaoh’s daughter to observe the child. This would allow
Miriam a more discreet opportunity to make the following offer. They
also suggest that the baby was known as a Hebrew because of the
differences it had from the typical Egyptian baby. Miriam also
observed the apparent affection that Pharaoh’s daughter had for him.
Therefore she felt it appropriate to make the following offer of aid:
she asked if she wanted her to go find a nurse of the Hebrew women to
nurse the child for her. This would make it possible for her to bring
up the child, herself.

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Verse 8. Pharaoh’s daughter accepted this proposal and told the


girl to go and do what she had offered. The maid went and called the
child’s mother and her mother also (Jochebed).

Verse 9. When she came, Pharaoh’s daughter told her that she
would pay her for taking the baby and nursing it for the appropriate
time. She agreed and took the baby.

Verse 10. The child grew in size and strength under his own
mother’s care, until he was weaned – most likely at 2 to 3 years of
age. When brought to Pharaoh’s daughter, he became officially her
son. Some say she had been married a long time, but had no children
though she desired to. She called his name Moses which in Hebrew
means “drawn from water” or “saved from water”. She was apparently
conversant in Hebrew (as with Moses’ mother).
Verse 11. After many days Moses was grown up. Stephen in Acts
7:23 accounts Moses at the age of 40at this point. During the time of
his growing up he was told about his heritage (certainly by his
mother) and his not being an Egyptian. He began going out, and away
from Pharaoh’s palace, to get to know his brethren, to understand
their lives and circumstances. He observed their heavy burdens, and
how they were about and pressed. He was sad and concerned and wished
to help them - get them some relief, if possible.
On this occasion, he came upon an Egyptian beating a Hebrew “one
of his brethren”. This punishment was meted out for not doing his
proper work adequately, to his standard.

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Verses 12-25.

12 And he looked this way and that way, and when he saw that there
was no man, he slew the Egyptian, and hid him in the sand.
13 And when he went out the second day, behold, two men of the
Hebrews strove together: and he said to him that did the wrong,
Wherefore smitest thou thy fellow?
14 And he said, Who made thee a prince and a judge over us?
intendest thou to kill me, as thou killedst the Egyptian? And Moses
feared, and said, Surely this thing is known.
15 Now when Pharaoh heard this thing, he sought to slay Moses.
¶ But Moses fled from the face of Pharaoh, and dwelt in the land of
Mid'i-an: and he sat down by a well.
16 Now the priest of Mid'i-an had seven daughters: and they came
and drew water, and filled the troughs to water their father's flock.
17 And the shepherds came and drove them away: but Moses stood up
and helped them, and watered their flock.
18 And when they came to Reu'el their father, he said, How is it
that ye are come so soon today?
19 And they said, An Egyptian delivered us out of the hand of the
shepherds, and also drew water enough for us, and watered the flock.
20 And he said unto his daughters, And where is he? why is it that
ye have left the man? call him, that he may eat bread.
21 And Moses was content to dwell with the man: and he gave Moses
Zippo'rah his daughter.
22 And she bare him a son, and he called his name Gershom: for he
said, I have been a stranger in a strange land.
23 ¶ And it came to pass in process of time, that the king of Egypt
died: and the children of Israel sighed by reason of the bondage, and
they cried, and their cry came up unto God by reason of the bondage.
24 And God heard their groaning, and God remembered his covenant
with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob.
25 And God looked upon the children of Israel, and God had respect
unto them.

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Commentary.

Verse 12. At this point, Moses had decided to act. He first


looked all around to see I there were any other people to observe or
even notice what he was about to do, especially another Egyptian.
When he was satisfied there were no witnesses, he struck the Egyptian
to death. The body was buried in the sand.

Verse 13. A day later Moses again went out among the Hebrews and
noticed two men in a fight, one aggressive toward the other. Moses
reacted, questioned why he was hitting his brother, friend and
companion. Moses saw It as unkind and unnatural in their present
circumstances in Egypt. They should be compassionate and especially
because of the oppression of the Egyptians.

Verse 14. The aggressor questioned Moses: had Moses received


authority from Pharaoh to rule and judge over the Hebrews He then
asks Moses if he was planning to kill him as he had killed that
Egyptian. Was this man the Hebrew that Moses had protected from the
Egyptian, or was he only informed of the event? We are not told, but
this let Moses see that his deed was known, and would lead to It
being known also to the Egyptians. This left him no choice: he must
get away very quickly to be safe.

Verse 15. The Pharaoh got the news and immediately put out the
order to find and put Moses to death. He had not only killed an
Egyptian but also taken the side of the Hebrew. This was treason and
murder.
To preserve life Moses had to leave the area. Also he must have
been guided by divine providence for the time when he was the
deliverer of Israel. He went to the land of Midian. This was
traditionally identified as being in Arabia, east of the Nile. It was
a normal precedent for a stranger to go to a well where they could
expect to meet the locals without too much delay and seek help from
them. Certainly he was tired, pensive, and waiting. Midian was one of
Abraham’s sons by Keturah (Genesis 25:2). This priest was named
Jethro.

Verse 16. This priest might have retained the knowledge of the
true God. Therefore this would make the marrying of one of his
daughters most acceptable to Moses. He had seven. At this well they
came to draw water to give to their father’s flock. They filled the
troughs with water.

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Verse 17. A group of shepherds came to the well and who out of
laziness and lack of patience, pushed the daughters and their flocks
away from the well and let their sheep take the water drawn by the
ladies. This was not proper but selfish and cruel. Moses could not
let it pass. He stood up and took their part, forcing the intruders
to back off. They saw no advantage in arguing with Moses who was
forceful and authoritative. He helped the daughters and their
attendants to water their flock.

Verse 18. They then went home to their father Reuel. He remarks
that they have come home earlier than he thought they would. He asked
how this had come about.

Verse 19. In their reply they gave Moses (the Egyptian) credit
for intervening on their behalf against these shepherds. This
suggests that this kind of action by these shepherds was not
uncommon. Moses also had in addition continued drawing water for
them, that he had watered their whole flock. Therefore, they had no
need to tarry and so they came home earlier than usual.

Verse 20. He asked his daughters where this man was now. The
description of the stranger and his noble actions led him to give
Moses his gratitude and reward him in some manner. He asks why they
left the man behind at the well. That was rude and ungrateful to the
stranger. They were told to call him to go home with them to refresh
himself and share a meal with them.

Verse 21. After an unspecified time Moses was content to dwell


with the man. They had obviously both relaxed and conversed a while,
the father was pleased with his disposition and general manner, in
addition to his generous actions for his daughters. He asked Moses to
stay a while. Moses readily consented. After another unspecified
period of time he gave Moses his daughter. Zipporah to be his wife.

Verse 22. The next important event was the birth of a son to
Moses and his wife. He named the child Gershom (Meaning desolate
stranger) describing his own history in this place. It also pointed
to the future – the promised land of Canaan as home to Israel. An
unaccounted amount of time passed.

Verse 23. The next major event was the death of the king of
Egypt, who reigned when Moses was born. Moses was now 60, having
lived in the land of Midian 20 years. Twenty years after this, he was
called from here to deliver his people.
The bondage of the children of Israel was to be more severe, not
less. The people so no remedy, and no way of escape. They cried out
in desperation. Their cries were aloud in passion and anger – so
great that it reached up to heaven and was heard by the Almighty God.
Their cry was “by reason of the bondage”. God was pleased to regard
their cry.

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Verse 24. They in despair also groaned with their crying. God
heard them and remembered His covenant with Abraham, Isaac, and
Jacob. He would bring them out of the strange land where they were
sorely afflicted, into the promised land of Canaan for an everlasting
possession.

Verse 25. God looked upon them with pity and compassion and
observed all their labor and hardships, and injuries, He loved them
as His own and took close notice of every detail of their lives.

Finis.

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Lesson III

Exodus chapter 3.

Verses 1-11.

1 Now Moses kept the flock of Jethro his father-in-law, the priest
of Mid'i-an: and he led the flock to the back side of the desert, and
came to the mountain of God, even to Horeb.
2 And the angel of the LORD appeared unto him in a flame of fire
out of the midst of a bush: and he looked, and, behold, the bush
burned with fire, and the bush was not consumed.
3 And Moses said, I will now turn aside, and see this great sight,
why the bush is not burnt.
4 And when the LORD saw that he turned aside to see, God called
unto him out of the midst of the bush, and said, Moses, Moses. And he
said, Here am I.
5 And he said, Draw not nigh hither: put off thy shoes from off
thy feet; for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground.
6 Moreover he said, I am the God of thy father, the God of
Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. And Moses hid his
face; for he was afraid to look upon God.
7 ¶ And the LORD said, I have surely seen the affliction of my
people which are in Egypt, and have heard their cry by reason of
their taskmasters; for I know their sorrows;
8 and I am come down to deliver them out of the hand of the
Egyptians, and to bring them up out of that land unto a good land and
a large, unto a land flowing with milk and honey; unto the place of
the Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the Amorites, and the
Per'izzites, and the Hivites, and the Jeb'usites.
9 Now therefore, behold, the cry of the children of Israel is come
unto me: and I have also seen the oppression wherewith the Egyptians
oppress them.
10 Come now therefore, and I will send thee unto Pharaoh, that thou
mayest bring forth my people the children of Israel out of Egypt.
11 And Moses said unto God, Who am I, that I should go unto
Pharaoh, and that I should bring forth the children of Israel out of
Egypt?

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Commentary.

Verse 1. This takes up the narrative about 40 years since Moses


came to Midian. His father in law is called Jethro, his less official
name, used by his family. He has been chiefly employed as shepherd.
It may be assumed that during his non working hours he would have
improved his knowledge of nature, of civilizations, and religion. As
shepherd he ruled, and led, and fed, even as David did, in
preparation to lead the people of Israel. At this time he had led the
sheep to a remote “back side” of the desert and ended up at Horeb,
the mountain of God.

Verse 2. the angel of the lord (not a created angel – but the
Son of God) appeared to him, in a flame of fire, within a bush. The
shocking sight was that the bush was not burning, it wasn’t consumed!
Verse 3. Moses was surprised by this unique occurrence, and
“turned aside” to go closer to see this thing. The unique thing was
the bush was not burnt.

Verse 4. Here the Lord watched Moses turning and coming toward
the burning bush. The Lord called him by name from the midst of the
bush. Moses, Moses. He answered, “Here am I”. Calling his name twice
certainly was effective in letting him know that the source of this
voice spoke with authority and also must know him well. It also
stopped him in his tracks – to know that he must give close attention
to what was about to be said. His response was simply - “here am I”,
that he was prepared to listen carefully to what was to be said, and
to obey.

Verse 5. The first thing said was that Moses must keep a proper
distance, and take off his shoes – for they were soiled with dirt and
dust, for the place was holy ground, because of the presence of the
Lord.
Verse 6. Next he said, “I am the God of thy father, the God of
Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.” He was conscious of
his own sin and unworthiness, afraid to look at God’s flame of fire.

Verse 7. It is certain, God explains, that He has been closely


watching what distress His people are suffering in Egypt. He has
affectionate sympathy for them. He has heard their bitter crying out
because of their taskmasters who used them cruelly and beat and
abused them continually. Their sorrows were both physical and also
inward grief and hopelessness. They cried out for help and
deliverance.

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Verse 8. This has led up to this point. Now God has come down to
deliver them from their oppressor – the Egyptians. He delivers the
message in this unique way for communicating most dramatically and
directly with Moses; delivering the promise that in His kindness and
grace would deliver His people. He had also a special destination for
them: a land flowing with milk and honey. Canaan was the general
name, from the son of Ham, who was the son of Noah. The names of the
various tribes were from sons of Canaan.

Verse 9. This is repeated to dramatically emphasize the


importance this had to the Lord. And that importance is why the Lord
has come to Moses at this time. There must now be no delay. This
means immediate action is necessary.

Verse 10. The commission of Moses is direct, clear, and to the


point. “Come now therefore, and I will send thee unto Pharaoh, that
thou mayest bring forth my people the children of Israel out of
Egypt.” Moses is to be the deliverer, guide, governor under God for
the role.

Verse 11. Moses was in shock. Who was he to do such mighty


things? He was just a humble shepherd, a foreigner, a fugitive
Hebrew, with no ties with Egyptians, much less with Pharaoh. How in
the world would the Israelites accept him, much less listen to or
follow him?

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Verses 11-22.

12 And he said, Certainly I will be with thee; and this shall be a


token unto thee, that I have sent thee: When thou hast brought forth
the people out of Egypt, ye shall serve God upon this mountain.
13 ¶ And Moses said unto God, Behold, when I come unto the children
of Israel, and shall say unto them, The God of your fathers hath sent
me unto you; and they shall say to me, What is his name? what shall I
say unto them?
14 And God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM: and he said, Thus shalt
thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you.
15 And God said moreover unto Moses, Thus shalt thou say unto the
children of Israel, The LORD God of your fathers, the God of Abraham,
the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath sent me unto you: this
is my name for ever, and this is my memorial unto all generations.
16 Go, and gather the elders of Israel together, and say unto them,
The LORD God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of
Jacob, appeared unto me, saying, I have surely visited you, and seen
that which is done to you in Egypt:
17 and I have said, I will bring you up out of the affliction of
Egypt unto the land of the Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the
Amorites, and the Per'izzites, and the Hivites, and the Jeb'usites,
unto a land flowing with milk and honey.
18 And they shall hearken to thy voice: and thou shalt come, thou
and the elders of Israel, unto the king of Egypt, and ye shall say
unto him, The LORD God of the Hebrews hath met with us: and now let
us go, we beseech thee, three days' journey into the wilderness, that
we may sacrifice to the LORD our God.
19 And I am sure that the king of Egypt will not let you go, no,
not by a mighty hand.
20 And I will stretch out my hand, and smite Egypt with all my
wonders which I will do in the midst thereof: and after that he will
let you go.
21 And I will give this people favor in the sight of the Egyptians:
and it shall come to pass, that, when ye go, ye shall not go empty:
22 but every woman shall borrow of her neighbor, and of her that
sojourneth in her house, jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and
raiment: and ye shall put them upon your sons, and upon your
daughters; and ye shall spoil the Egyptians.

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Commentary.

Verse 12. The Lord promises the certainty that He will be with
Moses: to encourage, give strength, defend, and protect; and also to
prosper and succeed. He will be respected by the people, and have
influence over Pharaoh, who will finally let Israel go.
The proof (token) that God has sent him for this task will be
when Moses brings the people out of Egypt to this mountain where they
will serve God. Mount Sinai will be the proof that he has brought the
people out of Egypt, all by the promise and strong hand of the Lord
to that place and time for thanksgiving and worship.

Verse 13. Moses brings up another problem. When he tells the


people of his mission from God, what if they ask him what is the name
of this God? What will he answer? Their question would be their need
to know Moses’ relationship with God and what God had revealed to him
of this new role and plan.

Verse 14. God answered: I Am that I Am. This denotes His


eternity and immutability. He is constant, consistent, and faithful
in fulfilling His promises at all times in the past, the present, and
in the future. I Am is above and over all time.

Verse 15. To further instruct them and confirm the mission Moses
is to tell them of His being the Lord God of their fathers: Abraham,
Isaac, and Jacob. I Am is the name Jehovah. This is His Name to all
generations, to bring remembrance what He had done for them and what
He had promised for them.

Verse 16. Moses is to call the elders of the people together –


heads of tribes and families. He is to tell them that the Lord God of
their fathers had appeared to him and revealed His observing what has
been done to them in Egypt. He is completely aware of their situation
and condition.
Verse 17. The result and conclusion is that He is now ready to
bring them up out of the affliction. This is the message given to
Moses for them. Their destination is Canaan where the listed groups
are at present, a goodly land, flowing with milk and honey.

Verse 18. They will listen to Moses and follow his directions.
As the leaders of Israel, with Moses as their chief and spokesmen,
they are to approach Pharaoh and inform him that their God has me
with them, requesting they go into the wilderness (3 days journey) of
Sinai to make sacrifice to Him (the Lord our God). This was the
message given them from the Lord (simple, no more, no less).

Verse 19. But the Lord also knows that Pharaoh will not grant
their request. In telling them this they must not be discouraged. It
will take the mighty power of God inflicted upon Egypt, then Pharaoh
will give in.

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Verse 20. God will stretch forth His almighty hand and bring
upon them this almighty power. Romans 9:17 says of Pharaoh: “Even for
this same purpose have I raised thee up that I might show my power in
thee, and that My name might be declared throughout all the earth.”
For this Pharaoh’s heart was hardened. After all that he will let you
go. Be ye encouraged.

Verse 21. This event will put them in favor with all the
Egyptian people. They would be so happy and ready for them to leave,
they would do everything they could to help them, to get rid of them.
This would include material gifts. This great substance was
prophesied by Abraham (Genesis 15:14).

Verse 22. They shall you ask to borrow jewelry, clothing for
their children. This was taking spoils from the Egyptians. But in
effect they are taking wages for the years of hard labor. These
things would be needed in their journeys to Canaan: things useful and
used for money.

End.

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Lesson IV

Exodus chapter 4. Continuation of Discourse between God and


Moses.

Verses 1-8.

1 And Moses answered and said, But, behold, they will not believe
me, nor hearken unto my voice: for they will say, The LORD hath not
appeared unto thee.
2 And the LORD said unto him, What is that in thine hand? And he
said, A rod.
3 And he said, Cast it on the ground. And he cast it on the
ground, and it became a serpent; and Moses fled from before it.
4 And the LORD said unto Moses, Put forth thine hand, and take it
by the tail. And he put forth his hand, and caught it, and it became
a rod in his hand:
5 that they may believe that the LORD God of their fathers, the
God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath appeared
unto thee.
6 And the LORD said furthermore unto him, Put now thine hand into
thy bosom. And he put his hand into his bosom: and when he took it
out, behold, his hand was leprous as snow.
7 And he said, Put thine hand into thy bosom again. And he put his
hand into his bosom again; and plucked it out of his bosom, and,
behold, it was turned again as his other flesh.
8 And it shall come to pass, if they will not believe thee,
neither hearken to the voice of the first sign, that they will
believe the voice of the latter sign.

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Commentary.

Verse 1. Other objections made by Moses about his mission. One


from the unbelief of the people. They (the whole populace) would not
accept his words at face value (such as the burning bush), not being
eyewitnesses of it. Therefore they won’t listen to him or follow him.
They would require a sign.

Verse 2. Following Moses’ hint, the Lord proceeded to ask Moses


what was in his hand. He replied, a rod (or walking staff).

Verse 3. He was told to throw it on the ground. He did, and it


turned into a snake. Obviously it was turned into an actual live
serpent. It has been suggested that this emblem of the devil was also
to show Moses as having power over it, therefore over the devil –
directly from God. Moses ran, completely taken by surprise.
Verse 4. The Lord told Moses to get serious; take it by the
tail. He would be assured that it was a real snake, and to show that
he needn’t b e afraid of it. Moses did so and it turned back into his
staff. He had overcome his initial fear.
Verse 5. This would confirm the faith of the Israelites that
Moses has been sent by the God of their fathers: Abraham, Isaac, and
Jacob.

Verse 6. Another sign is shown to Moses: to put his hand next to


his breast under his garment. When it took it out, it had leprosy
(white as snow).

Verse 7. He was told to put it in again and take it out. It was


turned back to healthy skin. Astonishing: that the disease could be
given at once, on one part, then cured as quickly. No power but that
of God could do this: a proper miracle.

Verse 8. This will force the people to believe that Moses indeed
was sent by their Lord and He can deliver them from Egypt. If they
wouldn’t believe the first sign, they would certainly believe the
second one. Moses was the messenger of God. Period!

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Verses 9-17.

9 And it shall come to pass, if they will not believe also these
two signs, neither hearken unto thy voice, that thou shalt take of
the water of the river, and pour it upon the dry land: and the water
which thou takest out of the river shall become blood upon the dry
land.
10 ¶ And Moses said unto the LORD, O my Lord, I am not eloquent,
neither heretofore, nor since thou hast spoken unto thy servant; but
I am slow of speech, and of a slow tongue.
11 And the LORD said unto him, Who hath made man's mouth? or who
maketh the dumb, or deaf, or the seeing, or the blind? have not I the
LORD?
12 Now therefore go, and I will be with thy mouth, and teach thee
what thou shalt say.
13 And he said, O my Lord, send, I pray thee, by the hand of him
whom thou wilt send.
14 And the anger of the LORD was kindled against Moses, and he
said, Is not Aaron the Levite thy brother? I know that he can speak
well. And also, behold, he cometh forth to meet thee: and when he
seeth thee, he will be glad in his heart.
15 And thou shalt speak unto him, and put words in his mouth: and I
will be with thy mouth, and with his mouth, and will teach you what
ye shall do.
16 And he shall be thy spokesman unto the people: and he shall be,
even he shall be to thee instead of a mouth, and thou shalt be to him
instead of God.
17 And thou shalt take this rod in thine hand, wherewith thou shalt
do signs.

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Commentary.

Verse 9. If the Israelites won’t believe these first two signs,


that they will see with their own eyes, and won’t accept Moses’ call
as from God, then a further sign done by the Nile river when he has
come to Egypt. He is to take water from the river and pour it out
upon the dry land and it shall turn to blood – this ruining the
fertility of the river, as avenging the blood of innocent Israelites’
babies drowned by the Egyptians there.

Verse 10. Moses, in spite of all these promised and demonstrated


miracles, comes up with a further problem – he is not eloquent. He is
slow in his speaking and has trouble getting his words out. He
wouldn’t be able to get the point across when speaking to a crowd or
a Pharaoh.
Verse 11. The Lord asks Moses who made man’s mouth to speak, and
could obviously remove anything impeding Moses’ speaking. The Lord
could give and take away any of men’s senses. Is there anything the
Lord cannot do? Of course not.

Verse 12. The Lord tells Moses to go, He will cause his mouth to
speak readily with strong, proper words. The Lord will teach him
“what thou shalt say”.

Verse 13. Moses agrees, giving in finally to the Lord’s decision


to send him on this mission. The words are impersonal: send who you
will send.

Verse 14. The Lord was angry with Moses for this continued
voicing excuses to everything the Lord had told and shown him, but He
did not reject him, but continually helped him. Then the Lord gives
Moses the news: Aaron, his elder brother, is on the way to meet
Moses. The Lord has given Aaron the message about Moses being sent to
take the Israelites out of Egypt by the Lord. He, being a Levite,
would be a priest, and eloquent of speech. He will be pleased to see
Moses.

Verse 15. Moses will tell him the substance of what he is to


say. He will put the best words together and express them eloquently
and pertinently. The Lord would help and direct them both as to what
they say and what they do.

Verse 16. He would be the speaker to the people for Moses; he


would interpret, explain his sense and meaning. Aaron would stand
between Moses and the people. Moses would stand between God and
Aaron: he would explain what instructions he had received from God,
that Aaron would communicate to the people.

Verse 17. Moses will take the staff in his hands and do wondrous
things (in Egypt).

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Verses 18-31.

18 ¶ And Moses went and returned to Jethro his father-in-law, and


said unto him, Let me go, I pray thee, and return unto my brethren
which are in Egypt, and see whether they be yet alive. And Jethro
said to Moses, Go in peace.
19 And the LORD said unto Moses in Mid'i-an, Go, return into Egypt:
for all the men are dead which sought thy life.
20 And Moses took his wife and his sons, and set them upon an ass,
and he returned to the land of Egypt: and Moses took the rod of God
in his hand.
21 ¶ And the LORD said unto Moses, When thou goest to return into
Egypt, see that thou do all those wonders before Pharaoh, which I
have put in thine hand: but I will harden his heart, that he shall
not let the people go.
22 And thou shalt say unto Pharaoh, Thus saith the LORD, Israel is
my son, even my firstborn:
23 and I say unto thee, Let my son go, that he may serve me: and if
thou refuse to let him go, behold, I will slay thy son, even thy
firstborn.
24 ¶ And it came to pass by the way in the inn, that the LORD met
him, and sought to kill him.
25 Then Zippo'rah took a sharp stone, and cut off the foreskin of
her son, and cast it at his feet, and said, Surely a bloody husband
art thou to me.
26 So he let him go: then she said, A bloody husband thou art,
because of the circumcision.
27 ¶ And the LORD said to Aaron, Go into the wilderness to meet
Moses. And he went, and met him in the mount of God, and kissed him.
28 And Moses told Aaron all the words of the LORD who had sent him,
and all the signs which he had commanded him.
29 And Moses and Aaron went and gathered together all the elders of
the children of Israel:
30 and Aaron spake all the words which the LORD had spoken unto
Moses, and did the signs in the sight of the people.
31 And the people believed: and when they heard that the LORD had
visited the children of Israel, and that he had looked upon their
affliction, then they bowed their heads and worshipped.

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Commentary.

Verse 18. Moses returned to Jethro, his father in law, with the
flock of sheep. We assume that Moses has had no news of or from the
Israelites in the 40 years he had been in Midian. And not wishing to
share his encounter with God and his mission of deliverance, he
merely says that he wants to go back to check on the rest of his
family that he left in Egypt, that he doesn’t even know who is still
alive down there.
Jethro judged his request as reasonable and natural and told him
to “go in peace”. He wished him a safe and prosperous journey.

Verse 19. Before he left Midian, he was informed by God that it


was the best time to go immediately. The Pharaoh, his ministers, and
the Egyptians that were friends and relatives of the man Moses killed
are all dead. If Moses had feared them, now that was gone also.
Verse 20. Moses got his whole family (wife and sons) ready and
each rode on a donkey, with also servants and necessities. They
journeyed to Egypt with Moses. He carried his “rod of God” with him
with purpose.

Verse 21. God spoke to Moses just before he set off on the trip.
He instructs him to do the “wonders” before Pharaoh, inflicting the
various plagues in the sight of Pharaoh for refusing to let the
Israelites go. The rod was the instrument Moses was to use. God was
giving Pharaoh up to the hardness of Pharaoh’s heart – that all the
sights, wonders, and plagues would be wrought against all Egypt.
Moses was told this far in advance, that when this took place in
Egypt, Moses wouldn’t be surprised or discouraged.

Verse 22. Moses is given the exact words he is to speak to


Pharaoh. He was to open with, “thus saith the Lord.” He came by the
Lord’s order to request the dismissal of His people from Egypt.
Israel is His son, His firstborn.
Verse 23. The Lord gave his son orders to worship Him in the
place designed for him, where his son would be safe and free as was
his right as the closest family.
The lord adds that a refusal to let him go will cause the Lord
to slay Pharaoh’s son, even his firstborn, even all first born in all
of Egypt. This was to be the last plague – to be done, and a
successful outcome at last.

Verse 24. On the way, having stopped at an inn, the Lord met
Moses and sought to kill him. Moses had neglected to circumcise his
son. Moses certainly knew God’s law about the rite, but for some
unrecorded reason he had failed to do it this time. It may have been
put off because of the journey; nevertheless it was resented by the
Lord.

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Verse 25. It is related that Zipporah was the cause and was also
the cure – she circumcised the boy, with a sharp stone (probably
flint). For some reason Moses had neglected it up to this time and
was now in danger. She tossed the foreskin at the feet of Moses,
showing her love and strong bond with him, as she had delivered him
out of danger of the Lord’s displeasure.

Verse 26. Moses was free now to continue the journey to Egypt,
without any further interruptions. Zipporah calls Moses “bloody
husband” because of the circumcision and the close bond of blood that
saved him.

Verse 27. The Lord appeared to Aaron and told him to go into the
wilderness, that Moses was on the way from Arabia. He went and caught
up with Moses at Mt. Hereb (the Mt. Of God). The Law would later be
given there and the covenant made. They embraced. Aaron kissed Moses,
his brother. They had not seen each other for over 40 years.

Verse 28. Moses told Aaron everything that God had told him: his
mission from God – his message to the people of Israel and the words
to Pharaoh – as Aaron was to be his spokesman to the people and then
before Pharaoh. He also demonstrated and explained the signs which
the Lord had commanded him.

Verse 29. They then went together to Egypt, an uneventful


journey. Once there they called for a meeting of the heads (elders)
of the children of Israel.

Verse 30. Aaron related all the words spoken to Moses by the
Lord. Then Moses did all the signs in the people’s sight: the rod to
snake, and back. His hand with leprosy and without, and the Nile
water changed into blood. This was to confirm his mission from the
Lord God of Israel.

Verse 31. The people believed! They were astonished that the
Lord had looked upon their affliction, and had been moved to prepare
to deliver them. He had already sent the one to redeem and deliver
them out of Egypt to a land of milk and honey. They expressed these
new and blessed feelings of love, compassion, gratitude, and hope, by
bowing their heads and worshiping. This response was also a sign of
their acceptance and readiness to obey and follow what was to be
their part in this deliverance.

End.

Next, Exodus chapter 5. Moses and Aaron go to Pharaoh.

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Lesson V

Exodus chapter 5.

Verses 1-9.

1 And afterward Moses and Aaron went in, and told Pharaoh, Thus
saith the LORD God of Israel, Let my people go, that they may hold a
feast unto me in the wilderness.
2 And Pharaoh said, Who is the LORD, that I should obey his voice
to let Israel go? I know not the LORD, neither will I let Israel go.
3 And they said, The God of the Hebrews hath met with us: let us
go, we pray thee, three days' journey into the desert, and sacrifice
unto the LORD our God; lest he fall upon us with pestilence, or with
the sword.
4 And the king of Egypt said unto them, Wherefore do ye, Moses and
Aaron, let the people from their works? get you unto your burdens.
5 And Pharaoh said, Behold, the people of the land now are many,
and ye make them rest from their burdens.
6 And Pharaoh commanded the same day the taskmasters of the
people, and their officers, saying,
7 Ye shall no more give the people straw to make brick, as
heretofore: let them go and gather straw for themselves.
8 And the tale of the bricks, which they did make heretofore, ye
shall lay upon them; ye shall not diminish aught thereof: for they be
idle; therefore they cry, saying, Let us go and sacrifice to our God.
9 Let there more work be laid upon the men, that they may labor
therein; and let them not regard vain words.

Commentary.

Verse 1. The next step for Moses and Aaron was to go before
Pharaoh. They went to the palace and were introduced into his court.
They began by stating whether they were representing and then their
request. They were there as a result of their Lord God Of Israel
telling them to demand that Pharaoh let His people go into the
wilderness to hold a feast unto Him. There they would be safe from
any interference or disturbance by the Egyptians. This was expressed
as a reasonable service, in a reasonable amount of time – a 3 day
journey. This was a test of Pharaoh. To deny such a small thing would
be seen later as inexcusable.

Verse 2. Pharaoh’s response – he had never heard this name of


this deity of the Hebrews. Therefore he had no reason to obey “His
voice”; so he won’t obey or let Israel go. Request denied!

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Verse 3. They then told him that they had met with the God of
the Hebrews. These people lived in his country, he must be aware of
their God as different from the so-called Egyptian gods. Their God
had given them orders – those that worshiped and served Him. It is
only a 3 day journey into the desert; their only purpose was to hold
a feast, a sacrifice to their Lord. They were asking for anything or
planning anything against him.
Now a particular reason is added – that He punish them for
disobedience with pestilence or kill them. This would also bring loss
and danger to Pharaoh. Thus his servants would be killed or unable to
work. Also their Lord may be displeased by Pharaoh’s not letting His
people go, suggesting that Pharaoh might suffer for it.

Verse 4. It appears that Pharaoh had been told that Moses and
Aaron had called the Israelites to a meeting – thus causing them to
stop working for that period of time. He accuses them – they had no
right to do this. They and the people they represented better get
back to their assigned tasks (burdens).

Verse 5. Pharaoh mentions how greatly the population of the


Hebrews had increased. Was he suggesting that this member would be
extremely threatening to him if they might rebel. And this
possibility relates the reason the Egyptians have put them under hard
labor was to hinder their multiplication. To let them rest would very
likely bring about an increase in their population.

Verses 6,7. Pharaoh’s solution: he sent for the overseas of the


people (called taskmasters) and proceeded to give them new orders: no
longer provide these people with straw to make bricks. They must go
and gather straw for themselves. This would add to the amount of time
they had heretofore taken to make bricks. They would have to go to
where the straw was available, and when it was available.

Verse 8. They also will be required to make the same amount of


bricks as they had previously. He blamed them for being so idle that
they had wanted even less labor – they wanted even more time off work
– this was their reason to request: they were so lazy they made up
this excuse about their God. It didn’t come from any other place but
their idleness and laziness.

Verse 9. Now lay even more work on the men. Heavy work will keep
them down, weaken their strength and spirits, and leaving them no
leisure time.
They won’t listen to, much less believe, vain words or lies.
Thus Pharaoh identifies the words of Moses and Aaron. They demanded
freedom and deliverance from bondage. Pharaoh was determined to never
let that happen. Then all would know that their words were false,
empty, and vain.

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Verses 10-23.

10 ¶ And the taskmasters of the people went out, and their


officers, and they spake to the people, saying, Thus saith Pharaoh, I
will not give you straw.
11 Go ye, get you straw where ye can find it: yet not aught of your
work shall be diminished.
12 So the people were scattered abroad throughout all the land of
Egypt to gather stubble instead of straw.
13 And the taskmasters hasted them, saying, Fulfil your works, your
daily tasks, as when there was straw.
14 And the officers of the children of Israel, which Pharaoh's
taskmasters had set over them, were beaten, and demanded, Wherefore
have ye not fulfilled your task in making brick both yesterday and
today, as heretofore?
15 ¶ Then the officers of the children of Israel came and cried
unto Pharaoh, saying, Wherefore dealest thou thus with thy servants?
16 There is no straw given unto thy servants, and they say to us,
Make brick: and, behold, thy servants are beaten; but the fault is in
thine own people.
17 But he said, Ye are idle, ye are idle: therefore ye say, Let us
go and do sacrifice to the LORD.
18 Go therefore now, and work; for there shall no straw be given
you, yet shall ye deliver the tale of bricks.
19 And the officers of the children of Israel did see that they
were in evil case, after it was said, Ye shall not minish aught from
your bricks of your daily task.
20 And they met Moses and Aaron, who stood in the way, as they came
forth from Pharaoh:
21 and they said unto them, The LORD look upon you, and judge;
because ye have made our savor to be abhorred in the eyes of Pharaoh,
and in the eyes of his servants, to put a sword in their hand to slay
us.
22 ¶ And Moses returned unto the LORD, and said, Lord, wherefore
hast thou so evil entreated this people? why is it that thou hast
sent me?
23 For since I came to Pharaoh to speak in thy name, he hath done
evil to this people; neither hast thou delivered thy people at all.

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Commentary.

Verse 10. The representatives of Pharaoh (the taskmasters) over


the Israelites had their new orders which they told to the officers
of the Israelites (who were under the taskmasters – who were
answerable to them for the work of the people) specifically the tally
of bricks produced. They were told that Pharaoh no longer would
provide straw for them.

Verse 11. They must now go get it themselves, whenever and


however, and wherever they can: fields, barns, etc., and if they had
to pay for it as well. But they were accountable for the same amount
of brick production as before. No allowance for the amount of time
they took for getting the straw.

Verse 12. Straw wasn’t available except the stubble left in the
fields. The people had to go all over the area to gather whatever was
left in the fields.

Verse 13. The taskmasters watched them closely continually


calling them to work quickly, keep up the pace; make the same number
of bricks as when the straw had been provided daily.

Verse 14. The taskmasters of Pharaoh (Egyptians) had chosen


officers (of the Israelites) to be responsible to oversee and be
reporting on the work of the Israelite workers. At this point the
amount of bricks produced was less than required. The Israelite
officers were beaten and the taskmasters demanded an answer as to why
they had not fulfilled their task of making the correct amount of
bricks as before: both yesterday and today. They knew why, but showed
cruelty by beating them and questioning them as if they had done this
on purpose or were too lazy.

Verse 15. The Israelite officers went to Pharaoh to complain


about being treated so cruelly. They must have assumed that Pharaoh
didn’t give the order to have them beaten. They called themselves his
servants and asked why they were treated this way.

Verse 16. It appears that they think that Pharaoh didn’t know
about the taskmasters that had stopped giving them straw. Then they
are beaten when they do not make the same number of bricks as before.
The taskmasters are at fault: they sent the people to get straw, and
knew they would not be able to make the same amount of bricks as
before.

Verse 17. Pharaoh completely ignores everything they have said.


He proclaims that it is all their own fault: ye are ideal, twice for
emphasis. They are plain lazy. His proof is their request to go and
do sacrifice to the Lord – only to get out of work for a few days.

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Verse 18. Pharaoh orders them to get back to work immediately.


The Israelite officers are also to work, along with the people of
Israel: without straw, but required to produce the same size and
amount of brick as before.

Verse 19. They realized that the people and themselves were in a
dire (evil) situation. The people would not be able to keep
production up to the previous amount, having to spend time gathering
stubble, and the officers would be likely called to account and
beaten again. Pharaoh had made it a point to say the amount would not
be diminished, period. They had no idea of anything they could do to
change the situation.

Verse 20. On their way out from their meeting with Pharaoh they
met Moses and Aaron, who were waiting to find out how the meeting
with Pharaoh had gone. How was the attitude now of Pharaoh toward the
Israelites? What could they expect from him in the future?

Verse 21. The officers expressed to Moses and Aaron that the
Lord would have to look upon them to judge. What they had done (in
asking for time off) had made them vile, lazy and even hateful
seeming to Pharaoh. He now hated them all, as did all the other
Egyptians. This hatred may lead to have enough reason to want to kill
us.

Verse 22. Moses’ reaction to all of these things was to return


unto the Lord. Apparently Moses had a special place or merely that he
turned back to the Lord in prayer. He doesn’t comprehend these
circumstances – these evil situations that are harming the people
They are afflicted and hated. Moses saw no benefit of his coming to
Egypt – only things got worse. He questions why the Lord sent him.

Verse 23. He had not come to Egypt and to Pharaoh in his own
name, but with the Lord’s Name. In his own name he would have no
expectation of success. In the Lord’s Name he now receives evil from
Pharaoh, and on all the people – they are afflicted even worse than
before.
Moses had expected things, on the contrary, to get better for
the people. The promise of deliverance was nowhere in sight. Moses
must have forgotten that the Lord had clearly told him that the
Pharaoh wasn’t going to let the people go until all the wonders were
wrought that the Lord had given him power to do.

Next, the Lord encourages Moses.

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Lesson VI

Exodus chapter 6.

Verses 1-13.

1 Then the LORD said unto Moses, Now shalt thou see what I will do
to Pharaoh: for with a strong hand shall he let them go, and with a
strong hand shall he drive them out of his land.
2 ¶ And God spake unto Moses, and said unto him, I am the LORD:
3 and I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the
name of God Almighty; but by my name JEHOVAH was I not known to them.
4 And I have also established my covenant with them, to give them
the land of Canaan, the land of their pilgrimage, wherein they were
strangers.
5 And I have also heard the groaning of the children of Israel,
whom the Egyptians keep in bondage; and I have remembered my
covenant.
6 Wherefore say unto the children of Israel, I am the LORD, and I
will bring you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, and I
will rid you out of their bondage, and I will redeem you with a
stretched out arm, and with great judgments:
7 and I will take you to me for a people, and I will be to you a
God: and ye shall know that I am the LORD your God, which bringeth
you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians.
8 And I will bring you in unto the land, concerning the which I
did swear to give it to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob; and I will
give it you for a heritage: I am the LORD.
9 And Moses spake so unto the children of Israel: but they
hearkened not unto Moses for anguish of spirit, and for cruel
bondage.
10 ¶ And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,
11 Go in, speak unto Pharaoh king of Egypt, that he let the
children of Israel go out of his land.
12 And Moses spake before the LORD, saying, Behold, the children of
Israel have not hearkened unto me; how then shall Pharaoh hear me,
who am of uncircumcised lips?
13 And the LORD spake unto Moses and unto Aaron, and gave them a
charge unto the children of Israel, and unto Pharaoh king of Egypt,
to bring the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt.

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Commentary.

Verse 1. The Lord speaks unto Moses to encourage him. He will


soon see what the Lord has planned to do to Pharaoh: by His strong
hand God will force him to use all of his power to drive them out of
his land.

Verse 2. God said unto Moses: I am the Lord: Jehovah, the


everlasting I AM, never to change.

Verse 3. As God Almighty, He appeared to Abraham, Isaac, and


Jacob. He will fulfill all His purposes, promises, and covenants. The
name Jehovah is now to be used exclusively to all.

Verse 4. His covenant with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob is


established forever. The land of Canaan, where they had been
strangers “the land of pilgrimage” as they also now dwelt as pilgrims
and strangers.

Verse 5. He is also compassionate and merciful, aware of their


suffering under the bondage of the Egyptians. He remembers His
covenant: to bring them out of Egypt into the land of Canaan.

Verse 6. This message must be repeated to the children of


Israel. I AM the Lord, I will bring you out from the burdens and
bondage of the Egyptians. From heaven his arm will stretch out and
reach unto the Egyptians with great plagues and punishments upon
them.

Verse 7. You are My chosen people, set apart and to be holy. He


will be ruler, to protect and defend them: a theocracy with spiritual
privileges. As His promises are fulfilled they shall know that “I am
the LORD your God, which bringeth you out from under the burdens of
the Egyptians.”
Verse 8. He will bring them unto the land as promised to
Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. It will be given as an inheritance. I AM
the Lord, faithful and true.

Verse 9. Moses took this message and told the people of Israel.
They would not listen to Moses, or believe what he was telling them.
Their burdens had been increased – they were helpless, and hopeless:
anguish, and grief of heart, for cruel bondage. They saw no way out.

Verses 10,11. The Lord again spoke unto Moses. Ordering him to
go again to Pharaoh king of Egypt. In the name of the King of Kings,
order him to let the children of Israel leave his land. Again if he
refuses, he is disobeying God Himself. Thus he calls judgment against
himself and all Egypt.

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Verse 12. Moses stood before the Lord and explained that when he
had spoken to the people of Israel they would not listen or believe
me. Mine was good news, the Lord’s promises and assurances of getting
out of Egypt and unto Canaan. How can I go and make demands unto
Pharaoh? Why would he even listen to me if I can’t even talk without
difficulty?

Verse 13. Now the Lord spoke unto Moses and Aaron. Thus Moses’
speech complaint is answered. They are both given their missions.
First they must go to the children of Israel. They must explain what
they are to do in the present circumstances, as they await their
deliverance. Then go to Pharaoh to make a fresh demand to let all
Israel go. This demand would be continued.

The following genealogy of the children of Israel is to realize


their honor and responsibility as the children of Israel.

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Verses 14-21.

14 ¶ These be the heads of their fathers' houses: The sons of


Reuben the firstborn of Israel; Hanoch, and Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi:
these be the families of Reuben.
15 And the sons of Simeon; Jem'u-el, and Jamin, and Ohad, and
Jachin, and Zohar, and Sha'ul the son of a Canaanitish woman: these
are the families of Simeon.
16 And these are the names of the sons of Levi according to their
generations; Gershon, and Kohath, and Mera'ri: and the years of the
life of Levi were a hundred thirty and seven years.
17 The sons of Gershon; Libni, and Shimi, according to their
families.
18 And the sons of Kohath; Amram, and Izhar, and Hebron, and Uz'zi-
el: and the years of the life of Kohath were a hundred thirty and
three years.
19 And the sons of Mera'ri; Ma'hali and Mushi: these are the
families of Levi according to their generations.
20 And Amram took him Joch'ebed his father's sister to wife; and
she bare him Aaron and Moses: and the years of the life of Amram were
a hundred and thirty and seven years.
21 And the sons of Izhar; Korah, and Nepheg, and Zichri.

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Commentary.

Verse 14. The heads of only 3 tribes are recorded here. Though
Reuben, Simeon, and Levi had been guilty of crimes, they had repented
and obtained mercy from God. They were honored in their offspring
(the same as in Genesis 46:9).

Verse 15. Of Simeon (also in Genesis 46:10).

Verse 16. Of Levi (Genesis 46:11).

Verse 17. Gershom had two sons.

Verse 18. Kohath had four sons.

Verse 19. Merari had two sons. These were the families from
Levi.

Verse 20. Amram was the first son of Kohath, and the father of
Moses.

Verse 21. The sons of Izhar.

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Verses 22-30.

22 And the sons of Uz'zi-el; Mish'a-el, and Elza'phan, and Zithri.


23 And Aaron took him Elish'eba, daughter of Ammin'adab, sister of
Naa'shon, to wife; and she bare him Nadab and Abi'hu, Ele-a'zar and
Ith'amar.
24 And the sons of Korah; Assir, and Elka'nah, and Abi'asaph: these
are the families of the Korhites.
25 And Ele-a'zar Aaron's son took him one of the daughters of
Pu'ti-el to wife; and she bare him Phin'ehas: these are the heads of
the fathers of the Levites according to their families.
26 ¶ These are that Aaron and Moses, to whom the LORD said, Bring
out the children of Israel from the land of Egypt according to their
armies.
27 These are they which spake to Pharaoh king of Egypt, to bring
out the children of Israel from Egypt: these are that Moses and
Aaron.
28 ¶ And it came to pass on the day when the LORD spake unto Moses
in the land of Egypt,
29 that the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, I am the LORD: speak
thou unto Pharaoh king of Egypt all that I say unto thee.
30 And Moses said before the LORD, Behold, I am of uncircumcised
lips, and how shall Pharaoh hearken unto me?

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Commentary.

Verse 22. The sons of Uzziel.

Verse 23. Aaron married Elisheba (Elizabeth). She bare him 4


sons.

Verse 24. The sons of Korah.

Verse 25. Aaron’s eldest son, Eleazar took a wife and she had a
son named Phinehas. The main reason of this genealogy was to record
the descent of Moses and Aaron to keep the record of who were the
instrument of God’s deliverance of the children of Israel out of
Egypt.

Verse 26. These are that Aaron and Moses. Aaron listed first as
eldest. The following verse has Moses first, therefore as equal. The
were spoken to and charged by the Lord to bring out the Israelites
from Egypt. Their armies: this denotes their numbers, which had to be
organized, and put in an order to march out of Egypt as an army
would, Aaron and Moses, their generals.

Verse 27. They are the ones who spoke to Pharaoh, Moses and
Aaron, who demanded that he let the people go in the name of the Lord
of hosts.

Verse 28. The Lord spoke to Moses in Egypt.

Verse 29. He charged Moses to speak to Pharaoh the same words


that he had spoken to Moses. He must let his people go or there would
be punishment on him and his people – plagues, one after another, and
at the last, the first-born would be slain.

Verse 30. This is the same as in verse 13. Moses is so insecure,


he being a poor speaker, and of no importance or stature. Why would
Pharaoh take him seriously. Pharaoh is king of a mighty nation. This
leads into what we find in the next chapter.

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Lesson VII

Exodus chapter 7.

Verses 1-7.

1 And the LORD said unto Moses, See, I have made thee a god to
Pharaoh; and Aaron thy brother shall be thy prophet.
2 Thou shalt speak all that I command thee; and Aaron thy brother
shall speak unto Pharaoh, that he send the children of Israel out of
his land.
3 And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, and multiply my signs and my
wonders in the land of Egypt.
4 But Pharaoh shall not hearken unto you, that I may lay my hand
upon Egypt, and bring forth mine armies, and my people the children
of Israel, out of the land of Egypt by great judgments.
5 And the Egyptians shall know that I am the LORD, when I stretch
forth mine hand upon Egypt, and bring out the children of Israel from
among them.
6 And Moses and Aaron did as the LORD commanded them, so did they.
7 And Moses was fourscore years old, and Aaron fourscore and three
years old, when they spake unto Pharaoh.

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Commentary.

Verse 1. In answer to Moses’ feelings of inferiority to Pharaoh


who was a mighty king, the Lord gives him the plan: by His power God
would make him powerful and with authority directly from God. This
Moses would be only to Pharaoh – to order him to do things, which if
he refused, he would be punished by plagues and miracles – such that
only god could do, even life and death. Pharaoh will stand in much
fear of him.
Aaron shall be prophet to Moses: to declare the will of God as
communicated to him by Moses.

Verse 2. All that God has revealed to Moses, he is to tell to


Aaron, who will be the one to speak to Pharaoh. The main message –
Pharaoh must “send the children of Israel out of his land.”
Verse 3. God plans to bring all of His signs and wonders to
pass, then Pharaoh shall let God’s people go. God has hardened
Pharaoh’s heart to make that happen at the exact time in God’s time.

Verse 4. God reassures them that all of these things will go as


He planned. Even the part that Pharaoh plays is in God’s hand. They
are not to be discouraged on this path. God will smite these
Egyptians even to the killing of their firstborn. This is God’s power
and vengeance. This will then bring about the exit of God’s armies
from Egyptian bondage.

Exodus 12:37 records 600,000 men: 12 tribes of 50,000 men, plus


the corresponding women and children, not numbered. The great
judgments against Egypt will bring them (the children of Israel) out
of Egypt.

Verse 5. This will convince them that Jehovah is the only one
and true God. Only He had the power to bring about these things, they
would be convinced to acknowledge His power over the. They had no
choice but to stand by and watch Him lead His people “from among
them.”

Verse 6. Moses and Aaron made no objection - they went about


everything the Lord commanded at once. They did exactly and
diligently all that they were given to do!

Verse 7. The age of Moses is recorded (80), and Aaron’s (83),


when they spoke to Pharaoh. This shows their experience as very long,
they were mature, wise and prudent, serious, and well-mannered. Thus
well suited to appear before a king. Their age also gives an
approximate time of the hard bondage the Israelites had was the worst
(80 years0. God was patient and forbearing with the Egyptians: just
and righteous are His judgments upon them as well!

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Verses 8-14.

8 ¶ And the LORD spake unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying,
9 When Pharaoh shall speak unto you, saying, Show a miracle for
you: then thou shalt say unto Aaron, Take thy rod, and cast it before
Pharaoh, and it shall become a serpent.
10 And Moses and Aaron went in unto Pharaoh, and they did so as the
LORD had commanded: and Aaron cast down his rod before Pharaoh, and
before his servants, and it became a serpent.
11 Then Pharaoh also called the wise men and the sorcerers: now the
magicians of Egypt, they also did in like manner with their
enchantments.
12 For they cast down every man his rod, and they became serpents:
but Aaron's rod swallowed up their rods.
13 And he hardened Pharaoh's heart, that he hearkened not unto
them; as the LORD had said.
14 ¶ And the LORD said unto Moses, Pharaoh's heart is hardened, he
refuseth to let the people go.

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Commentary.

Verses 8,9. The Lord gave specific instructions to Moses and


Aaron just before they go to Pharaoh. Pharaoh was going to ask them
for some proof that they are God’s ambassadors, come in His Name, and
make this demand of Pharaoh. He is looking for proof against them.
Moses is to then tell Aaron to take the rod given to him by
Moses (the one Moses had at Horeb), to cast it down before Pharaoh,
and it will become a serpent.
Verse 10. Moses and Aaron went in unto Pharaoh and did as
directed by the Lord. Before Pharaoh and his servants Aaron threw
down the rod: it became a serpent. The Lord knew Pharaoh would make
such a demand and why, as we see in his response.

Verse 11. Pharaoh had his own miracle workers, his magicians. He
calls for them to come and do their magic.
Verse 12. They throw down their rods, which also became
serpents. The serpent from Aaron’s rod swallowed the serpents from
all the Egyptians’ rods.

Verse 13. As God had predicted, Pharaoh was not impressed.


According to the Lord, Pharaoh had hardened his heart and would not
listen to Moses and Aaron.

Verse 14. The Lord told Moses and Aaron that Pharaoh’s mind was
stubborn and inflexible. He would not let the people go.

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Verses 15-25.

15 Get thee unto Pharaoh in the morning; lo, he goeth out unto the
water; and thou shalt stand by the river's brink against he come; and
the rod which was turned to a serpent shalt thou take in thine hand.
16 And thou shalt say unto him, The LORD God of the Hebrews hath
sent me unto thee, saying, Let my people go, that they may serve me
in the wilderness: and, behold, hitherto thou wouldest not hear.
17 Thus saith the LORD, In this thou shalt know that I am the LORD:
behold, I will smite with the rod that is in mine hand upon the
waters which are in the river, and they shall be turned to blood.
18 And the fish that is in the river shall die, and the river shall
stink; and the Egyptians shall loathe to drink of the water of the
river.
19 And the LORD spake unto Moses, Say unto Aaron, Take thy rod, and
stretch out thine hand upon the waters of Egypt, upon their streams,
upon their rivers, and upon their ponds, and upon all their pools of
water, that they may become blood; and that there may be blood
throughout all the land of Egypt, both in vessels of wood, and in
vessels of stone.
20 ¶ And Moses and Aaron did so, as the LORD commanded; and he
lifted up the rod, and smote the waters that were in the river, in
the sight of Pharaoh, and in the sight of his servants; and all the
waters that were in the river were turned to blood.
21 And the fish that was in the river died; and the river stank,
and the Egyptians could not drink of the water of the river; and
there was blood throughout all the land of Egypt.
22 And the magicians of Egypt did so with their enchantments: and
Pharaoh's heart was hardened, neither did he hearken unto them; as
the LORD had said.
23 And Pharaoh turned and went into his house, neither did he set
his heart to this also.
24 And all the Egyptians digged round about the river for water to
drink; for they could not drink of the water of the river.
25 ¶ And seven days were fulfilled, after that the LORD had smitten
the river.

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Commentary.

Verse 15. The Lord tells Moses and Aaron the next task in the
morning Pharaoh goes out to the Nile (which the Egyptians worshiped
as a god), possibly for a walk or to refresh himself.
They are to go to where Pharaoh is and stand by the water til he
sees them. Then Aaron is to take the rod that had been turned into a
serpent and hold it up in his hand. This would remind Pharaoh of the
wonder he had witnessed concerning it.

Verse 16. He is to speak directly to Pharaoh that he has been


sent by the God of the Hebrews to again demand he let God’s people go
into the wilderness to serve Him: to keep a feast. Demand precedes
punishment. He tells Pharaoh that he had not obeyed the Lord before.

Verse 17. The Lord says that Pharaoh will know His power and
vengeance by what is about to be done. He will strike by the rod in
Aaron’s hand. The waters of the Nile will be smitten and turn to
blood. The Lord would smite their god of the river as well, being
above all their imagined gods.

Verse 18. The consequences: all the fish of the river will die;
this will cause the river to stink. No one will be willing to drink
such putrefied water: the color – looking like blood, with dead fish
fish floating around. They will get weary.

Verse 19. Next the Lord commands Aaron to make the same curse on
all the waters of Egypt. They will become blood: not fit to drink.
Even water in vessels of wood or stone will be undrinkable.
There was one river in all of Egypt: the Nile. There were 7
streams from it, and canals dug from the Nile, even ponds that were
dug near the river.

Verse 20. Moses and Aaron followed the Lord’s orders exactly, in
front of Pharaoh and his servants on the edge of the river. All the
waters turned blood red, not just on the surface, but every part of
it, everywhere that it flowed.

Verse 21. to prove it was not just a harmless color change, but
blood, the fist in the river died. Now their drink and food were
affected. The common people lived of the fish mostly. The river began
also to stink. They had no other source of water. It seldom rained in
Egypt. This could be considered retaliation for the killing of Hebrew
babies by throwing them into the river Nile by the Egyptians.

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Verse 22. The magicians of Egypt were called for by Pharaoh to


use their enchantments to do a similar trick. They apparently had
some water in a similar vessel, and through their magic made it turn
red. If they reversed the river to normal, that would have canceled
the miracle of Moses and Aaron. Pharaoh’s magicians, by their turning
a tiny amount of water to red (by some illusion or potion) was enough
to harden Pharaoh’s heart again. He would not listen to Moses and
Aaron as previously, and as the Lord had predicted.

Verse 23. Pharaoh had had enough of this melodrama. He turned


away, and went back home to his palace in the city. His mind was set,
unchanged, and unimpressed.

Verse 24. Those having no other drinks or supply of juicy fruits


could only dig around the river, as the water would be somewhat
filtered and strained. It is not recorded if any drinkable liquid was
produced.

Verse 25. A full seven days passed after the river had been
smitten by the Lord. Only He had the power to inflict such a thing,
and for taking it away.

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Lesson VIII

Exodus chapter 8.

Verses 1-10.

1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, Go unto Pharaoh, and say unto
him, Thus saith the LORD, Let my people go, that they may serve me.
2 And if thou refuse to let them go, behold, I will smite all thy
borders with frogs:
3 and the river shall bring forth frogs abundantly, which shall go
up and come into thine house, and into thy bedchamber, and upon thy
bed, and into the house of thy servants, and upon thy people, and
into thine ovens, and into thy kneadingtroughs:
4 and the frogs shall come up both on thee, and upon thy people,
and upon all thy servants.
5 And the LORD spake unto Moses, Say unto Aaron, Stretch forth
thine hand with thy rod over the streams, over the rivers, and over
the ponds, and cause frogs to come up upon the land of Egypt.
6 And Aaron stretched out his hand over the waters of Egypt; and
the frogs came up, and covered the land of Egypt.
7 And the magicians did so with their enchantments, and brought up
frogs upon the land of Egypt.
8 ¶ Then Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron, and said, Entreat the
LORD, that he may take away the frogs from me, and from my people;
and I will let the people go, that they may do sacrifice unto the
LORD.
9 And Moses said unto Pharaoh, Glory over me: when shall I entreat
for thee, and for thy servants, and for thy people, to destroy the
frogs from thee and thy houses, that they may remain in the river
only?
10 And he said, Tomorrow. And he said, Be it according to thy word;
that thou mayest know that there is none like unto the LORD our God.

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Commentary.

Verses 1-6. Pharaoh is threatened with a plague of frogs, if he


again refused to let the people of Israel go. He did: so Aaron
pronounced the plague. The extent of the plague included the frogs in
great quantity would come up from the waters unto and into the yards,
houses, bedchambers and beds, and interfered with their kitchens and
food preparation. They will be everywhere, on all the people. The
Lord told Moses to proceed and tell Aaron to stretch his rod over all
the waters and bring forth the frogs. He did: the frogs came up in
uncountable numbers, spreading over all the land that very day, and
not staying in their usual habitats, but went anywhere and
everywhere, even in Pharaoh’s palace, on everything, in everything,
including the people. There was no escape.

Verse 7. the magicians were summoned again. They used their


magic and also produced frogs – they could do what Moses and Aaron
did. This did nothing to help the situation, but it was obviously all
they had power of trickery to do. Pharaoh came to the obvious
conclusion: to get rid of this plague of frogs, he must ask Moses and
Aaron to remove them.

Verses 8,9. Pharaoh called for them; he asks them to ask their
lord to get rid of the frogs. This shows his recognition of their God
as the only One that could remove this plague. He tells them that he
will let the people go to make sacrifice unto the Lord. Moses tells
him that he (Pharaoh) can make the decision and take the credit for
the time of taking the plague away (glory over me). Then frogs will
only be in the river back to normal.

Verse 10. The Pharaoh said, “tomorrow.” Three possible reasons


have been posed. 1. He might have thought that it may go away by
itself over this time. 2. That it might take time to entreat their
God, rites or ceremonies. 3. It may have been late in the day,
therefore deferred until the morning.
Moses said, “So be it!” This will show Pharaoh that there is no
other like the Lord His God.

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Verses 11-21.

11 And the frogs shall depart from thee, and from thy houses, and
from thy servants, and from thy people; they shall remain in the
river only.
12 And Moses and Aaron went out from Pharaoh: and Moses cried unto
the LORD because of the frogs which he had brought against Pharaoh.
13 And the LORD did according to the word of Moses; and the frogs
died out of the houses, out of the villages, and out of the fields.
14 And they gathered them together upon heaps; and the land stank.
15 But when Pharaoh saw that there was respite, he hardened his
heart, and hearkened not unto them; as the LORD had said.
16 ¶ And the LORD said unto Moses, Say unto Aaron, Stretch out thy
rod, and smite the dust of the land, that it may become lice
throughout all the land of Egypt.
17 And they did so; for Aaron stretched out his hand with his rod,
and smote the dust of the earth, and it became lice in man, and in
beast; all the dust of the land became lice throughout all the land
of Egypt.
18 And the magicians did so with their enchantments to bring forth
lice, but they could not: so there were lice upon man, and upon
beast.
19 Then the magicians said unto Pharaoh, This is the finger of God:
and Pharaoh's heart was hardened, and he hearkened not unto them; as
the LORD had said.
20 ¶ And the LORD said unto Moses, Rise up early in the morning,
and stand before Pharaoh; lo, he cometh forth to the water; and say
unto him, Thus saith the LORD, Let my people go, that they may serve
me.
21 Else, if thou wilt not let my people go, behold, I will send
swarms of flies upon thee, and upon thy servants, and upon thy
people, and into thy houses: and the houses of the Egyptians shall be
full of swarms of flies, and also the ground whereon they are.

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Commentary.

Verse 11. The hogs shall depart. They will be gotten rid of.
Only in the Nile will some remain as is normal.

Verse 12. As was their custom, Moses and Aaron went from Pharaoh
to their traditional location where they prayed and entreated of the
Lord. They prayed alone and fervently because of the plague of frogs.
He asks the Lord to remove the frogs tomorrow as he had promised
Pharaoh.

Verse 13. The Lord heard Moses’ prayer and did accordingly. The
frogs died wherever they were in the houses, fields, etc.

Verse 14. The dead frogs were gathered and piled up. There was a
horrible odor of all these putrefied dead frogs. They were disgusting
reminders and proof of the plague, and of it being also wiped out.
All credit to the God of Moses and Aaron.

Verse 15. Pharaoh and his people were so relieved that it was
over, they were again content, relaxed and at ease. This lead Pharaoh
to harden his heart. He refused to even listen to Moses and Aaron,
and as the Lord had predicted, he would not let the people of Israel
go.

Verse 16. The Lord told Moses and Aaron to smite the dust of
Egypt, with Aaron’s rod, it shall become lice throughout all of
Egypt.

Verse 17. He did so and the lice came in the dust of the land: a
miracle that only could come from God. A tiny noxious creature that
came upon man and animals all over Egypt.

Verse 18. the magicians were again challenged to do the same


“miracle” but could not. Their deception was at an end. They couldn’t
produced or remove such tiny creatures they were shown to be useless:
what they had done before was merely sleight of hand. They would no
more deceive Pharaoh or the people of Egypt.

Verse 19. Since they couldn’t deceive any longer these magicians
had to acknowledge that only a divine power could have brought this
plague to pass. They don’t mention Moses and Aaron, but Elohim, the
Supreme Being, not the lesser Jehovah of the Israelites.
Pharaoh would no longer listen to the magicians, who claimed to
know about the Eternal Power, or to Moses and Aaron and their demand
to let their people go. Again his heart was hardened, even as God had
predicted.

Verse 20. The Lord tells Moses to get up early in the morning
and stand in front of him as he goes to the river. Say to him: “Thus
saith the LORD, Let my people go, that they may serve me.”

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Verse 21. If not there will be consequences: swarms of flies of


every sort. They will be upon you (Pharaoh), and all the people, in
their houses, swarms covering the ground, without number.

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Verses 22-32.

22 And I will sever in that day the land of Goshen, in which my


people dwell, that no swarms of flies shall be there; to the end thou
mayest know that I am the LORD in the midst of the earth.
23 And I will put a division between my people and thy people:
tomorrow shall this sign be.
24 And the LORD did so; and there came a grievous swarm of flies
into the house of Pharaoh, and into his servants' houses, and into
all the land of Egypt: the land was corrupted by reason of the swarm
of flies.
25 ¶ And Pharaoh called for Moses and for Aaron, and said, Go ye,
sacrifice to your God in the land.
26 And Moses said, It is not meet so to do; for we shall sacrifice
the abomination of the Egyptians to the LORD our God: lo, shall we
sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians before their eyes, and
will they not stone us?
27 We will go three days' journey into the wilderness, and
sacrifice to the LORD our God, as he shall command us.
28 And Pharaoh said, I will let you go, that ye may sacrifice to
the LORD your God in the wilderness; only ye shall not go very far
away: entreat for me.
29 And Moses said, Behold, I go out from thee, and I will entreat
the LORD that the swarms of flies may depart from Pharaoh, from his
servants, and from his people, tomorrow: but let not Pharaoh deal
deceitfully any more in not letting the people go to sacrifice to the
LORD.
30 And Moses went out from Pharaoh, and entreated the LORD.
31 And the LORD did according to the word of Moses; and he removed
the swarms of flies from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his
people; there remained not one.
32 And Pharaoh hardened his heart at this time also, neither would
he let the people go.

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Commentary.

Verse 22. When the flies come, the Land of Goshen where God’s
people dwell will be separate: where no flies will come in swarms.
This is to show Pharaoh that the Lord, and only the Lord, has such
power over the earth: that He is the God of His chosen people, and
takes special care of them. This would distress and vex the Egyptians
when they would see no swarms of flies among them.

Verse 23. This would separate the Lord’s people from all others.
He would provide, deliver, and redeem them. This would come the next
day.

Verse 24. The Lord did so, showing that the Lord didn’t really
need Aaron or his rod. In all cases with Aaron, the Lord brought His
will to pass Himself alone. The swarms of flies came everywhere as
described: everywhere in Egypt – even into the houses of Pharaoh and
his servants, but not in Goshen. The land was made filthy by these
swarms without number.

Verse 25. Pharaoh sent for Moses and Aaron. These swarms were
pestilent, unbearable, leaving no time or place of safety or rest.
Pharaoh told them to go on and sacrifice to their Lord: but in the
land of Egypt (in Goshen) where they lived.

Verse 26. Moses told him that that was not acceptable. What they
sacrificed (sheep) would be a sacrilege to the Egyptians, to whom
they worshiped as a god, as all their other idols. They only animal
that was acceptable to them to sacrifice was swine. For them to
actually see Israelites sacrificing these animals would likely upset
them to the extent that they would try to kill the Israelites by
stoning them.

Verse 27. The solution is for the Israelites, being far enough
out of the sight of the Egyptians, to be safe, if they go 3 days
journey into the wilderness. This has always been part of the Lord’s
requirements. Thus they consider it absolutely essential.

Verse 28. Pharaoh agrees for them to go into the wilderness to


sacrifice to the Lord their God, but only a little way off – not more
than a 3 day trip. He didn’t completely trust that they wouldn’t try
to leave the country, not to come back. Pharaoh then asks them to ask
their Lord on his behalf – to be delivered from the plague.

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Verse 29. Moses then told him that he would immediately go to


the place he called upon the Lord and ask for orders and instructions
concerning getting rid of the swarms of flies. He only sent them. He
only could remove them. This would happen the next day.
Moses, having Pharaoh’s past deceitfulness in mind, tells him
not to lie to him again! In the past he had promised, but after the
frogs were gone, he refused to let them go. This time you must let
the people go sacrifice to the Lord.

Verse 30. Moses proceeded to go and seek the Lord on Pharaoh’s


behalf.

Verse 31. The Lord answered Moses’ plea, and removed the flies
from Egypt – not one left.

Verse 32. Again Pharaoh hardened his heart, after the flies were
gone. He refused to let the people go. They were still valuable as
his servants. He didn’t want to let them off, even if it was for a
few days. Take no chances!

Next: pestilence on the animals in the field.

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Lesson IX

Exodus chapter 9. The Plagues Continue.

Verses 1-11.

1 Then the LORD said unto Moses, Go in unto Pharaoh, and tell him,
Thus saith the LORD God of the Hebrews, Let my people go, that they
may serve me.
2 For if thou refuse to let them go, and wilt hold them still,
3 behold, the hand of the LORD is upon thy cattle which is in the
field, upon the horses, upon the asses, upon the camels, upon the
oxen, and upon the sheep: there shall be a very grievous murrain.
4 And the LORD shall sever between the cattle of Israel and the
cattle of Egypt: and there shall nothing die of all that is the
children's of Israel.
5 And the LORD appointed a set time, saying, Tomorrow the LORD
shall do this thing in the land.
6 And the LORD did that thing on the morrow, and all the cattle of
Egypt died: but of the cattle of the children of Israel died not one.
7 And Pharaoh sent, and, behold, there was not one of the cattle
of the Israelites dead. And the heart of Pharaoh was hardened, and he
did not let the people go.
8 ¶ And the LORD said unto Moses and unto Aaron, Take to you
handfuls of ashes of the furnace, and let Moses sprinkle it toward
the heaven in the sight of Pharaoh.
9 And it shall become small dust in all the land of Egypt, and
shall be a boil breaking forth with blains upon man, and upon beast,
throughout all the land of Egypt.
10 And they took ashes of the furnace, and stood before Pharaoh;
and Moses sprinkled it up toward heaven; and it became a boil
breaking forth with blains upon man, and upon beast.
11 And the magicians could not stand before Moses because of the
boils; for the boil was upon the magicians, and upon all the
Egyptians.

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Commentary.

Verse 1. The same day the plague of flies was ended, the Lord
told Moses to go unto pharaoh, boldly, without fear. He is to speak
in the name of Jehovah, the Lord God of the Hebrews: let any people
go, that they may serve me.

Verse 2. If he refuses (as he had before) to let them go, there


will be consequences.

Verse 3. He will behold the hand of the Lord do above and beyond
whatever Pharaoh could. The Lord will infect all of the animals of
the Egyptians with a pestilence that will kill great numbers.

Verse 4. But there will be a separation, for the cattle of


Israel will be unaffected by their plague of pestilence. None of
their animals will die.

Verse 5. There is a set time – tomorrow. This demonstrates that


the Lord is in control of this thing. It also gives Pharaoh a period
of time to think this thing through – to consider the advantage of
preventing this plague and to let the people of Israel go.

Verse 6. The next day the Lord brought the pestilential disease
upon the cattle, all in the field died. The cattle of the children of
Israel were not affected, and not one died.

Verse 7. the Pharaoh reacted by sending messengers to see if the


cattle of Israel had the pestilence and died. He had to see if the
divine prediction had come to pass. Pharaoh was told the news and
seems slightly surprised (behold). His solution was possibly and
simply taking the Israelites’ cattle to replace his and the people’s.
His heart was hardened, the people will stay. Even though this plague
took valuable stock, whereas the former were more nuisances. He seems
to have been more angry than fearful. He was not going to do anything
for these people, period!

Verse 8. Most likely, the following day, the Lord delivers new
orders to Moses and Aaron: the next plague. Moses is to take handfuls
of furnace ashes. He is to sprinkle them: hands lifted up towards
heaven. This must be done when Pharaoh is sure to see them. He must
witness that these ashes contained nothing else. Thus it represented
the miracle judgment of a plague, which would come only from heaven,
from the God of Heaven because Pharaoh still would not let God’s
people go.

Verse 9. The ashes signified small particles that would come in


all the land of Egypt, falling like snow; but will be hot, producing
sore boils, blisters, pustules. It will affect the people as well as
the animals. This will include great pain and discomfort.

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Verse 10. They took the ashes of the furnace; they stood before
Pharaoh in some open area where the sky was in view. Moses held up
his hands toward heaven with the ashes, and sprinkled them into the
open air. They blew away and landed on people and animals with the
promised effect of boils, blisters, burned blotches.

Verse 11. Pharaoh’s magicians seem to have been affect both


first, and severely. They could do nothing against it. They were in
such pain and discomfort that they had to withdraw. The plague spread
quickly upon all the Egyptians. Moses, Aaron, and all the Israelites
were not affected. See Deuteronomy 28:27 – where it is called “the
botch of Egypt.”

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Verses 12-21.

12 And the LORD hardened the heart of Pharaoh, and he hearkened not
unto them; as the LORD had spoken unto Moses.
13 ¶ And the LORD said unto Moses, Rise up early in the morning,
and stand before Pharaoh, and say unto him, Thus saith the LORD God
of the Hebrews, Let my people go, that they may serve me.
14 For I will at this time send all my plagues upon thine heart,
and upon thy servants, and upon thy people; that thou mayest know
that there is none like me in all the earth.
15 For now I will stretch out my hand, that I may smite thee and
thy people with pestilence; and thou shalt be cut off from the earth.
16 And in very deed for this cause have I raised thee up, for to
show in thee my power; and that my name may be declared throughout
all the earth.
17 As yet exaltest thou thyself against my people, that thou wilt
not let them go?
18 Behold, tomorrow about this time I will cause it to rain a very
grievous hail, such as hath not been in Egypt since the foundation
thereof even until now.
19 Send therefore now, and gather thy cattle, and all that thou
hast in the field; for upon every man and beast which shall be found
in the field, and shall not be brought home, the hail shall come down
upon them, and they shall die.
20 He that feared the word of the LORD among the servants of
Pharaoh made his servants and his cattle flee into the houses:
21 and he that regarded not the word of the LORD left his servants
and his cattle in the field.

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Commentary.

Verse 12. As Pharaoh had so long and repeatedly hardened his own
heart, the Lord gave him up to his own corruptions, hatred and
stubbornness. He will not heed anything that would have made a
positive or logical change in him. He would not listen to Moses and
Aaron. As the Lord told them that he wouldn’t.

Verse 13. The Lord next told Moses to get up early and appear
before Pharaoh (Possibly at the river as before). And tell him the
Lord calls upon him to let His people go so they may serve Him.

Verse 14. The Lord has more plagues to bring him, that would
reach his heart even with terror. They will also happen unto his
servants and all his people. This should finally convince him and his
people that the Lord God of Israel is above all that are in the
earth.

Verse 15. The Lord states that if He had smitten Pharaoh and his
people with the pestilence (as He had on the animals) they would all
be dead, no longer in the land of the living.

Verse 16. The Lord had raised him up for this purpose of showing
in him the Lord’s power. He will continue to live only for this
reason. His end will come in the Red Sea – which will dramatically
demonstrate God’s power over him and his army. This will declare the
Lord’s Name throughout all the earth.

Verse 17. The Lord accuses Pharaoh of exalting himself above the
Lord in his unwillingness to let his people go. He has disobeyed the
Lord, despised His messengers, ignored His miracles, hardened his
heart, and repeatedly refused to let Israel go. He was too proud and
insolent. The Lord takes what is done to His people as done to
Himself.
Verse 18. Pay close attention, tomorrow about this time God will
cause a rain of dangerous hail: thick, very numerous, heavy, to last
a long time. This has never been seen in Egypt since it began until
this day.

Verse 19. You had better gather all things of value on the
outside and bring them in, especially your cattle. This plague was
certain and deadly. This warning was God’s mercy. Whatever and
whoever is not brought in will be certainly killed by the hail.

Verse 20. Among Pharaoh’s servants there were those who had
learned to fear the word of the Lord. This new pronouncement, if
fulfilled, would be certain death. These servants got the cattle and
themselves safely in the house.

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Verse 21. Those that chose to disregard the word of the Lord
left his servants and cattle in the field. It may be thought that
these were greater in number than the former group. They chose to
ignore the warning.

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Verses 22-35.

22 ¶ And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch forth thine hand toward
heaven, that there may be hail in all the land of Egypt, upon man,
and upon beast, and upon every herb of the field, throughout the land
of Egypt.
23 And Moses stretched forth his rod toward heaven: and the LORD
sent thunder and hail, and the fire ran along upon the ground; and
the LORD rained hail upon the land of Egypt.
24 So there was hail, and fire mingled with the hail, very
grievous, such as there was none like it in all the land of Egypt
since it became a nation.
25 And the hail smote throughout all the land of Egypt all that was
in the field, both man and beast; and the hail smote every herb of
the field, and brake every tree of the field.
26 Only in the land of Goshen, where the children of Israel were,
was there no hail.
27 ¶ And Pharaoh sent, and called for Moses and Aaron, and said
unto them, I have sinned this time: the LORD is righteous, and I and
my people are wicked.
28 Entreat the LORD (for it is enough) that there be no more mighty
thunderings and hail; and I will let you go, and ye shall stay no
longer.
29 And Moses said unto him, As soon as I am gone out of the city, I
will spread abroad my hands unto the LORD; and the thunder shall
cease, neither shall there be any more hail; that thou mayest know
how that the earth is the LORD's.
30 But as for thee and thy servants, I know that ye will not yet
fear the LORD God.
31 And the flax and the barley was smitten: for the barley was in
the ear, and the flax was bolled.
32 But the wheat and the rye were not smitten: for they were not
grown up.
33 And Moses went out of the city from Pharaoh, and spread abroad
his hands unto the LORD: and the thunders and hail ceased, and the
rain was not poured upon the earth.
34 And when Pharaoh saw that the rain and the hail and the thunders
were ceased, he sinned yet more, and hardened his heart, he and his
servants.
35 And the heart of Pharaoh was hardened, neither would he let the
children of Israel go; as the LORD had spoken by Moses.

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Commentary.

Verse 22. Moses is given new orders from the Lord. Tomorrow he
is to stretch his hand toward heaven (with his rod), indicating that
the following plague was coming from the Lord from heaven. This would
be a deadly hail all over Egypt (which was really unheard of). It
would fall upon and kill both people and animals, and also this would
destroy plants as well, over the entire country.

Verse 23. Moses did so and the Lord sent the hail, thunder, fire
along the ground, and the hail (certainly lightning). The hail was so
large that it broke trees down as well as killing all that were
alive, crashing and destroying the crops. Egypt was well known to
seldom even experience hail, so this hail was entirely unique in two
ways – never ever having fallen in Egypt, and with great size and the
accompanying lightning.
Verse 24. The hail didn’t stop the fire. The fire didn’t melt
the hail: very grievous. This had never happened before in the land
of Egypt.

Verse 25. The hail destroyed as promised – all over Egypt; those
that didn’t take the warning seriously died from it. The animals as
well, and trees, the other crops were destroyed.

Verse 26. Only in the land of Goshen where the Israelites were,
there was no hail. There may have been some Egyptians that decided to
go there for safety, taking advantage of the Israelites in a newer
way.

Verse 27. Pharaoh sent for Aaron and Moses. When they arrived
(they most likely were not far off, possibly in the palace), he
admitted he had sinned “this time”! What about all the previous
times? He was frightened not truly repentant. The threat of death,
the constant pounding of the hail, the lightning and thunder
continuous.
He goes so far as saying “the Lord is righteous!” He and his
people are wicked. Was he genuinely sincere? The following verses
will show that he was not.

Verse 28. He asks them to earnestly ask the Lord to stop this
plague. It had caused enough destruction and death. He promises to
them that he will then let them go. They will no longer stay.

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Verse 29. Moses told him that he would call on the Lord when he
gets out of the city. He would entreat the Lord in the open field
unafraid of the hail and in private. He will spread out his hands
unto the Lord. This was an ancient custom (even used by heathens). He
expresses his complete confidence in the Lord’s response: the storm
will cease (thunder and hail). Thus Moses is a god to Pharaoh since
his word comes to pass, whether for ill or for good. When this plague
ends, this is further and greater power over nature: this equals the
demonstration of the earth being the Lord’s possession. Pharaoh had
neither the right nor the power to detain the Lord’s people.

Verse 30. Moses then tells Pharaoh, in spite of his and his
servants confessing their sin. And that the Lord would remove the
plague but he also knew that Pharaoh and his servants “will not yet
fear the Lord.” Once the plague is gone they will sin again.
Verse 31. The flax and barley were destroyed. Great quantities
were produced. Light flax was used in making linen. The barley was
used to feed the cattle and to make a fermented drink (like beer).
Both crops were ripe, fully grown, and easily destroyed by the hail
storm.

Verse 32. The crops of wheat and rye were yet so young and close
to the ground that they weren’t destroyed. Some consider the word
translated “rye” is actually rice.

Verse 33. Moses left Pharaoh, went out of the city into the
field. He spread his hands before the Lord, ready to receive the
Lord’s promise the thunder and hail ceased thereupon. Nothing rained
upon the earth.

Verse 23. When Pharaoh observed that the plague was gone: a
clear sky, no storm, no hail, no thunder, he again sinned yet more,
hardening his heart, and his servants. No thankfulness, respect or
consideration. Their fears and fright were gone, so was his promise
to let the children of Israel go.

Verse 35. Pharaoh’s heart was hardened as the Lord had said to
Moses. He will not yet let the people go.

Next, locusts.

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Lesson X

Exodus chapter 10. Locusts.

Verses 1-11.

1 And the LORD said unto Moses, Go in unto Pharaoh: for I have
hardened his heart, and the heart of his servants, that I might show
these my signs before him:
2 and that thou mayest tell in the ears of thy son, and of thy
son's son, what things I have wrought in Egypt, and my signs which I
have done among them; that ye may know how that I am the LORD.
3 ¶ And Moses and Aaron came in unto Pharaoh, and said unto him,
Thus saith the LORD God of the Hebrews, How long wilt thou refuse to
humble thyself before me? let my people go, that they may serve me.
4 Else, if thou refuse to let my people go, behold, tomorrow will
I bring the locusts into thy coast:
5 and they shall cover the face of the earth, that one cannot be
able to see the earth: and they shall eat the residue of that which
is escaped, which remaineth unto you from the hail, and shall eat
every tree which groweth for you out of the field:
6 and they shall fill thy houses, and the houses of all thy
servants, and the houses of all the Egyptians; which neither thy
fathers, nor thy fathers' fathers have seen, since the day that they
were upon the earth unto this day. And he turned himself, and went
out from Pharaoh.
7 ¶ And Pharaoh's servants said unto him, How long shall this man
be a snare unto us? let the men go, that they may serve the LORD
their God: knowest thou not yet that Egypt is destroyed?
8 And Moses and Aaron were brought again unto Pharaoh: and he said
unto them, Go, serve the LORD your God: but who are they that shall
go?
9 And Moses said, We will go with our young and with our old, with
our sons and with our daughters, with our flocks and with our herds
will we go; for we must hold a feast unto the LORD.
10 And he said unto them, Let the LORD be so with you, as I will
let you go, and your little ones: look to it; for evil is before you.
11 Not so: go now ye that are men, and serve the LORD; for that ye
did desire. And they were driven out from Pharaoh's presence.

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Commentary.

Verse 1. Again, Moses is told to go to Pharaoh – even though his


heart has been hardened. He reminds Moses that this has a carefully
planned purpose. He plans to show His signs to Pharaoh, all of Egypt,
and the people of Israel. The hearts of the servants are also
mentioned as being hardened this time as well.

Verse 2. Moses will tell all that God does in Egypt to the
people of Israel to be passed down from generation to generation.
This includes the signs which generate and inspire great faith and
trust in their Lord – the one and true God.

Verse 3. Moses and Aaron went in unto Pharaoh and spoke unto
Pharaoh the message from the Lord god of the Hebrews. The question:
How long will he refuse to let the Lord’s people go to serve the
Lord. He has put himself above and more powerful than the Lord.
Pharaoh has admitted sinning one time, but only for a short time. He
is given another chance to submit to the Lord’s demand. “Let my
people go, that they may serve me.”

Verse 4. There is a certain consequence if Pharaoh refuses.


Watch for tomorrow the Lord will bring locusts into his domain.

Verse 5. This plague of locusts will actually cover over


everything, so no one will be able to see what is in front of them,
even the land, the plants etc. They will eat anything and everything
left after the hail was gone, even gnawing on trees, and anything
growing anywhere.

Verse 6. These multitudes of locusts will go everywhere: into


buildings – filling every house of all Egypt. To cover a whole
country had never happened before. Moses and Aaron simply turned away
from Pharaoh and walked out of his presence.
Verse 7. Pharaoh’s servants spoke up – they were fed up with the
troubles brought upon all Egypt by this person. Egypt is almost
completely destroyed because of this guy’s actions. They demand that
he let these people go – before the land is completely destroyed –
let them serve their God. Notice – let “the men go”.

Verse 8. Pharaoh sent for Moses and Aaron after this


confrontation with his ministers. When they got there, Pharaoh told
them that he will let them go serve their God. But he wanted to know
exactly who would be going. He obviously had no intention of allowing
everyone to go. He wasn’t going to give them the possibility of
leaving the country; they were to valuable to him.

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Verse 9. the old would go to lead, instruct, and direct the


younger in the sacrifice and proper way to serve their God. Also the
children must be present to participate as well. The animals needed
for the sacrifice must also go.

Verse 10. Pharaoh tells them that their Lord may be in favor of
letting them go with children. He has suspicion that they have some
evil intent against him in this situation (such as rebellion) or he
would punish them if they don’t comply with his conditions.

Verse 11. Not so! Only the men can go and serve the Lord.
Pharaoh is suggesting that that was what they first asked for – the
men to go 3 days into the wilderness and sacrifice unto the Lord. But
it had always been “let my people go”. Moses and Aaron were thrown
out.

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Verses 12-20.

12 ¶ And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand over the
land of Egypt for the locusts, that they may come up upon the land of
Egypt, and eat every herb of the land, even all that the hail hath
left.
13 And Moses stretched forth his rod over the land of Egypt, and
the LORD brought an east wind upon the land all that day, and all
that night; and when it was morning, the east wind brought the
locusts.
14 And the locusts went up over all the land of Egypt, and rested
in all the coasts of Egypt: very grievous were they; before them
there were no such locusts as they, neither after them shall be such.
15 For they covered the face of the whole earth, so that the land
was darkened; and they did eat every herb of the land, and all the
fruit of the trees which the hail had left: and there remained not
any green thing in the trees, or in the herbs of the field, through
all the land of Egypt.
16 Then Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron in haste; and he said, I
have sinned against the LORD your God, and against you.
17 Now therefore forgive, I pray thee, my sin only this once, and
entreat the LORD your God, that he may take away from me this death
only.
18 And he went out from Pharaoh, and entreated the LORD.
19 And the LORD turned a mighty strong west wind, which took away
the locusts, and cast them into the Red sea; there remained not one
locust in all the coasts of Egypt.
20 But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, so that he would not let
the children of Israel go.

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Commentary.

Verse 12. The Lord told Moses to stretch out his hand in all
directions toward every part of Egypt. This was a sign of where the
locusts would go. Their role was to eat up every living plant and its
fruit, that were left behind after the plagues of hail.

Verse 13. Moses did so with his rod in his hand. Then the Lord
set the east wind to blow – all that day and night. In the morning,
the locusts began to arrive, brought by that east wind.

Verse 14. These locusts flew and spread themselves all over the
land of Egypt, then landed wherever they could see plants to growing.
They settled in everywhere – every meadow, garden, orchards,
pastures, and fields. Because of the multitude they did “grievous
destruction”. Never before and never again, were there to be such as
these locusts. It is also suggested that they were unusually large.

Verse 15. The sky was darkened when they were flying, the
sunlight being blocked. Then when they covered the ground, it could
not be see, because of their being a dark brown color. Once down they
proceeded to eat whatever they could get to until tall plants in
Egypt were gone, though they had survived the hail.

Verse 16. Pharaoh very quickly called for Moses and Aaron, to
get them to him as quickly as possible. He had formerly driven them
from his presence. Now he needed them back immediately. When they
arrived he admitted his sin – against their Lord and against them. He
had refused their request to let the Lord’s people go. He is not
acknowledging their God, his god also – but only of Moses, Aaron, and
the Israelites. But he is in a panic about his country being
destroyed – both the land and the people. This plague must be
stopped.

Verse 17. He asks forgiveness – this once – as if he did not


intend to sin against Moses or Moses’ God again. He asks for the
forgiveness of Moses, then asks Moses to get his God to forgive him
by putting a stop to this plague of certain death.

Verse 18. Moses did a requested, praying to the Lord to remove


the plague of locusts from the land of Egypt.

Verse 19. The Lord promptly turned a mighty west wind, which
blew the locusts eastward, and into the Red Sea. Egypt was left
without a single locust remaining. Obviously an act of God, as was
the bringing in.

Verse 20. The outcome was to be one more plague. pharaoh’s heart
was hardened by God. He had the final judgment yet to inflict on
Egypt. Pharaoh, once the locusts were gone, would not let the
children of Israel go.

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Verses 21-29.

21 ¶ And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand toward
heaven, that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, even
darkness which may be felt.
22 And Moses stretched forth his hand toward heaven; and there was
a thick darkness in all the land of Egypt three days:
23 they saw not one another, neither rose any from his place for
three days: but all the children of Israel had light in their
dwellings.
24 And Pharaoh called unto Moses, and said, Go ye, serve the LORD;
only let your flocks and your herds be stayed: let your little ones
also go with you.
25 And Moses said, Thou must give us also sacrifices and burnt
offerings, that we may sacrifice unto the LORD our God.
26 Our cattle also shall go with us; there shall not a hoof be left
behind; for thereof must we take to serve the LORD our God; and we
know not with what we must serve the LORD, until we come thither.
27 But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he would not let them
go.
28 And Pharaoh said unto him, Get thee from me, take heed to
thyself, see my face no more; for in that day thou seest my face thou
shalt die.
29 And Moses said, Thou hast spoken well, I will see thy face again
no more.

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Commentary.

Verse 21. Pharaoh’s punishment from the Lord. Moses is to


stretch forth his hand toward heaven, which signifies where the light
comes from – but now signifies the blocking of that light by thick
darkness, as clouds of dirty volcanic ash, enough to block the
sunlight. This darkness will be felt.

Verse 22. Moses did so and the darkness came, staying 3 days.

Verse 23. This darkness was so thick as to block all light, even
man-made – fires or lamps would not burn. The people could not even
see other people. This caused all people to stay put, not trying to
stumble around and take serious risks of injury. Obviously terrified,
it must have seemed like the end of life as they knew it.
The children of Israel had less density of the thick vapors so
their lights would burn and they could take care of things within
their dwellings. It might have occurred to some among the Israelites
to pack up and take off. However, it was not done. It was not yet the
Lord’s time.

Verse 24. Whenever the darkness had dissipated enough to


navigate again (after 3 days) Pharaoh sent again for Moses. He most
likely was still fearful, not knowing what Moses would do next. To
prevent this he tells Moses to go serve the Lord, BUT not with any of
your animals (herds and flocks). Take your children. Pharaoh
considers this a great generosity on his part.

Verse 25. Moses reminds him of his obligation to sacrifice and


make offerings this is why the animals must also go. These are
required by the Lord.

Verse 26. A proverbial saying: “there shall not a hoof be left


behind”. All animals were necessary to be available to do whatever
the Lord may require. Only when they were 3 days journey in the
wilderness would it be made clear.

Verse 27. Again, and for the same reasons, the Lord kept
Pharaoh’s heart and will against letting these people go, now or
ever.

Verse 28. Pharaoh tells him to get out, pronto. And a threat:
Moses must carefully watch out for himself: make certain that he will
never again be in Pharaoh’s presence. If he sees Pharaoh, and Pharaoh
sees him, Moses will be killed, period!
He foolishly says that he refuses to have anything to do with
Moses: considering what Moses (through the Lord) had power over him
and had the plagues called down upon the land and people. Pharaoh
wanted to at least express what power he felt he still had.

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Verse 29. Moses’ response is quite reasonable – he has no desire


to see Pharaoh again (unless, of course, he is called for by
Pharaoh). He has no fear of Pharaoh. This response would not be what
Pharaoh intended or expected.

End.

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Lesson XI

Exodus 11:1-10.

1 And the LORD said unto Moses, Yet will I bring one plague more
upon Pharaoh, and upon Egypt; afterward he will let you go hence:
when he shall let you go, he shall surely thrust you out hence
altogether.
2 Speak now in the ears of the people, and let every man borrow of
his neighbor, and every woman of her neighbor, jewels of silver, and
jewels of gold.
3 And the LORD gave the people favor in the sight of the
Egyptians. Moreover, the man Moses was very great in the land of
Egypt, in the sight of Pharaoh's servants, and in the sight of the
people.
4 ¶ And Moses said, Thus saith the LORD, About midnight will I go
out into the midst of Egypt:
5 and all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the
firstborn of Pharaoh that sitteth upon his throne, even unto the
firstborn of the maidservant that is behind the mill; and all the
firstborn of beasts.
6 And there shall be a great cry throughout all the land of Egypt,
such as there was none like it, nor shall be like it any more.
7 But against any of the children of Israel shall not a dog move
his tongue, against man or beast: that ye may know how that the LORD
doth put a difference between the Egyptians and Israel.
8 And all these thy servants shall come down unto me, and bow down
themselves unto me, saying, Get thee out, and all the people that
follow thee: and after that I will go out. And he went out from
Pharaoh in a great anger.
9 And the LORD said unto Moses, Pharaoh shall not hearken unto
you; that my wonders may be multiplied in the land of Egypt.
10 ¶ And Moses and Aaron did all these wonders before Pharaoh: and
the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, so that he would not let the
children of Israel go out of his land.

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Commentary.

Verse 1. After Moses had been dismissed with a threat of death


from Pharaoh, he had been told by the Lord that one more plague was
to be carried out upon Pharaoh and all Egypt. After it, Pharaoh will
let the people of Israel go – even to the point of thrusting them out
– to pack up, take everything and everybody, never to return.

Verse 2. Moses is to get this message to all his people. They


are then to ask their Egyptian neighbors to let them borrow items
they can use in the great sacrifice and feast unto the Lord. They
were to request the best items of silver and gold – vessels, jewelry
and clothing. This may also be considered a kind of payment for their
years of service as unpaid workers.

Verse 3. The Lord moved the people of Egypt to think favorably


about the Hebrews. Thus did they willingly and generously lend them
the things they asked for. It was also that at this time Moses well
known all over the country. He was thought of as a great man. He was
famous for all the signs, wonders, and miracles wrought by him – and
that at his word these plagues were removed. They considered it
necessary not to do anything to make Moses angry with them. He was
admired and feared by every class and station of the Egyptians; from
Pharaoh, his ministry, servants, the common people as well.

Verse 4. The 3 preceding verses are considered a parenthesis:


the account beginning here takes up the words Moses spoke to Pharaoh
before he left when he would tell Pharaoh that he would see his face
no more.
The message was from the Lord. About midnight of that day the
Lord will go to the middle of Egypt.

Verse 5. The firstborn children will die a sudden and immediate


death. This will include all the people from Pharaoh’s first born,
all the way down to the most menial servant (maidservant at the
millstones). It will also include the firstborn of every animal!

Verse 6. The result will be a great and tragic sorrow all over
the whole land of Egypt – from the highest to the lowest. Also great
fear – what happens next are those left also doomed. Nothing like
this had ever happened before. The Lord says that it will net ever
happen again either. Truly unique event in all of history!

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Verse 7. The children of Israel will not experience any hurt to


man or animal. Among them there will be profound, stillness,
calmness. Even to the extent that no dogs will even open their mouths
to bark.
This would show the greatest contrast between them and the great
crying out among all the people and animals of the Egyptians.
It will be incontestable truth that only God the Lord of the
Hebrews could have made this happen. No one could deny it. It will
also be a miracle that the Israelites will leave Egypt in a quiet and
orderly fashion, with no Egyptian to raise their voice or do anything
to prevent their exodus!

Verse 8. Moses then turns to those of Pharaoh’s ministers,


courtiers, and counselors and predicts that these servants of Pharaoh
will come to where Moses is and bow down unto him; those with humble
and earnest voices plead with him that he get out of Egypt, he and
all his people, not one to be left behind. At that time, Moses will
leave Egypt forever.
Moses had delivered the Lord’s message. And since Pharaoh had
told him to get out and a threat on his life, Moses walked out from
there “in great anger”.

Verse 9. Moses is reminded again of the Lord’s words of


explanation that Pharaoh was not going to let the people go as each
time before, for the Lord’s purpose of His wonders shall be
multiplied until all are accomplished in the land of Egypt.

Verse 10. This summarizes all the previous wonders (plagues)


that Moses and Aaron were central actors before Pharaoh. Each time
Pharaoh’s heart was hardened by God so that Pharaoh would not let the
children of Israel go out of his land. This sets the stage for the
final plague of the death of the firstborn being brought against all
the Egyptians.

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Verses 1-10.

1 And the LORD spake unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt,
saying,
2 This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall
be the first month of the year to you.
3 Speak ye unto all the congregation of Israel, saying, In the
tenth day of this month they shall take to them every man a lamb,
according to the house of their fathers, a lamb for a house:
4 and if the household be too little for the lamb, let him and his
neighbor next unto his house take it according to the number of the
souls; every man according to his eating shall make your count for
the lamb.
5 Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male of the first year: ye
shall take it out from the sheep, or from the goats:
6 and ye shall keep it up until the fourteenth day of the same
month: and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall
kill it in the evening.
7 And they shall take of the blood, and strike it on the two side
posts and on the upper doorpost of the houses, wherein they shall eat
it.
8 And they shall eat the flesh in that night, roast with fire, and
unleavened bread; and with bitter herbs they shall eat it.
9 Eat not of it raw, nor sodden at all with water, but roast with
fire; his head with his legs, and with the purtenance thereof.
10 And ye shall let nothing of it remain until the morning; and
that which remaineth of it until the morning ye shall burn with fire.

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Commentary.

Verses 1,2,3. This begins the formal statement of the


Institution of the Passover, by God to Moses and Aaron, which they
are to deliver to all the people of Israel in the land of Egypt. It
was the 7th month to the Egyptians.
This present month is to be the first month of the yer to them,
the most important for them. The vernal equinox – the month of March
(Abib or Nisan in Hebrew).
When gathered together they are told that on the 10th day they
are (the heads of each house) to take a lamb. This time allowed for
seeking the exact specification of each lamb. It allowed time for
thinking about its purpose, especially related to their actually
getting out of Egypt.

Verse 4. An alternate plan is provided: the lamb must be


completely consumed at one meal – so smaller families should seek out
nearby families to be the proper amount to fulfill the requirements
of observing this most important rite and sacrifice in the history of
Israel (and the world).

Verse 5. The lamb must be without spot or blemish. A type of


Christ: innocent, meek, humble, patient, perfect (sinless), harmless
– the Lamb, slain from the foundation of the world. I Corinthians
5:7, “our Passover sacrificed for us.” If a suitable lamb could not
be found, a kid of the goats was permitted (for poor people).

Verse 6. Four days (to the 14th day of the same month) the lamb
is to be kept in the house. In the evening the lamb shall be killed.
This was a chosen and familiar lamb to the whole family. The date,
14th of Nisan – before its setting (about 3 P.M.).

Verse 7. they are to put the slain lamb’s blood in a basin, then
strike it with a bunch of hyssop dipped in it upon the two side door
posts and the top door post (later called a lintel), of the house
wherein the lamb will be eaten. This was unique to the Passover in
Egypt – not used oftentimes.

Verse 8. They shall eat the flesh, roasted with fire. This
denotes the suffering of Christ; partaking of this in faith and
thankfulness to God and Christ. Also, unleavened bread was to be
eaten at the same time. Both the lamb and the bread were to beaten
hastily since they were going to be leaving very soon. They were not
to take the time to allow the bread to rise. It also signified
purity, sincerity, and truth – with the leaven of error and malice
out.
Also bitter herbs were to be eaten – this is a sign of the
bitter afflictions the children of Israel had suffered in Egypt,
thereby were their lives bitter.

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Verse 9. All parts of the lamb must be roasted – nothing left or


eaten raw, or with water (boiled). The whole lamb was to be roasted
together, including its innards: As Christ was offered up upon the
cross.

Verse 10. All of the lamb was to be consumed that night. Nothing
was to be left in the morning. This was to avoid any use or misuse of
any remaining part. Any uneaten parts were burned up – nothing to b e
left in the morning. This also signifies the whole and complete
sacrifice of Christ, to be received and bring new life by faith.

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Verses 11-20.

11 And thus shall ye eat it; with your loins girded, your shoes on
your feet, and your staff in your hand; and ye shall eat it in haste:
it is the LORD's passover.
12 For I will pass through the land of Egypt this night, and will
smite all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and
against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment: I am the LORD.
13 And the blood shall be to you for a token upon the houses where
ye are: and when I see the blood, I will pass over you, and the
plague shall not be upon you to destroy you, when I smite the land of
Egypt.
14 ¶ And this day shall be unto you for a memorial; and ye shall
keep it a feast to the LORD throughout your generations: ye shall
keep it a feast by an ordinance for ever.
15 Seven days shall ye eat unleavened bread; even the first day ye
shall put away leaven out of your houses: for whosoever eateth
leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that soul
shall be cut off from Israel.
16 And in the first day there shall be a holy convocation, and in
the seventh day there shall be a holy convocation to you; no manner
of work shall be done in them, save that which every man must eat,
that only may be done of you.
17 And ye shall observe the feast of unleavened bread; for in this
selfsame day have I brought your armies out of the land of Egypt:
therefore shall ye observe this day in your generations by an
ordinance for ever.
18 In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at even,
ye shall eat unleavened bread, until the one and twentieth day of the
month at even.
19 Seven days shall there be no leaven found in your houses: for
whosoever eateth that which is leavened, even that soul shall be cut
off from the congregation of Israel, whether he be a stranger, or
born in the land.
20 Ye shall eat nothing leavened; in all your habitations shall ye
eat unleavened bread.

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Commentary.

Verse 11. These preparations were, again, unique to the Passover


in Egypt. They were to be ready to travel: their long garments were
to be “gird-up”. Shoes on their feet (not worn during feasts usually)
and your staff in hand (used in traveling for support, and to protect
and defend themselves). They must eat in haste, for the Egyptians
would very soon demand they leave hastily, without any delay. This is
the Lord’s plan, that He will pass over the Israelites, thus the
Lord’s Passover.

Verse 12. The Lord God Almighty will pass over the entire land
of Egypt that night, to smite all the firstborn of Egypt – man and
beast. All the gods of Egypt will be judged as false, without any
power, and having no value at all. Their idols and images were
useless. All the Egyptians will learn that only the Lord of Israel is
Almighty God over all the earth.

Verse 13. The purpose of the blood of the lamb on the doorposts
of their houses is the sign that the Lord makes good His promises to
them of safety. The destroying angel will see the blood, and pass
over that house, and go on to the houses of the Egyptians. This
plague will not be on them, to destroy them, only on the Egyptians.

Verse 14. This day is to be held as a memorial – a law to


celebrate this feast to the Lord, passed down from generation to
generation, forever.
The destruction of the firstborn of all of Egypt; the
deliverance of God’s people from this plague, and the deliverance of
Israel out of Egypt.
According to Micah 7:15 Israel is to be redeemed on the same day
(15th of Nisan) in the days of the Messiah. The Messiah, the true
Passover Lamb of God, will be sacrificed for us.

Verse 15. For 7 days (evening of the 14th day to evening of the
st
21 ), they were to eat unleavened bread. This was a commemoration
feast of their hasty departure from Egypt. The leaven was to be taken
out of their houses during this time. To disobey this ordinance (by
eating leavened bread, or having leaven found in their house, they
are to be cut off from Israel – no specific details are recorded: it
is conjectured that this could be simply no longer accounted as an
Israelite, not allowed to participate in sacrifices and worship unto
the Lord. Another suggestion was the penalty of death.

Verse 16. In the first day a holy convocation: the people will
completely abstain from any worldly work or business, and they must
be holy and only do holy exercises.
The first day was their going out of Egypt. The seventh was the
day Pharaoh and his army were drowned in the Red Sea.
The only exception was the preparation offered for sustenance on
these days.

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Verse 17. This feast of unleavened bread lasted 7 days, as


distinct from the one day of Passover’s unleavened bread. This was
instituted before the actual event of their leaving Egypt. From God’s
point of view, this bringing of the entire people of Israel was
established beforehand because God would make it happen even as He
promised. It is also to be celebrated as established, generation to
generation, even forever.

Verse 18. The exact time of the Passover and feast of unleavened
bread first month, 14th day, in the evening, unto the 21st day. This
was to represent the Israelites that they should live without what
leaven denotes, guile, hypocrisy, malice. They are to live by truth
and sincerity.

Verse 19. To be certain that this was observed, there would be


careful searches in every house for any leaven kept in secret.
Whatever was found was destroyed, burnt, or cast into the wind or
into the sea. Thus if anyone is found eating leavened bread has
consciously and purposely disobeyed God’s ordinance. This included
those born a Jew or one that has professed the Jewish religion (a
proselyte). The punishment is the same as recorded in verse 15 of
this chapter: cut off from the congregation of Israel.

Verse 20. It is emphasized that they are to eat nothing with any
leaven in it. No matter when or where you eat: it must be made
certain that the bread is unleavened.

Next, Moses delivers God’s direction to all the elders of


Israel.

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Lesson XII

Exodus chapter 12.

Verses 21-30.

21 ¶ Then Moses called for all the elders of Israel, and said unto
them, Draw out and take you a lamb according to your families, and
kill the passover.
22 And ye shall take a bunch of hyssop, and dip it in the blood
that is in the basin, and strike the lintel and the two side posts
with the blood that is in the basin; and none of you shall go out at
the door of his house until the morning.
23 For the LORD will pass through to smite the Egyptians; and when
he seeth the blood upon the lintel, and on the two side posts, the
LORD will pass over the door, and will not suffer the destroyer to
come in unto your houses to smite you.
24 And ye shall observe this thing for an ordinance to thee and to
thy sons for ever.
25 And it shall come to pass, when ye be come to the land which the
LORD will give you, according as he hath promised, that ye shall keep
this service.
26 And it shall come to pass, when your children shall say unto
you, What mean ye by this service?
27 That ye shall say, It is the sacrifice of the LORD's passover,
who passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt, when
he smote the Egyptians, and delivered our houses. And the people
bowed the head and worshipped.
28 ¶ And the children of Israel went away, and did as the LORD had
commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they.
29 ¶ And it came to pass, that at midnight the LORD smote all the
firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that
sat on his throne unto the firstborn of the captive that was in the
dungeon; and all the firstborn of cattle.
30 And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, and all his servants, and
all the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypt: for there was
not a house where there was not one dead.

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Commentary.

Verse 21. Moses called together the elders: heads of families,


the most important men of each tribe. He conveyed to them the will of
God in carrying out these feasts.
They are to take out a lamb according to their families, and
kill it in their houses.

Verse 22. Three stalks of hyssop are to be dipped in the basin


holding the blood that came from the slaying of the sacrificed lamb.
The blood was not to be spilled. It was too precious. The hyssop was
then used to apply the blood to the lintel, and the two door posts of
the house. No one is to go out of the door until morning. In this way
their salvation was provided by the blood of the lamb. So is our
salvation provided by the blood of the Lamb of God Jesus Christ.
Verse 23. The Lord’s purpose is to smite the Egyptians. All the
firstborn are to be slain. But where this blood is sprinkled, the
Lord will pass over that door, and go on to the next Egyptian
dwelling. The Lord will direct the destroyer angel not to go into
their houses to harm (smite) them, being under the blood of the lamb.

Verse 24. The Passover feast, with unleavened bread, and the
rites pertaining to it were to be observed until the coming of
Christ.

Verse 25. As the Lord had promised Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob,
they were to possess the Land of Canaan. They were about to begin
that journey. When in the land they were to keep the Passover.

Verse 26. They are to be prepared to explain the Passover


service when their children ask about it.

Verse 27. They are to instruct them about the sacrifice of the
lamb in commemoration, and thanksgiving for their being “passed over”
when the Lord smote the firstborn in Egypt, and for their deliverance
out of Egypt. This was to be passed on that all of Israel would keep
remembering the goodness of God to give Him the glory. The people
responded by bowing their heads and worshiping in awe of God’s great
mercy and care, in profound thanksgiving for it.

Verse 28. Then they all went back to their families. They did
all that Moses and Aaron commanded them to do, as it was from the
Lord.

Verse 29. At midnight (on the 15th of Nisan) the Lord smote all
the firstborn in the land of Egypt. From the firstborn of Pharaoh,
heir to his throne (already a young man), unto the lowest criminal in
the dungeon, and all the firstborn cattle that were left after all
the other plagues.

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Verse 30. In the night there began to be heard noises of great


crying, lamentation. Pharaoh got up. His servants, ministers,
eventually everywhere in Egypt. The firstborn every household, of
every age. There wasn’t a house where there was not one dead. There
was no help, no solution, nowhere to turn for relief.

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Verses 31-40.

31 And he called for Moses and Aaron by night, and said, Rise up,
and get you forth from among my people, both ye and the children of
Israel; and go, serve the LORD, as ye have said.
32 Also take your flocks and your herds, as ye have said, and be
gone; and bless me also.
33 ¶ And the Egyptians were urgent upon the people, that they might
send them out of the land in haste; for they said, We be all dead
men.
34 And the people took their dough before it was leavened, their
kneadingtroughs being bound up in their clothes upon their shoulders.
35 And the children of Israel did according to the word of Moses;
and they borrowed of the Egyptians jewels of silver, and jewels of
gold, and raiment:
36 and the LORD gave the people favor in the sight of the
Egyptians, so that they lent unto them such things as they required:
and they spoiled the Egyptians.
37 ¶ And the children of Israel journeyed from Ram'eses to Succoth,
about six hundred thousand on foot that were men, beside children.
38 And a mixed multitude went up also with them; and flocks, and
herds, even very much cattle.
39 And they baked unleavened cakes of the dough which they brought
forth out of Egypt, for it was not leavened; because they were thrust
out of Egypt, and could not tarry, neither had they prepared for
themselves any victuals.
40 ¶ Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in
Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years.

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Commentary.

Verse 31. Pharaoh sent word to Moses and Aaron that night. This
was exactly what Moses had told Pharaoh was going to happen, the
final time he had been dismissed from Pharaoh’s presence with the
threat of death. He (Moses) had described how Pharaoh’s servants
would come to him in supplication and entreat him and his people to
leave immediately (in haste). Pharaoh’s orders were the same: all of
you Hebrews, get out of Egypt. As you have said – go serve your God.

Verse 37. Also, you said you required the animals – go ahead and
take them and be gone. Pronto. Pharaoh closes with the request that
they pray for him – that he may be spared.

Verse 33. The Egyptians were, by this time, completely convinced


that their lives were now in great danger, if these Israelites
remained in Egypt. They had lived through all the plagues – including
the death of their firstborn. The only way to proceed was to get
these people out of the country as fast as humanly possible.

Verse 34. The Hebrews got the message and began packing up to
leave in haste. They didn’t take time to leaven the dough mixed up
the night before. They wrapped it up in their clothes and carried it
over their shoulders.

Verse 35. Also the people of Israel did borrow of their Egyptian
neighbors, the jewels of gold and silver and fine raiment, as Moses
has previously directed them. The Egyptians only wanted them to hurry
up and leave. They readily did, also in haste, give them whatever
they asked for.

Verse 36. The Lord provided the circumstances that inspired the
Egyptians to give freely – loaning, but not expecting their return.
Afterward this is described as taking a spoil of the Egyptians, their
most precious and valuable items.
Verse 37. From the place in Goshen called Rameses the children
of Israel journeyed to a place named Succoth (meaning “tents”), by
the Israelites. It is thought to have been a journey of about 8
miles. The population was counted by the number of adult men:
600,000. It was not as easy to count or compute the number of women
and children as well as old men. A number has been offered at the
total 2,400,000 at this time.

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Verse 38. A mixed multitude of other people also left with the
Israelites. This would include any that saw their benefit in also
leaving Egypt for whatever reason. Some would have been intermarried
with the Israelites, some proselytes to their religion, others just
seeking better circumstances and opportunities. No number is even
guessed at. Also, they took with them all their animals, in greater
numbers than left to the Egyptians, since the worst plagues did not
affect their animals: sheep, goats, cattle.

Verse 39. When caped at Succoth, they cooked the bread


(unleavened) that they had brought out of Egypt. They were thrust out
in great haste – not having time to prepare any food properly. They
ate the unleavened bread.

Verse 40. The time of sojourning of the children of Israel was


430 years when they came out of Egypt. The sojourning began when
Abraham left Aaron. And the covenant made with God about the nation
that would come from him to Canaan: 430 years.

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Verses 41-51.

41 And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty
years, even the selfsame day it came to pass, that all the hosts of
the LORD went out from the land of Egypt.
42 It is a night to be much observed unto the LORD for bringing
them out from the land of Egypt: this is that night of the LORD to be
observed of all the children of Israel in their generations.
43 ¶ And the LORD said unto Moses and Aaron, This is the ordinance
of the passover: There shall no stranger eat thereof:
44 but every man's servant that is bought for money, when thou hast
circumcised him, then shall he eat thereof.
45 A foreigner and a hired servant shall not eat thereof.
46 In one house shall it be eaten; thou shalt not carry forth aught
of the flesh abroad out of the house; neither shall ye break a bone
thereof.
47 All the congregation of Israel shall keep it.
48 And when a stranger shall sojourn with thee, and will keep the
passover to the LORD, let all his males be circumcised, and then let
him come near and keep it; and he shall be as one that is born in the
land: for no uncircumcised person shall eat thereof.
49 One law shall be to him that is homeborn, and unto the stranger
that sojourneth among you.
50 ¶ Thus did all the children of Israel; as the LORD commanded
Moses and Aaron, so did they.
51 And it came to pass the selfsame day, that the LORD did bring
the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt by their armies.

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Commentary.

Verse 41. This was a remarkable event: all the people of Israel
organized themselves by groups (armies), packed up, and walked out of
Egypt together on the same day.

Verse 42. This night is to be observed and celebrated for what


the Lord has done to cause the children of Israel to be brought out
of Egypt. The plague was upon the Egyptians, all the Hebrews being
pass over; they left with much wealth, the completely encouragement
of the Egyptians. All these things were brought about by the Lord,
and must be passed on generation to generation.

Verse 43. This was the summary of the ordinances of the


Passover. Now, on to who is to partake of it, who is not. First: no
stranger to eat thereof, bring a heathen and not knowing about or
professing the Jewish faith in their God.

Verse 44. Anyone that has been purchased (owned property) can
partake, but only after being circumcised. They would have been
instructed and persuaded and accepted, then submitted to the rite.
They could then partake of the Passover.

Verse 45. Any of another nation, or hired servant, having no


knowledge of the Jewish religion, “shall not eat thereof.”

Verse 46. Each lamb must be eaten in one house, no pieces taken
to another house. And no bone of the lamb can be broken. See the
fulfillment of Jesus in John 19:32-36.

Verse 47. All of Israel shall observe the Passover and the feast
of unleavened bread.

Verse 48. The only exception is when a stranger stays with them
and became a proselyte of their religion, and who desires to keep the
Passover; first, every male child must be circumcised. He would be
circumcised first, then all males in his house (his children,
servants). Only then can they come near and keep it. After that they
can be treated the same as one born a Jew. Again: no uncircumcised
shall partake of it.

Verse 49. Both home-born and strangers that stay among them and
join in the true religion, are bound to observe the same Law: the
same rites and ceremonies, partake of the same ordinances, benefits
and privileges.

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Verse 50. All the children of Israel followed the Lord’s


commands concerning the sacrifice of the lamb, the eating of it; the
blood struck on the doorposts and lintel of their houses. Moses and
Aaron had carefully instructed them. Certainly with the sense of
God’s mercy of favor towards them did they cheerfully obey God’s will
for them.

Verse 51. After the night of the Passover, the day was when the
Lord brought the children of Israel out of Egypt. They were in an
orderly grouping, by their several tribes, like so many armies, they
marched out in order and with purpose. There was no opposition or
interference. No fear or panic.

Finis.

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Lesson XIII

Exodus chapter 13.

Verses 1-10.

1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,


2 Sanctify unto me all the firstborn, whatsoever openeth the womb
among the children of Israel, both of man and of beast: it is mine.
3 ¶ And Moses said unto the people, Remember this day, in which ye
came out from Egypt, out of the house of bondage; for by strength of
hand the LORD brought you out from this place: there shall no
leavened bread be eaten.
4 This day came ye out in the month Abib.
5 And it shall be when the LORD shall bring thee into the land of
the Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the Amorites, and the Hivites,
and the Jeb'usites, which he sware unto thy fathers to give thee, a
land flowing with milk and honey, that thou shalt keep this service
in this month.
6 Seven days thou shalt eat unleavened bread, and in the seventh
day shall be a feast to the LORD.
7 Unleavened bread shall be eaten seven days; and there shall no
leavened bread be seen with thee, neither shall there be leaven seen
with thee in all thy quarters.
8 And thou shalt show thy son in that day, saying, This is done
because of that which the LORD did unto me when I came forth out of
Egypt.
9 And it shall be for a sign unto thee upon thine hand, and for a
memorial between thine eyes, that the LORD's law may be in thy mouth:
for with a strong hand hath the LORD brought thee out of Egypt.
10 Thou shalt therefore keep this ordinance in his season from year
to year.

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Commentary.

Verse 1. When the Israelites were at Succoth, the Lord delivered


the message to Moses:

Verse 2. All the firstborn males of Israel were to be set apart,


and devoted to the service of God. Also the firstborn of animals
(clean creatures) were to be sacrificed, of unclean creatures they
were to be redeemed with a price.
The firstborn of men were redeemed with a price: the money was
given to the priests, the ministers o the Lord, and thus to the Lord.
A further detail: whatsoever openeth the womb – the firstborn
male was accepted – but if a female had been born first, then the
second child (a male) would not be accepted. Only the firstborn
offspring, if it is male, will be accepted. This applies to all the
children of Israel and no others.
Verse 3. This was spoken by Moses unto the people: always
remember this day: the day you were brought out of Egypt – of
bondage, as servants to the Egyptians. It was only possible by the
plan and power of the Lord to bring His will to pass. The people had
no hand in any part of it. This left them under obligation to the
Lord. They are called upon to remember this day (15th of Nisan). This
is just as how we, as Christians, remember the redemption by Christ
at the Lord’s Supper.
The Israelites are to remember by the eating of unleavened bread
on this day and the six following days, until Messiah comes.

Verse 4. This is the day of redemption, of release, of coming


out of Egypt: the month Abib or ear of corn – not a time of heat,
cold, or rain: good traveling weather.

Verse 5. The Lord plans to bring the Israelites into Canaan as


He had promised their fathers (Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob); it is a
land flowing with milk and honey. Also it was a land inhabited by the
name of the tribes of people listed including Canaanites. Even when
they are there, they are to observe “this service in this month” (of
unleavened bread)

Verse 6. Seven days of unleavened bread (as detailed in 12:15).


This was to remind them of their leaving in haste. The seventh day, a
holy convocation, no work, but what was necessary to provide
sustenance.

Verse 7. Further emphasis – no leaven in their possession – or


any in their living spaces.

Verse 8. They are to explain to their children on that day why


they are eating it. This was because that was the day that the Lord
brought them out of Egypt: no time to leaven their dough.

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Verse 9. These words of advice are directed to ways to remind


one of something important: something in plain sight that would spark
the memory, or a string around a finger. So a parent would explain to
their children the purpose of the feast of unleavened bread was to
revive the memory and the true meaning of it: the Lord’s command to
pass the feast generation to generation, how the Lord brought them
out of Egypt with a strong hand.

Verse 10. The ordinance of unleavened bread will be kept at the


proper time, every year.

Verses 11-22.

11 ¶ And it shall be when the LORD shall bring thee into the land
of the Canaanites, as he sware unto thee and to thy fathers, and
shall give it thee,
12 that thou shalt set apart unto the LORD all that openeth the
matrix, and every firstling that cometh of a beast which thou hast;
the male shall be the LORD's.
13 And every firstling of an ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb; and
if thou wilt not redeem it, then thou shalt break his neck: and all
the firstborn of man among thy children shalt thou redeem.
14 And it shall be when thy son asketh thee in time to come,
saying, What is this? that thou shalt say unto him, By strength of
hand the LORD brought us out from Egypt, from the house of bondage:
15 and it came to pass, when Pharaoh would hardly let us go, that
the LORD slew all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both the
firstborn of man, and the firstborn of beast: therefore I sacrifice
to the LORD all that openeth the matrix, being males; but all the
firstborn of my children I redeem.
16 And it shall be for a token upon thine hand, and for frontlets
between thine eyes: for by strength of hand the LORD brought us forth
out of Egypt.
17 ¶ And it came to pass, when Pharaoh had let the people go, that
God led them not through the way of the land of the Philistines,
although that was near; for God said, Lest peradventure the people
repent when they see war, and they return to Egypt:
18 but God led the people about, through the way of the wilderness
of the Red sea: and the children of Israel went up harnessed out of
the land of Egypt.
19 And Moses took the bones of Joseph with him: for he had straitly
sworn the children of Israel, saying, God will surely visit you; and
ye shall carry up my bones away hence with you.
20 And they took their journey from Succoth, and encamped in Etham,
in the edge of the wilderness.
21 And the LORD went before them by day in a pillar of a cloud, to
lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them
light; to go by day and night.
22 He took not away the pillar of the cloud by day, nor the pillar
of fire by night, from before the people.

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Commentary.

Verse 11. When they are finally in the land of Canaan they shall
continue to celebrate the Passover. This was the Promised Land that
God had sworn to give them (their fathers back to Abraham), and
swears to bring them into.

Verse 12. They are to continue to set apart unto the Lord all of
the firstborn. This includes the animals (clean creatures: cows,
sheep and goats) – all the firstborn males.

Verse 13. But the firstborn of a donkey shall be redeemed with a


lamb. The priest would be given the lamb to redeem the donkey. If the
owner didn’t redeem the donkey (for whatever reason, not willing to
give the lamb), then it was to be killed, as the owner would have no
profit from it.
All firstborn human males are to be redeemed. This, as a
prophecy, was brought to pass by man’s redemption by the blood of the
Lamb of God.

Verses 14, 15. When your son, in the future, on one of these
occasions, asks what is this all about, tell him that the Lord in His
strength brought the children of Israel out from this bondage in
Egypt. His mighty hand slew the firstborn of all of Egypt. Both the
king and all his people were finally willing to let His people go.
Pharaoh did not consider letting them go for some time. Until the
slaying of the firstborn in all the land of Egypt of men and beasts,
in one night. Then Pharaoh let them go.
That is why we sacrifice to the Lord the firstborn of all clean
creatures, all the firstborn of my children are redeemed.
The custom was instituted sometime later: the redemption price
was 5 shekels to the priest, this law is still observed by orthodox
Jews. This is to be done when the child is 30 days old. It was a
lengthy ceremony. This custom was used in the time of Jesus’ birth
(Luke 1:27).
Verse 16. These laws will remind and bring out the reasons – the
destruction of the firstborn in Egypt and the redemption and
preservation of all the firstborn of Israel. These things must be
kept fresh in the memory as a token upon the hand, or something on a
person’s forehead is closely seen by anyone.
All of these things point to commemorate and emphasize that the
Lord God Almighty by His plan and power caused these things to happen
so the Lord could and did bring His people out of Egypt: signs, and
wonders. His omnipotent hand. All those that have come after, would
not have been born if this had not happened. They would not have
received the blessings and privileges of Israel.

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Verse 17. When the people were let go, even in haste, the Lord
chose which path they were to take. Directly northeast along the
Mediterranean coast was the land of the Philistines. It was near,
just below Canaan. But the Philistines would most likely not allow
these pilgrims to pass through, but come against them with their
armies, to destroy and take a spoil. If the people see these armies
coming against them, they may repent when they see war (the
Philistines known as warlike and brave). They would think that they
would be better off back in Egypt. They had no army or proper weapons
or training, no chance of ever defeating or even escaping such a
confrontation.

Verse 18. The Lord led the people to the east, through the
wilderness of Etham by the Red Sea. The people are described as gird
about for traveling (harnessed), continuing their orderly departure
from Egypt.
Verse 19. Moses takes the bones of Joseph with him. Joseph had
made an oath with the children of Israel before his death, that they
would take his bones with them when the Lord bring them out of Egypt.
This oath and promise had been passed down, generation to this
generation, and made known to Moses.

Verse 20. On the second day they traveled from Succoth and
encamped in Etham at the edge of the wilderness. A journey of about 8
miles.

Verse 21. The Lord went before them, leading them in daytime by
a pillar of cloud. This would into the wilderness, no track or trails
to follow, a sandy desert. Even their tracks would soon be covered
with sand by the winds. The cloud was also providing shade from the
heat at the lower part of it.
It has been compared in Psalms 105:39 to the emblem of Christ –
Who protects and leads His people – being upright, firm, and stable,
trustworthy, constant guide and protection.
At night in a pillar of fire, to give them light. In hot
countries it was more pleasant at night.
Christ is also the Living Light, to direct and guide, where to
walk and what to do, by His Spirit and His Word.

Verse 22. So by day or night the pillars stayed with the people
– never taken away. This continued until they entered the borders of
he land of Canaan. At that point, they needed the pillars no longer.

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Lesson XIV

Exodus chapter 14.

Verses 1-10.

1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,


2 Speak unto the children of Israel, that they turn and encamp
before Pi–hahi'roth, between Migdol and the sea, over against Ba'al–
ze'phon: before it shall ye encamp by the sea.
3 For Pharaoh will say of the children of Israel, They are
entangled in the land, the wilderness hath shut them in.
4 And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, that he shall follow after
them; and I will be honored upon Pharaoh, and upon all his host; that
the Egyptians may know that I am the LORD. And they did so.
5 ¶ And it was told the king of Egypt that the people fled: and
the heart of Pharaoh and of his servants was turned against the
people, and they said, Why have we done this, that we have let Israel
go from serving us?
6 And he made ready his chariot, and took his people with him:
7 and he took six hundred chosen chariots, and all the chariots of
Egypt, and captains over every one of them.
8 And the LORD hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and he
pursued after the children of Israel: and the children of Israel went
out with a high hand.
9 But the Egyptians pursued after them, all the horses and
chariots of Pharaoh, and his horsemen, and his army, and overtook
them encamping by the sea, beside Pi–hahi'roth, before Ba'al–ze'phon.
10 ¶ And when Pharaoh drew nigh, the children of Israel lifted up
their eyes, and, behold, the Egyptians marched after them; and they
were sore afraid: and the children of Israel cried out unto the LORD.

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Commentary.

Verse 1. The Lord spoke to Moses (out of the pillar of cloud


that went before them when they were near Etham).

Verse 2. They are directed to turn from the road way they were
on and go on the more southern route which would lead them to the
place near the Red Sea. They were to camp by the sea. This had been
called the 3rd Day. There they were to wait for the coming of Pharaoh.

Verse 3. Obviously Pharaoh had his men keep an eye on the


children of Israel, and had reported back they seemed to have lost
their way: entangled in the wilderness, that shut them in. The Red
Sea was in front of them, mountains to the north and south, to the
west was the valley which brought them to the sea.
Verse 4. The Lord will harden Pharaoh's heart to pursue them and
catch up with them. He will even fallow them into the sea. This great
destruction of the Egyptians will show and teach the Egyptians that
only the Lord God of Israel is wise, faithful, powerful and just,
that he is the only Lord God, omnipotent. The children of Israel
followed the directions exactly.

Verse 5. Those that Pharaoh had sent to watch the Israelites


reported back that after the 3 days requested for their journey, on
the fourth day they were still traveling, about to escape out of the
land of Egypt.
This news made Pharaoh and his servants – furious – they turned
against them, their former servants were escaping. They ask
themselves why did they ever consider letting this happen, and now it
was too late! They were gone.

Verse 6. This called for immediate action: go after them.


Pharaoh went into war mode: get the chariots ready – with his
soldiers, and cavalry: a great number.
Verse 7. The best, war chariots, both quick and deadly and
strong, and all other chariots that could be made ready. Apparently
each chariot carried several men, so a captain was needed in the
chariots. The best were counted as 600 “chosen” foot soldiers. Also
many historians made various suggestions of the approximate numbers
50,000 to 600,000. One even suggested a million.

Verse 8. The Lord hardened Pharaoh’s heart to the point that he


went after the children of Israel. Since they had left Egypt by his
consent, and that of all Egypt. They had left with great boldness, no
fear or any thought of any mishap or danger: hands and heads high.

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Verse 9. But the Egyptians now pursued them, their whole army –
chariots, cavalry, and soldiers, from the Pharaoh in the lead. This
army overtook the Israelites where they had encamped next to the Red
Sea, where the Lord had told them to.

Verse 10. Pharaoh and his army came up near enough for the
Israelites could look up and see them, still coming. They were
quickly to see that this was the Egyptian army coming after them to
attack them. Their response was great fear of imminent destruction
(sore afraid). The children called out to their only hope: the Lord.
But as it turns out their cries were lamentation and complaint.

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Verses 11-20.

11 And they said unto Moses, Because there were no graves in Egypt,
hast thou taken us away to die in the wilderness? wherefore hast thou
dealt thus with us, to carry us forth out of Egypt?
12 Is not this the word that we did tell thee in Egypt, saying, Let
us alone, that we may serve the Egyptians? For it had been better for
us to serve the Egyptians, than that we should die in the wilderness.
13 And Moses said unto the people, Fear ye not, stand still, and
see the salvation of the LORD, which he will show to you today: for
the Egyptians whom ye have seen today, ye shall see them again no
more for ever.
14 The LORD shall fight for you, and ye shall hold your peace.
15 And the LORD said unto Moses, Wherefore criest thou unto me?
speak unto the children of Israel, that they go forward:
16 but lift thou up thy rod, and stretch out thine hand over the
sea, and divide it: and the children of Israel shall go on dry ground
through the midst of the sea.
17 And I, behold, I will harden the hearts of the Egyptians, and
they shall follow them: and I will get me honor upon Pharaoh, and
upon all his host, upon his chariots, and upon his horsemen.
18 And the Egyptians shall know that I am the LORD, when I have
gotten me honor upon Pharaoh, upon his chariots, and upon his
horsemen.
19 ¶ And the angel of God, which went before the camp of Israel,
removed and went behind them; and the pillar of the cloud went from
before their face, and stood behind them:
20 and it came between the camp of the Egyptians and the camp of
Israel; and it was a cloud and darkness to them, but it gave light by
night to these: so that the one came not near the other all the
night.

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Commentary.

Verse 11. The consensus of the Israelites was that there were no
Israelites’ graves in Egypt – an exaggeration to emphasize their
present danger – they were afraid that now they would all be killed
in the wilderness, as if that was why Moses brought them out of
Egypt. Why has he done this?

Verse 12. They had told him in Egypt, especially after their
servitude and bondage got worse when Moses and Aaron demanded that
they be let go to serve the Lord. Now they say they had told them to
let them alone, they would be better off just being slaves to the
Egyptians – peace and quiet. They would rather be back as servants to
be Egyptians than to die in this wilderness. They saw no advantage to
their deliverance.
Verse 13. Moses’ reply was calm and reassuring. Do not be afraid
– be still. Think this through. The Lord is going to show you your
salvation today. This was Moses’ complete faith and trust in the
Lord. It was night at this time – so it would be the following day.
Moses added the detail that all the Egyptians they had seen in that
day, they will never see them again: forever as they saw them that
day. They will see them again, but they will all be dying or already
dead.

Verse 14. The Lord is in charge and in power over the forces of
nature. He will in this sense, fight for them, and easily defeat the
enemy. You have nothing to complain about or be afraid of. So be
silent (“hold your peace”).

Verse 15. Certainly Moses had been intently praying to God. God
said to Moses, “Why are you crying out to Me – don’t doubt that I
have plans for the people of Israel’s salvation.” In fact they need
to do something – they must get ready to go forward. They were to go
to the seashore, in a quiet and orderly fashion.
Verse 16. Then Moses has something to do. He is to raise his rod
and stretch out his hand and motion as to divide the waters of the
sea. The waters will divide and the land will be dried. Then the
children of Israel shall cross over in the dry land through the midst
of the sea.

Verse 17. And also watch carefully, the Lord tells Moses, he
would make the Egyptians be without fear, still in anger, they will
follow the Israelites through the sea. The Lord would then take His
potent, supernatural power and destroy every last one of these
Egyptians (even as the Egyptians had cruelly drowned in the Nile the
Hebrew children).

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Verse 18. When the Egyptians left behind in Egypt shall hear of
what happened to Pharaoh and his army at the Red Sea, then they will
know that Jehovah is mightier than Pharaoh and all his army; He is
mightier, just and true, the only one eternal God, living wise and
faithful.

Verse 19. The angel of God, who provided the pillar of fire in
front of he children of Israel, now went behind them. The Jews say
this is Michael, the uncreated angel. Christians acknowledge this as
the pre-incarnate Christ, the Living Word of God, the angel of God.
In this way the Israelites were protected and preserved from
receiving any harm (arrows and stones) from the Egyptians.

Verse 20. The pillar of cloud came upon the Egyptians, so that
they could not do any harm to them. It prevented them from seeing any
way to act because of its darkness. But to the Israelites it was
light, so they could see their way. The Egyptians could not come near
the Israelites all night.
Such is also said of Christ – His people and the worldly people
would be separated by the Gospel, unto eternity, never to come near
the other (see Luke 16:26).

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Verses 21-31.

21 ¶ And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea; and the LORD
caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind all that night, and
made the sea dry land, and the waters were divided.
22 And the children of Israel went into the midst of the sea upon
the dry ground: and the waters were a wall unto them on their right
hand, and on their left.
23 And the Egyptians pursued, and went in after them to the midst
of the sea, even all Pharaoh's horses, his chariots, and his
horsemen.
24 And it came to pass, that in the morning watch the LORD looked
unto the host of the Egyptians through the pillar of fire and of the
cloud, and troubled the host of the Egyptians,
25 and took off their chariot wheels, that they drave them heavily:
so that the Egyptians said, Let us flee from the face of Israel; for
the LORD fighteth for them against the Egyptians.
26 ¶ And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand over the
sea, that the waters may come again upon the Egyptians, upon their
chariots, and upon their horsemen.
27 And Moses stretched forth his hand over the sea, and the sea
returned to his strength when the morning appeared; and the Egyptians
fled against it; and the LORD overthrew the Egyptians in the midst of
the sea.
28 And the waters returned, and covered the chariots, and the
horsemen, and all the host of Pharaoh that came into the sea after
them; there remained not so much as one of them.
29 But the children of Israel walked upon dry land in the midst of
the sea; and the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand,
and on their left.
30 ¶ Thus the LORD saved Israel that day out of the hand of the
Egyptians; and Israel saw the Egyptians dead upon the seashore.
31 And Israel saw that great work which the LORD did upon the
Egyptians: and the people feared the LORD, and believed the LORD, and
his servant Moses.

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Commentary.

Verse 21. Moses did as God had directed him. He stretched out
his hand over the sea with his rod. Then the Lord began parting the
waters by a strong east wind – all night long until the waters were
divided and the riverbed between them became dry land.

Verse 22. In the daylight Moses began the journey between the
sea on the dry land. The children of Israel followed him between the
two walls of the sea on either side: a dramatic act of faith and
trust in almighty God, following His directions.

Verse 23. The Egyptian forces had watched the Israelites go into
the space between the waters and they followed, pursuing them to the
middle, having seen the Israelites go this far and behind. The
Egyptian forces all went in the middle – men, chariots, animals,
cavalry.

Verses 24,25. Later in the early morning the Lord observed the
Egyptians through the pillars of fire and cloud. The Lord troubled
them by thunder and lightning, causing confusion and disarray, also
hailstones. Their chariot wheels were knocked off or broken as they
drove them in a panic. They acknowledged this as the Lord’s work –
fighting against them for the Israelites. The Egyptians saw only
danger and death to continue – they must flee from the face of
Israel.

Verse 26. At this time, the Lord told Moses to stretch forth his
hand with his rod, but this time to signal the waters to come
together again, upon all the Egyptians, and their horses and
chariots. The waters were higher and now would fall violently upon
the Egyptians.

Verse 27. Moses follows orders – then the sea returned to its
strength in the morning light, the water returning to its normal in
waves like a wall rolling down on the Egyptians. They tried to run
away with all their strength, but the Lord overthrew them in the
midst of the sea.

Verse 28. When the waters returned it was a mighty force, all
the Egyptians that had followed Pharaoh into the sea after them, all
were lost, destroyed Not one remained, from Pharaoh to the least foot
soldier.

Verse 29. All of the children of Israel walked through the sea
upon the dry land with the waters as well on each side of them, to
the opposite shore.

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Verse 30. The children of Israel were saved by the Lord out of
the hands of the Egyptians. The Israelites on the shore observed the
dead bodies of Egyptians washing up on the shore. It has been
suggested that the Israelites plundered the weapons of the Egyptians
that also washed up on the shore near where the Israelites were
encamped. It was unlikely they came out from Egypt armed. This
accounts for their being able to fight battles in the wilderness, and
later in Canaan.

Verse 31. This great work could only have been done by the Lord.
The Israelites were convinced that only the mighty power of God could
have accomplished the complete destruction of the Egyptians, as well
as their crossing on dry land in the midst of the sea. The people
were in great awe (fear) of the Lord. Also a deep sense of the Lord’s
favor and firm belief in His promises, that He brought to pass. They
also accepted Moses as the Lord’s servant; sent to deliver them to
Canaan as he had delivered them from the hands of the Egyptians.

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Lesson XV

The Song of Moses and the Children of Israel.

Exodus chapter 15.

Verses 1-10.

1 Then sang Moses and the children of Israel this song unto the
LORD, and spake, saying,
I will sing unto the LORD, for he hath triumphed gloriously:
the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea.
2 The LORD is my strength and song,
and he is become my salvation:
he is my God, and I will prepare him a habitation;
my father's God, and I will exalt him.
3 The LORD is a man of war:
the LORD is his name.
4 Pharaoh's chariots and his host hath he cast into the sea:
his chosen captains also are drowned in the Red sea.
5 The depths have covered them:
they sank into the bottom as a stone.
6 Thy right hand, O LORD, is become glorious in power:
thy right hand, O LORD, hath dashed in pieces the enemy.
7 And in the greatness of thine excellency thou hast overthrown
them that rose up against thee:
thou sentest forth thy wrath, which consumed them as stubble.
8 And with the blast of thy nostrils the waters were gathered
together,
the floods stood upright as a heap,
and the depths were congealed in the heart of the sea.
9 The enemy said,
I will pursue, I will overtake, I will divide the spoil;
my lust shall be satisfied upon them;
I will draw my sword, my hand shall destroy them.
10 Thou didst blow with thy wind, the sea covered them:
they sank as lead in the mighty waters.

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Commentary.

Verse 1. This is the first song recorded in Scripture. Certainly


music and singing had been around for a long time, and songs sung
unto the Lord. Moses, as God’s appointed leader of the children of
Israel, now led them in acknowledgment and thankful praise unto the
Lord. They had been brought out of Egypt and now led them safely
through the sea, and they had seen the mighty Egyptian army destroyed
before their eyes by that same sea.
The Lord triumphed in a dramatic and mighty way – beyond
anything that men could do or even imagine. Those on horses could not
escape.

Verse 2. It is the Lord that gave them strength to overcome the


fear of the Egyptians, and of entering the Red Sea. They were
inspired to faith and courage in the Lord. He was their salvation.
As Christ is the strength of His spiritual Israel and has
brought them salvation.
They will later provide Him “an habitation”, where they can come
together to worship Him. As He is on the throne of their hearts, so
He can be on the throne of His people, joined together to worship
Him. He has been their fathers’ God from Abraham. He will be above
all, exalted by His people for His glory, and salvation.

Verse 3. As a man of war, The Lord overcomes all that are


against Him. He is far above all armies in every way. He is the
Creator God and all that implies.

Verse 4. This was seen in His destroying Pharaoh’s mightiest


chariots, his mightiest men, “captains”. All were cast into the sea
and drowned.

Verse 5. They were all covered by the sea, never to be seen


again. They were at the bottom, just like a stone that is cast into
the water sinks to the bottom and never rises, so are they.
Verse 6. This action is a showing of glorious power as if done
by the Lord’s mighty right strongest hand. The enemy was dashed to
pieces, as a potter’s vessel.

Verse 7. Thy name far above excellent; above all things that are
named, whether king or general; above all that claim holiness, or a
ministry.
In this case the excellent saving of His people by overthrowing
those that dared to rise up against Him, to destroy His people. This
made Him angry against them and His wrath was sent against them as a
fierce fire that consumed them as if they were stubble in a field –
quickly burned up and gone.

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Verse 8. They were covered quickly by the waters of the sea, as


by a mighty blast of wind against the waters, as if the Lord sneezed
at them. The waters had been standing like two walls, they were then
thrown down to the depths, in a violent mixing together, then part of
the sea as before.

Verse 9. What the furious Pharaoh was thinking as he passed the


Israelites: he will overtake them, he will destroy them, taking
whatever is left that is valuable as a spoil; his lustful anger will
be satisfied upon them. He personally will draw his own sword, in his
own hand, to use upon them.
He started with “I will” pursue; “I will” overtake them; “I
will” conquer them; “I will” take back all the riches of Egypt they
had taken with them; “I will” destroy them with his own arm and
weapon! Though they are unarmed.
Verse 10. Short and to the point was the Lord’s rebuttal to such
ego and evil. The Lord set the wind to blow back the waters of the
sea, which covered them all unto their death in the sea, as lead,
never to move again: the waters were mightier than they were.

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Verses 11-21.

11 Who is like unto thee, O LORD, among the gods?


Who is like thee, glorious in holiness,
fearful in praises, doing wonders?
12 Thou stretchedst out thy right hand,
the earth swallowed them.
13 Thou in thy mercy hast led forth the people which thou hast
redeemed:
thou hast guided them in thy strength unto thy holy habitation.
14 The people shall hear, and be afraid:
sorrow shall take hold on the inhabitants of Palesti'na.
15 Then the dukes of Edom shall be amazed;
the mighty men of Moab, trembling shall take hold upon them;
all the inhabitants of Canaan shall melt away.
16 Fear and dread shall fall upon them; by the greatness of thine
arm they shall be as still as a stone;
till thy people pass over, O LORD,
till the people pass over, which thou hast purchased.
17 Thou shalt bring them in, and plant them in the mountain of
thine inheritance, in the place, O LORD, which thou hast made for
thee to dwell in;
in the sanctuary, O LORD, which thy hands have established.
18 The LORD shall reign for ever and ever.
19 ¶ For the horse of Pharaoh went in with his chariots and with
his horsemen into the sea, and the LORD brought again the waters of
the sea upon them; but the children of Israel went on dry land in the
midst of the sea.
20 And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel
in her hand; and all the women went out after her with timbrels and
with dances.
21 And Miriam answered them,
Sing ye to the LORD, for he hath triumphed gloriously:
the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea.

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Commentary.

Verse 11. There is no one like the Lord among any others called
mighty. Only He is righteous and holy in all things. He is to be
praised in all things, forceful in His works for His people, wonders
beyond anything ever done before.

Verse 12. he exerted His power (stretched forth His hand) and
the earth in effect swallowed Pharaoh and his army, never to be seen
again.

Verse 13. His mercy has delivered, thereby redeemed His people
from slavery, and bondage in Egypt. He brought them through the sea,
by His strength. By His strength He will continue to guide them on
their journey until they would arrive at His chosen home habitation.
Verse 14. The prophecy continues. All the nations that heart of
these things that happened in Egypt – the plagues, the coming out of
the people of Israel, and the destruction of the Egyptians in the Red
sea. This will cause them to be filled with sorrow and fear in
Palestine (closest to Canaan).

Verse 15. Also those of Edom, Moab, and Canaan, amazed,


trembling, melting away.

Verse 16. the greatness of these mighty acts of God will cause
these people to be “still as a stone”. Their fear and dread of
destruction from the Israelites and/or their God. No spirit or
courage remains. This will continue until God’s people pass over the
ford of the river Jordan to the promised land.

Verse 17. The Lord will bring His people into the land of
Canaan. He will plant them there, in the mountain He has chosen for
their inheritance. In Jerusalem the Mount of Moriah or Zion, where
the temple would be built.
Verse 18. The Lord reigned from before creation, and will
continually, for ever and ever.

Verse 19. Pharaoh and his entire army had followed the children
of Israel into the sea. And the Lord had brought the waters upon them
after the Israelites had gone back upon land at the other side,
safely. Their crossing was on dry land.

Verse 20. Miriam (sister of Aaron) is the third leader (with


Moses and Aaron) that lead the people. She was also a prophetess.
Moses was the youngest. The timbrel was a hand held drum (like our
tambourine). She and the other women went out from the camp, the
tents, to the open are to where the men of Israel and Moses were, and
joined in the singing to the Lord.

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Verse 21. She repeated the same song, word for word, leading the
women – the first clause: sing ye to the Lord, for He hath triumphed
gloriously, the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea.

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Verses 22-27.

22 ¶ So Moses brought Israel from the Red sea, and they went out
into the wilderness of Shur; and they went three days in the
wilderness, and found no water.
23 And when they came to Marah, they could not drink of the waters
of Marah, for they were bitter: therefore the name of it was called
Marah.
24 And the people murmured against Moses, saying, What shall we
drink?
25 And he cried unto the LORD; and the LORD showed him a tree,
which when he had cast into the waters, the waters were made sweet.
¶ There he made for them a statute and an ordinance, and there he
proved them,
26 and said, If thou wilt diligently hearken to the voice of the
LORD thy God, and wilt do that which is right in his sight, and wilt
give ear to his commandments, and keep all his statutes, I will put
none of these diseases upon thee, which I have brought upon the
Egyptians: for I am the LORD that healeth thee.
27 ¶ And they came to Elim, where were twelve wells of water, and
threescore and ten palm trees: and they encamped there by the waters.

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Commentary.

Verse 22. Moses gave orders to the people to move further


eastward from the Red Sea, to proceed on their journey. They went
into the area of the wilderness of Etham called Shur. They traveled
three days without finding any water.

Verse 23. They went on to where they found water but it was
bitter, therefore undrinkable. The name given to it was “Marah”,
which means bitter.

Verse 24. The people started murmuring against Moses. Why has he
brought them into this wilderness? Now they are about to perish
without water for this long. What are they supposed to do?

Verse 25. Moses had one choice: pray unto the Lord – the only
hope of rescue. The Lord showed him how to make the bitter waters
drinkable: a particular tree. Moses cut it down, threw it into the
waters and it made the waters sweet.
This was a lesson the people must learn from and always
remember. If they misbehaved, the result will be bitter affliction.
If they behaved well, they would experience sweetness. So did Moses
learn the water – bitterness goes, sweetness comes. Moses and the
people were tested and taught by the Lord. He “proved” them.

Verse 26. This verse prepares the people to expect in their


future with their God, to be given Commandments, and Statutes, which
they are to follow. This will prevent the Lord from bringing upon
them any of the diseases that were brought against the Egyptians. The
Lord has healed them and will continue to do so, in body and soul.

Verse 27. They only stayed at Marah one day, then went north to
Elim (8 miles). Twelve wells of good water and 70 palm trees. Plenty
of water for all (including their animals) and shade. This was a very
good place to stay a while: they encamped.
End.

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Lesson XVI

Exodus chapter 16. Murmuring and Manna.

Verses 1-12.

1 And they took their journey from Elim, and all the congregation
of the children of Israel came unto the wilderness of Sin, which is
between Elim and Si'nai, on the fifteenth day of the second month
after their departing out of the land of Egypt.
2 And the whole congregation of the children of Israel murmured
against Moses and Aaron in the wilderness:
3 and the children of Israel said unto them, Would to God we had
died by the hand of the LORD in the land of Egypt, when we sat by the
fleshpots, and when we did eat bread to the full; for ye have brought
us forth into this wilderness, to kill this whole assembly with
hunger.
4 ¶ Then said the LORD unto Moses, Behold, I will rain bread from
heaven for you; and the people shall go out and gather a certain rate
every day, that I may prove them, whether they will walk in my law,
or no.
5 And it shall come to pass, that on the sixth day they shall
prepare that which they bring in; and it shall be twice as much as
they gather daily.
6 And Moses and Aaron said unto all the children of Israel, At
even, then ye shall know that the LORD hath brought you out from the
land of Egypt:
7 and in the morning, then ye shall see the glory of the LORD; for
that he heareth your murmurings against the LORD: and what are we,
that ye murmur against us?
8 And Moses said, This shall be, when the LORD shall give you in
the evening flesh to eat, and in the morning bread to the full; for
that the LORD heareth your murmurings which ye murmur against him:
and what are we? your murmurings are not against us, but against the
LORD.
9 ¶ And Moses spake unto Aaron, Say unto all the congregation of
the children of Israel, Come near before the LORD: for he hath heard
your murmurings.
10 And it came to pass, as Aaron spake unto the whole congregation
of the children of Israel, that they looked toward the wilderness,
and, behold, the glory of the LORD appeared in the cloud.
11 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,
12 I have heard the murmurings of the children of Israel: speak
unto them, saying, At even ye shall eat flesh, and in the morning ye
shall be filled with bread; and ye shall know that I am the LORD your
God.

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Commentary.

Verse 1. They journeyed about 22 miles, out of the wilderness of


Elim, south and east of the Red Sea, to the plains named the
Wilderness of Sin, because of the lizards and vipers in great
numbers. It was on the way to Sinai. It was one month since they left
Egypt.

Verse 2. At this point, whatever breadmaking supplies they had


brought with them out of Egypt, was now completely used up. The
majority of the people started complaining about it. They were very
upset, and worried. They were in the wilderness, nothing available
for food at all. They started “murmuring” against Moses and Aaron,
their leaders, therefore responsible for leading them to wilderness
and this situation.
Verse 3. By the time they spoke out to Moses and Aaron in the
most extreme manner – they now considered that it would have been
better for them to have died by the Lord’s hand in Egypt. Their
description of sitting by pots with meat in them, and ate bread til
they were full, was a complete exaggeration.
They now accused them of bringing them all to this wilderness
for the purpose of killing them all by starvation. They still had
flocks and herds with them – not mentioned.

Verse 4. Moses had certainly turned to the Lord in desperate


prayer. Then came the answer: the Lord spoke unto Moses. He is to
watch carefully, for the Lord “will rain bread from heaven for you.”
It will be ready to eat. It also will be great abundance, and from
the Lord, not to be credited to Moses.
Every day the people will go out and gather their daily portion
in the morning. Thus they will be tested “proven” in carefully
following the Lord’s commandments (walk in my law or no).

Verse 5. One exception: on the 6th day of the week they are to
gather twice the daily amount. What they don’t eat on the 6th day is
to be prepared and preserved to eat on the Sabbath Day. The reason
for this will be explained a little later (verses 23-29).

Verse 6. Moses and Aaron then told all the children of Israel
that they had a message from the Lord (Aaron speaking for Moses):
that very evening they (all the people) will have indisputable
evidence that the lord brought them out of Egypt: but to prosper, not
to die of hunger. This would be bounteous proof of the Lord’s loving
kindness.

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Verse 7. Most important in the morning, they shall see the glory
of the Lord (in the cloud); the Shekinah of Jehovah. He has heard
their murmuring against He Who brought them out of Egypt with a
mighty hand. Everything he had done was for their benefit. Their
murmuring was ungrateful and without faith or trust in Him. Because
it was quietly and calmly, but closes with – who do you really think
you are murmuring against?

Verse 8. Moses gives a summary of what the Lord will do in


response to their complaining. He is not going to react negatively,
but according to His kindness and bounty: flesh in the evening, bread
to the full in the morning. Moses considers their murmuring as
directed and complaining to he and Aaron, but since they represented
and followed the word of the Lord, they were actually complaining to
and about the Lord.
Verse 9. Moses tells Aaron to speak “unto all the congregation
of the children of Israel.” They are to come near the cloud of
witness, the Lord is about to speak directly to them about their
murmurings, for He has certainly heard all of them.

Verse 10. Even as Aaron was speaking to the whole congregation,


as they were facing the next wilderness, which was that named Sinai.
That was their next destination. The cloud that went before them was
there. And as they looked, the glory of the Lord appeared in the
cloud by the emerging brightness and glory shining in it, even the
Angel of the Lord (Christ).

Verse 11. The Lord spoke to Moses out of the brightness.

Verse 12. He had noticed the complaining of the people. He had


brought them here; he will continue to take care of them. He chose
not to resent or become angry with them. They need not have any doubt
of His continuing good intentions for them: every evening they will
be provided meat to eat (flesh) (when the quail come). The next
morning bread from heaven will be provided enough to fill them up.
This will demonstrate that He, the only true Creator, god, and their
Lord, has done this. Thus His deeds confirm His words (His promises).

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Verses 13-21.

13 ¶ And it came to pass, that at even the quails came up, and
covered the camp: and in the morning the dew lay round about the
host.
14 And when the dew that lay was gone up, behold, upon the face of
the wilderness there lay a small round thing, as small as the hoar
frost on the ground.
15 And when the children of Israel saw it, they said one to
another, It is manna: for they wist not what it was. And Moses said
unto them, This is the bread which the LORD hath given you to eat.
16 This is the thing which the LORD hath commanded, Gather of it
every man according to his eating, an omer for every man, according
to the number of your persons; take ye every man for them which are
in his tents.
17 And the children of Israel did so, and gathered, some more, some
less.
18 And when they did mete it with an omer, he that gathered much
had nothing over, and he that gathered little had no lack; they
gathered every man according to his eating.
19 And Moses said, Let no man leave of it till the morning.
20 Notwithstanding they hearkened not unto Moses; but some of them
left of it until the morning, and it bred worms, and stank: and Moses
was wroth with them.
21 And they gathered it every morning, every man according to his
eating: and when the sun waxed hot, it melted.

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Commentary.

Verse 13. That evening the quail came. They flew most likely
from Egypt, across the Red Sea. Then being wear as the light was
waning, they sought rest and alighted upon the Israeli encampment
(covering the camp). They were accepted as the gift of God, as coming
down from heaven.
In the morning, dew covers the ground, another gift of God from
heaven.

Verse 14. As the sun arose the dew evaporated. But it was soon
observed that something remained all over the ground where the dew
had been: a small round thing – something small like a frost. It is
the promised Manna. There is an allusion to “the hidden Manna from
heaven” in Revelation 2:17 referring to Christ as He appeared to some
(revealed to some in all His glory) as small, without appeal or
value, ignored, passed by.

Verse 15. Having been prepared, the men arose early to see this
promise come to pass. When they saw it they immediately called it
“manna”. They all observed it. No one recognized it at all. The only
conclusion had to be the revealed gift of God. Moses confirmed this –
the very bread from heaven, the gift of God.

Verse 16. Moses also informed them of the manner in which this
was to be dealt with, from the Lord’s specific directions. It was to
be gathered according to the amount of each person of a household
would normally eat (their appetite). The head of the household would
have counted his people and added up their daily needs. Then measure
the appropriate amount of manna to be gathered.
There have been various historians that have recorded their
opinions concerning the measure of omer ephod etc. They all differ,
so there is no exact scale to compare to.

Verse 17. The Israelites went out into the wilderness every
morning and gathered according to their various household needs (some
more, some less).

Verse 18. When it had all been gathered, they came together and
from the “heap”, each one was measured his omer, and for his
household, by those in charge.
The result was that no one had more than they needed, nor less,
whatever they may have personally gathered. No one was unsatisfied.
This was considered another miracle from God.

Verse 19. The next necessary rule to be followed: no one was to


keep it until the next morning to be eaten. God was to be faithful,
every morning such saving it over showed a lack of faith and trust in
God.

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Verse 20. As usual: not withstanding the very strict rules


concerning the manna: “They hearkened not unto Moses.” Whether out of
fear or distrust some kept some manna until the next morning. When
Moses found out he was “wroth” (very angry) with them. God made
provision for this left over manna to stink, decayed, and worms were
found in it. This was an exception – since manna was gathered and
kept over on the 6th day for the Sabbath without any problem.

Verse 21. The manna was gathered every morning – from sunrise to
about 10 A.M. (about 4 hours). This was to feed this vast body of
people, and for 40 years. There was always enough for all the people,
an omer each.
The Lord provided for any remaining ungathered: it would be
melted by the sun’s heat during the hottest part of the day.

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Verses 22-36.

22 ¶ And it came to pass, that on the sixth day they gathered twice
as much bread, two omers for one man: and all the rulers of the
congregation came and told Moses.
23 And he said unto them, This is that which the LORD hath said,
Tomorrow is the rest of the holy sabbath unto the LORD: bake that
which ye will bake today, and seethe that ye will seethe; and that
which remaineth over lay up for you to be kept until the morning.
24 And they laid it up till the morning, as Moses bade: and it did
not stink, neither was there any worm therein.
25 And Moses said, Eat that today; for today is a sabbath unto the
LORD: today ye shall not find it in the field.
26 Six days ye shall gather it; but on the seventh day, which is
the sabbath, in it there shall be none.
27 And it came to pass, that there went out some of the people on
the seventh day for to gather, and they found none.
28 And the LORD said unto Moses, How long refuse ye to keep my
commandments and my laws?
29 See, for that the LORD hath given you the sabbath, therefore he
giveth you on the sixth day the bread of two days: abide ye every man
in his place, let no man go out of his place on the seventh day.
30 So the people rested on the seventh day.
31 ¶ And the house of Israel called the name thereof Manna: and it
was like coriander seed, white; and the taste of it was like wafers
made with honey.
32 And Moses said, This is the thing which the LORD commandeth,
Fill an omer of it to be kept for your generations; that they may see
the bread wherewith I have fed you in the wilderness, when I brought
you forth from the land of Egypt.
33 And Moses said unto Aaron, Take a pot, and put an omer full of
manna therein, and lay it up before the LORD, to be kept for your
generations.
34 As the LORD commanded Moses, so Aaron laid it up before the
Testimony, to be kept.
35 And the children of Israel did eat manna forty years, until they
came to a land inhabited: they did eat manna, until they came unto
the borders of the land of Canaan.
36 Now an omer is the tenth part of an ephah.

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Commentary.

Verse 22. On the 6th day of this first week of manna, the people
had gathered twice as much as on the 5 previous days. The rulers who
had oversight of the gathered manna and doling it out, an omer per
person. On this day they were taken by surprise that when each person
had their allotment, there was an equal amount remaining. Obviously
the amount provided was from the Lord. They came to Moses with t he
news.

Verse 23. Moses, of course, was not surprised, as he tells them:


this was the Lord’s plan, which he had already revealed to Moses.
This was the promised provision for holy sabbath (day of rest) unto
the Lord. This was the first set apart day of no labor; but for holy
use and service. They were to bake or boil only what they would eat
on the 6th day. What was saved was for the sabbath day (the 7th day).
Verse 24. The people obeyed Moses as instructed. The sabbath
morning the manna was just fine, no smell, no worms. As the Lord
planned, so the Lord provided!

Verse 25. On the Sabbath morning, Moses told them to to go ahead


and prepare and eat the manna as they preferred. He also emphasized
that this was a day of rest. They must not even bother to look out in
the field to see any Manna – for there is none at all.

Verse 26. Moses emphasizes that this weekly pattern, now in its
first 7th day, will be repeated from then on. Six days to gather, none
on the 7th day. The 7th day equals the Sabbath.

Verse 27. The following 7th day, some of the people went out to
gather. Their motive was not greed or hunger: they had plenty for
that day already. It could possibly be plain curiosity; even to prove
whether the word of Moses was true – and they only had to go to the
usual places they gathered the manna. They did and there was none.
Verse 28. The Lord, of course, observed this action. He was
displeased and expressed this to Moses. How long will it take these
people to believe the word of God and obey!

Verse 29. The whole purpose of giving them two days’ food on the
6th day is for them not to go out on the 7th: a day of rest. Moses was
to remind them again – stay at home on the 7th day! The family was to
be instructed to pray and praise the Lord and observe the religious
practices.

Verse 30. So the people of the House of Israel rested on the 7th
day. They did so from then on, generation to generation.

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Verse 31. The name “manna” is set, the official name of the
appointed, prepared, portion and gift – which they received every day
and enjoyed. It was about the size and shape of a coriander seed
(round) and it was white in color. The taste had the sweetness of
honey.

Verse 32. Another command of the Lord related to the manna was
given to Moses to see carried out. An amount was to be saved
especially to be kept as record and symbol of this special gift and
provision of God for His people. An omer was to be put in a container
and kept “for your generations”. God had fed the people every day in
the wilderness. Even so is Christ our daily provision of God for our
lives in our sinful world (the Bread of Life).

Verse 33. Moses instructed Aaron to take an earthen vessel


(pot). Some suggest a golden pot – better duration over time, also of
the highest value for what it contained. The manna was placed
therein. It was to be placed where the Lord was worshiped – from
generation to generation. It signified His presence. (Later in the
ark of the covenant.)

Verse 34. Moses followed the Lord’s command and so Aaron


completed the plan: the pot of manna was placed before the ark of the
testimony where it was to stay from then on.

Verse 35. The people ate manna 40 years. It only was stopped
when they reached the area of Canaan where people lived, planted and
reaped grain. There it was no longer needed.

Verse 36. The daily portion of each man was an over, a 10th part
of an ephah. There have been several guesses as to what that amount
would be in our modern measure. The most reasonable suggestion seems
to be about 3 quarts (full-day provision of bread).

Next: thirst for water!

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Lesson XVII

Exodus chapter 17.

Verses 1-7.

1 And all the congregation of the children of Israel journeyed


from the wilderness of Sin, after their journeys, according to the
commandment of the LORD, and pitched in Reph'idim: and there was no
water for the people to drink.
2 Wherefore the people did chide with Moses, and said, Give us
water that we may drink. And Moses said unto them, Why chide ye with
me? wherefore do ye tempt the LORD?
3 And the people thirsted there for water; and the people murmured
against Moses, and said, Wherefore is this that thou hast brought us
up out of Egypt, to kill us and our children and our cattle with
thirst?
4 And Moses cried unto the LORD, saying, What shall I do unto this
people? they be almost ready to stone me.
5 And the LORD said unto Moses, Go on before the people, and take
with thee of the elders of Israel; and thy rod, wherewith thou
smotest the river, take in thine hand, and go.
6 Behold, I will stand before thee there upon the rock in Horeb;
and thou shalt smite the rock, and there shall come water out of it,
that the people may drink. And Moses did so in the sight of the
elders of Israel.
7 And he called the name of the place Massah, and Mer'ibah,
because of the chiding of the children of Israel, and because they
tempted the LORD, saying, Is the LORD among us, or not?

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Commentary.

Verse 1. The Israelites had stayed at least a week at the


wilderness of Sin. The Lord had commanded them to continue on their
journeys. The next place of note they stopped was named Rephidim. It
was on the western side of Mount Sinai. The distance was about 30
miles.
These moves were ordered by the Lord as directed by the pillar
of cloud or fire that went before them. Their destination (Rephidim)
was a sandy place. There was no water for the people to drink.

Verse 2. The people therefore started complaining and saying


every reproach and accusation of his doing this on purpose to Moses.
They blamed him for this situation and therefore demanded that he
must immediately give them water.
Considering all that these people had experienced God’s miracles
for them over and over, why hadn’t their faith and trust in the Lord
become strong and resilient? This was Moses’ reaction to their anger
toward him – they were wasting their time – he couldn’t produce water
– only the Lord could. They were trying the Lord’s patience by their
blaming His servants (Moses and Aaron) and showing only distrust in
the Lord.

Verse 3. The longer they stayed the worse the people complained.
They had soon run out of all the water they had brought with them.
They became impatience and angrier – accusing Moses of bringing them
out from Egypt to now kill them and their animals with thirst. This
was not possible, unthinkable, and yet there they were it was about
to happen whether it was his intention or not!

Verse 4. Moses turned to the Lord in prayer as the only possible


and correct response to the situation. This was the example the
people should have followed. Moses was desperate, and had no power or
plan. The lord is entreated to step in and solve this extremely dire
situation. The limit has been reached – Moses thinks that the people
are considering stoning him to death. They were past all patience,
desperate, in a growing rage.

Verse 5. The Lord replies to Moses and directs him to lead the
elders of Israel nearer to Mount Horeb. They were to be witnesses of
the miracle. They could be depended upon to report to the rest of the
people.
Moses once there with the elders, was to take his rod, as used
in the past, and go to the rock.

Verse 6. The Lord will be there upon the rock (in the pillar of
cloud) to direct Moses to the spot: he is to strike the rock. Upon
striking the rock, water will flow out of it. It will be plenty for
all the people to drink. Moses followed the plan exactly – before the
elders of Israel.

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Verse 7. The rock was named Massah or temptation and Meribah or


contention. This describes the events of this situation. The people
were tempted to blame and fight with Moses, to test if the Lord were
with them.

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Verses 8-16.

8 ¶ Then came Am'alek, and fought with Israel in Reph'idim.


9 And Moses said unto Joshua, Choose us out men, and go out, fight
with Am'alek: tomorrow I will stand on the top of the hill with the
rod of God in mine hand.
10 So Joshua did as Moses had said to him, and fought with Am'alek:
and Moses, Aaron, and Hur went up to the top of the hill.
11 And it came to pass, when Moses held up his hand, that Israel
prevailed: and when he let down his hand, Am'alek prevailed.
12 But Moses' hands were heavy; and they took a stone, and put it
under him, and he sat thereon; and Aaron and Hur stayed up his hands,
the one on the one side, and the other on the other side; and his
hands were steady until the going down of the sun.
13 And Joshua discomfited Am'alek and his people with the edge of
the sword.
14 ¶ And the LORD said unto Moses, Write this for a memorial in a
book, and rehearse it in the ears of Joshua: for I will utterly put
out the remembrance of Am'alek from under heaven.
15 And Moses built an altar, and called the name of it Jehovah–
nis'si:
16 for he said, Because the LORD hath sworn that the LORD will have
war with Am'alek from generation to generation.

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Commentary.

Verse 8. Amalek is thought to have come from the south, upon the
rear part of the Israelite amp to attack and take plunder. It has
been suggested that these desert people had heard of the Israelites
coming out of Egypt with riches, but with no army or organization to
defend them.

Verse 9 But by this time the Israelites have weapons from the
fallen Egyptians and obviously have organized and trained a group of
fighting men under Joshua – who had been trained as a man of war from
his youth. He is ordered by Moses to get all the fighting men
together and go out against Amalek, at some distance. They were
defending their wives and children against the aggression.
Moses said to be read for tomorrow. He would be on the top of
the hill with his rod – the symbol and like a banner, to encourage
the troops, and inspire their confidence that the Lord was with them.

Verse 10. Joshua did everything as Moses had ordered him to. He
gathered the men, armed and organized them, and led them into battle
with the Amalekites’ army. Moses, Aaron, and Hur went to the top of
the hill to be seen by their troops. Hur is thought to be the husband
of Miriam. Moses held up the rod in his hand.

Verse 11. As the fighting continued it was observed that when


Moses’ hand was raised up the Israelites prevailed. When his hand was
down, Amalek prevailed. The main thought is that the Israeli soldiers
had courage and fought harder as they saw Moses’ hand uplifted – this
was a sign and emblem of God being prayed to by Moses for their
victory. When his hand was down, their confidence was lowered as
well, thinking Moses had ceased in praying to God for them. Obviously
when they lost courage the Amalekite soldiers took advantage and
became bolder and more vigorous fighters.

Verse 12. The longer the battle lasted the weaker and more tired
Moses got, being well advanced in age. His two companions came to his
aid. They got a large stone for him to sit on. Aaron, on one side,
held up Moses’ arm on that side. Hur, on the other side, held the
other arm. Apparently they alternated the holding up of an arm and
rod from one side to the other as Moses was able to hold the rod.
They were able to keep his hand steady until sunset. The Israelites
prevailed. It can be assumed that the Israelites fought in faithful
trust that God was with them and granted them the victory.

Verse 13. The Amalekites were defeated by Joshua and his


fighting men “by the edge of the sword”.

Verse 14. The Lord directed Moses to record this victory in a


book to keep as a memorial to pass on to future generations. He is to
get all the facts straight by going over it with Joshua.

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Verse 14. The Lord has planned to not allow them to be a nation
of Amalek ever again. Their name will only be mentioned with disgrace
and contempt. (Example – Mordecai) Harman the Amalekite.

Verse 15. Moses built an alter on the mount (Horeb) to offer up


sacrifices of thanksgiving to the Lord for the victory. It was also a
monument in memory of it. He named it Jehovanissi: the Lord is my
miracle and banner before the people. It was most likely also
inscribed on the monument.

Verse 16. Amalek had raised his hand against the Lord, so the
Lord has decreed war against Amalek – against any of that tribe from
generation to generation until none be left. This was carried out to
the third generation.

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Lesson XVIII

Exodus chapter 18. Seeing Jethro Again.

Verses 1-6.

1 When Jethro, the priest of Mid'i-an, Moses' father-in-law, heard


of all that God had done for Moses, and for Israel his people, and
that the LORD had brought Israel out of Egypt;
2 then Jethro, Moses' father-in-law, took Zippo'rah, Moses' wife,
after he had sent her back,
3 and her two sons; of which the name of the one was Gershom; 7
for he said, I have been an alien in a strange land:
4 and the name of the other was Eli-e'zer; 8 for the God of my
father, said he, was mine help, and delivered me from the sword of
Pharaoh:
5 and Jethro, Moses' father-in-law, came with his sons and his
wife unto Moses into the wilderness, where he encamped at the mount
of God:
6 and he said unto Moses, I thy father-in-law Jethro am come unto
thee, and thy wife, and her two sons with her.

Commentary.

Verse 1. By this time the news had traveled throughout the lands
surrounding Egypt, including Midian where Moses’ father in law,
Jethro, lived. He had heard it all, and in detail, the mighty works
of God for his people. It is also possible that Moses had sent
messengers to him to keep him up to date.

Verse 2. By this time Jethro knew Moses was nearby and


determined to see him, and return Moses’ wife Zipporah (Jethro’s
daughter) and their two sons.
Moses had sent her back to her father when he was called to the
mission in Egypt. Apparently, Aaron had counseled Moses that
considering Moses’ leadership role - the responsibility and actions
he was in charge of under the Lord would leave no time for him to
take care of and watch out for them. So Moses had told her to return
to her father’s house with their two sins. Gifts were sent after her
and the request that Jethro would keep them safe for a short period
of time. Jethro was appropriately bringing them to him now.

Verse 3. And her two sons: Gershom – meaning I was a stranger


there. He expressed that he had been an alien in a strange land –
meaning Midian. He had formerly lived 40 years in Egypt. Midian was
also not to be his home, but Canaan was.

Verse 4. The other was named Eliezer – meaning the God of my


father is my helper, and delivered him from the threat of death by
Pharaoh (his sword). Moses most likely named him as a living memorial
of what God had done for him, again and again.

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Verse 5. Jethro (Moses’ father in law) now brought Moses’ wife


and sons to him in the wilderness of Arabia not far from Midian. It
was near to the place Moss had dwelt and kept Jethro’s sheep (Exodus
3:1). Jethro lived about a day and a half’s journey to the east.
Moses was encamped at Mount Horeb – here called the mount of God.

Verse 6. Moses received the message from Jethro of his coming to


Moses with his wife and two sons. This was not to be a sudden
appearance as if to take Moses by surprise for some reason. Also,
since the Israelites had recently been fighting the Amalekites, they
were most likely on the alert.

Verses 7-18.

7 And Moses went out to meet his father-in-law, and did obeisance,
and kissed him; and they asked each other of their welfare; and they
came into the tent.
8 And Moses told his father-in-law all that the LORD had done unto
Pharaoh and to the Egyptians for Israel's sake, and all the travail
that had come upon them by the way, and how the LORD delivered them.
9 And Jethro rejoiced for all the goodness which the LORD had done
to Israel, whom he had delivered out of the hand of the Egyptians.
10 ¶ And Jethro said, Blessed be the LORD, who hath delivered you
out of the hand of the Egyptians, and out of the hand of Pharaoh, who
hath delivered the people from under the hand of the Egyptians.
11 Now I know that the LORD is greater than all gods: for in the
thing wherein they dealt proudly he was above them.
12 And Jethro, Moses' father-in-law, took a burnt offering and
sacrifices for God: and Aaron came, and all the elders of Israel, to
eat bread with Moses' father-in-law before God.
13 ¶ And it came to pass on the morrow, that Moses sat to judge the
people: and the people stood by Moses from the morning unto the
evening.
14 And when Moses' father-in-law saw all that he did to the people,
he said, What is this thing that thou doest to the people? Why
sittest thou thyself alone, and all the people stand by thee from
morning unto even?
15 And Moses said unto his father-in-law, Because the people come
unto me to inquire of God:
16 when they have a matter, they come unto me; and I judge between
one and another, and I do make them know the statutes of God, and his
laws.
17 And Moses' father-in-law said unto him, The thing that thou
doest is not good.
18 Thou wilt surely wear away, both thou, and this people that is
with thee: for this thing is too heavy for thee; thou art not able to
perform it thyself alone.

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Commentary.

Verse 7. Moses puts aside his position and power to go


personally out of the camp to meet Jethro. He also bows,
respectfully, to Jethro, and greets him with the traditional kiss of
affection and kinship. Then they shared their recent experiences
relating how they were doing, what important things had happened
(news update). This appears to be what they did as they walked into
the camp and came to the tent of Moses.

Verse 8. No doubt refreshment was provided to the visitors, and


the conversation then continued. Jethro must have heard the general
news about these things, which had lead to this trip to go find
Moses.
Moses related the events that “the Lord” had done unto Pharaoh
and all the Egyptians in some detail: the plagues, the first-born
being killed, the destruction of him and his army in the Red Sea. All
of these things were done for Israel’s sake, who the Egyptians had
made their lives bitter in slavery. And last, the various mishaps in
the different stops in the wilderness, and the attack of the
Amalekites. About their hunger and thirst in the deserts. And how the
Lord provided and delivered them in each and every situation.

Verse 9. Jethro’s response was rejoicing unto the Lord: all that
He had done for Israel. Jethro was certainly a believer in the Lord,
and gave the Lord all the praise and glory for all that He had done
for his people. The magnitude was historical: delivered His people
“out of the hand of the Egyptians”.

Verse 10. Speaking in the presence of Moses and Aaron. Jethro


made an all encompassing prayer and praise to the Lord for all He has
done: “who hath delivered you out of the hand of the Egyptians,” and
of Pharaoh. And also the people from hard bondage, and cruel slavery.
All praise, honor, blessing, and glory to the Lord.
Verse 11. To Jethro these events were both recent and powerful:
above and beyond any of the so-called gods and idols of the Gentile
heathen nations. Certainly the Egyptian gods were in the dirt. All of
Pharaoh’s power and might was also wiped out. They acted as if they
were all powerful, over all other people, and their deities. The Lord
had been above them and knocked them all down to the dirt.

Verse 12. Jethro, again recognized as Moses’ father in law, is a


uniquely respected person in Moses’ life. He took animal (cow or
sheep) to be consumed by fire unto the Lord (burnt offering. Also
sacrifices for thanksgiving, the flesh of which was to be eaten. A
feast was to be kept.
Aaron and all the elders of Israel were called participate in
this celebration to honor and praise God with Jethro and Moses They
all came together and partook and honored their God and Savior.

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Verse 13. The next morning Moses went about his role of caring
for his people. This was also the day after Jethro had come. Moses
was no responsible to decide disputes among the people (as judge). As
we have repeatedly observed this was a quarrelsome people. The people
had acknowledged him as having divine authority over them, and now
came to him to settle their dispute.
Problem number 1 was that from such a large number or people;
they came from morning, all day, into the evening as well. They took
their twins, standing before Moses. They told their sides, and Moses
listened intently and made a judgment. There were just too many.

Verse 14. After observing this role of Moses, which he alone was
responsible to hear and judge all that came of his people, Jethro
realized the amount of time and the number of people that came was an
insurmountable task, especially for just one person. Jethro poses his
question: why does Moses do it all by himself? It takes all day and
into the evening. Obviously this happens day after day. This was
certainly exhausting Moses and the people who continued to wait to be
heard.

Verse 15. Moses answers his father in law: two things he was
doing for the people. 1. They asked about God’s will, this law about
certain things in their own lives – what to observe, their specific
conduct: “what God would have them do”. Moses was to give them an
answer.

Verse 16. Number 2. If 2 people have a disagreement, which they


have not been able to resolve by themselves. They then bring the
matter to Moses, to listen to their opinions and decide what was
correct or right. Moses is to consider the laws of justice and
equality, and/or the laws of God – civil and religious. Moses was
judge of all the people in all these matters!

Verse 17. No matter how strong and vigorous Moses was at the
present, Jethro could see that to continue with this schedule would
wear down his patience, and general health. What he did for the
people was good. How he is doing it was not good for him. It was too
much.

Verse 18. Moses’ natural strength “will surely wear away”. Even
as the leaves of trees fade, and then fall, so will he wither and
fade and fall. The people also had to wait for long periods – morning
to night, some day after day.
To put it simply, Jethro says “this thing is too heavy for
thee.” Trying to do it all by himself, no mortal man could keep this
up for long. He had the heart and will, but the strength of his body
would not be able to keep it up indefinitely.

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Verses 19-27.

19 Hearken now unto my voice, I will give thee counsel, and God
shall be with thee: Be thou for the people to Godward, that thou
mayest bring the causes unto God:
20 and thou shalt teach them ordinances and laws, and shalt show
them the way wherein they must walk, and the work that they must do.
21 Moreover thou shalt provide out of all the people able men, such
as fear God, men of truth, hating covetousness; and place such over
them, to be rulers of thousands, and rulers of hundreds, rulers of
fifties, and rulers of tens:
22 and let them judge the people at all seasons: and it shall be,
that every great matter they shall bring unto thee, but every small
matter they shall judge: so shall it be easier for thyself, and they
shall bear the burden with thee.
23 If thou shalt do this thing, and God command thee so, then thou
shalt be able to endure, and all this people shall also go to their
place in peace.
24 ¶ So Moses hearkened to the voice of his father-in-law, and did
all that he had said.
25 And Moses chose able men out of all Israel, and made them heads
over the people, rulers of thousands, rulers of hundreds, rulers of
fifties, and rulers of tens.
26 And they judged the people at all seasons: the hard causes they
brought unto Moses, but every small matter they judged themselves.
27 And Moses let his father-in-law depart; and he went his way into
his own land.

Commentary.

Verse 19. Jethro obviously felt serious concern for his son in
law, his health and welfare. He now offers Moses his advice, as an
older, more experienced, concerned, and sincere part of the family.
Jethro is also confident that this path would be agreeable and
blessed by God. He should continue to be God’s representative to the
people, and the people’s representative to God, a mediator.

Verse 20. Moses should also be the people’s teacher of laws and
rules regarding civil and religious matters. These will be according
to the wishes of the Lord: their path of faith and duty, the way of
truth and righteousness. They must be moral, religious, and good
citizens toward one another.

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Verse 21. In addition, Moses should seek among all his people,
men of high strength of heart and body, of courage and sincere
respect, as fear God. Men of truth, not dishonest or looking for
their material gain in everything.
These men should be placed in authority over the people in a
reasonable and orderly manner. Start with rulers of thousands then
down in number: hundreds, then fifties, then tens. Each man would be
judge over a group of families of the appointed number – 1,000, 100,
50, 10.

Verse 22. Each judge would deal with disputes among their people
whenever they come up (at all seasons). They are to determine the
truth and execute justice. This would lift a great burden from Moses.
Only if a matter is not able to be resolved by the judge (a great
matter of importance) will it be brought brought before Moses. This
would make Moses have an easier time, and the others would bear the
burden with him.

Verse 23. Jethro qualifies his advice. If Moses decides to


follow this plan, and God was agreeable to it (for Moses would pray
until the Lord about it, that it would be within God’s will). The
result would be that Moses could endure and continue in his position.
Also all the people then could go back to their places in peace. They
could be assured that whatever problem they want addressed would be
dealt with in a reasonable time, and fairly.

Verse 24. Moses thought over all of Jethro’s counsel and came to
the conclusion that it was a very good plan and benefited everyone.
Moses proceeded to implement the plan – first, the second part that
required the choosing the right men to judge.

Verse 25. Moses began the search for those best qualified to
fill these positions. Those chosen were appointed to positions over
the people: called rulers which would include governor, judge,
officer. The only difference was in the number of judges, considering
the whole population it would be more reasonable if the numbers were
accounting for families and not individuals.

Verse 26. And so the system was set in place, the judges chosen
and people came to them whenever they had a problem. If they couldn’t
solve the problem, “the hard causes they brought to Moses” (by the
judges) who determined what cases they considered too difficult for
them. They judged small matters themselves.

Verse 27. After Jethro had been with Moses for some time, he
wished to return home. Moses certainly, in an honorable way, saw to
his being escorted from their camp some short distance. And also for
safety Jethro continued on his way to Midian.

End. Next, Mount Sinai.

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Lesson XIX

Exodus chapter 19. Israel at Mt. Sinai.

Verses 1-8.

1 In the third month, when the children of Israel were gone forth
out of the land of Egypt, the same day came they into the wilderness
of Si'nai.
2 For they were departed from Reph'idim, and were come to the
desert of Si'nai, and had pitched in the wilderness; and there Israel
camped before the mount.
3 And Moses went up unto God, and the LORD called unto him out of
the mountain, saying, Thus shalt thou say to the house of Jacob, and
tell the children of Israel;
4 Ye have seen what I did unto the Egyptians, and how I bare you
on eagles' wings, and brought you unto myself.
5 Now therefore, if ye will obey my voice indeed, and keep my
covenant, then ye shall be a peculiar treasure unto me above all
people: for all the earth is mine:
6 and ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests, and a holy nation.
These are the words which thou shalt speak unto the children of
Israel.
7 ¶ And Moses came and called for the elders of the people, and
laid before their faces all these words which the LORD commanded him.
8 And all the people answered together, and said, All that the
LORD hath spoken we will do. And Moses returned the words of the
people unto the LORD.

Commentary.

Verses 1,2. In the 3rd month since the children of Israel had
left Egypt. On the first day, they left Rephedim and came into the
wilderness of Sinai (about 8 miles). They encamped there, near the
mount.
Verse 3. The next day (the 2nd day), Moses went up unto the
pillar of cloud on top of the mount. The Lord had called unto him to
come up. When he arrived, the Lord spoke to him. He has something He
wants Moses to inform the people, identified first as the house of
Jacob – the birth name of the one who later would be changed to
Israel – at a higher position with God. So these people, all
descended from him, had experienced both conditions – from Jacob in
Egypt, to Israel – now the blessed of God: the children of Israel.

Verse 4. Moses is to tell them the exact words of the Lord: They
have seen what He did to the Egyptians – how He had rescued them and
brought them out – compared to the eagle which will take its young
swiftly, with might upon its body and carry it to safety upon its
wings. God had safely and swiftly brought them to Him, at the mount
of God. This is the place they will receive His law for His people.

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Verse 5. They are now completely obligated to the Lord with the
rest of their lives. They must pay close attention to His words “and
in obeying, obey”. The covenant of greatest promises, and good things
he will do for them. It will include duties to be performed by them.
They will then be God’s peculiar treasure, “above all people”.
Precious and valuable above all others on the whole face of the earth
– for all the earth is His.

Verse 6. A wholly different life from the slavery and bondage


that they were in, in Egypt. They were now an independent nation
under God, a kingdom of priests. They had access to God, and served
Him, as honored and highly esteemed men. Every head of a family was a
priest in Israel. An holy nation. This concludes the words Moses is
to speak to the children of Israel.

Verse 7. Moses came down from the mount and sent for the elders,
the principal men of the tribes and families. When they were
assembled, he spoke, face to face, the complete message “all these
words” “hat the Lord commanded him.” Clear and plain - the message
was delivered and accepted.

Verse 8. After the heads, the elders, communicated, these things


to the rest of the people. Their collective response was complete
acceptance of the Lords message – His promises and their duties and
obligations. Their will was: “all the Lord hath spoken we will do.”
They will listen and be obedient. Moses took the people’s response
formally to the Lord, as was his role as mediator and messenger
between God and His people. The 3rd Day of the month.

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Verse 9-20.

9 And the LORD said unto Moses, Lo, I come unto thee in a thick
cloud, that the people may hear when I speak with thee, and believe
thee for ever.
¶ And Moses told the words of the people unto the LORD.
10 And the LORD said unto Moses, Go unto the people, and sanctify
them today and tomorrow, and let them wash their clothes,
11 and be ready against the third day: for the third day the LORD
will come down in the sight of all the people upon mount Si'nai.
12 And thou shalt set bounds unto the people round about, saying,
Take heed to yourselves, that ye go not up into the mount, or touch
the border of it: whosoever toucheth the mount shall be surely put to
death:
13 there shall not a hand touch it, but he shall surely be stoned,
or shot through; whether it be beast or man, it shall not live: when
the trumpet soundeth long, they shall come up to the mount.
14 And Moses went down from the mount unto the people, and
sanctified the people; and they washed their clothes.
15 And he said unto the people, Be ready against the third day:
come not at your wives.
16 ¶ And it came to pass on the third day in the morning, that
there were thunders and lightnings, and a thick cloud upon the mount,
and the voice of the trumpet exceeding loud; so that all the people
that was in the camp trembled.
17 And Moses brought forth the people out of the camp to meet with
God; and they stood at the nether part of the mount.
18 And mount Si'nai was altogether on a smoke, because the LORD
descended upon it in fire: and the smoke thereof ascended as the
smoke of a furnace, and the whole mount quaked greatly.
19 And when the voice of the trumpet sounded long, and waxed louder
and louder, Moses spake, and God answered him by a voice.
20 And the LORD came down upon mount Si'nai, on the top of the
mount: and the LORD called Moses up to the top of the mount; and
Moses went up.

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Commentary.

Verse 9. God told Moses that He would now appear on the mount in
“a thick cloud”, different from the pillar of cloud used to lead the
people. The people were to be eyewitnesses and also hear what the
Lord spoke to Moses. The people would then forever after believe that
their law came directly from God. None of it was Moses’ idea or plan.
Moses then confirms that he has told the Lord the words of the
people.

Verse 10. On the 4th day, the Lord spoke to Moses. He was to now
go down (from the top of the mount) to the people. He was to instruct
them in how to set themselves apart (sanctify) by cleansing
themselves (wash) and their clothing. This also infers the necessity
of internal purity and holiness. Thus are they to appear before the
Lord.
Verse 11. On the 3rd day, from this cleansing, the Lord would
come down in the thick cloud in a visible display of His power (of
light and fire). All the people will see this.

Verse 12. A line was to be marked around the foot of the


mountain, beyond which no one was to pass. This marked the utmost
importance of this Mt. Of God. They weren’t even even to touch it.
The penalty was death.

Verse 13. Anyone who does touch or pass the line, is not to be
gone after, or touched. They are to stone him or shoot with arrows,
those that had stood near enough to see the man touch or go over the
border line. Even animals that cross the holy boundaries are to be
killed.
At the trumpet sounding a long note, this is the signal for the
people to gather, go up to the mount, near the boundary.

Verse 14. When Moses came down from the mount, he proceeded to
instruct the people concerning sanctifying themselves. They simply
did what Moses told them to: wash.

Verse 15. They were to continue to clean as preparation to


appear before the Lord the 3rd day. The men are also to abstain from
their wives the night before this holy and solemn day.

Verse 16. The morning of the third day. Thunder and lightnings
awaken the people to seriousness and awe, to focus on what they would
be given on this day. The signal of “the trumpet exceeding loud” was
terrifying. The people trembled.

Verse 17. Moses had to stand, and direct, then lead the people
out of the camp, to the foot of the mount. There, they will meet with
God.

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Verse 18. Mount Sinai was covered in smoke – the Lord had
descended upon the mount in fire producing this mass of smoke. There
may also have been an earthquake (the earth shaking).

Verse 19. The trumpet blast this time was louder and shorter as
the signal of God about to speak. Moses spoke – most likely
exclaiming in shock. God spoke to him, to comfort and encourage him.

Verse 20. The Lord came down to the top of the mount and called
Moses to the top. Moses went up.

Verses 21-25.

21 And the LORD said unto Moses, Go down, charge the people, lest
they break through unto the LORD to gaze, and many of them perish.
22 And let the priests also, which come near to the LORD, sanctify
themselves, lest the LORD break forth upon them.
23 And Moses said unto the LORD, The people cannot come up to mount
Si'nai: for thou chargedst us, saying, Set bounds about the mount,
and sanctify it.
24 And the LORD said unto him, Away, get thee down, and thou shalt
come up, thou, and Aaron with thee: but let not the priests and the
people break through to come up unto the LORD, lest he break forth
upon them.
25 So Moses went down unto the people, and spake unto them.

Commentary.

Verse 21. On the mount, the Lord told Moses to take a severe
warning back to the people. They must not ever go any distance past
the boundary, as curious to catch a glimpse of the Lord. It has been
suggested that this could lead them to make some image to represent
the Lord’s likeness (an idol). Their penalty would be to perish by
the hand of God.
Verse 22. Also those separated as priests, who offered up
sacrifices must keep them sanctified, and also observe the same
bounds as the people in relation to the Lord. If they did not the
Lord will inflict His justice upon them (smite them, that they die).

Verse 23. Moses reminds the Lord that the people had already
received this charge concerning the mount – not to go over the border
established at the foot of the mount.

Verse 24. The time was up for Moses to be there. He is told by


the Lord to hurry back down to the people gathered at the foot of the
mount. They would be restless and curious, some may be tempted to
gaze and lose their lives for doing so. Moses must get these people
settled so the Lord won’t have to destroy those that break the
bounds. Only Moses and Aaron are to come up the mount.

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Verse 25. Moses obediently went down and communicated to the


people the absolute command from the Lord that no person must cross
the boundary. That those that did would be destroyed, period.

Next, chapter 20. The giving of the Law.

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Lesson XX

Exodus chapter 20. The Law Given.

Verses 1-7.

1 And God spake all these words, saying,


2 ¶ I am the LORD thy God, which have brought thee out of the land
of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.
3 ¶ Thou shalt have no other gods before me.
4 ¶ Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any
likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the
earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth:
5 thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I
the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the
fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of
them that hate me;
6 and showing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep
my commandments.
7 ¶ Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain: for
the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain.

Commentary. The Ten Commandments.

Verse 1. Also called the Decalogue: a system or body of laws:


selected and adapted to the people of Israel. They include the sins
and temptations they were in most danger of falling into. These laws
were to prevent this by obeying them. Morality is commanded.

Verse 2. The Lord begins speaking, first identifying Himself as


Who He was and what right He had to enact and expect the people of
Israel to obey these laws. The were to follow them with reverence and
utmost respect. They were His special chosen people. He is creator
and also over all the earth. He brought them out of Egypt (the house
of bondage). They were now an independent nation under God.
Verse 3. Commandments: #1. They shall have no other gods in
contrast to the idolatry of the Gentiles and several pantheons of
gods and goddesses, which are all false. Therefore the Lord was an
is, and ever shall be the only true God.

Verse 4. #2. No image made by man’s art of metal, wood or stone


to be worshiped. No image of God, no likeness in anything, anywhere,
heaven, or earth, or in the waters of earth.

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Verse 5. No reverence or worship (owing down) to images or an


other gestures, so serving them – no sacrifice or even incense, no
expressing of love, or any other hopes of blessing from them.
The Lord is a jealous God – not allowing any honor or glory to
be given to such false and empty things. Idolatry was spiritual
adultery. This is considered high treason: the Lord will punish them,
and on their children that follow them in rebellious ways as well:
even to the 3rd and 4th generation. This could also seriously deter
the parent from participating in such dangerous sinning, for their
childrens’ sake.

Verse 6. The measure of those that love the Lord is the keeping
His Commandments. To them will the Lord show mercy (thousands, could
also be interpreted as thousands of generations).

Verse 7. The name of the Lord is to never be used in a light or


trifling way. Only in reverence and affection – no profane oath or
curses. Swearing must be only if the thing be true. To do otherwise,
God will hold that person guilty of taking His name in vain He will
be condemned and punished; if not in this world, then in the world to
come (Judgment Day).

Verses 8-17.

8 ¶ Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy.


9 Six days shalt thou labor, and do all thy work:
10 but the seventh day is the sabbath of the LORD thy God: in it
thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy
manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger
that is within thy gates:
11 for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all
that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the LORD
blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it.
12 ¶ Honor thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long
upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee.
13 ¶ Thou shalt not kill.
14 ¶ Thou shalt not commit adultery.
15 ¶ Thou shalt not steal.
16 ¶ Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor.
17 ¶ Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's house, thou shalt not
covet thy neighbor's wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant,
nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbor's.

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Commentary.

Verse 8. To keep the Sabbath holy: no work or business, no


pleasure or recreations, lawful on all other days. It is to be used
for all spiritual and religious purposes. They are to remember to
observe it.
This 4th Commandment ends with verse 11.

Verse 9. This establishes the 7th day of the week – the Sabbath.
The first 6 days are provided to allow the people to work and labor
for their own provision and profit, and for their families. This
still restricted them from sinning. Labor is considered proper and
necessary. All possible was to be done in the 6 days, thereby leaving
nothing to be done on the Sabbath.

Verse 10. The seventh day was now instituted because the people
were separate as a nation. It was in Genesis the day of God’s rest
from creation. This day was thus uniquely the Lord thy God’s day.
Repeated as absolutely necessary: no work of adults or children,
even their servants. Also their animals. If a visitor was within
their city or town, they were also not to work.

Verse 11. Restatement from Genesis 1. Connects the people of


Israel to the Holy Creator of all things. Its celebration of the 7th
day would remind them every Sabbath of this, of His Word, His deeds,
to be experienced in their service and worship.
It would include God’s provision when they were receiving manna,
for the Lord provided twice enough on the 6th day, so none would be
gathered on the Sabbath, in the wilderness, the day of rest.

Verse 12. Commandment 5. Honor thy father and mother. The first
Commandment with a promise. To do this will bring them long life here
on earth, from the Lord. This is directed to those that are about to
enter the Promised Land, given as a promise by the Lord to their
fathers – starting with Abraham. This may extend to abiding by men’s
law – of kings, masters, governors, magistrates. It may also extend
to love and care for aging or disabled parents, to assist in all
their needs.

Verse 13. Commandment 6. It is the taking of another’s life. The


only excepting being when life is threatened, or by lawful
magistrate’s execution order, or in war.

Verse 14. Commandment 7. Adultery specifically with another


man’s wife. By extension: all impure actions, words and thoughts of
the body, the mouth, the mind. Most common: whoredom and fornication;
all things that are against nature, obscene motions and gestures and
language.

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Verse 15. Commandment 8. Thou shalt not steal: to take away


another person’s property, by stealth, force, or fraud. Private theft
(pickpockets etc), public robberies, at home – one member of the
family taking another’s property in secret.

Verse 16. Commandment 9. Not bear false witness: this includes


in public or in private swearing and accusing, slandering by innuendo
– all to another’s hurt and damage. Specifically as a witness in
court: the testimony and the witness must speak the truth. No lying,
period!

Verse 17. Commandment 10. Do no covet. This goes beyond the


previous Commandment of criminal actions. It is directed at the
inclination of the mind. Which are only known to the individual and
God. This includes schemes and contrivances of sins, the imaginations
of pleasures, craving desires. This is mentioned about a neighbor’s
possessions (house, housewife, property, servants or animals) or any
other thing that doesn’t belong to you.
We are to be at peace about our own portion: possessions and
circumstances. To do this is a struggle, for human nature is still
sinful and imperfect. But we are to work on this and guard against
those thoughts and desires.

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Verses 18-26.

18 ¶ And all the people saw the thunderings, and the lightnings,
and the noise of the trumpet, and the mountain smoking: and when the
people saw it, they removed, and stood afar off.
19 And they said unto Moses, Speak thou with us, and we will hear:
but let not God speak with us, lest we die.
20 And Moses said unto the people, Fear not: for God is come to
prove you, and that his fear may be before your faces, that ye sin
not.
21 ¶ And the people stood afar off, and Moses drew near unto the
thick darkness where God was.
22 And the LORD said unto Moses, Thus thou shalt say unto the
children of Israel, Ye have seen that I have talked with you from
heaven.
23 Ye shall not make with me gods of silver, neither shall ye make
unto you gods of gold.
24 An altar of earth thou shalt make unto me, and shalt sacrifice
thereon thy burnt offerings, and thy peace offerings, thy sheep, and
thine oxen: in all places where I record my name I will come unto
thee, and I will bless thee.
25 And if thou wilt make me an altar of stone, thou shalt not build
it of hewn stone: for if thou lift up thy tool upon it, thou hast
polluted it.
26 Neither shalt thou go up by steps unto mine altar, that thy
nakedness be not discovered thereon.

Commentary.

Verse 18. The people heard the volleys of thunder and saw the
amazing flashes of lightnings and the blasts of the trumpet and
terrifying smoke covering the mountain. This sensory overload brought
them great fear and dread. They had come to the boundary set, out of
curiosity, but now retreated, and stood afar off. Deuteronomy 5:30
mentions that they went all the way back to their encampment.
Verse 19. After Moses had come down from the mountain, back to
where the people were, the leaders of the people came together to him
with their serious request: they wanted God to speak to them through
Moses the words of God. They will listen and obey. They request as
well that God not speak directly to them. They ask Moses to pray to
God that He speak to them through a mediator. Their fear was to the
point of trembling, and fearing for their very lives. They were so
terrified they couldn’t stand near, aware of their own sinfulness and
inability to actually obey all that God required of them. Even
continuing to hear God would bring their death.

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Verse 20. Moses then replied to the leaders of the people, fear
not – not the noises and lightning – they won’t hurt them or consume
them. God’s presence will not kill them either, nor God’s words.
God’s purpose is to instruct them, for their own good. God required,
not their destruction, but a reverence of His Divine Majesty, in awe
of His power and glory. To have serious regard of His commandments,
that they would be careful not to offend Him by their disobedience.

Verse 21. The leaders returned to communicate this conversation


to the rest of the people, who were still “afar off”. Moses,
meanwhile, went back up to God with the people’s request, within the
cloud to the thick darkness where God’s presence was.

Verse 22. When Moses arrived near the thick darkness, the Lord
already had his response to the people’s concerns worked out. So He
spoke to Moses what Moses is to say unto the children of Israel in
God’s name, what He is about to tell Moses, Word for Word.
They have seen that He has talked to them from a cloud and dire,
with an audible voice, His Commandment. They saw and heard His
presence.

Verse 23. They are forbidden to make any images to worship, as a


likeness of God as a pretense. This would also include images of
angels or creatures in heaven, earth or sea. They were not to think
to worship idols of silver or gold. These people were familiar with
the whole pantheon of so-called gods and deities from Egypt, as we
see later in the golden calf they called for. Also no less costly
materials were to be used of brass, wood, or stone.

Verse 24. They are to make an altar of earth for the Lord to be
worshiped. These were only temporary in their travels: easily
constructed and taken down. This was also in complete contrast to the
pomp and overly gaudy places and practices of idolaters.
They are to be used for their various sacrifices and burnt
offerings, peace offerings, and any other offerings (sin and
trespass), where their sheep and oxen are to be offered in the
prescribed sacrifices.
And also, alter, in the tabernacle, which would be carried with
them every step of their journeys before the Temple was built in
Jerusalem. So are the people to continue to worship and call upon
God. These were the material symbols of God’s presence, always with
them. The Word makes this His firm promise to be with them and bless
them. Especially as they continue to recognize, respect, worship and
sincerely attempt to follow Him in all He has commanded them.

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Verse 25. One exception about the altar: it could also be made
of stones (as they were sometimes in rocky places as they are at this
time at Mt. Sinai, where they built a stone altar).
One absolute thing not to do: no stone worked upon or hewn. This
is what the idolaters did for their altars. The Israelites’ stones
were to be as found in their natural condition: easily gathered and
places, and as easily broken down and scattered as before.
The touch of man’s instrument on the stone will be considered as
polluted thereby; unfit for use as any part of God’s altar. One
comment mentions that the reason for this stipulation was that no man
was to claim credit for preparing one of the stones on the altar as
of his own work, therefore he would claim credit for at least part of
what good God would bless them with.

Verse 26. Steps up to the altar. If steps were many and high,
the forbidden parts of a man may be glimpsed by those on the ground.
The garments then were long loose ones, turned side to side. This was
to be avoided, that no impure thoughts were to be enticed in this
way. Tradition records that a long causeway of earth arose slowly up
to the altar at the top.

End.

Chapters 21, 22, and 23 – various laws of chiefly civil matters,


with moral and religious ones as well. All for the best national
commonwealth of the nation of Israel under God.

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Lesson XXI

Exodus chapter 21.

Verses 1-11.

1 Now these are the judgments which thou shalt set before them.
2 If thou buy a Hebrew servant, six years he shall serve: and in
the seventh he shall go out free for nothing.
3 If he came in by himself, he shall go out by himself: if he were
married, then his wife shall go out with him.
4 If his master have given him a wife, and she have borne him sons
or daughters; the wife and her children shall be her master's, and he
shall go out by himself.
5 And if the servant shall plainly say, I love my master, my wife,
and my children; I will not go out free:
6 then his master shall bring him unto the judges; he shall also
bring him to the door, or unto the doorpost; and his master shall
bore his ear through with an awl; and he shall serve him for ever.
7 ¶ And if a man sell his daughter to be a maidservant, she shall
not go out as the menservants do.
8 If she please not her master, who hath betrothed her to himself,
then shall he let her be redeemed: to sell her unto a strange nation
he shall have no power, seeing he hath dealt deceitfully with her.
9 And if he have betrothed her unto his son, he shall deal with
her after the manner of daughters.
10 If he take him another wife, her food, her raiment, and her duty
of marriage, shall he not diminish.
11 And if he do not these three unto her, then shall she go out
free without money.

Commentary.

Verse 1. The judgments are judicial laws for the equity and
justice of civil orders of the people of Israel from God: the rule of
conduct which their judges will execute justice among them. These are
for Moses to set before the people as God’s messenger as the people
requested of the Lord (not as the former 10 Commandments). They were
expected to obey, acknowledging that these laws came from the Lord.
God was as a king – the kingdom called a Theocracy.

Verse 2. A servant could be bought through either his poverty,


or because of his theft. The second would be by civil magistrates.
The time limit he was to serve was 6 years. The 7th year he will be
set free without payment (he will not have to pay for his freedom).

Verse 3. If he became a servant alone, he alone will be set


free. If he has an Israelite wife, she may leave with him.

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Verse 4. If his master gave him a wife (Canaanite woman) to


produce sons and daughters, the wife and her children remain the
master’s property. He will go out alone.

Verse 5. If the servant sincerely and truthfully says he loves


his wife and children, he chooses not to go out by himself.

Verse 6. He will be taken to the judges to declare his choice


not to be freed. To forever mark his so choosing, his ear was to be
pierced with an awl to witness his life of servitude forever, by his
own choice.

Verse 7. The case, if a man through poverty, sells his underage


daughter (under 12) to be a servant, she will not be freed as
manservants are (after 6 years of service).
Verse 8. If she is disagreeable, in temper or conduct, and her
master chooses, not to marry her after promising to do so when she
came of age he could be redeemed by one in her family. The amount
would be figured out by the price paid for her, and the years served
subtracted from it.

Verse 9. If the man marries her to his son, she must be treated
as all the daughters of Israel, not like still a servant.

Verse 10. If another wife is taken by his son, the maid-servant


shall continue to receive full provision and equal consideration
(attention from husband).

Verse 11. If he does not live up to these conditions (food,


clothing, personal attention), then she shall be free from her
servitude, without any money required.

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Verses 12-27.

12 ¶ He that smiteth a man, so that he die, shall be surely put to


death.
13 And if a man lie not in wait, but God deliver him into his hand;
then I will appoint thee a place whither he shall flee.
14 But if a man come presumptuously upon his neighbor, to slay him
with guile; thou shalt take him from mine altar, that he may die.
15 ¶ And he that smiteth his father, or his mother, shall be surely
put to death.
16 ¶ And he that stealeth a man, and selleth him, or if he be found
in his hand, he shall surely be put to death.
17 ¶ And he that curseth his father, or his mother, shall surely be
put to death.
18 ¶ And if men strive together, and one smite another with a
stone, or with his fist, and he die not, but keepeth his bed:
19 if he rise again, and walk abroad upon his staff, then shall he
that smote him be quit: only he shall pay for the loss of his time,
and shall cause him to be thoroughly healed.
20 ¶ And if a man smite his servant, or his maid, with a rod, and
he die under his hand; he shall be surely punished.
21 Notwithstanding, if he continue a day or two, he shall not be
punished: for he is his money.
22 ¶ If men strive, and hurt a woman with child, so that her fruit
depart from her, and yet no mischief follow: he shall be surely
punished, according as the woman's husband will lay upon him; and he
shall pay as the judges determine.
23 And if any mischief follow, then thou shalt give life for life,
24 eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot,
25 burning for burning, wound for wound, stripe for stripe.
26 ¶ And if a man smite the eye of his servant, or the eye of his
maid, that it perish; he shall let him go free for his eye's sake.
27 And if he smite out his manservant's tooth, or his maidservant's
tooth; he shall let him go free for his tooth's sake.

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Commentary.

Verse 12. Thou shalt not kill. The punishment, as to be


administered under a judge’s order, and be put to death by the court
appointed officer.

Verse 13. If a man does not seek, or willingly plan to kill


someone, and if that man is killed as in God’s providence and will,
the Lord will designate a place of safe haven where he can go: a
place of refuge. At this time it was at God’s altar in the Levite’s
place of encampment.

Verse 14. But if a man comes to his neighbor with malice, as


both daring and cunning to kill his neighbor, there shall not be any
haven for him – even God’s altar. The proper officials can rightly
take such a one, even if he fled to God’s altar for safety, and be
put to death.

Verse 15. For anyone who struck either of their parents hard
enough to leave a serious mark, would or bruise, they are to be put
to death (traditionally by suffocation or strangulation by a cloth
until death). This shows how heinous and detestable this was to God
and this law was to deter anyone from disobeying it.

Verse 16. Any who kidnaps (men stealers) and sells that person,
or if the kidnapped person has not yet been sold (found in the
thief’s possession), the penalty is death (by strangulation).

Verse 17. Anyone who even curses his father or mother must die.
To revile or speak evil upon them, or wishes harm on them, and
especially if they use the Lord’s Name to curse them. They are to be
be put to death: this traditionally was by stoning. His blood be upon
him (as from being stoned), he has caused this outcome by this sin
against his parents.
Verse 18. If two men fight each other – wrestle, or box, or use
a stone or fist, and the result is that the injured person did not
die, but is forced to remain in his bed.

Verse 19. If that person becomes able to get up again, walk


around, to walk outside with help of a staff, if still weak and
injured, then the one that struck him if freed from the death
penalty.
He is held responsible to pay the man for the time he hasn’t
been able to labor. He is also responsible to pay any medical bills
(doctors, medicine, therapy) until he is healed and becomes well.

Verse 20. To strike a servant or maid (as for correction with a


rod so severely that they did, he shall be punished). Tradition –
death by sword.

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Verse 21. But if the one struck remains alive a day or two,
master shall not be punished. This will be a loss of money (the hurt
man’s labor), that he wouldn’t have hit him to kill him for that
would be a loss to him. He had paid for the man in the first place.

Verse 22. If two men are fighting and the wife with child comes
too close and the one fighting her husband misses his intended target
(as she interposed between), or too near, and he hits the woman, and
this blow causes her to immediately give birth, and no further harm
or injury afterward, he shall be punished. The woman’s husband may
demand a reasonable amount as a fine. If not agreed, then the case is
to be decided by judges to set a proper amount.

Verse 23. If in the above case, death follows (the baby, well
formed and ready for birth is killed) then the smiter gives up his
life for the child’s death.
Verse 24. Eye for an eye: these were laws of retaliation. The
immense variations of conditions make equal injury difficult to
inflict equally on the perpetrator. Traditionally these cases were
settled by putting a certain value on the injury to be paid to the
injured by the injurer, set by the judges. Also based on the price of
a person’s market value.

Verse 25. As the above injuries, so these (burning, bruising,


wounds with marks) would be impossible to accurately duplicate, so a
price would be paid to settle the case.

Verse 26. To strike a man’s servant or maid, so that one eye is


injured unto blindness in it, then that man must set them free for
their eye’s sake. This was also to deter mistreatment of servants –
to do so would cause their loss of money and profit.

Verse 27. This law of loss of a tooth is similar, though of less


value than that of an eye. Yet it would be a discouragement of
masters striking their servants or abusing them. Tradition adds the
values of the other principal body parts as well: hands, fingers,
etc.

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Verses 28-36.

28 ¶ If an ox gore a man or a woman, that they die: then the ox


shall be surely stoned, and his flesh shall not be eaten; but the
owner of the ox shall be quit.
29 But if the ox were wont to push with his horn in time past, and
it hath been testified to his owner, and he hath not kept him in, but
that he hath killed a man or a woman; the ox shall be stoned, and his
owner also shall be put to death.
30 If there be laid on him a sum of money, then he shall give for
the ransom of his life whatsoever is laid upon him.
31 Whether he have gored a son, or have gored a daughter, according
to this judgment shall it be done unto him.
32 If the ox shall push a manservant or a maidservant; he shall
give unto their master thirty shekels of silver, and the ox shall be
stoned.
33 ¶ And if a man shall open a pit, or if a man shall dig a pit,
and not cover it, and an ox or an ass fall therein;
34 the owner of the pit shall make it good, and give money unto the
owner of them; and the dead beast shall be his.
35 ¶ And if one man's ox hurt another's that he die; then they
shall sell the live ox, and divide the money of it; and the dead ox
also they shall divide.
36 Or if it be known that the ox hath used to push in time past,
and his owner hath not kept him in; he shall surely pay ox for ox;
and the dead shall be his own.

Commentary.

Verse 28. An ox that kills a human must die by stoning. The


flesh is not to be eaten – no profit is allowed, being an impure
carcass. The owner of the ox will only suffer the loss of the ox, not
of his own life.

Verse 29. But if the ox had been observed at least 3 days


pushing people with his horn, and this had been reported to the
owner, and he has not kept the ox in an enclosed place where the ox
could not hurt anyone. And now the ox has killed anyone, the ox must
be stoned, and the owner as well must be put to death.

Verse 30. In the above situation – if his death sentence is


commuted for a fine, with consent of the relatives of the diseased.
The owner will pay whatever ransom for his life as the judges
consider proper.

Verse 31. This is added to emphasize the equal value of


children’s lives. The owner of the guilty ox will have the same
punishment – pay the ransom set by the court to the relations of the
children, if they so consent.

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Verse 32. If the ox gores someone’s servant, then the master of


the ox shall pay the going value of the servant to their master – in
the law the amount is fixed at 30 shekels of silver – no matter the
actual value of the servant killed. The ox shall be stoned.

Verses 33,34. If a man digs a pit and doesn’t cover it or if he


takes the cover off an old pit, if any beast falls into it and dies,
the owner of the pit shall pay the owner of the animal that died, the
full value of that animal. The carcass is thereupon the pit owner’s.

Verse 35. or if one man’s ox kills another man’s ox -t he live


ox will be sold – the money divided. They shall also divide the dead
ox between them.

Verse 36. If, however, the owner of the guilty ox has been
observed (in at least the past 3 days and reported to its owners that
the beast had been unrestrained and pushing with its horns, men and
cattle, and the owner took no precautions – kept it not in, then the
owner of that ox shall pay, ox for ox, to the man whose ox was
killed. The dead ox shall not be divided because the other man took
no precaution, thus he is punished for his negligence.

Next, laws of theft!

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Lesson XXII

Exodus chapter 22.

Verses 1-13.

1 If a man shall steal an ox, or a sheep, and kill it, or sell it;
he shall restore five oxen for an ox, and four sheep for a sheep.
2 ¶ If a thief be found breaking up, and be smitten that he die,
there shall no blood be shed for him.
3 If the sun be risen upon him, there shall be blood shed for him;
for he should make full restitution: if he have nothing, then he
shall be sold for his theft.
4 If the theft be certainly found in his hand alive, whether it be
ox, or ass, or sheep; he shall restore double.
5 ¶ If a man shall cause a field or vineyard to be eaten, and
shall put in his beast, and shall feed in another man's field; of the
best of his own field, and of the best of his own vineyard, shall he
make restitution.
6 ¶ If fire break out, and catch in thorns, so that the stacks of
corn, or the standing corn, or the field, be consumed therewith; he
that kindled the fire shall surely make restitution.
7 ¶ If a man shall deliver unto his neighbor money or stuff to
keep, and it be stolen out of the man's house; if the thief be found,
let him pay double.
8 If the thief be not found, then the master of the house shall be
brought unto the judges, to see whether he have put his hand unto his
neighbor's goods.
9 ¶ For all manner of trespass, whether it be for ox, for ass, for
sheep, for raiment, or for any manner of lost thing, which another
challengeth to be his, the cause of both parties shall come before
the judges; and whom the judges shall condemn, he shall pay double
unto his neighbor.
10 ¶ If a man deliver unto his neighbor an ass, or an ox, or a
sheep, or any beast, to keep; and it die, or be hurt, or driven away,
no man seeing it:
11 then shall an oath of the LORD be between them both, that he
hath not put his hand unto his neighbor's goods; and the owner of it
shall accept thereof, and he shall not make it good.
12 And if it be stolen from him, he shall make restitution unto the
owner thereof.
13 If it be torn in pieces, then let him bring it for witness, and
he shall not make good that which was torn.

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Commentary.

Verse 1. The most common and valuable property that the


Israelites had were their flocks of oxen and sheep. They were kept
near together on their journeys to Canaan. These laws would also
include other animals and property of lesser value, stealing was also
forbidden and punished accordingly.
The fact that the thief killed or sold the animal showed his
intention to keep and use it for himself. The penalty was that he
shall restore 5 oxen for the stolen ox, and four sheep for a sheep.
The ox was the most useful and valuable, and more easily stolen,
therefore the higher fine.

Verse 2. If a thief is found breaking into someone else’s


property (house, animal enclosure, etc), and he is using some kind of
instrument to do so, and the owner knocks him down, and he dies, the
owner will not be punished. His own life and property were
threatened. If the thief had a tool or weapon, this proved his intent
to harm. The owner was therefore using a weapon or tool to kill the
intruder, and was not liable.

Verse 3. If it is in daylight and the thief is caught, and


killed, the person that kills him must die. In daylight it would be
only to steal, not murder. The master of the house could call for
help and take the thief and take back whatever was stolen; if he has
nothing he will be sold for his theft, and the money given to the
victim of the robbery.

Verse 4. If the thief stole an animal, ox or sheep, and was


caught was the animal alive, or with any other obviously stolen
goods, he shall restore to the owner double. The value of a live
animal was much greater – therefore the return alive makes the loss
not as great.

Verse 5. If a man puts his beast into another man’s field or


vineyard, to eat and trample them, the damage must be paid from the
best fields and vineyards of the thief (restitution). Deterrence was
part of the point of these punishments.

Verse 6. A thorn-hedge or fence was used around corn fields. If


a fire is kindled in the thorns, yet whether intended or not, the one
who started the fire will be held accountable to “surely make
restitution of the resulting loss.

Verse 7. If a man gives something, animal or money, or other


goods, for safekeeping, and it is stolen from the neighbor’s house. I
the goods and thief are found, the thief shall repay double (as in
verse 4). If not in the thief’s hands, then he must pay five-fold
(verse 1).

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Verse 8. If the thief was not found (nor the stolen goods), the
master of the house was brought before the judges to find out if he
has, himself, taken and used, or sol his neighbor’s property. He was
the thief.

Verse 9. The neighbor and property owner come before the judges
and give their testimony concerning the loaned property, any evidence
testimony from witnesses.

Verse 10. If a man takes to his neighbor an animal for keeping


without charge, and the animal dies or comes to be hurt or broken, or
is driven away or stolen without any witness to anything concerning
the animal, a special case.

Verse 11. In this situation an oath unto the Lord is required:


to swear in His Holy Name, before Him, in His presence, and Who is
called to take vengeance on anyone who perjures himself in such an
oath.
The one who was keeping the animal for his neighbor must swear:
“that he hath not put his hand unto his neighbor’s goods”. The owner
must accept this oath. The neighbor shall not be required to pay for
the man’s loss.

Verse 12. If the animal was stolen from among his own animals,
then he would be careless and negligent – then he must make
restitution to the owner.

Verse 13. If the animal had been torn in pieces by some wild
beast, the remains must be brought before the judges that it was the
animal in question and that it was so torn. If the evidence is
accepted, “he shall not make good that which was torn”.

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Verses 14-24.

14 ¶ And if a man borrow aught of his neighbor, and it be hurt, or


die, the owner thereof being not with it, he shall surely make it
good.
15 But if the owner thereof be with it, he shall not make it good:
if it be a hired thing, it came for his hire.
16 ¶ And if a man entice a maid that is not betrothed, and lie with
her, he shall surely endow her to be his wife.
17 If her father utterly refuse to give her unto him, he shall pay
money according to the dowry of virgins.
18 ¶ Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live.
19 ¶ Whosoever lieth with a beast shall surely be put to death.
20 ¶ He that sacrificeth unto any god, save unto the LORD only, he
shall be utterly destroyed.
21 ¶ Thou shalt neither vex a stranger, nor oppress him: for ye
were strangers in the land of Egypt.
22 Ye shall not afflict any widow, or fatherless child.
23 If thou afflict them in any wise, and they cry at all unto me, I
will surely hear their cry;
24 and my wrath shall wax hot, and I will kill you with the sword;
and your wives shall be widows, and your children fatherless.

Commentary.

Verse 14. If a man has borrowed something from his neighbor:


animal or goods, if any harm comes to it (be hurt or die, or be
broken), that man shall pay full value to the neighbor he borrowed it
from. The owner suffered the loss of his property.

Verse 15. If the owner possesses it when it is being borrowed


(still in its presence) and it dies then the borrower, having not
been able to use it, will not pay for it.

Verse 16. If a man entices a young woman, not married, to lie


with him, and she has willingly done so, he shall surely marry her,
and give a dowry, suitable to her rank and dignity. This was whether
he married her or not. He was not obligated.

Verse 17. If her father refuses to allow the marriage, then the
man shall pay money to her father in the amount of money a virgin
usually receives for her dowry.

Verse 18. Witches must be put to death. Those with “familiar


spirits” - pretending to converse with the departed spirits. This
would also include wizards. They must be brought to court, judged,
and put to death. This was also inflicted to prevent these people
from enticing and leading astray those that should be depending on
the Truth of God, His blessings and providence, and seeking His
counsel.

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Verse 19. One of the most heinous and carnal acts – the lowest
of man’s carnality and corruption: bestiality. Such a one shall
surely be put to death – no mercy. Traditionally stoned. Obviously
there were such cases and this penalty hopefully would be a deterrent
to others.

Verse 20. To sacrifice unto any god, but the Lord, he shall be
utterly destroyed – his body, all his substance. There were strange
gods and idols of the people, such as those of the Egyptians, and of
all the Canaanite peoples. Only Elohim was the true creator of all
things, the possessor of heaven and earth, the most high God.

Verse 21. They must not vex a stranger that has come among them.
They are not to call them names, take anything from them, or refuse
to advice or help them (oppression). Why? They should think back to
their own experiences as strangers in Egypt. This should remind them
to not be like the Egyptians were towards them.

Verse 22. No widow or orphan were to be afflicted. They are weak


and defenseless. They are to be left alone.

Verse 23. Anyone who does afflict either orphan or widow and
they cry unto the Lord, He will heart them. The Lord will take notice
of their prayer to Him for help. He will also certainly come to the
rescue and aid.

Verse 24. God’s anger will be hot against anyone who will take
advantage, to mistreat those so easily oppressed. These people show
that they have no compassion, are devoid of humanity and any sense of
fairness or justice. The Lord will see to it that they are killed by
the sword of death. In this way, their children will be fatherless,
their wives will be widows. This would leave them defenseless as
those they had oppressed themselves.

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Verses 25-31.

25 ¶ If thou lend money to any of my people that is poor by thee,


thou shalt not be to him as a usurer, neither shalt thou lay upon him
usury.
26 If thou at all take thy neighbor's raiment to pledge, thou shalt
deliver it unto him by that the sun goeth down:
27 for that is his covering only, it is his raiment for his skin:
wherein shall he sleep? and it shall come to pass, when he crieth
unto me, that I will hear; for I am gracious.
28 ¶ Thou shalt not revile the gods, nor curse the ruler of thy
people.
29 ¶ Thou shalt not delay to offer the first of thy ripe fruits,
and of thy liquors.
¶ The firstborn of thy sons shalt thou give unto me.
30 Likewise shalt thou do with thine oxen, and with thy sheep:
seven days it shall be with his dam; on the eighth day thou shalt
give it me.
31 ¶ And ye shall be holy men unto me: neither shall ye eat any
flesh that is torn of beasts in the fields; ye shall cast it to the
dogs.

Commentary.

Verse 25. It is proper to lend money to the poor for their


necessary benefit, and that there is no burden to the lender. The “my
people” includes only the Israelites – no Gentiles. The lender was
not to charge interest (usury) or penalties for late payments.
Neither is anyone else involved, scribe or witness, to ask or demand
payment for this is unlawful.

Verse 26. If a lender to his neighbor requires the one who


borrows a pledge for him (the lender) to keep. He is not charging
interest but requiring the pledge. He is required to give the pledge
back to the borrow by sunset. This is specifically about the pledge
being the borrower’s bed-clothes.

Verse 27. The concern is that the borrow needs these clothes to
wear when he lays down to sleep, not having any other covering to
cover his naked skin. If this is not done he will be expected to
sleep naked! This would be unthinkably cruel.
If such a one prays unto the Lord, the Lord will hear and
resolve this situation. The Lord states clearly: “I am gracious.”

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Verse 28. The people of Israel are not to blaspheme the so-
called gods of the surrounding Gentiles. The reason is that these
people consider them to be gods and severe and worship them.
A more likely interpretation connects these gods with the ruler
of the people. Thus the ruler, or king, with his administration, who
represent the civil laws (under God) are to be always shown respect.
Also the high priests and Levites, who represent God in all religious
matters. No cursing or denigrating such dignified persons.

Verse 29. The offering of first fruits must not be delayed. The
amount is not stated, but tradition was set. The measure of the
people’s generosity was the percentage of the crops: a bountiful man
would bring a 40th part of his fruits – one in the middle would bring
the 50th part, never less. No delay or postponing.
The liquors – of olives and grapes only. The first born of their
sons shall be given to the Lord. This also points back to Egypt where
the first born of Israel were spared, where those of the Egyptians
died. These first born sons were to be dedicated, to serve the Lord.

Verse 30. The first born of ox and sheep are also to be set
aside unto the Lord. Before the offspring was 7 days old it stayed
with its mother; on the 8th day it shall be delivered to the Lord, to
the priest of the Lord. Traditionally, they were allowed to bring it
within a month.

Verse 31. These people are to be holy before their God. They
were His chosen people, set above all the people on the face of the
earth. They uniquely are called upon to observe and obey God’s laws,
and his ceremonies. They are to be holy in a moral sense, and holy in
a spiritual sense as well.
No flesh was to be eaten that has been torn of beasts in the
field. Whatever was torn in any other place was also not to be eaten.
Do not eat meat fed upon by beasts. Cast it to the dogs.

Finis.
Next, Chapter 23. It relates to courts, judges, and to be fair
and just.

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Lesson XXIII

Exodus chapter 23. Judicial Laws.

Verses 1-9.

1 Thou shalt not raise a false report: put not thine hand with the
wicked to be an unrighteous witness.
2 Thou shalt not follow a multitude to do evil; neither shalt thou
speak in a cause to decline after many to wrest judgment:
3 neither shalt thou countenance a poor man in his cause.
4 ¶ If thou meet thine enemy's ox or his ass going astray, thou
shalt surely bring it back to him again.
5 If thou see the ass of him that hateth thee lying under his
burden, and wouldest forbear to help him, thou shalt surely help with
him.
6 ¶ Thou shalt not wrest the judgment of thy poor in his cause.
7 Keep thee far from a false matter; and the innocent and
righteous slay thou not: for I will not justify the wicked.
8 And thou shalt take no gift: for the gift blindeth the wise, and
perverteth the words of the righteous.
9 ¶ Also thou shalt not oppress a stranger: for ye know the heart
of a stranger, seeing ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.

Commentary.

Verse 1. Thou shalt not spread any falsehoods about anyone – not
by anonymous slanders, tale bearing or innuendo. Nor by false
accusations in a court and false testimony, or to be a court officer
and join such falsehoods against an innocent person, or join the
wicked to be an unrighteous witness. Such are not to be allowed to be
a witness.

Verse 2. No example of the wicked, no matter how many or how


common, are not to be followed: everybody is doing. Judges are not to
be in any way influenced by names or numbers “the great ones”.

Verse 3. No respect of persons – to give special treatment to a


poor person to gain acclaim for showing pity. So also to show
deference to the wealth is wrong.

Verse 4. If anyone’s beast shall be noticed going astray even if


his owner is your enemy, you are to return the animal to the owner,
no matter what or who the person is to you.

Verse 5. If a person sees a donkey or an unfriendly neighbor


that has fallen down under the weight of the burden it was loaded
down with, would you even consider not helping the men to get his
animal up and on their way again? You are to always help.

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Verse 6. You shall not pervert the just case of a poor person
because of their poverty. All persons are to be treated equally with
justice.

Verse 7. You shall not take the wrong side of a cause, but stay
out of it and as far from it as possible. You shall not join in
condemning them to death. If you let a wicked man off, God will not,
nor will He let the wicked Judge off either, but in His time will
inflict His punishment.

Verse 8. No gift will be accepted by judges, from either side of


the dispute – not by words or promises. Such gifts cloud the eyes:
blindeth the wise. Judgment is perverted in favor of the one who
bribes them.

Verse 9. No stranger is to be treated unfairly, whether in


private or in public, or in court. Since these Israelites had been in
Egypt as strangers, they had experienced vexation, oppression, fear
and anxiety. And so they should have sympathy for strangers, and see
that justice was done them and no oppression of any kind.

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Verses 10-19.

10 ¶ And six years thou shalt sow thy land, and shalt gather in the
fruits thereof:
11 but the seventh year thou shalt let it rest and lie still; that
the poor of thy people may eat: and what they leave the beasts of the
field shall eat. In like manner thou shalt deal with thy vineyard,
and with thy oliveyard.
12 ¶ Six days thou shalt do thy work, and on the seventh day thou
shalt rest: that thine ox and thine ass may rest, and the son of thy
handmaid, and the stranger, may be refreshed.
13 And in all things that I have said unto you be circumspect: and
make no mention of the name of other gods, neither let it be heard
out of thy mouth.
14 ¶ Three times thou shalt keep a feast unto me in the year.
15 Thou shalt keep the feast of unleavened bread: (thou shalt eat
unleavened bread seven days, as I commanded thee, in the time
appointed of the month Abib; for in it thou camest out from Egypt:
and none shall appear before me empty:)
16 and the feast of harvest, the firstfruits of thy labors, which
thou hast sown in the field: and the feast of ingathering, which is
in the end of the year, when thou hast gathered in thy labors out of
the field.
17 Three times in the year all thy males shall appear before the
Lord GOD.
18 ¶ Thou shalt not offer the blood of my sacrifice with leavened
bread; neither shall the fat of my sacrifice remain until the
morning.
19 The first of the firstfruits of thy land thou shalt bring into
the house of the LORD thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in his
mother's milk.

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Commentary.

Verse 10. From the time of their possessing the land of Canaan,
they were to plant it with vines of grapes and olive trees, to prune
and dress; they were to till the land, plow it, and sow various
grains: all for 6 years in a row. They are to “gather in the fruits
thereof” for their property and use.

Verse 11. But the 7th year, they shall let it rest and lie still.
This was to show that God was the proprietor and owner of this land.
The Israelites held it under Him.
This was also to teach them to depend on His providence. This
rest allowed the land to rest, and become more fruitful afterwards.
As well the poor would then equally share in the fruits of the
earth, under God. The vines and fruit trees would bear as in other
years; the field – with grains, would have much seed spilled on the
ground in the previous years of harvest, then will grow up again –
plenty for the poor; enough even left for the animals. (The beast of
the field shall eat.) The vines and fruit trees would not be pruned
or picked.

Verse 12. Six days are for all work. The Seventh are for rest,
and religious exercises. Even their beats of burden and servants are
to rest, even the stranger “may be refreshed”.

Verse 13. In all things from the Lord, they are to carefully,
punctually, and consistently observe them, and keep them. Be very
careful not to say, mention, or make vows about “other gods”. None of
their names must be heard coming past your lips. They must be
seriously and consistently kept from your thoughts as worthless and
harmful to your faith in the Lord.

Verse 14. Three feats a year unto the Lord: 1. The Passover on
the 14th of Nisan (or March). 2. The Feast of Weeks or Pentecost – 50
days after Passover. 3. The Feast of Tabernacles on the 15th of Tisri
(September).

Verse 15. The feast of unleavened bread – the 14th of the month
Nisan, for 7 days – no leavened bread was to be eaten or be in their
houses (Exodus 12-20). This was the time they came out of Egypt.

Verse 16. The feast of the harvest: the 2nd Feast. That of the
wheat harvest. Then there were 50 days until the barley harvest: the
first-fruits of these sown crops. Two wave-loaves of the first-
fruits; then the end-gathering of the final crop of the year. The
feast at the end of the year, the corn, grapes, olives, and other
fruits.

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Verse 17. Three times a year, all males shall appear before the
Lord God, showing they are His, and devoted to His service.

Verse 18. At Passover, no leavened bread is to be eaten with the


sacrificial lamb. All leaven must be removed beforehand. No part of
the Passover Lamb was to remain until morning. Any parts not eaten
were to be burned.

Verse 19. The first-fruits are to b e brought in to the house of


the Lord (Tabernacle, then the Temple) in the 7th year to the priests.
A kid is not to be killed and eaten if it is still living on its
mother’s milk (or a lamb), until about 8 days old.

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Verses 20-33.

20 ¶ Behold, I send an angel before thee, to keep thee in the way,


and to bring thee into the place which I have prepared.
21 Beware of him, and obey his voice, provoke him not; for he will
not pardon your transgressions: for my name is in him.
22 ¶ But if thou shalt indeed obey his voice, and do all that I
speak; then I will be an enemy unto thine enemies, and an adversary
unto thine adversaries.
23 ¶ For mine angel shall go before thee, and bring thee in unto
the Amorites, and the Hittites, and the Per'izzites, and the
Canaanites, the Hivites, and the Jeb'usites; and I will cut them off.
24 Thou shalt not bow down to their gods, nor serve them, nor do
after their works: but thou shalt utterly overthrow them, and quite
break down their images.
25 And ye shall serve the LORD your God, and he shall bless thy
bread, and thy water; and I will take sickness away from the midst of
thee.
26 There shall nothing cast their young, nor be barren, in thy
land: the number of thy days I will fulfil.
27 I will send my fear before thee, and will destroy all the people
to whom thou shalt come; and I will make all thine enemies turn their
backs unto thee.
28 And I will send hornets before thee, which shall drive out the
Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite, from before thee.
29 I will not drive them out from before thee in one year; lest the
land become desolate, and the beast of the field multiply against
thee.
30 By little and little I will drive them out from before thee,
until thou be increased, and inherit the land.
31 And I will set thy bounds from the Red sea even unto the sea of
the Philistines, and from the desert unto the river: for I will
deliver the inhabitants of the land into your hand; and thou shalt
drive them out before thee.
32 Thou shalt make no covenant with them, nor with their gods.
33 They shall not dwell in thy land, lest they make thee sin
against me: for if thou serve their gods, it will surely be a snare
unto thee.

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Commentary.

Verse 20. God will send His angel to be with them: the angel of
the Lord (the pre-incarnate Christ) as God present with them. It is
He that will bring them to the place of the Lord’s preparation. He
will keep them safe.

Verse 21. Keep your eyes on Him to know what He is thinking


toward your deeds. Be careful to keep obeying his instructions and
laws in a continual and punctual way.
To not do so will provoke Him: he will not let them pass without
punishment. He does have the authority to pardon their sins as God:
God’s Name and Word are in Him.

Verse 22. If you will listen carefully to His Words, and obey
them, God will be the enemy to their enemies in the wilderness, and
adversary to their adversaries in the land of Canaan: He would
protect them, subdue their enemies, and grant them victory over them.
This would prepare them to take possession of all the land.

Verse 23. God’s angel will prepare the way for them to fight and
destroy the tribal groups in order: six named nations. The angel will
cut them off.

Verse 24. The Israelites must not be tempted to pay any


reverence or value to the gods or idols. You shall not bow down or
serve them – sacrifice, burn incense, or pray to them. No actions
approaching worship in ceremonies as the idolatrous ones do. They are
to be “overthrown”, broken up, burned, destroyed utterly. This
includes any temples, shrines, altars, any statues to the point that
there are no remains to be seen – pieces of rubble.

Verse 25. He has shown them that He is the one, and only,
Creator. He has proved His care for them from Egypt to this point.
They must continue to serve Him – the Lord their God and he will
continue to be with them, and continue to bless them. He will bless
them with refreshment and nourishing food; keep them in good health
and strength and growth.
Sickness will also be taken away – all disease, bitter and
distressing. They shall be healthy.

Verse 26. There shall be no miscarriages or abortions nor


sterility or barrenness – among the people or their animals.
The lifespan of the people will be to the full age of the
average lifespan at that time – thought to be around 74 (in the days
of Moses).

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Verse 27. The Lord will send fear among the nations of Canaan –
the miraculous deeds that the lord had already done were widely told
– this brought panic and they will turn their backs and try to get
away. They will be destroyed – they will submit, in bowing their
necks will show complete submission. The land will no longer be their
own. Nor will they be their own.

Verse 28. The Lord will send hornets before them to drive out
the named groups. These insects were known and feared because of
their stings, which are very penetrating and venomous.

Verse 29. These people will not all be driven out in one year.
To do so would leave too much land desolate. The Israelites couldn’t
fill and till the land quickly enough. And the wild beasts would
multiply and spread so that the Israelites could become their prey in
the desolate areas they would prowl about in.
Verse 30. They will be driven out, a smaller number at a time.
Thus the land won’t be desolate all at once. Some Canaanites would be
left to till the land and keep up the cities. The Israelites would
grow in number gradually to fill the cities and towns until they
could take up the entire possession of Canaan, as their inheritance
given unto them by God.

Verse 31. The boundaries of the Promised Land would not be


reached until the times of David and Solomon.
From the Red Sea on the east, the Mediterranean Sea on the west
(Sea of the Philistines). The boundary southward – the desert of Shur
(Arabia) towards Egypt; to the north, the Euphrates River.
The greater part on their entrance into it, and their settlement
therein; the rest later. The Lord will deliver the inhabitants of the
Land to them.

Verse 32. “Thou shalt make no covenant with them, nor with their
gods.” This is fairly self-explanatory.
Verse 33. The inhabitants were not to be allowed to stay in the
land of Canaan. They must be rooted out. The danger of these pagan
idolaters was of influencing the Israelites to draw them into their
idolatry, its examples and persuasions. To this they naturally were
prone. This would be major sin against the Lord, against His nature,
power, perfections and glory, and His will and law. If they commit
this sin, it will cause their ruin and destruction. Beware these as a
snare – a trap as used to catch animals. The beginning of their end.

Finis.

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Lesson XXIV

Exodus chapter 24. Moses on the Mount.

Intro: 7 days from the giving of the Ten Commandments, Moses


goes on the Mount for 40 days with the Most High to learn the Words
from the mouth of the Holy One in the Cloud.

Verses 1-8.

1 And he said unto Moses, Come up unto the LORD, thou, and Aaron,
Nadab, and Abi'hu, and seventy of the elders of Israel; and worship
ye afar off.
2 And Moses alone shall come near the LORD: but they shall not
come nigh; neither shall the people go up with him.
3 ¶ And Moses came and told the people all the words of the LORD,
and all the judgments: and all the people answered with one voice,
and said, All the words which the LORD hath said will we do.
4 And Moses wrote all the words of the LORD, and rose up early in
the morning, and builded an altar under the hill, and twelve pillars,
according to the twelve tribes of Israel.
5 And he sent young men of the children of Israel, which offered
burnt offerings, and sacrificed peace offerings of oxen unto the
LORD.
6 And Moses took half of the blood, and put it in basins; and half
of the blood he sprinkled on the altar.
7 And he took the book of the covenant, and read in the audience
of the people: and they said, All that the LORD hath said will we do,
and be obedient.
8 And Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the people, and
said, Behold the blood of the covenant, which the LORD hath made with
you concerning all these words.

Commentary.
Verses 1,2. Moses is ordered to come up the mount to the
presence of the Lord alone.
Aaron and his two eldest sons, Nadab and Abihu, then the 70
Principal heads of the tribes of Israel would be part of the way to
the top, the farthest down would be the 70 Elders, they were to
worship afar off.
Only Moses was to come to the summit, and into the cloud, in the
presence of the Lord, and converse with the Lord, person to person,
the highest honor.

Verse 3. But before this, Moses came and told the people all the
words of the Lord about the judgments (as recorded in the previous 2
chapters): the judicial, civil polity of the people.
The people responded together as one voice and said, all the
words the Lord hath said, we will do. This they had previously
promised to Moses, to do.

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Verse 4. Moses wrote all the words of these laws in a book that
they might be seen and read, and referred to later.
On the next morning, on the 2nd day after the giving of the 10
Commandments (the 8th of the month), Moses rose up early and built an
altar at the bottom of Mt. Sinai – at the border, beyond which the
people could not go. He also set up 12 pillars to represent the
twelve tribes of Israel. These were most likely made from
marblestone, which Mt. Sinai consisted of.

Verse 5. Moses then sent a delegation of young men (thought to


be first-born sons of the children of Israel). At this time the
tabernacle of the covenant had not been made, and the priesthood had
not been given to Aaron. These young men were selected to do this
service. They offered burnt offerings, and sacrificed peace offerings
of oxen unto the Lord. This was their expressing of great
thankfulness to the Lord.
Verse 6. Moses took half of the blood of the offering, in
basins, set apart to sprinkle upon the people. The other half were
sprinkled on the altar – it represented the Lord as sign of the
ratifying of the covenant and the promises of it by the Lord.

Verse 7. Moses took the book of the covenant and read it to


remind the people of what they had promised to do and obey the Lord’s
words. They repeated their promise to repeat and confirm what they
had said before.

Verse 8. Moses took the basins with the other half of the blood,
and sprinkled it on the people (most likely on a group representing
the 12 tribes, or the young men who made the offering, and the 12
pillars representing the 12 tribes. No detail of this was recorded
here.
The sprinkling of blood represented the ratification of the
covenant on both sides. As the blood of Christ ratified the covenant
(testament of blood) of Grace (see Matthew 26:28).

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Verses 9-18.

9 ¶ Then went up Moses, and Aaron, Nadab, and Abi'hu, and seventy
of the elders of Israel;
10 and they saw the God of Israel: and there was under his feet as
it were a paved work of a sapphire stone, and as it were the body of
heaven in his clearness.
11 And upon the nobles of the children of Israel he laid not his
hand: also they saw God, and did eat and drink.
12 ¶ And the LORD said unto Moses, Come up to me into the mount,
and be there: and I will give thee tables of stone, and a law, and
commandments which I have written; that thou mayest teach them.
13 And Moses rose up, and his minister Joshua; and Moses went up
into the mount of God.
14 And he said unto the elders, Tarry ye here for us, until we come
again unto you: and, behold, Aaron and Hur are with you: if any man
have any matters to do, let him come unto them.
15 ¶ And Moses went up into the mount, and a cloud covered the
mount.
16 And the glory of the LORD abode upon mount Si'nai, and the cloud
covered it six days: and the seventh day he called unto Moses out of
the midst of the cloud.
17 And the sight of the glory of the LORD was like devouring fire
on the top of the mount in the eyes of the children of Israel.
18 And Moses went into the midst of the cloud, and gat him up into
the mount: and Moses was in the mount forty days and forty nights.

Commentary.

Verse 9. After all the previously recorded events were


completed, they all proceeded to their places in the mount.

Verse 10. They all saw the God of Israel. They were granted this
unique privilege of seeing the Divine Person that spoke to Moses. It
is assumed that in human form he appeared as preview and pledge of
His future incarnation.
They saw under His feet, and it looked like a paved area, as if
with brick, but these were sapphire stones. This was to remind them
of their work of servitude in Egypt was with clay bad bricks. The
sapphire bricks were bright and glorious, to denote the liberty they
now had been given. The color was sky blue. Some are shiny and
sparkle with gold spots being in clear stones. The effect would be
like heaven, clear, serene, and spangled with stars.

Verse 11. Moses was about to spend 40 days and nights with the
Lord and would be divinely preserved. The rest of the people on the
mount had seen the Lord, and would not be harmed. They continued
alive and a feast was celebrated, which was common at the making of a
covenant with God, as here. This counters the idea that no man could
see God and live.

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Verse 12. At this point, the Lord told Moses to come up to Him
into the mount to the summit where he was to stay. He would be given
the tables of stone, written upon by the Lord Himself. He had spoken
these words to the people. Now he gives them on stone to last. This
also represented the hardheartedness of the people, their
stubbornness, and persistent disobedience to it. Secondly, the
durability of the tablets would remain before them, to be reminded
and taught, to keep them before their eyes and on their minds, and
pressing on them to believe and obey.

Verse 13. Moses got up and also his minister, Joshua, who was
the only one to go with him to the height of the mount, nearest to
Moses at the highest place though not into the cloud. Joshua was his
second in command and to be his successor. This was part of his
encouragement and honor. Moses went up to the “mount of God”.
Verse 14. Moses spoke to the 70 elders just before he went to
the highest. While he was gone they were to deal with any disputes.
Aaron and Hur would be with them also. They would hear any dispute
and determine the best outcome.

Verse 15. Then Moses went all the way to the height alone where
the cloud covered it.

Verse 16. The glory of the Lord was there, an exceeding great
brightness and splendor. Moses was at the edge for six days – in
preparation, focus, and acclimation to the divine presence. On the 7th
day Moses was called into the very midst of the cloud by the Lord.

Verse 17. At the voice of the Lord, the glory of the Lord
flashed like a devouring fire, clear and bright. It was so bright
that the children of Israel saw, as far away as they were in their
camp.

Verse 18. At this point Moses entered the midst of the cloud. We
can only imagine Moses’ serene and calm composure. Moses was in the
Mount a total of 40 days and nights. Without eating or drinking, his
survival must have been a miracle.

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Lesson XXV

Exodus chapter 25.

Verses 1-9: free will offerings, and a sanctuary.

Verses 10-22: An ark and a mercy seat over the ark

Verses 23-30: A special table for shew-bread.

Verses 31-40: A golden candlestick and everybody relative to it.

Exodus 25:1-9.

1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,


2 Speak unto the children of Israel, that they bring me an
offering: of every man that giveth it willingly with his heart ye
shall take my offering.
3 And this is the offering which ye shall take of them; gold, and
silver, and brass,
4 and blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen, and goats'
hair,
5 and rams' skins dyed red, and badgers' skins, and shittim wood,
6 oil for the light, spices for anointing oil, and for sweet
incense,
7 onyx stones, and stones to be set in the ephod, and in the
breastplate.
8 And let them make me a sanctuary; that I may dwell among them.
9 According to all that I show thee, after the pattern of the
tabernacle, and the pattern of all the instruments thereof, even so
shall ye make it.

Commentary.

Verse 1. The Lord began speaking to Moses, on the mount, in the


midst of the cloud with him, as follows.

Verse 2. Moses is to tell the children of Israel all that the


Lord tells him to.
The first thing - they are to bring him an offering. It must be
willingly, sincerely, with his heart. These would be used for the
service of God. It made no difference who it was from or how much it
was. It would be later used in the building of the sanctuary.

Verse 3. The following lists the substances that will be taken


up: gold, silver, and brass. Several things of the Tabernacle to be
made from them.

Verse 4. Wool or clothes of these colors: blue, purple and


scarlet, and clothes of linen and goats hair. These would be used in
priests’ garments, curtains for the Tabernacle.

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Verse 5. Animal skins dyed red (rams and badgers) the covering
tent of the Tabernacle. Shittim wood was the most excellent kind of
cedar.

Verse 6. Olive oil for the light. Spices for the oil of
anointing the priests, the tabernacle and its utensils; and for the
incense sweet spices.

Verse 7. Onyx stones and various other jewel-stones brought out


of Egypt. They would be used in the robes of the priests. The breast-
plate of the high priest would have one onyx and 11 other precious
stones set therein (representing the 12 tribes).

Verse 8. They are to make their God a sanctuary that He may


dwell among them. It was always to be place din the midst of them,
their God and their king. He was thereby easily available on all
occasions to them, and whom they would serve and worship.

Verse 9. The sanctuary was to be made according to the exact


specifications given to Moses from God. Moses will instruct and
direct the workmen according to the pattern of the tabernacle, and
all the instruments of it as well. It is suggested that Moses was
given a model of the tabernacle in three dimensions – by the spirit.
This also happened with David (I Chronicles 28:11-19), which he
passed on to Solomon.

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Verses 10-22.

10 ¶ And they shall make an ark of shittim wood: two cubits and a
half shall be the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth
thereof, and a cubit and a half the height thereof.
11 And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold, within and without
shalt thou overlay it, and shalt make upon it a crown of gold round
about.
12 And thou shalt cast four rings of gold for it, and put them in
the four corners thereof; and two rings shall be in the one side of
it, and two rings in the other side of it.
13 And thou shalt make staves of shittim wood, and overlay them
with gold.
14 And thou shalt put the staves into the rings by the sides of the
ark, that the ark may be borne with them.
15 The staves shall be in the rings of the ark: they shall not be
taken from it.
16 And thou shalt put into the ark the testimony which I shall give
thee.
17 And thou shalt make a mercy seat of pure gold: two cubits and a
half shall be the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth
thereof.
18 And thou shalt make two cherubim of gold, of beaten work shalt
thou make them, in the two ends of the mercy seat.
19 And make one cherub on the one end, and the other cherub on the
other end: even of the mercy seat shall ye make the cherubim on the
two ends thereof.
20 And the cherubim shall stretch forth their wings on high,
covering the mercy seat with their wings, and their faces shall look
one to another; toward the mercy seat shall the faces of the cherubim
be.
21 And thou shalt put the mercy seat above upon the ark; and in the
ark thou shalt put the testimony that I shall give thee.
22 And there I will meet with thee, and I will commune with thee
from above the mercy seat, from between the two cherubim which are
upon the ark of the testimony, of all things which I will give thee
in commandment unto the children of Israel.

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Commentary.

Verse 10. A large box – like a chest is to be made of the


shittim wood (cedar), which doesn’t decay or rot. The dimensions were
according to the cubit measure = 18 inches (1.5 feet). The ark:
length 45 inches, its width and height 27 inches.
A possible alternate cubit has been suggested at 21 inches. The
ark then becomes 53 inches long, 33 wide and high.

Verse 11. The whole, inside and out, plated in gold – all wood
will be covered. It and all within it are precious.
Also a crown of gold will be set – as square, in the middle of
the top, upon which the mercy seat will be set, all honor and glory
of God as a king over His people.

Verse 12. Four rings to be cast – as solid, to attach to each of


the four upper corners of the ark.

Verse 13. Two poles of cedar were to be made, covered with gold
to put through the rings to carry the ark.

Verse 14. Thus the ark was portable, to be taken with them
everywhere they went.

Verse 15. The staves were to be affixed to their rings,


irremovable. Thus the “handles” of the ark are touchable and make it
and all it represents is related to all that God has provided, and
will continue to provide: both Commandments and Mercy.

Verse 16. The two tables of stone of the 10 Commandments will be


the first and most important things to to go into the ark. The people
have agreed to obey God’s requirements. The tables will be permanent
testimony against them if they transgress it.

Verse 17. The covering of the ark was a mercy-seat of pure gold.
It was the lid of the ark as the measure of it indicates. It
symbolized “propitiation”, God’s mercy to favor human beings, God’s
throne of grace. He is their covering in all their unrighteousness
also pointing to His sending Christ to be His great work of
redemption – His blood shed for them – reconciling for sin. Christ
fulfilled the law held within which no human ever could. He suffered
the penalty for our disobedience.
The thickness is thought to be the width of a hand.

Verses 18,19. The two figures are called cherubims, to be made


of gold. They were to be made part of the covering of solid gold,
built up, on both ends of the mercy-seat.

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Verse 20. They were in the form of winged creatures. Their wings
did not hang down, but were stretched out, upwards toward heaven
above their heads – this is to denote readiness, swiftness as
ministers of the Word and grace from Him to enable them. Their wings
will cover the mercy-seat – which reached each other. They will face
each other – in harmony and purpose toward the mercy-seat – always in
their view, their ministry must never swerve, or bypass or forget
their center is always the atonement in the sacrifice of Christ,
salvation by Him alone.

Verse 21. The mercy-seat is placed as the covering of the ark.


The mercy-seat is above the law. There was no mercy unless the law
was satisfied by perfect righteousness. The Cherubim make a throne
for the majesty of God, where He sat, the ark below a kind of
footstool. The ark was not to be closed until the stone tablets were
placed within it, not to be opened any more.
Verse 22. With Moses, and the high-priest in after times, the
holy of holies shall be entered, he represents the people of God. He
will inquire for them of the Lord. The Lord will commune with him
from above the mercy-seat, from between the two cherubim. From there
he will answer to the concerns of the people. The Lord will also give
Moses orders to give the people. The veil separated the Holy of
Holies from the people’s gathering in the Holy Place. This veil was
to be later split open by the sacrifice of Christ – the path of
fellowship with the Father and His son was forever opened.

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Verses 23-30.

23 ¶ Thou shalt also make a table of shittim wood: two cubits shall
be the length thereof, and a cubit the breadth thereof, and a cubit
and a half the height thereof.
24 And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold, and make thereto a
crown of gold round about.
25 And thou shalt make unto it a border of a handbreadth round
about, and thou shalt make a golden crown to the border thereof round
about.
26 And thou shalt make for it four rings of gold, and put the rings
in the four corners that are on the four feet thereof.
27 Over against the border shall the rings be for places of the
staves to bear the table.
28 And thou shalt make the staves of shittim wood, and overlay them
with gold, that the table may be borne with them.
29 And thou shalt make the dishes thereof, and spoons thereof, and
covers thereof, and bowls thereof, to cover withal: of pure gold
shalt thou make them.
30 And thou shalt set upon the table showbread before me always.

Commentary.

Verse 23. This table was to be in the same place, in the


Tabernacle, behind the veil, ark and mercy seat, in the Holy of
Holies b itself. This table was to be in the Holy Place on the north
side of it. This was the setting for the show-bread – typical of
Christ and communion with Him.
Its measure was less long and broad as the ark by 9 inches, but
of the same height (33 inches).

Verse 24. The whole top covered with a gold plate, pure and
without spot, completely covering the wood.
A gold crown round about – thought to be for the purpose of
keeping what was set upon it from falling off. It was also
ornamental, a crown for the King of Kings – this was the King’s
table.

Verse 25. This border was below the table board, a second crown,
on the edge of it, round about the border.

Verse 26. As on the ark, four rings were to be put on the four
corners, on the four feet, one each.

Verse 27. The rings will be placed so that the staves would
slide through them for the purpose of carrying the table. Carried
along with the ark, place to place. To be borne by the Levites.

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Verse 28. Staves of shittim wood, covered in gold. These staves


were to be taken out while in place, to not get in the way of the
ministering priests who regularly came to set the showbread weekly.
They were put in to carry it only.

Verse 29. The dishes – of two sorts – one of iron to bake the
bread on, and gold to put the bake bread upon the table. The spoons,
or rather cups for censers for frankincense. Two handfuls put upon
the two rows of showbread. The bread then covered with pure gold
bowels. They would keep the bread from molding. Thus was the whole
table full of gold bread from molding. Thus was the whole table full
of gold.

Verse 30. Twelve cakes or loaves were laid out in two rows on
the table for a week, every sabbath they were renewed. The old ones
were eaten by the priests. New ones were set, so that they were
always before the lord.
Show-bread – the bread of faces – always before the face of God;
a memorial for God’s daily provision of bread for the people of
Israel. This was thankful acknowledgment of it – the same kind they
themselves ate – expressing communion with God. They were pure
unleavened cakes.
The number of cakes (12) show-bread – of faces, the people were
to appear before God in public worship ever under the eye and care of
God. They were to be in order and harmony. Renewed every Sabbath – to
be done every generation in all ages.

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Verses 31-40.

31 ¶ And thou shalt make a candlestick of pure gold: of beaten work


shall the candlestick be made: his shaft, and his branches, his
bowls, his knops, and his flowers, shall be of the same.
32 And six branches shall come out of the sides of it; three
branches of the candlestick out of the one side, and three branches
of the candlestick out of the other side:
33 three bowls made like unto almonds, with a knop and a flower in
one branch; and three bowls made like almonds in the other branch,
with a knop and a flower: so in the six branches that come out of the
candlestick.
34 And in the candlestick shall be four bowls made like unto
almonds, with their knops and their flowers.
35 And there shall be a knop under two branches of the same, and a
knop under two branches of the same, and a knop under two branches of
the same, according to the six branches that proceed out of the
candlestick.
36 Their knops and their branches shall be of the same: all of it
shall be one beaten work of pure gold.
37 And thou shalt make the seven lamps thereof: and they shall
light the lamps thereof, that they may give light over against it.
38 And the tongs thereof, and the snuffdishes thereof, shall be of
pure gold.
39 Of a talent of pure gold shall he make it, with all these
vessels.
40 And look that thou make them after their pattern, which was
showed thee in the mount.

Commentary.

Verse 31. for the tabernacle, with no windows equals darkness


denoting the legal dispensation (II Kings 4:10). The candlestick was
set in the holy place, on the south side near the show-bread table.
It gives light, dispels darkness. It shall be made of beaten gold,
not from a mold, but beaten of a solid mass into the several parts of
the candlestick, trunk and body the shaft – the branches its several
members. Its bowls would hold the oil for their lamps. The knops and
flowers were for decoration for added beauty.

Verse 32. Three branches come out of each side of the trunk. The
top of the trunk held the middle lamp. The six branches went up from
the middle – the lowest long, each above shorter, the uppermost
shortest – the height of the tops of them were equal to the height or
the middle cane – the seventh from which the six went out.

Verse 33. Three bowls or cups, like the almond nut in shape to
hold oil for the lamp; a knop signifies a pomegranate, and a flower
(possibly a lily). These are suggested to signify the saints, endowed
with the gifts and graces of the Spirit (the light is Christ. All
other branches had the same.

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Verse 34. In the trunk will be four bowls – almond shaped, with
knops and flowers.

Verse 35. There should be a knop under each of the branches that
proceed out of the candlestick.

Verse 36. All of it to be made of the same gold, the same mass
beaten work out of one piece of gold.

Verse 37. Thus 7 lamps of gold, they were to be lit to show


light over the show-bread table.

Verse 38. The tongs were to be used to take the wicks of the oil
and put them in the lamps. The small cups were used to put the ashes
of the lamps, trimmed from the lamps morning by morning. They trimmed
the ashes of the winks which burned in the night. The cups were
thought to contain water to snuff out the ashes so no smoke would be
made.

Verse 39. The common talent weighted 60 lbs – the sacred talent
was double – 120 lbs.

Verse 40. Moses was also shown the model of the candlestick, all
of its parts and other vessels with them as well. Everything must be
done exactly as the model – nothing left to man’s fancy.

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Lesson XXVI

Exodus chapter 26. The Tabernacle.

Verses 1-13. the inside, then the outside curtains and their
coupling.

1 Moreover thou shalt make the tabernacle with ten curtains of


fine twined linen, and blue, and purple, and scarlet: with cherubim
of cunning work shalt thou make them.
2 The length of one curtain shall be eight and twenty cubits, and
the breadth of one curtain four cubits: and every one of the curtains
shall have one measure.
3 The five curtains shall be coupled together one to another; and
other five curtains shall be coupled one to another.
4 And thou shalt make loops of blue upon the edge of the one
curtain from the selvedge in the coupling; and likewise shalt thou
make in the uttermost edge of another curtain, in the coupling of the
second.
5 Fifty loops shalt thou make in the one curtain, and fifty loops
shalt thou make in the edge of the curtain that is in the coupling of
the second; that the loops may take hold one of another.
6 And thou shalt make fifty taches of gold, and couple the
curtains together with the taches: and it shall be one tabernacle.
7 ¶ And thou shalt make curtains of goats' hair to be a covering
upon the tabernacle: eleven curtains shalt thou make.
8 The length of one curtain shall be thirty cubits, and the
breadth of one curtain four cubits: and the eleven curtains shall be
all of one measure.
9 And thou shalt couple five curtains by themselves, and six
curtains by themselves, and shalt double the sixth curtain in the
forefront of the tabernacle.
10 And thou shalt make fifty loops on the edge of the one curtain
that is outmost in the coupling, and fifty loops in the edge of the
curtain which coupleth the second.
11 ¶ And thou shalt make fifty taches of brass, and put the taches
into the loops, and couple the tent together, that it may be one.
12 And the remnant that remaineth of the curtains of the tent, the
half curtain that remaineth, shall hang over the back side of the
tabernacle.
13 And a cubit on the one side, and a cubit on the other side of
that which remaineth in the length of the curtains of the tent, it
shall hang over the sides of the tabernacle, on this side and on that
side, to cover it.

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Commentary.

Verse 1. introduction: The Tabernacle: the place Jehovah dwells,


grants His presence to His presence, comes and blesses them: here He
is worshiped, and spiritual sacrifices are offered up to Him with
acceptance, of prayer and praise. The furniture of the precious
chapter go into the Tabernacle.
The curtains that are within the Tabernacle. Made of linen,
doubled of blue, purple, and scarlet. The thread of yarn interwoven
as a tapestry, consistent and stiff. There are several opinions of
what the colors signify: royalty, or graces of the Spirit. Cherubim
were to be portrayed – they were to be like those on the ark.

Verse 2. The length of one curtain: 14 yards, the width: 2


yards. They will all be equal.
Verse 3. Five of the ten were to be sewn together, then another
5. This made two large pieces: 14 yards long and 10 wide.

Verse 4. At the edge of the outermost curtains there were loops


made of blue (or eyelet holes, at the top and bottom, the second to
be coupled to the first).

Verse 5. 50 loops in the outermost of each, where the loop may


take hold of one another – by the hooks or clasps put into them, as
in verse 6.

Verse 6. The hooks or clasps were of gold and joined the


curtains together. Once coupled, they enclosed the one tabernacle.

Verse 7. Curtains of goats’ hair, coarser than the former linen


ones. These to cover and preserve them from the weather – outside
upon the tabernacle (like a tent). This was the customary material
that tents were covered within these days.
Verse 8. There was to be one more made then the interior
curtains, to be at the entrance of the Tabernacle, since there was no
linen curtain there. The width are to be the same as the linen ones,
but the length a yard more, to hang down more to better protect the
inner curtains.

Verse 9. The sixth portion of the outer curtains would be in the


forefront, entrance of the tabernacle, the east end. It was doubled-
up against the door, a yard over the entrance.

Verse 10. 50 loops were made on the inside edges of the two
large pieces where they were to be coupled.

Verse 11. The hooks or clasps were made of coarser metal – being
used with coarser fabrics to be coupled together = one piece.

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Verse 12. The half curtain that remained at the other end of the
Tabernacle will hang over the back side of the Tabernacle (the west
end).

Verse 13. The goat hair outer curtains were one cubit longer
than the inner curtains along both long sides. They reached 18 inches
lower than the inner ones, but not to the ground (by 9 inches), which
left the silver foundations always to be seen everywhere but the west
end.

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Verses 14-25.

14 And thou shalt make a covering for the tent of rams' skins dyed
red, and a covering above of badgers' skins.
15 ¶ And thou shalt make boards for the tabernacle of shittim wood
standing up.
16 Ten cubits shall be the length of a board, and a cubit and a
half shall be the breadth of one board.
17 Two tenons shall there be in one board, set in order one against
another: thus shalt thou make for all the boards of the tabernacle.
18 And thou shalt make the boards for the tabernacle, twenty boards
on the south side southward.
19 And thou shalt make forty sockets of silver under the twenty
boards; two sockets under one board for his two tenons, and two
sockets under another board for his two tenons.
20 And for the second side of the tabernacle on the north side
there shall be twenty boards,
21 and their forty sockets of silver; two sockets under one board,
and two sockets under another board.
22 And for the sides of the tabernacle westward thou shalt make six
boards.
23 And two boards shalt thou make for the corners of the tabernacle
in the two sides.
24 And they shall be coupled together beneath, and they shall be
coupled together above the head of it unto one ring: thus shall it be
for them both; they shall be for the two corners.
25 And they shall be eight boards, and their sockets of silver,
sixteen sockets; two sockets under one board, and two sockets under
another board.

Commentary.

Verse 14. A covering for the tent was to be made of ram’s skins
dyed red. Then above that was the final covering of badger skins,
being thicker and coarser (Ezekiel 6:10 mentions shoes being made of
badger skins). These would be the most effective to keep out the
rains and keeping them from soaking through. God’s planning included
extreme care and safety considerations to provide for his people.

Verse 15. The walls (upon which the curtains would be hung),
were to be of shittim wood, vertical boards, upright even as these
trees grew. Upright also as all of God’s people were to always be.

Verse 16. These boards are to be 5 yards in length. The width 27


inches. Added together the measurement of the Tabernacle 5 yards high
and 15 yards long: equals height 15 feet, 45 feet long. There would
be 20 boards on each side. Josephus wrote that the boards were 4
fingers thick.

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Verse 17. Every board was to have two “tenons”. These were
projections on pieces of wood shaped to be inserted into a mortice to
make a joint. A mortice is a rectangular cavity in a piece of wood
prepared to receive a tenon, thus forming a joint. These mortices
were to be the proper distance from each other in order, “one against
another”. Thus were all boards of the Tabernacle two tenons each.

Verse 18. This was the manner for the boards of the Tabernacle,
20 on the south side, southward.

Verse 19. There were to be 40 sockets of silver, or bases, as


the foundation of the Tabernacle, upon which was settled. These
sockets were the mortices for the two tenons of each board to be
place din, joining one to the other, made one entire base for the
whole structure. 20 boards for 40 sockets completed the entire side
walls.
Verse 20. On the north side the boards, 20 with their sockets
completed it the same way as on the south side. The Tabernacle faced
east, where the entrance to the Holy Place. The west end had the Holy
of Holies.

Verse 21. The north side, forty sockets for the 20 boards the
tenons to be placed in the mortices: all as on the south side.

Verse 22. The west (end) will be made of six boards (about 14
feet).

Verse 23. The corners of the Tabernacle were to be made with two
boards each – joining end and sides together: this added the width,
wall to wall, up to 15 feet. The corners were the strength of the
building.

Verse 24. The bottoms and the tops were to be coupled together
with one ring each, at each of the corners.
Verse 25. The eight boards of each end had sixteen sockets of
silver, even as the north and south sides, two sockets under one
board.

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Verses 26-37.

26 ¶ And thou shalt make bars of shittim wood; five for the boards
of the one side of the tabernacle,
27 and five bars for the boards of the other side of the
tabernacle, and five bars for the boards of the side of the
tabernacle, for the two sides westward.
28 And the middle bar in the midst of the boards shall reach from
end to end.
29 And thou shalt overlay the boards with gold, and make their
rings of gold for places for the bars: and thou shalt overlay the
bars with gold.
30 And thou shalt rear up the tabernacle according to the fashion
thereof which was showed thee in the mount.
31 ¶ And thou shalt make a veil of blue, and purple, and scarlet,
and fine twined linen of cunning work: with cherubim shall it be
made.
32 And thou shalt hang it upon four pillars of shittim wood
overlaid with gold: their hooks shall be of gold, upon the four
sockets of silver.
33 And thou shalt hang up the veil under the taches, that thou
mayest bring in thither within the veil the ark of the testimony: and
the veil shall divide unto you between the holy place and the most
holy.
34 And thou shalt put the mercy seat upon the ark of the testimony
in the most holy place.
35 And thou shalt set the table without the veil, and the
candlestick over against the table on the side of the tabernacle
toward the south: and thou shalt put the table on the north side.
36 ¶ And thou shalt make a hanging for the door of the tent, of
blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen, wrought with
needlework.
37 And thou shalt make for the hanging five pillars of shittim
wood, and overlay them with gold, and their hooks shall be of gold:
and thou shalt cast five sockets of brass for them.

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Commentary.

Verse 26. Bars are to be made to be put in the gold rings of the
boards of the sides of the tabernacle: two at the bottom, two at the
top, one in the middle. These kept the boards tight, close and firm.
Five bars.

Verse 27. Five bars also for the other side, the two ends as
well – including the corners.

Verse 28. The middle bar on each side was to be the entire
length of the side (on the outside of the walls).

Verse 29. These boards were to be covered in gold (thin plates


of gold). Gold rings to hold the bars were to be cast of solid gold
(two rings to every board). The bars were to be overlaid with gold.
Verse 30. Again, the Lord emphasizes to Moses that he must be
doing everything exactly as he was shown by the Lord in the mount.
This is the third reminder. This completed the tabernacle and the
furniture within it.

Verse 31. These instructions concern the veil to be the dividing


of the holy place, and the most holy place within the tabernacle. It
was to be made of thread doubled six times – stiff and strong. It is
considered to represent the sin of man, which separates us from God.
Christ’s death broke the veil of separation for us.
Also to represent the human nature of Christ, His flesh, which
was torn for our salvation.

Verse 32. Four pillars of shittim wood covered with gold were to
support the veil. The pillars had gold hooks at the top to support
the veil. Their bases were in sockets of silver the pedestals, the
feet of the pillars.
Verse 33. The veil, when hung on the clasps, then the hark of
the testimony would be brought within the veil. The veil – the
division between the holy place and the holy of holies (the most
holy). The veil was so thick, nothing could be seen through it. Only
the high priest could enter therein, once a year.

Verse 34. The mercy seat upon the ark of the testimony to be
placed in the most holy place, at the west end of it.

Verse 35. The table of shew-bread will be placed in the holy


place, outside of the veil.
The candlestick opposite the table, on the south side of the
tabernacle, the table on the north side. There both food and light
are provided for the people of God.

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Verse 36. The east end, the entrance of the Tabernacle, a


hanging to cover the opening instead of a door. Only the priests were
allowed in the holy place. The people worshiped from there.
It was to be made of fine linen, blue, purple, and scarlet, also
wrought with needlework.

Verse 37. Five pillars were to be made, upon which the hanging
of door coverings.
One at each corner, the other three at equal distances, between,
thereby making four ways for the priests to enter in at.
They shall be made of shittim wood overlaid with gold, and hooks
of gold from which the hanging was hung. The five socket for their
bases were to be cast of brass, not of gold as for the pillars of the
veil of the Holy of Holies, being for the priests, the gold for God.

Finis.

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Lesson XXVII

Exodus chapter 27.

The making of the altar of burnt offering and all things that go
with it. (Verses 1-8.)
The court of the Tabernacle and its hangings on each side with
pillars, sockets, and hooks. It closes with the order to bring olive-
oil for the sanctuary lamps. (Verses 9-21.)

Verses 1-8.

1 And thou shalt make an altar of shittim wood, five cubits long,
and five cubits broad; the altar shall be foursquare: and the height
thereof shall be three cubits.
2 And thou shalt make the horns of it upon the four corners
thereof: his horns shall be of the same: and thou shalt overlay it
with brass.
3 And thou shalt make his pans to receive his ashes, and his
shovels, and his basins, and his fleshhooks, and his firepans: all
the vessels thereof thou shalt make of brass.
4 And thou shalt make for it a grate of network of brass; and upon
the net shalt thou make four brazen rings in the four corners
thereof.
5 And thou shalt put it under the compass of the altar beneath,
that the net may be even to the midst of the altar.
6 And thou shalt make staves for the altar, staves of shittim
wood, and overlay them with brass.
7 And the staves shall be put into the rings, and the staves shall
be upon the two sides of the altar, to bear it.
8 Hollow with boards shalt thou make it: as it was showed thee in
the mount, so shall they make it.

Commentary.
Verse 1. This altar was for burnt offerings, to be placed before
the door into the tabernacle, in the court of the people. There the
people would bring their sacrifices to the priests to offer for them.
In the open air they were offering, the fumes and smoke ascended and
scattered, properly. The sacrifice bore the sins of the people, the
fire the Divine wrath that the burnt up their offerings. The measure
was square – 5 and ½ feet on each side and 4 and ½ high.

Verse 2. The four corners were to have a horn arising from the
altar: shittim wood covered in brass. They were ornamental and useful
for holding in or fastening the sacrifice. They would also be where
criminals would hold onto for refuge.

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Verse 3. There shall be pans to gather the ashes and take them
away. Done every morning. Also ash shovels to be used to throw the
ashes into the pans. Basins will be made to receive the blood of the
sacrifices, out of which the blood was sprinkled.
Flesh hooks were made to be used to turn the flesh over on the
coals to hasten the burning until all was consumed. And fire pans – a
kind of censer which took coals from this altar of incense (Leviticus
16:12). All of these vessels were to be made of brass.

Verse 4. A plate of brass with holes (a sieve), to let through


the blood and then ashes of the sacrifice and the bones. At each
corner were brass rings to charm the network grate to the four horns
at the corners of the altar.

Verse 5. The grate was to be put in the middle of the altar, in


the hollow part of it. The wood and sacrifice would be laid upon it.
It would be anchored at about 2 feet from the top of the altar. It
would be capable to contain a large amount.

Verse 6,7. Staves were to be put into the rings at the outside
corners of the altar – the two sides – to bear it. It would be
carried by Levites.

Verse 8. The frame of this altar will be shittim wood boards. As


it was shown to Moses in the mount, by God.

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Verses 9-21.

9 ¶ And thou shalt make the court of the tabernacle: for the south
side southward there shall be hangings for the court of fine twined
linen of a hundred cubits long for one side:
10 and the twenty pillars thereof and their twenty sockets shall be
of brass; the hooks of the pillars and their fillets shall be of
silver.
11 And likewise for the north side in length there shall be
hangings of a hundred cubits long, and his twenty pillars and their
twenty sockets of brass; the hooks of the pillars and their fillets
of silver.
12 And for the breadth of the court on the west side shall be
hangings of fifty cubits: their pillars ten, and their sockets ten.
13 And the breadth of the court on the east side eastward shall be
fifty cubits.
14 The hangings of one side of the gate shall be fifteen cubits:
their pillars three, and their sockets three.
15 And on the other side shall be hangings fifteen cubits: their
pillars three, and their sockets three.
16 And for the gate of the court shall be a hanging of twenty
cubits, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen,
wrought with needlework: and their pillars shall be four, and their
sockets four.
17 All the pillars round about the court shall be filleted with
silver; their hooks shall be of silver, and their sockets of brass.
18 The length of the court shall be a hundred cubits, and the
breadth fifty every where, and the height five cubits of fine twined
linen, and their sockets of brass.
19 All the vessels of the tabernacle in all the service thereof,
and all the pins thereof, and all the pins of the court, shall be of
brass.
20 ¶ And thou shalt command the children of Israel, that they bring
thee pure oil olive beaten for the light, to cause the lamp to burn
always.
21 In the tabernacle of the congregation without the veil, which is
before the testimony, Aaron and his sons shall order it from evening
to morning before the LORD: it shall be a statute for ever unto their
generations on the behalf of the children of Israel.

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Commentary.

Verse 9. A large courtyard for the tabernacle, which was to


stand in it, at the upper end. It was enclosed on the four sides, but
without roof or covering.
Between the entrance and the holy place was the altar of burnt-
offering. One one side of that the laver of the priests to wash in.
The people of Israel were to come into this area to bring sacrifices
and worship.
The south side was 50 yards long (150 feet); to be hung with
fine twined linen as curtains of cunning work, but not of various
colors. They were pierced work, but not of various colors. They were
pierced with eyelets, so as to make it possible to be seen through by
outsiders (as network).

Verse 10. There were 20 pillars to hang the curtains upon. The
hook (to hang the curtains on) and the fillets (which attached the
pillars to their bases, were of silver).

Verse 11. The north side would be made up exactly as had the
south side had been.

Verse 12. The width of the court on the west side – on the end
where the holy of holies was: 25 yards (75 feet) half the length of
the sides of the court. These would be ten pillars, ten sockets,
covered holding the curtains thereof.

Verse 13. The east end – where the entrance was, was the same
width as the west end.

Verse 14. On the entrance to the court – on each side of the


gate were 3 pillars and then 3 sockets.

Verse 15. The hangings would also be of the same length: 3


pillars, 3 sockets as on the other side of the gate.
Verse 16. These hangings for the gate of the court were to be
finer and richer than the others – of blue, purple and scarlet: fine
twined linen, wrought with needlework (as the doors for the holy
place). Four pillars and four sockets held these curtains.

Verse 17. Their hooks of silver, sockets of brass as all other


pillars.

Verse 18. The length of the court is 150 feet, the breadth 75
feet, the height 7 and ½ feet – half the height of the tabernacle.
The tabernacle could therefore be seen above it. The foundation of
the court were brass, the foundation of the tabernacle were of
silver.

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Verse 19. The pins that were to be used as stakes fastened in


the ground all around, cords tied to them and the hangings. This is
to hold lightly from any wind to not move them. They were all to be
of brass. The vessels of the tabernacle is thought to refer to the
instruments used in the setting up and taking down of the tabernacle:
hammers and the like to knock staves in or knock out pillars from
their sockets – all brass.

Verse 20. This begins a new section of the law relating to the
service to be done of the Tabernacle, to be done in it, its parts and
furniture. First mentioned is the oil for the candlestick. It had to
be only olive, pure, made clear by being beaten with a pestle in a
mortar. This had to be done continually to keep the light of the
candlestick burning 24 hours a day, every day.

Verse 21. The candlestick was within the tabernacle of the


congregation, the house of the Lord, outside the veil which is in
front of the testimony (the ark of the 10 Commandments). Aaron and
his sons will be in charge to keep the light burning (from morning to
morning). They are to do this forever, generation to generation, on
the behalf of the children of Israel. A lamp to the feet, a light to
the path, the Word of God to enlighten people in all ages.

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Lesson XXVIII

Exodus chapter 28. The priests and their holy garments.

Verses 1-14.

1 And take thou unto thee Aaron thy brother, and his sons with
him, from among the children of Israel, that he may minister unto me
in the priest's office, even Aaron, Nadab and Abi'hu, Ele-a'zar and
Ith'amar, Aaron's sons.
2 And thou shalt make holy garments for Aaron thy brother, for
glory and for beauty.
3 And thou shalt speak unto all that are wise-hearted, whom I have
filled with the spirit of wisdom, that they may make Aaron's garments
to consecrate him, that he may minister unto me in the priest's
office.
4 And these are the garments which they shall make; a breastplate,
and an ephod, and a robe, and a broidered coat, a mitre, and a
girdle: and they shall make holy garments for Aaron thy brother, and
his sons, that he may minister unto me in the priest's office.
5 ¶ And they shall take gold, and blue, and purple, and scarlet,
and fine linen.
6 And they shall make the ephod of gold, of blue, and of purple,
of scarlet, and fine twined linen, with cunning work.
7 It shall have the two shoulderpieces thereof joined at the two
edges thereof; and so it shall be joined together.
8 And the curious girdle of the ephod, which is upon it, shall be
of the same, according to the work thereof; even of gold, of blue,
and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen.
9 And thou shalt take two onyx stones, and grave on them the names
of the children of Israel:
10 six of their names on one stone, and the other six names of the
rest on the other stone, according to their birth.
11 With the work of an engraver in stone, like the engravings of a
signet, shalt thou engrave the two stones with the names of the
children of Israel: thou shalt make them to be set in ouches of gold.
12 And thou shalt put the two stones upon the shoulders of the
ephod for stones of memorial unto the children of Israel: and Aaron
shall bear their names before the LORD upon his two shoulders for a
memorial.
13 And thou shalt make ouches of gold;
14 and two chains of pure gold at the ends; of wreathed work shalt
thou make them, and fasten the wreathed chains to the ouches.

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Commentary.

Verse 1. Moses is now told to call out Aaron and his sons to
stand before him and the children of Israel, and formally invest them
with the office of priesthood. Now Moses was to only be political
ruler and prophet of the Lord. Aaron, Nadak and Abihn, Eleazar and
Ithamar, his sons, were to be ministers in God’s house as His
priests.

Verse 2. Holy garments shall be made for His priests to be worn


in the holy place; they are to be beautiful and glorious – the high
priests above all others.

Verse 3. Only the most knowledgeable and experienced in these


mechanical arts, especially in garment making, of great skill, were
required to make these uncommon ones. They were to be made exactly as
God required – so God got their artisans filled with the spirit of
wisdom to make Aaron’s garments and put upon him, to consecrate him.
Only then can he minister unto God in the priest’s office.

Verse 4. A brief list of the garments: a breastplate, an ephod.


More detail is added later in this chapter. These were the priestly
garments of Aaron and his sons, as ministers to God as His priests.

Verse 5. These supplies shall be taken from the people: gold,


blue and purple, and scarlet and fine linen – to be used to make the
ephod, girdle and breastplate.

Verse 6. The ephod – the outermost garment was to be made of the


previous list of materials. It reached from the shoulders to the
middle of the buttocks. It was of cunning work: interwoven threads of
gold, blue, purple, and scarlet yarn, threads of linen, wrought with
divers figures in a curious manner, beautiful to look upon.

Verse 7. Two shoulder pieces were joined to the ephod at the


edges buttoned with two onyx stones.

Verse 8. The ephod had upon it a curious girdle-belt – just


under the arm holes, made of the same colors and linen as the ephod.

Verses 9,10. On the two onyx stones the 12 names of the children
of Israel were engraved – six on one, six on the other.

Verse 11. They were to be engraved as a signet or seal, and set


in sockets as precious stones are set in rings – to be used as
buttons to fasten together the front and back part of the ephod on
the shoulder pieces of it.

Verse 12. The main purpose of these stones was as a memorial


unto the children of Israel, as Aaron bore their names before the
Lord on his two shoulders. He was thereby interceding for them.

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Verses 13,14. Two sockets of gold for the onyx stones will
include two chains of pure gold at the ends, which will be to hand
the breastplate on. The sockets will have rings in the shoulderpieces
– other rings in the breast plate. There were to be golden wires
twisted together as a rope – fastened to the sockets in their rings.

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Verses 15-30.

15 ¶ And thou shalt make the breastplate of judgment with cunning


work; after the work of the ephod thou shalt make it; of gold, of
blue, and of purple, and of scarlet, and of fine twined linen, shalt
thou make it.
16 Foursquare it shall be being doubled; a span shall be the length
thereof, and a span shall be the breadth thereof.
17 And thou shalt set in it settings of stones, even four rows of
stones: the first row shall be a sardius, a topaz, and a carbuncle:
this shall be the first row.
18 And the second row shall be an emerald, a sapphire, and a
diamond.
19 And the third row a ligure, an agate, and an amethyst.
20 And the fourth row a beryl, and an onyx, and a jasper: they
shall be set in gold in their inclosings.
21 And the stones shall be with the names of the children of
Israel, twelve, according to their names, like the engravings of a
signet; every one with his name shall they be according to the twelve
tribes.
22 And thou shalt make upon the breastplate chains at the ends of
wreathed work of pure gold.
23 And thou shalt make upon the breastplate two rings of gold, and
shalt put the two rings on the two ends of the breastplate.
24 And thou shalt put the two wreathed chains of gold in the two
rings which are on the ends of the breastplate.
25 And the other two ends of the two wreathed chains thou shalt
fasten in the two ouches, and put them on the shoulderpieces of the
ephod before it.
26 And thou shalt make two rings of gold, and thou shalt put them
upon the two ends of the breastplate in the border thereof, which is
in the side of the ephod inward.
27 And two other rings of gold thou shalt make, and shalt put them
on the two sides of the ephod underneath, toward the forepart
thereof, over against the other coupling thereof, above the curious
girdle of the ephod.
28 And they shall bind the breastplate by the rings thereof unto
the rings of the ephod with a lace of blue, that it may be above the
curious girdle of the ephod, and that the breastplate be not loosed
from the ephod.
29 And Aaron shall bear the names of the children of Israel in the
breastplate of judgment upon his heart, when he goeth in unto the
holy place, for a memorial before the LORD continually.
30 And thou shalt put in the breastplate of judgment the Urim and
the Thummim; and they shall be upon Aaron's heart, when he goeth in
before the LORD: and Aaron shall bear the judgment of the children of
Israel upon his heart before the LORD continually.

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Commentary.

Verse 15. A breastplate on the chest of the high priest to put


him in mind that he should do justly and in judgment in the execution
of his office, to have at heart the judgment of the people of Israel:
in difficult cases he should inquire of the Lord, and faithfully
declare to them. The 12 stones, the emblem of the people of God: to
explain his holy laws – and put them into executing them.
The fine work, the colors, including gold, blue, purple and
scarlet – to signify the beauty of the saints clothed in fine linen.

Verse 16. It was to be square and of a double thickness, 18


inches square.

Verse 17. Within it were sockets of gold, their hollows filled


with the previous stones – four rows of 3 stones each, filling the
square. First the red sardius, then the topaz of green, the third a
carbuncle – bright and glittering like lightning. On these, the names
graven of Reuben, Simeon, and Levi.

Verse 18. The second row: a green emerald, then the sapphire of
blue sky color, with golden specks, the third stone as diamond – that
breaks other stones, but cannot be broken: engraved with Judah,
Issachar, and Zebulun.

Verse 19. The third row: a ligure – having many specks like
stars spread about in it; the second, agate easily engraved; the
third, amethyst – the color of wine. The names of the tribes, Dan,
Nephtali, and Gad.

Verse 20. The fourth row: a beryl of sea-green color; an onyx –


the color of a man’s nail; the jasper – green, spotted with purple.
All are to be set in gold sockets.

Verse 21. The 12 stones engraved with the names of the 12


children of Israel. The letters cut within each stone as an engraved
seal – representing the previous unto God – the spiritual Israel of
God. Set in gold in rows, as dignified and excellent, their colors,
and names, separate, and special, of the highest value.

Verse 22. Chains of gold at the ends of the breastplate hung


from thence. Of golden wires twisted together like rope (wreathen
work).

Verse 23. One end of the chains will be put on the upper part of
the breastplate, two rings – the two upper corners of it, right and
left.

Verse 24. put the two chains in the two rings, on the end of the
breastplate.

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Verse 25. The other ends of the two wreathen chains: fasten them
to the sockets on the shoulder pieces of the ephod (in which were the
two onyx stones set). The breastplate was thus hung upon the breast
of the high priest.

Verse 26. At the two other ends of the breastplate, put to other
rings of gold, on the two sides of the ephod, inward.

Verse 27. Two other rings of gold for the two sides of the
ephod, so put as the rings would not be seen. These two lower
corners. They were to be coupled by laces of blue, above the curious
belt of the ephod from the breastplate.
Thus to signify the close binding unions of the people of God,
as part of His body, of His Spirit.

Verse 29. Aaron shall bear the names of the children of Israel
in the breastplate of judgment, upon his heart: he a representative
of the 12 tribes of Israel. For a memorial before the Lord
continually, for good.

Verse 30. In the breastplate of judgment were the Urim and


Thummim – for consultation in matters of difficulty. To inquire of
God the answer – one stone representing “yes”, the other “no”, to
settle questions in doubtful and difficult cases.

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Verses 31-43.

31 ¶ And thou shalt make the robe of the ephod all of blue.
32 And there shall be a hole in the top of it, in the midst
thereof: it shall have a binding of woven work round about the hole
of it, as it were the hole of an habergeon, that it be not rent.
33 And beneath upon the hem of it thou shalt make pomegranates of
blue, and of purple, and of scarlet, round about the hem thereof; and
bells of gold between them round about:
34 a golden bell and a pomegranate, a golden bell and a
pomegranate, upon the hem of the robe round about.
35 And it shall be upon Aaron to minister: and his sound shall be
heard when he goeth in unto the holy place before the LORD, and when
he cometh out, that he die not.
36 ¶ And thou shalt make a plate of pure gold, and grave upon it,
like the engravings of a signet, HOLINESS TO THE LORD.
37 And thou shalt put it on a blue lace, that it may be upon the
mitre; upon the forefront of the mitre it shall be.
38 And it shall be upon Aaron's forehead, that Aaron may bear the
iniquity of the holy things, which the children of Israel shall
hallow in all their holy gifts; and it shall be always upon his
forehead, that they may be accepted before the LORD.
39 ¶ And thou shalt embroider the coat of fine linen, and thou
shalt make the mitre of fine linen, and thou shalt make the girdle of
needlework.
40 ¶ And for Aaron's sons thou shalt make coats, and thou shalt
make for them girdles, and bonnets shalt thou make for them, for
glory and for beauty.
41 And thou shalt put them upon Aaron thy brother, and his sons
with him; and shalt anoint them, and consecrate them, and sanctify
them, that they may minister unto me in the priest's office.
42 And thou shalt make them linen breeches to cover their
nakedness; from the loins even unto the thighs they shall reach:
43 and they shall be upon Aaron, and upon his sons, when they come
in unto the tabernacle of the congregation, or when they come near
unto the altar to minister in the holy place; that they bear not
iniquity, and die: it shall be a statute for ever unto him and his
seed after him.

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Commentary.

Verse 31. The robe went under the ephod, worn under it; it
reached longer – only linen and all blue. It was seamless – one piece
of woven work.
It was symbolic of perfect righteousness. The sky blue color may
denote heaven and happiness. It went down to the feet.

Verse 32. There shall be a hole in the middle of the top, at the
neck, for the high priest to put his head through. A binding of woven
work around the hole – a strong wide seam to strengthen it.

Verse 33. At the bottom of the robe, about the hem, pomegranates
of blue and purple and scarlet, made of yard about the size of
chicken eggs and also oval. A golden bell was between the
pomegranates.
Verse 34. A bell and then a pomegranate all around the hem of
the robe. They were counted as 71 bells altogether. They signified
the sound of the gospel, joyful, musical and delightful were they
ringing. The pomegranates signified fruit of good works.

Verse 35. Aaron will bear this robe to minister in the priest’s
office. As he walks into and out of the holy place, he will be heard
because of the bells – that the people could give themselves in
prayer. The bells witnessed that he was properly attired in holy
garments – that he die not.

Verse 36. A plate of pure gold, two fingers broad, from ear to
ear – a priestly crown: Engraved upon it would be: Holiness to the
Lord, written in one line.

Verse 37. The mitre was of linen, wrapped about the head as a
turban. The forehead was left bare. The plate of gold would be upon
it, attached and hung from the blue lace.
Verse 38. The plate of gold with the inscription: “Holiness to
the Lord” shall be upon the forehead of Aaron – from temple to temple
(or from ear to ear). Only through Aaron as High Priest could the
offerings and sacrifices of all the people (as sinners) be taken, and
only through him with the plate on his head.
It has been suggested that this was pointing to Christ, Who in
His righteousness and sacrifice, intercedes for His people, always in
heaven before God, to bring forgiveness for their sins.

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Verse 39. The coat of fine linen was the innermost, under the
ephod and robe. It was to be in the form of a network, richly
embroidered, adorned with jewels. An emblem of the righteousness of
Christ.
The mitre made of fine linen, of the length necessary to wrap
about the head of all the priests. The high priest’s was wrapped as
folded flat to form a turban, but did not rise to a point. Those of
the other priests were wrapped so that they rose up like a high-
crowned high (like a night cap). It represented both honor and
servitude.
The girdle to go around the embroidered coat, about 4 fingers
broad, wound about and about. It was of woven work.

Verse 40. The coats for Aaron’s sons were to be of woven cloth,
of fine linen. A girdle, to gird up their linen coats which were
long. This made them more ready to expeditiously perform their
service. It is named the girdle of truth.
Bonnets for their heads as previously described. This adorned
their heads for glory and beauty. Respectable men of importance.

Verse 41. When Moses put these garments on Aaron and his sons,
under God’s authority, it was a solemn investiture of their priestly
offices. They are then to be anointed with oil (as with the Holy
Spirit). And consecrate them – fill their hands with sacrifices to be
offered up by them, this also sanctified them. Thus they were set
apart, and devoted to the sacred office of priesthood. Then they may
continue to minister unto God in the priest’s office (or position).

Verse 42. Make them under clothes of linen (breeches to cover


their private parts (flesh of nakedness). They were to be from just
above the navel to the knee (a sort of drawers).

Verse 43. All these clothes must always be upon Aaron and his
sons when they come to the tabernacle of the congregation – where the
people assembled. Also when they come unto the altar, in the holy
place. To not do so would make them guilty and deserving immediate
death from the hand of God, and might expect it (Nadab and Abihu were
so consumed with fire from heaven).
It was written law forever unto him and his seed after him;
until Christ, Who was a High Priest, not of the order of Aaron, but
after the order of Melchizedek, a priest forever.

End!

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Lesson XXIX

Exodus chapter 29. The Form and Order of the Consecration of


Aaron and His Sons By Moses before the Congregation.

Verses 1-9.

1 And this is the thing that thou shalt do unto them to hallow
them, to minister unto me in the priest's office: Take one young
bullock, and two rams without blemish,
2 and unleavened bread, and cakes unleavened tempered with oil,
and wafers unleavened anointed with oil: of wheaten flour shalt thou
make them.
3 And thou shalt put them into one basket, and bring them in the
basket, with the bullock and the two rams.
4 And Aaron and his sons thou shalt bring unto the door of the
tabernacle of the congregation, and shalt wash them with water.
5 And thou shalt take the garments, and put upon Aaron the coat,
and the robe of the ephod, and the ephod, and the breastplate, and
gird him with the curious girdle of the ephod:
6 and thou shalt put the mitre upon his head, and put the holy
crown upon the mitre.
7 Then shalt thou take the anointing oil, and pour it upon his
head, and anoint him.
8 And thou shalt bring his sons, and put coats upon them.
9 And thou shalt gird them with girdles, Aaron and his sons, and
put the bonnets on them: and the priest's office shall be theirs for
a perpetual statute: and thou shalt consecrate Aaron and his sons.

Commentary.

Verse 1. The Lord had chosen, called, separate, and appointed as


priests. This is the final step of setting them apart, made holy, and
dedicated to minister to Him is the priest’s office. The animals of
sacrifice, two rams and young bullock – emblem of strength and labor
– unblemished, pure and perfect.

Verse 2. As at the Passover, unleavened bread, and wafers baked


and anointed with oil. All of the finest of what. Each of the latter
two, smaller than the one before them. Bread of integrity, and
simplicity, without the leaven of false doctrine, hypocrisy, and
malice, their food from now on. (Even as Christ is the True Bread of
Life.

Verse 3. They were all placed in a basket to be brought to the


tabernacle of the congregation – to the altar along with the bullock
and two rams.

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Verse 4. Aaron and sons will be brought into the tabernacle door
to the laver where they are to be washed before offering the
sacrifice at the altar. They are washed completely this first time.
It is suggested that they were immersed completely to denote
their purity and holiness. Afterwards they would only wash their
hands and feet before service. Thus the priests of the Lord must be
clean to carry the vessels of His house and minister in His
sanctuary.
Christ was immersed before He began His public ministry, without
spot or blemish.

Verse 5. Then the prepared garments are to be put upon Aaron, in


their order; coat, the robe, the ephod, breastplate, the girdle of
the ephod.

Verse 6. The mitre is put on his head, the holy crown upon that
– the plate with Holiness to the Lord engraved upon it, upon Aaron’s
forehead.

Verse 7. Anointing oil (of several spices: myrrh, cinnamon,


calamus, cassia, and olive) was put upon Aaron’s head to anoint him.
His mitre removed for this – the oil poured on his head, then dripped
down to his beard, the mitre replaced on his head. It was called the
oil of grace, with the graces of the Spirit, for their dedication and
instruction before God.

Verse 8. Then the sons to be brought to the same place where


Moses was. He put coats on them.

Verse 9. The sons were gird with common girdles - to show


strength, diligence, and readiness to labor for their office. Upon
their heads were bonnets, wrapped differently than the high priests.
The office of priest shall be theirs perpetually – father to son, of
Aaron’s family, through all generations until Messiah comes – a
priest of another order. Thus are Aaron and his sons consecrated for
service to the Lord. The next step is to give to them (fill the hand)
sacrifices to offer for themselves and others.

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Verses 10-23.

10 ¶ And thou shalt cause a bullock to be brought before the


tabernacle of the congregation; and Aaron and his sons shall put
their hands upon the head of the bullock.
11 And thou shalt kill the bullock before the LORD, by the door of
the tabernacle of the congregation.
12 And thou shalt take of the blood of the bullock, and put it upon
the horns of the altar with thy finger, and pour all the blood beside
the bottom of the altar.
13 And thou shalt take all the fat that covereth the inwards, and
the caul that is above the liver, and the two kidneys, and the fat
that is upon them, and burn them upon the altar.
14 But the flesh of the bullock, and his skin, and his dung, shalt
thou burn with fire without the camp: it is a sin offering.
15 ¶ Thou shalt also take one ram; and Aaron and his sons shall put
their hands upon the head of the ram.
16 And thou shalt slay the ram, and thou shalt take his blood, and
sprinkle it round about upon the altar.
17 And thou shalt cut the ram in pieces, and wash the inwards of
him, and his legs, and put them unto his pieces, and unto his head.
18 And thou shalt burn the whole ram upon the altar: it is a burnt
offering unto the LORD: it is a sweet savor, an offering made by fire
unto the LORD.
19 ¶ And thou shalt take the other ram; and Aaron and his sons
shall put their hands upon the head of the ram.
20 Then shalt thou kill the ram, and take of his blood, and put it
upon the tip of the right ear of Aaron, and upon the tip of the right
ear of his sons, and upon the thumb of their right hand, and upon the
great toe of their right foot, and sprinkle the blood upon the altar
round about.
21 And thou shalt take of the blood that is upon the altar, and of
the anointing oil, and sprinkle it upon Aaron, and upon his garments,
and upon his sons, and upon the garments of his sons with him: and he
shall be hallowed, and his garments, and his sons, and his sons'
garments with him.
22 ¶ Also thou shalt take of the ram the fat and the rump, and the
fat that covereth the inwards, and the caul above the liver, and the
two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, and the right shoulder;
for it is a ram of consecration:
23 and one loaf of bread, and one cake of oiled bread, and one
wafer out of the basket of the unleavened bread that is before the
LORD:

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Verse 10. The bullock is then brought before the tabernacle of


the congregation. Aaron and his sons, altogether, place their hands
on the bullock’s head. They will declare it their sacrifice, in their
stead, they, putting their sins upon it, that it would signify their
death because of their sins. (Leviticus 16:21,22). An emblem of the
imputation of sin to Christ, laying upon Him the iniquities of us
all.

Verse 11. Moses will kill the bullock the Lord, before the door
of the Holy Place, therefore visible to the whole congregation.

Verse 12. Then the blood collected in a basin, Moses shall take
the to altar of sacrifice and put some on the horns of the altar with
his finger. The rest poured beside the bottom of the altar.
Apparently a container was there to receive it.
Verse 13. All the fat over the innards, in the midriff above the
liver, the two kidneys with their fat, were put on the altar and
burnt. It was suggested that the fat represented man’s carnal
excesses, and wickedness – to be destroyed, as to subdue the power of
them.

Verse 14. The flesh (head, legs, skin, dung) – to be burned with
fire outside the peoples’ camp; a sin offering for Aaron and his
sons. All the priests were also sinners and required offerings and
sacrifices for their sins.

Verses 15,16. Aaron and his sons will take one ram, put their
hands upon its head, and slay the ram (as he had the bullock), the
blood gathered in a basin – to be sprinkled (most likely with a
branch of hyssop) all over the top and sides of the altar as a
covering – to signify atonement for the sons and to cleanse them.

Verse 17. The ram is to be cut in pieces to lay it about, on the


wood on the altar to be a whole burnt offering. Wash the innards and
legs denoting purity of the sacrifice, these pieces laid scattered
with the other pieces to be entirely consumed with the other pieces
of the body and head.

Verse 18. The whole ram was to be burned upon the altars: a
burnt offering unto the Lord; a sweet savor ascending to the Lord, a
smell of rest.

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Verses 19,20. They are to take the second ram and put their
hands upon the head of the ram, then kill the ram, take some of the
blood as received in the basin, and put it upon the tip of the right
ear of Aaron, and the right tip of his sons’ ears. This was to
sanctify, to cleans from sins that came thereby. That the priests
listen with full attention to what they hear what shall be said unto
them of the Lord, to faithfully report it to the people.
And upon the thumb of their right hand, on the middle joint of
it, and the great toe of the right foot. The hands and fingers –
instruments of every action, the toes of walking – the life of moving
about. This signifies the life – all their movements should be
righteous. But their best will not be without sin: therefore need the
sprinkling of the blood for cleansing. As with the blood of the other
ram, the rest of this ram’s blood was sprinkled all about the altar.

Verse 21. Some of the blood of the basin was mixed with the
anointing oil, it is sprinkled upon the garments of Aaron, after
first sprinkling it upon Aaron. Then upon his sons and their
garments. This denoting the cleansing by the blood of the sacrifice,
and the sanctification of them by the Spirit by anointing oil. Thus
they were ceremonially holy, set apart unto sacred offices, priestly
services.

Verse 22. The fat of all parts (as in verse 13), and the right
shoulder – all, a ram of consecration, or of fillings – peace
offerings – to the altar and to who does the service, and the owners:
the breast to he who did the service – Moses’ the rest Aaron’s and
sons ate, being the owners.

Verse 23. One large loaf of unleavened bread. Also one cake of
oiled bread (wheat flour and oil mixed together to temper). And a
wafer from the basket of unleavened bread of the court of the
tabernacle, anointed with oil and crossed before the Lord – as being
devoted to the use the Lord assigned them.

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Verses 24-35.

24 and thou shalt put all in the hands of Aaron, and in the hands
of his sons; and shalt wave them for a wave offering before the LORD.
25 And thou shalt receive them of their hands, and burn them upon
the altar for a burnt offering, for a sweet savor before the LORD: it
is an offering made by fire unto the LORD.
26 ¶ And thou shalt take the breast of the ram of Aaron's
consecration, and wave it for a wave offering before the LORD: and it
shall be thy part.
27 And thou shalt sanctify the breast of the wave offering, and the
shoulder of the heave offering, which is waved, and which is heaved
up, of the ram of the consecration, even of that which is for Aaron,
and of that which is for his sons:
28 and it shall be Aaron's and his sons' by a statute for ever from
the children of Israel; for it is a heave offering: and it shall be a
heave offering from the children of Israel of the sacrifice of their
peace offerings, even their heave offering unto the LORD.
29 ¶ And the holy garments of Aaron shall be his sons' after him,
to be anointed therein, and to be consecrated in them.
30 And that son that is priest in his stead shall put them on seven
days, when he cometh into the tabernacle of the congregation to
minister in the holy place.
31 ¶ And thou shalt take the ram of the consecration, and seethe
his flesh in the holy place.
32 And Aaron and his sons shall eat the flesh of the ram, and the
bread that is in the basket, by the door of the tabernacle of the
congregation.
33 And they shall eat those things wherewith the atonement was
made, to consecrate and to sanctify them: but a stranger shall not
eat thereof, because they are holy.
34 And if aught of the flesh of the consecrations, or of the bread,
remain unto the morning, then thou shalt burn the remainder with
fire: it shall not be eaten, because it is holy.
35 ¶ And thus shalt thou do unto Aaron, and to his sons, according
to all things which I have commanded thee: seven days shalt thou
consecrate them.

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Commentary.

Verse 24. All the things of the ram, bread, cakes, and wafers,
were put in their hands when consecrated as official priests,
henceforth. They were waved from north to south, from east to west,
before the Lord, whose were the 4 winds of the world – by Moses and
Aaron.

Verse 25. Then the fat of the ram with one loaf, one cake, one
wafer of unleavened bread was burnt on the altar for a burnt-
offering, a sweet savor before the Lord.

Verse 26. The breast of the ram of Aaron’s consecration shall be


waved before the Lord, and given to Moses (as priest in Aaron’s
consecration), to eat. After times this part went to the high priest.
Verse 27. The breast for the priest in all succeeding
generations. The shoulder of the wave-offering of the ram of
consecration is for his sons.

Verse 28. It shall be Aaron and his sons by a statute for ever
from the children of Israel. As Aaron bore their names on his
shoulders for a memorial, and on his breast upon the breastplate of
judgment.
The offering shall be heaved up from the children of Israel to
the Lord, and then given to His priest – a peace offering. This
represented the people lifting up their hearts to God, to worship and
serve Him: eyes, hearts, and hands, lifted up to Him.

Verse 29. Aaron’s holy garments would be given to Aaron’s eldest


son at his death, the son would be consecrated as the next high
priest, from generation to generation.

Verse 30. The next successor, descendant of Aaron, was to wear


the garments 7 days in a row, and offer sacrifice in the court of the
tabernacle of the congregation, on the altar of burnt offering, and
incense on the altar of incense, trim the wicks of the candlestick,
and to put the shew-bread on that table.

Verse 31. The second ram, of the consecration, was to be boiled


in the open court of the congregation.

Verse 32. Aaron and sons are to eat the flesh of the ram, by
faith, physical and spiritual food from the Lord. Also the unleavened
bread, cakes, and wafers in the basket. All by the door of the
tabernacle (with it).

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Verse 33. Those things were as atonement for their sins – to


consecrate and sanctify them. Then they were set apart and devoted to
the role of the priest, to minister in it. No other persons, even of
Israel, they are to always be strangers tot he holiness of the
priesthood. They are never to eat of these sacrifices.

Verse 34. Anything left over, that Aaron and his sons did not
eat, in the morning, all of it was to be burned up so that none would
be eaten, because it is holy.

Verse 35. All the things commanded must be done, every detail,
in their order, for their 7 days of consecration.

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Verses 36-46.

36 And thou shalt offer every day a bullock for a sin offering for
atonement: and thou shalt cleanse the altar, when thou hast made an
atonement for it, and thou shalt anoint it, to sanctify it.
37 Seven days thou shalt make an atonement for the altar, and
sanctify it; and it shall be an altar most holy: whatsoever toucheth
the altar shall be holy.
38 ¶ Now this is that which thou shalt offer upon the altar; two
lambs of the first year day by day continually.
39 The one lamb thou shalt offer in the morning; and the other lamb
thou shalt offer at even:
40 and with the one lamb a tenth deal of flour mingled with the
fourth part of a hin of beaten oil; and the fourth part of a hin of
wine for a drink offering.
41 And the other lamb thou shalt offer at even, and shalt do
thereto according to the meat offering of the morning, and according
to the drink offering thereof, for a sweet savor, an offering made by
fire unto the LORD.
42 This shall be a continual burnt offering throughout your
generations at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation before
the LORD, where I will meet you, to speak there unto thee.
43 And there I will meet with the children of Israel, and the
tabernacle shall be sanctified by my glory.
44 And I will sanctify the tabernacle of the congregation, and the
altar: I will sanctify also both Aaron and his sons, to minister to
me in the priest's office.
45 And I will dwell among the children of Israel, and will be their
God.
46 And they shall know that I am the LORD their God, that brought
them forth out of the land of Egypt, that I may dwell among them: I
am the LORD their God.

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Commentary.

Verse 36. Every day of the 7 days a bullock was a sin offering,
to atone for sin, to consecrate them. The sacred use of the altar
required that it must be cleansed, then anointed with holy oil which
set it apart for holy use.

Verse 37. Seven days make atonement for the altar to make it set
apart and holy. Nothing but that gift or sacrifice were to be offered
on it.

Verse 38. Two lambs of the first year, every day, signifying
tenderness, innocence, without spot or blemish, as the Passover lamb,
pointing to the Lamb of God, John the Baptist identified being Jesus.
The lambs were offered up to take away the sins of the people.
Verse 39. One lamb will be offered in the first light of day,
the evening sacrifice was in the late afternoon, thought to be
traditionally the 3:00 hour. All people continued to sin, in the
night, and in the day, thus were the offerings needed every day.

Verse 40. with the one lamb, a bread offering (about the normal
amount for one day). The bread of God signified His provision, which
came down from heaven and gives life, food, and nourishment to men.
The beaten oil signified the graces of the Holy Spirit.
About a quart and a half of wine for a drink offering poured out
upon the altar, from where it descended to the bottom. The wine to
complete the offerings. Wine is said to cheer both God and man
(Judges 9:13).

Verse 41. The other lamb shall be offered at evening according


as the one in the morning, and the drink offering also – which is
also offered by fire unto the Lord.

Verse 42. These shall be continual burnt offerings, generation


to generation, as long as the Mosaic economy would last. At the door
of the tabernacle of the congregation, before the Lord, upon the
altar of burnt offering.
God will accept their sacrifices, give further orders and
directions, and answer questions of importance. Some of the ancient
rabbis concluded that God spoke to Moses from over the altar of brass
after the tabernacle was set up.

Verse 43. Then God will meet with the children of Israel: His
presence in public ordinances, accept their offerings, hear their
prayers, receive their thanksgiving for His mercies. The tabernacle
will be sanctified by God’s glory, so also will the children of
Israel be set apart, uniquely distinguished by His glorious presence
among them.

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Verse 44. This confirmed with emphasis God’s sanctification of


all those things listed in the preceding Scripture: tabernacle,
altar, Aaron and sons as His priests.

Verse 45. The Lord, Jehovah, would dwell here as a king in His
palace, near at hand to help and protect and defend His people, and
supply their needs.

Verse 46. All these things they shall know, that their God had
done and will continue to do for them. Even from the time He brought
them out from Egypt. This was His gift to them. This also obligated
them to attend the service of the sanctuary, and obey their Lord,
their God, in whatsoever He had commanded and instructed. Closing
pronouncement: “I am the Lord their God.”

Finis.

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Lesson XXX

Exodus chapter 30. The Altar of Incense.

Ransom of the Israelites, the laver of washing, the anointing


oil, and the perfume.

Verses 1-10.

1 And thou shalt make an altar to burn incense upon: of shittim


wood shalt thou make it.
2 A cubit shall be the length thereof, and a cubit the breadth
thereof; foursquare shall it be: and two cubits shall be the height
thereof: the horns thereof shall be of the same.
3 And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold, the top thereof, and
the sides thereof round about, and the horns thereof; and thou shalt
make unto it a crown of gold round about.
4 And two golden rings shalt thou make to it under the crown of
it, by the two corners thereof, upon the two sides of it shalt thou
make it; and they shall be for places for the staves to bear it
withal.
5 And thou shalt make the staves of shittim wood, and overlay them
with gold.
6 And thou shalt put it before the veil that is by the ark of the
testimony, before the mercy seat that is over the testimony, where I
will meet with thee.
7 And Aaron shall burn thereon sweet incense every morning: when
he dresseth the lamps, he shall burn incense upon it.
8 And when Aaron lighteth the lamps at even, he shall burn incense
upon it, a perpetual incense before the LORD throughout your
generations.
9 Ye shall offer no strange incense thereon, nor burnt sacrifice,
nor meat offering; neither shall ye pour drink offering thereon.
10 And Aaron shall make an atonement upon the horns of it once in a
year with the blood of the sin offering of atonements; once in the
year shall he make atonement upon it throughout your generations: it
is most holy unto the LORD.

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Commentary.

Verse 1. An altar to burn various spices to denote the accept


ableness of the service of the sanctuary to God. Made of the durable
and strong cedar and covered in gold.

Verse 2. It was to be a square cubit surface, about 18 inches,


and 3 feet tall. It was to have four horns at the four corners of the
top – but straight up, like spires (erect), chiefly for ornament.

Verse 3. It is to be overlaid with pure gold. Its interior was


filled with earth at every encampment. Also around the top was to be
a crown of gold.

Verse 4. On the corners, upon the two sides of it, a ring of


gold, to hold the staves that will be used to carry it, to always be
with them.

Verse 5. The staves of shittim wood, overlaid with gold.

Verse 6. It shall be put in front of the veil of the most holy


place, in the holy place. It was in the middle of that place, the
candlestick to its left in front of the left wall, table of shew-
bread to the right in front of the right wall.
It was directly in front of the ark of the testimony, before the
mercy-seat, which Is over the testimony (10 Commandments in stone).

Verse 7. Aaron was to burn sweet incense every morning. A vessel


would be used to take burning coals from the altar of burnt-offering.
The incense would be spread upon them and burnt. This was a type of
the prayers of the saints, that go upwards to God.
This was to be done every morning, when he went into the holy
place to dress the lamps (candlestick).

Verse 8. At evening Aaron again went to light any of the lamps


that went out, he burnt incense on the altar. At the rising and
setting, before the morning sacrifice and after the evening
sacrifices: “a perpetual incense before the LORD throughout your
generations.”

Verse 9. No other substance (strange incense) must replace or


take the place of God’s requirements; so also any burnt sacrifice or
meat-offering, or drink offering. Each offering had its required
altar, no exceptions, ever.

Verse 10. Aaron was to make atonement for the altar of incense.
The blood of the sin-offering of atonement was placed upon the horns
of the altar. Once a year, generation to generation. This was man’s
continuing sinning acknowledged by continuing expiation: most holy
unto the Lord.

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Verses 11-21.

11 ¶ And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,


12 When thou takest the sum of the children of Israel after their
number, then shall they give every man a ransom for his soul unto the
LORD, when thou numberest them; that there be no plague among them,
when thou numberest them.
13 This they shall give, every one that passeth among them that are
numbered, half a shekel after the shekel of the sanctuary: (a shekel
is twenty gerahs:) a half shekel shall be the offering of the LORD.
14 Every one that passeth among them that are numbered, from twenty
years old and above, shall give an offering unto the LORD.
15 The rich shall not give more, and the poor shall not give less,
than half a shekel, when they give an offering unto the LORD, to make
an atonement for your souls.
16 And thou shalt take the atonement money of the children of
Israel, and shalt appoint it for the service of the tabernacle of the
congregation; that it may be a memorial unto the children of Israel
before the LORD, to make an atonement for your souls.
17 ¶ And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,
18 Thou shalt also make a laver of brass, and his foot also of
brass, to wash withal: and thou shalt put it between the tabernacle
of the congregation and the altar, and thou shalt put water therein.
19 For Aaron and his sons shall wash their hands and their feet
thereat:
20 when they go into the tabernacle of the congregation, they shall
wash with water, that they die not; or when they come near to the
altar to minister, to burn offering made by fire unto the LORD:
21 so they shall wash their hands and their feet, that they die
not: and it shall be a statute for ever to them, even to him and to
his seed throughout their generations.

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Commentary.

Verse 11. Continued discourse to Moses.

Verse 12. The population of the children of Israel was to be


counted – this time for raising funds for the tabernacle and all of
its services. This time, not yearly or perpetual. It was called a
ransom for each man’s soul. If they did not pay, they would not be
counted as an Israelite, therefore in danger of plague (or death),
unto perdition.

Verse 13. The standard payment: 1 shekel for the sanctuary, the
half-shekel for the ransom of the soul. These half-shekels would be
counted to number the population. The lawgiver was the Lord, against
whom sin is committed when His law was broken; the Judge justly
requires the price to be paid.
Verse 14. Every male, 20 years old and above, is required to
give the half-shekel offering unto the Lord.

Verse 15. The rich and the poor were to pay the same amount.
Their souls were alike in God’s esteem. The price was so low that the
poorest could pay it. They all could have an equal share in the
service and sanctuary of God.

Verse 16. The children of Israel would be regularly reminded


that their offerings paid for the sanctuary, and the services of the
tabernacle; a memorial unto them before the Lord.

Verses 17,18. At another time, upon another subject, the Lord


spake unto Moses, saying he is to make a brass laver for Aaron and
his sons to wash at, the priests in succession, to wash at before
beginning their ministry. This denotes the necessity of purity and
holiness in actions and in speaking.
It was to be placed between the altar of burnt offering and the
holy place. It was there, for them to wash before they entered into
the holy place. Water was to be regularly supplied to it.

Verse 19. Aaron and his sons shall wash hands and feet there, at
it, not in it. This demonstrates that the holiest of men are not
without sin, in their daily walk and conversation, even priests of
the Lord.

Verse 20. They are to wash as soon as they entered the


tabernacle of the congregation. Their hearts should be pure, as well
as their hands, when lifted up in prayer to God. So also in public
worship.
“That they die not” - when making burnt offerings by fire unto
the Lord.

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Verse 21. To neglect this washing requirement would be an act of


defiance to the lord. It would put them in danger of death by the
immediate hand of God It is a perpetual statute forever.

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Verses 22-38.

22 ¶ Moreover the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,


23 Take thou also unto thee principal spices, of pure myrrh five
hundred shekels, and of sweet cinnamon half so much, even two hundred
and fifty shekels, and of sweet calamus two hundred and fifty
shekels,
24 and of cassia five hundred shekels, after the shekel of the
sanctuary, and of oil olive a hin:
25 and thou shalt make it an oil of holy ointment, an ointment
compound after the art of the apothecary: it shall be a holy
anointing oil.
26 And thou shalt anoint the tabernacle of the congregation
therewith, and the ark of the testimony,
27 and the table and all his vessels, and the candlestick and his
vessels, and the altar of incense,
28 and the altar of burnt offering with all his vessels, and the
laver and his foot.
29 And thou shalt sanctify them, that they may be most holy:
whatsoever toucheth them shall be holy.
30 And thou shalt anoint Aaron and his sons, and consecrate them,
that they may minister unto me in the priest's office.
31 And thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel, saying, This
shall be a holy anointing oil unto me throughout your generations.
32 Upon man's flesh shall it not be poured, neither shall ye make
any other like it, after the composition of it: it is holy, and it
shall be holy unto you.
33 Whosoever compoundeth any like it, or whosoever putteth any of
it upon a stranger, shall even be cut off from his people.
34 ¶ And the LORD said unto Moses, Take unto thee sweet spices,
stacte, and onycha, and galbanum; these sweet spices with pure
frankincense: of each shall there be a like weight:
35 and thou shalt make it a perfume, a confection after the art of
the apothecary, tempered together, pure and holy:
36 and thou shalt beat some of it very small, and put of it before
the testimony in the tabernacle of the congregation, where I will
meet with thee: it shall be unto you most holy.
37 And as for the perfume which thou shalt make, ye shall not make
to yourselves according to the composition thereof: it shall be unto
thee holy for the LORD.
38 Whosoever shall make like unto that, to smell thereto, shall
even be cut off from his people.

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Commentary.

Verse 22. A little later, the Lord spoke unto Moses.

Verse 23. To make the anointing oil, these spices are to be


used: pure myrrh as oil (250 ounces, from the tree), the principle
ingredient – sweet cinnamon, half as much (125 oz, also from a tree,
or its bark when dried out); sweet calamus (125 oz, from a cane). All
were from Arabia.

Verse 24. Of cassia, 250 ounces, of the sweetest kind, 250


ounces. Of olive oil, a gallon and quart, the most pure.

Verse 25. All these together: “oil of ointment” to be poured for


sacred use. The spice would be pounded, bruised and mixed together,
and boiled. It would then be used as a holy ointment. It signified
the Holy Spirit of God and His graces.

Verse 26. A part of the tabernacle of the congregation will be


anointed for the whole; and also the ark of the testimony (where the
Law was), in the most holy place. The tabernacle the type of the
Church of Christ, the mercy seat, anointed as was Jesus, Who alone
could fulfill the Law.

Verse 27. The table of shew-bread, and everything that went with
it: rings, staves, dishes, spoons, bows. As respecting Christ the
communion with His people even forever.
The candlestick and his vessels. Respecting the light of God’s
Word, the grace of the Spirit of God. Also of Christ and His Church.
The altar of incense, the odors, as the prayers of the saints,
offered up to God, Christ the mediator before God.

Verse 28. The altar of burnt offering – all the vessels: pans,
shoves, basins, etc – sprinkled 7 times (Leviticus 8). The brass
laver (for washing) and its base.
Verse 29. being anointed, set apart for sacred use.

Verse 30. Aaron and his sons, being anointed, set apart for holy
services in the offices of the priests unto the Lord.

Verse 31. When Moses comes before the children of Israel, he is


to speak to them about this holy anointing oil – the making and use
of it, throughout their generations.

Verse 32. This oil shall not be poured upon any common man –
only Aaron and his sons. They shall not make any of similar
composition. It is only for holy use.

Verse 33. If anyone does make some like it and puts it on any
common person, they shall be cut off from his people.

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Verse 34. The Lord continued to instruct Moses on sweet spices.


There is a complex attempt to identify the sources of these unusual
spices, where they came from and what they are made out of (root,
bark, shell of shell-fish, etc). All were of a good smell and sweet.
Each one would be beaten alone to produce an equal amount, and then
all were mixed together. Frankincense in every batch as well.

Verse 35. A perfume, like an apothecary, would prepare the way


they would beat, mix together, temper together: equal, pure, and
holy.

Verse 36. It must be powdered very small (by beating) to be most


easily spread upon the coals – the fragrant smoke to rise the sooner.
Put it upon the altar of incense in the tabernacle – most holy, for
no other use. The Lord will meet with thee there.
Verses 37,38. This perfume must not be made of the same
composition for common use. Anyone who would do so for his own
pleasure shall be cut off from his people (as in verse 33).

End.

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Lesson XXXI

Exodus chapter 31. Those Chosen and Qualified for.

Building the Tabernacle; the Law of the Sabbath and two tablets
of stone with the 10 Commandments written by the finger of God given
to Moses.

Verses 1-11.

1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,


2 See, I have called by name Bez'aleel the son of Uri, the son of
Hur, of the tribe of Judah:
3 and I have filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, and in
understanding, and in knowledge, and in all manner of workmanship,
4 to devise cunning works, to work in gold, and in silver, and in
brass,
5 and in cutting of stones, to set them, and in carving of timber,
to work in all manner of workmanship.
6 And I, behold, I have given with him Aho'li-ab, the son of
Ahis'amach, of the tribe of Dan: and in the hearts of all that are
wise-hearted I have put wisdom, that they may make all that I have
commanded thee;
7 the tabernacle of the congregation, and the ark of the
testimony, and the mercy seat that is thereupon, and all the
furniture of the tabernacle,
8 and the table and his furniture, and the pure candlestick with
all his furniture, and the altar of incense,
9 and the altar of burnt offering with all his furniture, and the
laver and his foot,
10 and the clothes of service, and the holy garments for Aaron the
priest, and the garments of his sons, to minister in the priest's
office,
11 and the anointing oil, and sweet incense for the holy place:
according to all that I have commanded thee shall they do.

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Commentary.

Verse 1. The Lord now acquaints Moses with His preparations of


the artisans to make all of the tabernacle and all of the things that
went along with hit, the oversight and directing of it: how and by
whom all this would be done.

Verse 2. The lord has chosen Bezaleel (which means “in the
shadow of God”) as master builder, to oversee and direct the entire
work related to it.

Verse 3. The Lord has filled him with the Spirit, gifts of
ingenuity and skill in manual arts, mechanical operations: “in all
manner of workmanship”. He could teach and direct others in the
extraordinary things by the Spirit of God, that had taught and guided
him.
Verse 4. He would devise cunning works – designs for the weavers
of the curtains of the tabernacle, the veil of the most holy place,
the ephod, its girdle (curious work of the weaver). Also to work
gold, silver, and brass – what and how to work with them, melt,
shape, police, and make the various vessels.

Verse 5. And in the cutting of precious stones, shaping,


polishing and setting in their enclosures (high priest’s breast
plate) as a jeweler. And in cutting timber, making planks and boards,
carpentry of building the various tables and altars. And to work in
various other needed materials: spinning, embroidery, dying various
colors, compounding ointments, perfumes, and incense.

Verse 6. A partner, Aholiab, son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of


Dan. Aholiab means “the father’s tent”. Ahisamach means “one that
supports”. So that two shared the highest post – thought to prevent
too much honor or authority being given to one tribe (as Moses and
Aaron). Also God has put wisdom in all those persons that are to work
under Bezaleel and Aholiab. Certainly they had good natural abilities
and skills, now directed and inspired by God as well.

Verse 7. They shall make the house, and then the furniture of
it: the ark of the testimony, the mercy-seat thereupon, and the rest
of the tabernacle furniture.

Verse 8. The shew-bread table, dishes, spoons, bowls, the pure


gold candlestick, lamps, tongs, snuff-dishes, the altar of incense
(wood covered with gold).

Verse 9. The altar of burnt-offering and its furniture. Wood


covered in brass; poms, shovels, basins. And the laver and his foot –
the place of the priests’ washing of hands and feet.

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Verse 10. The clothes of service – may refer to the clothes that
were used to cover those pieces of furniture of the tabernacle when
the Israelites journeyed in the wilderness. Also, the holy garments
for Aaron and his sons as priests ministering unto the Lord.

Verse 11. And in the making of the anointing oil and sweet
incense for the holy place. They are to oversee and make certain of
the exact forms and patterns given by Moses, which were given to him
by the Lord.

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Verses 12-18.

12 ¶ And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,


13 Speak thou also unto the children of Israel, saying, Verily my
sabbaths ye shall keep: for it is a sign between me and you
throughout your generations; that ye may know that I am the LORD that
doth sanctify you.
14 Ye shall keep the sabbath therefore; for it is holy unto you.
Every one that defileth it shall surely be put to death: for
whosoever doeth any work therein, that soul shall be cut off from
among his people.
15 Six days may work be done; but in the seventh is the sabbath of
rest, holy to the LORD: whosoever doeth any work in the sabbath day,
he shall surely be put to death.
16 Wherefore the children of Israel shall keep the sabbath, to
observe the sabbath throughout their generations, for a perpetual
covenant.
17 It is a sign between me and the children of Israel for ever: for
in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day he
rested, and was refreshed.
18 ¶ And he gave unto Moses, when he had made an end of communing
with him upon mount Si'nai, two tables of testimony, tables of stone,
written with the finger of God.

Commentary.

Verses 12,13. The Lord now speaks to Moses what he is to tell


the Israelites: even in all the aforementioned work concerning the
tabernacle and all that went along with it, the sabbath must still be
kept, nonetheless. 52 in the year: a sign between the Lord and the
people of Israel, throughout your generations. Part of the covenant –
observing the same day of rest as God ha after completing the works
of creation. This will continue to remind them of the Lord’s position
in their lives, setting them apart from all other nations of the
world – by the Lord God Himself.
Verse 14. They will strictly observe all the rules of it, as
holy unto them. To do any manual work or to not observe it as holy
unto the Lord – that person “shall surely be put to death”. The law
of the Jewish sabbath included no kindling of fire, preparing any
food – that soul: cut off from among his people If done in secret,
God would immediately punish them from heaven. Otherwise, witnesses
would be necessary to prove the case to a civil magistrate. Th
penalty of death was by stoning, traditionally.

Verse 15. From worldly labor the seventh day is the sabbath of
rest, holy to the Lord: to be entirely devoted to the worship and
service of God; to be kept holy as reading and hearing the word,
prayer, and praise. Any work on the sabbath-day, brought the death
penalty: the first recorded transgressor of this law was stone to
death (Numbers 15:35,36).

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Verse 16. The children of Israel shall keep the sabbath, through
their generations, a perpetual covenant. This until the coming of
Christ, which began a new world and the beginning of the new state of
things.

Verse 17. Again, a memorial of the Creator God, making the


heaven and earth in six days; He rested on the 7th day and was
refreshed. Therefore the observance of it was reasonable,
understandable, and no objection could be raised against it.

Verse 18. This ended the communion with Moses of the Lord upon
the Mount Sinai. It was time to part. The Lord gave the Two Tables of
Testimony, 5 on each. The 10 Commandments written in stone with the
finger of God.

Finis.

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Lesson XXXII

Exodus chapter 32. The Golden Calf etc.

Verses 1-10.

1 And when the people saw that Moses delayed to come down out of
the mount, the people gathered themselves together unto Aaron, and
said unto him, Up, make us gods, which shall go before us; for as for
this Moses, the man that brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we
wot not what is become of him.
2 And Aaron said unto them, Break off the golden earrings, which
are in the ears of your wives, of your sons, and of your daughters,
and bring them unto me.
3 And all the people brake off the golden earrings which were in
their ears, and brought them unto Aaron.
4 And he received them at their hand, and fashioned it with a
graving tool, after he had made it a molten calf: and they said,
These be thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of
Egypt.
5 And when Aaron saw it, he built an altar before it; and Aaron
made proclamation, and said, Tomorrow is a feast to the LORD.
6 And they rose up early on the morrow, and offered burnt
offerings, and brought peace offerings; and the people sat down to
eat and to drink, and rose up to play.
7 ¶ And the LORD said unto Moses, Go, get thee down; for thy
people, which thou broughtest out of the land of Egypt, have
corrupted themselves:
8 they have turned aside quickly out of the way which I commanded
them: they have made them a molten calf, and have worshipped it, and
have sacrificed thereunto, and said, These be thy gods, O Israel,
which have brought thee up out of the land of Egypt.
9 And the LORD said unto Moses, I have seen this people, and,
behold, it is a stiffnecked people:
10 now therefore let me alone, that my wrath may wax hot against
them, and that I may consume them: and I will make of thee a great
nation.

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Commentary.

Verse 1. The point here was not exactly how many days Moses was
on the mount. These people had grown impatient. Moses had been gone
longer than they expected. They wanted to continue their journey to
Canaan. They also wanted to have some symbol and representation of a
deity to go before them.
At this point a large group of the people were gathered together
in an agitated and impatient manner. They went together unto Aaron –
the head of the nation of Israel in Moses’ absence. They had made up
their minds, no room for discussion or delay. They demanded something
be made that represented, as a symbol of deity, to be carried in
front of them. Possibly they were thinking about the cloud that had
gone before them, from Egypt. It had been stationary since Moses went
up the mount. They label Moses as the man that brought them out from
Egypt. At this point, they conclude that something has happened to
him, and they have no clue as to what that might be. They knew he had
not taken any food or water. He could have been burned up on the
mount of flaming fire from before the Lord.

Verse 2. Aaron’s response: he obviously could see the extreme


agitation and determination of these men. He saw no alternative – his
response was to give them a plan how to get these demands
accomplished.
He proceeds to tell them the first thing was to gather enough
gold to make the image (or idol). They were to get all the golden
earrings from their families – women, and children. These had come
from being borrowed of the Egyptians. The men also wore gold
earrings, but Aaron only asked for those of their wives and children.
All were to be brought to Aaron to make them an idol.

Verse 3. All the people gave up their earrings, those that


refused had them broken off and taken. All the gold was brought to
Aaron. Their covenant with God was broken at the same time: they were
to have no other gods, and no graven image, to bow down to.
Verse 4. Now received, Aaron began by melting the gold, cast it
in a mold in shape of a calf. He then used the graving tool to
finish, polish, and add details to the animal.
It is thought this idea points back to the Egyptian god, Osiris
– worshiped an image as a golden ox. These Israelites accepted the
idol, saying, “These be thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out
of the land of Egypt.” This idol represented to them, God, Who had
done this for them. This is the best way to consider this event.

Verse 5. Aaron saw how acceptable this idol was to the people.
He saw his only path (otherwise he might be killed) was to proceed on
this path, keep the people appeased. He built an altar before it, for
sacrifice. He also proclaimed a feast to the Lord for the following
day. He may have put this off, in the hopes that Moses would return
before morning and stop this madness.

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Verse 6. The people wee eager to do all their idol worship: they
rose up early and made offerings to be burnt up; peace offerings for
their feasting. They all sat down to eat and drink. And they rose up
to play: dancing and singing, even as the Egyptians had done.

Verse 7. At this point the Lord informed Moses that it was time
for him to go back down, quickly. His people, the very ones he led
out of the land of Egypt, have corrupted themselves. The Lord showed
His displeasure by calling them Moses’ people, not the Lord’s people.
They had broken the Lord’s law, they were guilty of condemnation and
punishment.

Verse 8. These people have turned aside from the law – they were
to never make an image, or figure to represent any god, or the Lord
God. This they had now done – barely 6 weeks since the command was
given. They have made it (golden calf) and worshiped it. They have
sacrificed thereunto burnt offerings, and peace offerings. And
proclaimed it the god of Israel that brought them from Egypt. The
Lord knew every detail.

Verse 9. The Lord pronounces the results of His long time, and
intimate detail of observing this people. Look carefully: it is a
stiffnecked people – selfish, obstinate. They act like animals that
refuse to accept yoke or bridle – that draw back and run away.
Disobedient and not reclaimable were these self-centered people.

Verse 10. The Lord tells Moses not to bother them with any
pleas, or entreaties for this people They have been and still were
sinful and disobedient people. The Lord wants to consume them and
start again – from Moses and his family, to make a great nation – as
great, or even greater. To Moses’ great credit, he was not so
egotistical or selfish as to wish for such an outcome. He could not
bear to see this people destroyed, utterly, even if he and his family
benefited from it.

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Verses 11-20.

11 ¶ And Moses besought the LORD his God, and said, LORD, why doth
thy wrath wax hot against thy people, which thou hast brought forth
out of the land of Egypt with great power, and with a mighty hand?
12 Wherefore should the Egyptians speak, and say, For mischief did
he bring them out, to slay them in the mountains, and to consume them
from the face of the earth? Turn from thy fierce wrath, and repent of
this evil against thy people.
13 Remember Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, thy servants, to whom thou
swarest by thine own self, and saidst unto them, I will multiply your
seed as the stars of heaven, and all this land that I have spoken of
will I give unto your seed, and they shall inherit it for ever.
14 And the LORD repented of the evil which he thought to do unto
his people.
15 ¶ And Moses turned, and went down from the mount, and the two
tables of the testimony were in his hand: the tables were written on
both their sides; on the one side and on the other were they written.
16 And the tables were the work of God, and the writing was the
writing of God, graven upon the tables.
17 And when Joshua heard the noise of the people as they shouted,
he said unto Moses, There is a noise of war in the camp.
18 And he said, It is not the voice of them that shout for mastery,
neither is it the voice of them that cry for being overcome; but the
noise of them that sing do I hear.
19 And it came to pass, as soon as he came nigh unto the camp, that
he saw the calf, and the dancing: and Moses' anger waxed hot, and he
cast the tables out of his hands, and brake them beneath the mount.
20 And he took the calf which they had made, and burnt it in the
fire, and ground it to powder, and strewed it upon the water, and
made the children of Israel drink of it.

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Commentary.

Verse 11. Moses entreats the LORD his God that it was not his
(Moses’) people – Moses was not the one who did this: “thou hast
brought forth out of the land of Egypt with great power...” He
himself was a weak and feeble instrument. The Lord had chosen these
people and done all these things for them: redeemed them from the
house of bondage, given them laws, made a covenant and many promises.
Moses turns the Lord’s wrath in another direction.

Verse 12. If the Lord destroys them, what will the Egyptians say
about Him? That the Lord brought them out of bondage to kill them in
the mountains, just to wipe them from the face of the earth? And all
the promises of land and a nation, a kingdom in the world. Moses
never suggests that the people deserve but that if he does, the
enemies will use the occasion to insult, speak reproachfully, and
celebrate their own pride, importance, and power. For this reason
Moses asks the Lord to “Turn from thy fierce wrath, and repent of
this evil against thy people.”

Verse 13. Moses reminds the Lord about the beginning of this
nation – this people He has chosen. It started with Abraham, Isaac,
and Israel, His servants the covenant, the promise with an oath –
where the Lord swore by His own self (He could swear by no greater).
He promised to multiply their seed, as the stars of heaven, without
number, and the land of Canaan, their seed will inherit and inhabit
it forever.

Verse 14. The Lord changes the outward dispensation of His


providence, he alters His threatened course of what He thought to do
unto His people.

Verse 15. Moses resolutely turns from God and begins his journey
down, most likely in haste. He still had the two stone tablets, one
in each hand. The law of the will of God – what was to be done, and
what was not to be done. The writing was on both sides of both
tablets. It is thought that this meant that when held up they could
be read from in front and from behind.

Verse 16. God had engraved the tablets – formed the stones and
wrote upon them. Thus their value and respect as God’s law, from His
highest authority, which should deter men from breaking it.

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Verse 17. Joshua had waited for Moses about half way up the
mount – where he could not know what the people were doing. He also
had no knowledge of what transpired with Moses. On their way down the
mount together, as they got much closer to the camp of their people,
they began to hear noises from the camp.
It sounded like people shouting, Joshua mentions it to Moses. He
suggested that it sounded like soldiers, like a war was going on in
the camp. No way to tell what stage the battle was in, or who the
enemy was. Joshua was the general of the army, and he was certainly
concerned about him being away when such a thing happened.

Verse 18. Moses speaks up, describing what he hears: not cries
of victory (not the voice of strength); also not the cry of the
defeated, a howling, of being overcome, weakness.
Since Moses knew what was going on, having been told by the
Lord, he describes the noises as people singing, enjoying themselves.
Verse 19. By this time, they had reached the bottom of the mount
and were quite near the camp. Moses saw the golden calf and the
people dancing around it. Even as the Egyptians had done before their
golden ox.
Moses became hot with indignation and great anger had to vent
that wrath immediately. He threw down the stone tablets and broke
them, at the foot of Mount Sinai. This was done before the people –
this was done to make the people realize what they had done. And
certainly we may assume that Moses told them that they had broken
these laws, and that they deserved to be broken into pieces and
destroyed as well. Since Moses was never blamed for this action, it
is assumed that he had done this under the influence and direction of
God Himself.

Verse 20. Moses took the calf idol, melted it down into a mass,
ground it to powder, and took water from the nearby stream, put it in
vessels and then the powder of the golden calf was sprinkled. It is
thought to have been light powder, that would float on top. He then
made those most guilty of being closely involved in having this idol
made, and worshiping it.
The powder represented how worthless the idol was – it was
destroyed, all that was left of it was powder. The idol had no power
and is now without any value either. By drinking of it, it would pass
through them as excrement – to be totally rejected as detestable
refuse.

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Verses 21-35.

21 ¶ And Moses said unto Aaron, What did this people unto thee,
that thou hast brought so great a sin upon them?
22 And Aaron said, Let not the anger of my lord wax hot: thou
knowest the people, that they are set on mischief.
23 For they said unto me, Make us gods, which shall go before us:
for as for this Moses, the man that brought us up out of the land of
Egypt, we wot not what is become of him.
24 And I said unto them, Whosoever hath any gold, let them break it
off. So they gave it me: then I cast it into the fire, and there came
out this calf.
25 ¶ And when Moses saw that the people were naked, (for Aaron had
made them naked unto their shame among their enemies,)
26 then Moses stood in the gate of the camp, and said, Who is on
the LORD's side? let him come unto me. And all the sons of Levi
gathered themselves together unto him.
27 And he said unto them, Thus saith the LORD God of Israel, Put
every man his sword by his side, and go in and out from gate to gate
throughout the camp, and slay every man his brother, and every man
his companion, and every man his neighbor.
28 And the children of Levi did according to the word of Moses: and
there fell of the people that day about three thousand men.
29 For Moses had said, Consecrate yourselves today to the LORD,
even every man upon his son, and upon his brother; that he may bestow
upon you a blessing this day.
30 ¶ And it came to pass on the morrow, that Moses said unto the
people, Ye have sinned a great sin: and now I will go up unto the
LORD; peradventure I shall make an atonement for your sin.
31 And Moses returned unto the LORD, and said, Oh, this people have
sinned a great sin, and have made them gods of gold.
32 Yet now, if thou wilt forgive their sin--; and if not, blot me,
I pray thee, out of thy book which thou hast written.
33 And the LORD said unto Moses, Whosoever hath sinned against me,
him will I blot out of my book.
34 Therefore now go, lead the people unto the place of which I have
spoken unto thee: behold, mine angel shall go before thee:
nevertheless, in the day when I visit, I will visit their sin upon
them.
35 ¶ And the LORD plagued the people, because they made the calf,
which Aaron made.

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Commentary.

Verse 21. Now that the golden idol is destroyed, Moses proceeds
to question the one Moses had left in charge: his brother, Aaron.
What had happened could not have taken place without his knowledge
and consent. He asks, what did this people do to him to get him to
commit such a great sin, against their true God, His honor and glory.
By setting up an idol in His place, giving honor and glory to it.
Moses wants to know what the people had done or threatened to do, or
had they somehow induced him by artful persuasion, or threatened to
kill him.

Verse 22. Aaron asked Moses not to get all worked up in his
anger – addressing him as his lord (or boss – being the leader of the
people). He asks for patience while he recounts what he did. He
begins by reminding Moses of the history of this people: “they are
set on mischief”, wholly under the power of “wickedness”. When under
that power and influence, there was no way to restrain them. Surely
Moses had seen this in their attitude and actions against Moses in
their recent past.

Verse 23. Aaron simply begins by describing their group coming


to him and demanded that he make a representative of gods to go
before them in their journey. Then the people gave their main reason.
Their leader, Moses, had been gone so long they surmised that
something bad had happened to him, otherwise there was no reason for
his being gone this long In this way, Aaron infers that his being
gone so long contributed the main idea that caused the people to come
up with their scheme, and demand.

Verse 24. All Aaron did was ask for all their gold earrings.
When brought, he threw them into the fire, and the calf came out. No
mention of Aaron’s molding, and graving the likeness. And he said the
calf came out of the fire on its own volition – as if by magic Moses
learned the truth later (Deuteronomy 9:20). Moses immediate reaction
is not recorded, but he recognized Aaron’s guilt. Moses also prayed
for him that God not destroy him.

Verse 25. Moses saw the people as naked. This in a spiritual


sense – in their sin and deep shame. They were outside of God’s
acceptance and protection. Aaron’s going along with them openly
revealed their sin and wickedness. They were now exposed before all
people (even their enemies). This showed their inner stiffnecked
rebellion and wickedness – they were without any excuse or reason, or
defense to cover them. This would be known unto their posterity in
all succeeding ages.

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Verse 26. Moses now removes to the main gate of the camp – the
usual place in cities where people were called together on important
occasions – such as justice and judgment. Moses makes the
pronouncement - “Who is on the LORD's side? let him come unto me.”
The sons of Levi were the ones that had not given in, or gone
over to worship the idol – those that worship the true God: they
gathered themselves together unto Moses. It becomes obvious in later
verses that many of the Levites had joined in the idol worship. As
well, there many of all the other tribes that had not joined in the
idolatry. Those that went to Moses’ side were the most zealous for
the Lord.

Verse 27. Moses spoke unto the people: “Thus saith the LORD God
of Israel”: the men of the Levites were to put their swords on their
belts, ready to be drawn – then they are to go about the streets,
gate to gate of the city and slay all the loiterers, being of the
idolaters – as they were celebrating a holy day of their idol. None
were to be spared, whether related, companion, friend, or neighbor.

Verse 28. The Levites did so – slaying all who had been
idolaters: the total slain was about 3,000 men.

Verse 29. Moses had told the Levites to consecrate themselves


unto the Lord by the obeying of His orders this day: in slaying even
any son or brother that any nearest relation guilty of this idolatry.
In this way, the Lord may bestow a blessing upon them in His service
this day and to minister in the sanctuary, and bear the vessels of
the Lord.

Verse 30. The following day, Moses spoke to the people, stating
that they have sinned a great sin. All those guilty had not been
killed. Moses proposes to do unto the Lord and on their behalf plead
for mercy – to pray and plead for forgiveness and that no more of the
guilty would have to die.
Verse 31. Moses returned to the Lord, on the mount. He confuses
the great sin of this people – making a god of a golden calf.

Verse 32. If God will now forgive their sin, the people will
praise His Name for it; they will be deeply thankful, and have great
obligations to serve, fear, and glorify Him. Moses considers it the
highest possible favor that can be asked for and granted. In showing
his great affection for his people, Moses wishes to not live – to be
gone forever if his people are not forgiven – blotted his name out of
the Lamb’s book of life.

Verse 33. The Lord tells Moses that he will blot out sinners
from His book. This also means that He won’t blot Moses’ name out.
And the following verse shows mercy to the people.

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Verse 34. Moses is told to now go and lead the people unto the
Promised Land. An angel of God will go before them. Nevertheless,
whenever the Lord corrects them for other sins, there be some
punishment related to the sin of the golden calf.

Verse 35. And the Lord plagued the people: visited them with
calamities, or pestilence, because of their determined idolatry with
the golden calf which Aaron made for them; which they worshiped and
made sacrifice to.

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Lesson XXXIII

Exodus chapter 33. An Angel Will Go Before the People.

Verses 1-11.

1 And the LORD said unto Moses, Depart, and go up hence, thou and
the people which thou hast brought up out of the land of Egypt, unto
the land which I sware unto Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, saying,
Unto thy seed will I give it:
2 and I will send an angel before thee; and I will drive out the
Canaanite, the Amorite, and the Hittite, and the Per'izzite, the
Hivite, and the Jeb'usite:
3 unto a land flowing with milk and honey: for I will not go up in
the midst of thee; for thou art a stiffnecked people: lest I consume
thee in the way.
4 ¶ And when the people heard these evil tidings, they mourned:
and no man did put on him his ornaments.
5 For the LORD had said unto Moses, Say unto the children of
Israel, Ye are a stiffnecked people: I will come up into the midst of
thee in a moment, and consume thee: therefore now put off thy
ornaments from thee, that I may know what to do unto thee.
6 And the children of Israel stripped themselves of their
ornaments by the mount Horeb.
7 ¶ And Moses took the tabernacle, and pitched it without the
camp, afar off from the camp, and called it the Tabernacle of the
congregation. And it came to pass, that every one which sought the
LORD went out unto the tabernacle of the congregation, which was
without the camp.
8 And it came to pass, when Moses went out unto the tabernacle,
that all the people rose up, and stood every man at his tent door,
and looked after Moses, until he was gone into the tabernacle.
9 And it came to pass, as Moses entered into the tabernacle, the
cloudy pillar descended, and stood at the door of the tabernacle, and
the LORD talked with Moses.
10 And all the people saw the cloudy pillar stand at the tabernacle
door: and all the people rose up and worshipped, every man in his
tent door.
11 And the LORD spake unto Moses face to face, as a man speaketh
unto his friend. And he turned again into the camp; but his servant
Joshua, the son of Nun, a young man, departed not out of the
tabernacle.

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Commentary.

Verse 1. At the top of the mount, the Lord instructs Moses to


proceeds on their journey to Canaan. He describes the people as the
ones Moses brought up out of Egypt. The Lord does not call them his
own people. He tells Moses to take them to the land promised to
Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, to be given to their seed. He would
faithfully do so, though they were unworthy of it.

Verse 2. He would send “an angel” before them. Not the angel of
the Lord, but a created angel. This was still a favor. He promises to
drive out the named peoples that inhabit the land.

Verse 3. A land flowing with milk and honey: abundance of all


the necessary and healthy things of life.
The Lord will not be in their middle as He had been before. But
He would not forsake them.
The temporary tabernacle (in the midst of the camp) was moved
outside the camp. The large one had not been completed this time.
Again the Lord names them a stiffnecked people. His presence in
the middle of the camp, if they sinned there, He couldn’t ignore it,
but would immediately mute out just punishment.
The danger – the people would be consumed on the way. God wanted
to keep his honor, and their safety.

Verse 4. This was bad news to the people (evil tidings). God was
withdrawing. The people mourned, showing their grief over their sin,
that they provoked the Lord to depart from them. One way they showed
this was the men did not wear their normal jewelry (rings and
jewels). The rest of the people did not put on their best clothes,
but their simplest clothes as in mourning.

Verse 5. This summarizes what had led to the above change in


behavior of the people: the Lord had told Moses to tell “the people
of Israel” (His people) that they were stiffnecked; that He could, in
a moment, come in their midst and consume them. Then He told them to
put off their ornaments – put on clothes that showed their
recognition of their sin. They would be dealt with by God based on
their outward appearance and behavior.

Verse 6. As described before, the people changed their


appearance (stripped of their ornaments), from Mount Horeb at a
distance they did this, showing their humiliation, being unworthy of
nearness to the Lord.

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Verse 7. This must refer to a tent (tabernacle) of Moses (not


the one shown to him in the mount). This was the place of worship for
him and the people, and where he consulted with God on their account.
Moses apparently did this to also show that he was displeased
with the people even as God was. Also a reminder of the Lord’s
departing from them. But yet within reach. Moses called it the
tabernacle of the congregation, the place of meeting, where the
people could come and meet together concerning civil and religious
matters.
As it did happen, people that sought the Lord, went to this
tabernacle (outside of the camp); in repenting of their sins, and
concerns relating to God and their wanting to know what to do, etc.

Verse 8. Moses went out (from where he lived in the camp) to the
tabernacle (tent) he had pitched out from the camp. The people
reacted to this by standing up in reverence towards him, men at their
tent’s door, watching Moses as he went to the tabernacle, until he
was out of their sight, “until he was gone into the tabernacle.”

Verse 9. As Moses entered the tabernacle, from the mount, the


cloudy pillar descended, and stood at the door of the tabernacle. The
Lord in the pillar talked with Moses – certainly about the children
of Israel – their sin, and mourning; His will concerning them and so
forth.

Verse 10. The people saw the cloudy pillar that was now at the
door of the Tabernacle. They recognized this as the presence of the
Lord now with Moses. This gave them some certainty of true hope –
mercy and forgiveness, and that the Lord would not depart from them.
The people rose up and worshiped at their tent doors – thankful and
hopeful at the Lord’s presence in the pillar of cloud.

Verse 11. The Lord spoke unto Moses face to face – a visible
appearance, even as friend to friend, very near.
Moses turned toward the camp. He was thinking about what he
would tell the people about what he and the Lord had talked about,
and what was the Lord’s will concerning them.
It is considered most reasonable that Joshua also turned toward
the camp and as Moses’ closest attendant joined him in returning to
the camp.
It is therefore that the Lord departed not from the tabernacle
but continued there. Moses later returned there had a further
conversation.

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Verses 12-23.

12 ¶ And Moses said unto the LORD, See, thou sayest unto me, Bring
up this people: and thou hast not let me know whom thou wilt send
with me. Yet thou hast said, I know thee by name, and thou hast also
found grace in my sight.
13 Now therefore, I pray thee, if I have found grace in thy sight,
show me now thy way, that I may know thee, that I may find grace in
thy sight: and consider that this nation is thy people.
14 And he said, My presence shall go with thee, and I will give
thee rest.
15 And he said unto him, If thy presence go not with me, carry us
not up hence.
16 For wherein shall it be known here that I and thy people have
found grace in thy sight? is it not in that thou goest with us? So
shall we be separated, I and thy people, from all the people that are
upon the face of the earth.
17 ¶ And the LORD said unto Moses, I will do this thing also that
thou hast spoken: for thou hast found grace in my sight, and I know
thee by name.
18 And he said, I beseech thee, show me thy glory.
19 And he said, I will make all my goodness pass before thee, and I
will proclaim the name of the LORD before thee; and will be gracious
to whom I will be gracious, and will show mercy on whom I will show
mercy.
20 And he said, Thou canst not see my face: for there shall no man
see me, and live.
21 And the LORD said, Behold, there is a place by me, and thou
shalt stand upon a rock:
22 and it shall come to pass, while my glory passeth by, that I
will put thee in a cleft of the rock, and will cover thee with my
hand while I pass by:
23 and I will take away mine hand, and thou shalt see my back
parts; but my face shall not be seen.

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Commentary.

Verse 12. Moses returned to the tabernacle and said unto the
Lord – He has told him to bring this people on up to Canaan, but he
doesn’t know who the Lord is going to send to him to guide, direct,
and protect him and the people.
Moses reminds the Lord how will he know him – by name, and been
shown grace before Him. Many gifts, benefits, and abundance of
spiritual grace had been given to him.

Verse 13. Now, therefore, if he has found grace in the Lord’s


sight, Moses wants further directions about what he is to do, how he
is to behave, and lead unto Canaan this people. He wants to closely
follow God’s will. He to know this: that he “may find grace” in the
Lord’s sight; and that this would also show that this sinful people –
this nation was still the Lord’s people and nation.
Verse 14. The Lord answers Moses’ plea: “My presence shall go
with thee”. With Moses and the people until they will find rest in
the Promised Land.

Verse 15. Moses wants to know exactly what the Lord’s promise of
presence means. This is the most important thing to Moses. Without
it, Moses speaks plainly: “carry us not up hence.”

Verse 16. How else would it ever be known, in this wilderness,


that this people found grace before the Lord. How else but by the
Lord’s presence, His going before and with His people.
Thus must they be separated, Moses and the Lord’s people, from
all the people that are on the face of the earth. Unique, chosen and
continuously blessed by His presence.

Verse 17. The Lord agrees to do what Moses has proposed also –
to go with them Himself, in the pillar of the cloud and fire. He will
show the way and what is to be done.
The greatest reassurance and compliment is spoken to Moses by
the Lord: “for thou hast found grace” - Moses’ plan was based on his
perception of God’s grace. The Lord also shows his closeness and
respect for Moses by saying “I know thee by name.”

Verse 18. Certainly Moses, alone many days in the cloud with the
Lord, must have been aware of His presence in brightness and glory to
some degree, but not in detail or outline. The request by Moses to
see the Lord’s glory is not completely denied, but within proper
limits. Moses is to receive this highest favor as no one else had.

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Verse 19. The Lord describes His glory is His goodness – in His
providence, His grace and mercy. He will proclaim providence, His
grace and mercy. He will proclaim the Name of the Lord before Moses
to get his focused attention – on Jehovah, Whose nature and will is
gracious and merciful even upon sinners, by His sovereign will and
pleasure.
Not according to their deeds or merits – but according to the
purpose and good will of God.

Verse 20. The pure glory in the face of the Lord could never be
seen by any human and live, too powerful and bright beyond the sun.

Verse 21. The Lord said there was a place of safety, in the
place of a rock – a high place, solid and firm, and safe.

Verse 22. There, a place – a cleft of the rock will be safe for
Moses to stand, while the glory of the Lord passes by. The Lord will
put his hand between Him and Moses as he passes Moses may only see
the back parts of the Lord’s glory, but not His face. This favor to
man was not revealed until the coming of Jesus Christ in the flesh.

End.

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Lesson XXXIV

Exodus chapter 34. Two more tables of stone.

Verses 1-9.

1 And the LORD said unto Moses, Hew thee two tables of stone like
unto the first: and I will write upon these tables the words that
were in the first tables, which thou brakest.
2 And be ready in the morning, and come up in the morning unto
mount Si'nai, and present thyself there to me in the top of the
mount.
3 And no man shall come up with thee, neither let any man be seen
throughout all the mount; neither let the flocks nor herds feed
before that mount.
4 And he hewed two tables of stone like unto the first; and Moses
rose up early in the morning, and went up unto mount Si'nai, as the
LORD had commanded him, and took in his hand the two tables of stone.
5 And the LORD descended in the cloud, and stood with him there,
and proclaimed the name of the LORD.
6 And the LORD passed by before him, and proclaimed, The LORD, The
LORD God, merciful and gracious, long-suffering, and abundant in
goodness and truth,
7 keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving iniquity and
transgression and sin, and that will by no means clear the guilty;
visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the
children's children, unto the third and to the fourth generation.
8 And Moses made haste, and bowed his head toward the earth, and
worshipped.
9 And he said, If now I have found grace in thy sight, O Lord, let
my Lord, I pray thee, go among us; for it is a stiffnecked people;
and pardon our iniquity and our sin, and take us for thine
inheritance.

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Commentary.

Verse 1. The Lord spoke again to Moses out of the pillar of


cloud at the door of the tabernacle as in the previous chapter – in a
most friendly way. Moses is to prepare two stone tablets like those
before prepared – the same marble and dimensions. As a token of
reconciliation, the tables were to be renewed – but that these would
be in the work of man, but the Lord will write upon them the words of
the first tablets which Moses had broken. The law of God was
unchangeable. The other two broken by Moses because of the breaking
of the Commands by the children of Israel.

Verse 2. Moses is to come up unto Mt. Sinai in the morning, to


present himself there unto the presence of the Lord.

Verse 3. But this time Moses must come alone because of the
people’s sin concerning the golden calf. There was a reconciliation,
Moses’ personal request was to receive alone. Not even Joshua was to
be seen anywhere in the mount. Neither the giving of the law, nor the
divine glory displayed was to be observed. Even the flocks and herds
were not to graze even close to the mount – lest a one of their
keepers be too near the mount. This was to instill reverence and fear
for this solemn meeting of God and Moses.

Verse 4. Moses hewed two tables of stone like the first. Without
delay, Moses got up early the next morning and went up to Mount Sinai
as commanded by the Lord. He took the two stone slabs or tablets
prepared.

Verse 5. The Lord descended in the cloud on the Mount as before


(Exodus 19:9) and stood near Moses. The Lord proclaimed the name of
the Lord with a loud voice out of the cloud.

Verse 6. The Lord passes before Moses, His glory and holiness,
the Lord, the Lord God. He is merciful, freely giving it, repeatedly
giving it to His people. His grace grants kindness and goodness to
people without this working or meriting it, even the way of
salvation. He is long-suffering: toward the wicked though they defy
and dishonor Him: and towards His elect, not wiling that any of them
should perish – his long-suffering is their salvation. And abundant
in goodness and truth. True and faithful in fulfilling His promises –
relating to this life or that to come. What He promises He shall also
bring to pass. (Especially in Christ.)

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Verse 7. Mercy is kept for thousands – it is His continuing


purpose even for ever; for thousands of generations: a group that no
man could number. Forgiving iniquity, transgression and sin –
signifying a lifting of them up, and taking them away. These three
words would include every type of thought, attitude, acts, and evil
selfishness and passions.
It is in Christ and for his sake God forgives sin. Without
Christ He will by no means clear the guilty. He does preserve His
honor and justice, letting no sin go unpunished. The iniquity of the
fathers visited upon the children, unto the 3rd and 4th generations.

Verse 8. The Lord had finished speaking. Moses made haste, bowed
down to the earth, and in a completely humble manner, worshiped the
Lord. In a reverent position to speak for the people of Israel.

Verse 9. Moses speaks, acknowledging the pronouncement of God’s


grace – that he, Moses, has found grace in the Lord’s sight and mercy
also. He prays that the Lord will go among His people. The people
have great need for they are a stiffnecked people. They have need for
restraining and keeping them in bounds, to be ruled and governed.
Since God had just proclaimed His mercy and grace, Moses asks that
the Lord would continue to pardon their iniquity and sin. Moses
includes himself, saying “our iniquity and our sin”.

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Verses 10-17.

10 ¶ And he said, Behold, I make a covenant: before all thy people


I will do marvels, such as have not been done in all the earth, nor
in any nation: and all the people among which thou art shall see the
work of the LORD: for it is a terrible thing that I will do with
thee.
11 ¶ Observe thou that which I command thee this day: behold, I
drive out before thee the Amorite, and the Canaanite, and the
Hittite, and the Per'izzite, and the Hivite, and the Jeb'usite.
12 Take heed to thyself, lest thou make a covenant with the
inhabitants of the land whither thou goest, lest it be for a snare in
the midst of thee:
13 but ye shall destroy their altars, break their images, and cut
down their groves:
14 for thou shalt worship no other god: for the LORD, whose name is
Jealous, is a jealous God.
15 Lest thou make a covenant with the inhabitants of the land, and
they go a whoring after their gods, and do sacrifice unto their gods,
and one call thee, and thou eat of his sacrifice;
16 and thou take of their daughters unto thy sons, and their
daughters go a whoring after their gods, and make thy sons go a
whoring after their gods.
17 ¶ Thou shalt make thee no molten gods.

Commentary.

Verse 10. The Lord told Moses, He would renew the covenant with
the people. And in the conquering of the land of Canaan. The Lord
will do marvels before the people – things never done before in all
the earth, or any nations.
These things would be observed by God’s people and the people
among whom they are at the time. There will be no doubt that it is
done by the Lord. They will cause terror and panic among the people
around them. (Ex. Destruction of Jericho.)
Verse 11. Moses is to carefully relay this message to all the
people of Israel – the following commands are to be told to and then
observed by them – in the following verses.
The Lord will drive out these 6 nations before them.

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Verse 12. Warning to the people to be very careful not to do any


of the following things among the inhabitants of the lands where they
are going:
No deals, agreements (covenants); they were to destroy these
peoples and their culture. The greatest danger was compromise (as a
snare). This especially was because of their idolatry – sinful in
rites and sacrifices. Giving into these things would bring ruin and
destruction upon the Israelites.

Verse 13. These people’s altars of sacrifice to idols must be


destroyed, otherwise they could become temptations for the Israelites
to offer sacrifices there. This was directly against the command of
God.
Their images, their deities represented thereby – whatever
material (gold, silver, wood or stone) and whatever form or size,
must be destroyed – another possible snare to the Israelites; all
must be destroyed without any exceptions, ever.
Cut down their groves: true clusters – where their temple idols
were, and where many impure things were done. The word “grove” covers
every tree planted that they serve for an idol. Forbidden.

Verse 14. Only the One True and Living God is to be worshiped.
All others are false, powerless, lifeless. This was and is the first
command of God, binding the people of Israel and all men.
All other so called deities are insensible. But for humans to
worship such fictitious things dishonors the Lord, for He only is
worthy of honor, respect, and worship. To do otherwise is likened to
adultery of the spirit as expressed in the following verse.

Verse 15. They are sternly warned not to make any agreements
with these people – this compromise could lead to be tempted to “go
whoring after their gods.” and thus commit spiritual adultery, this
included doing sacrifices, and then eating of the sacrifice of these
false idols (an ancient practice).
Verse 16. Such agreements included intermarriage with the
peoples’ daughters to Israelite sons. These daughters, having been
raised as idolaters would be tempted and influenced by their
memories, their parents, and friends, to keep that “faith”. This
would be a dangerous influence to the husbands – that they would want
to please their wives by joining them in a whoring these false gods
(consider the wives of Solomon).

Verse 17. no gods were to be made in molds from melted metals,


or any other graven images (such as the golden calf). If any were
found, they were to be destroyed.

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Verses 18-27.

18 ¶ The feast of unleavened bread shalt thou keep. Seven days thou
shalt eat unleavened bread, as I commanded thee, in the time of the
month Abib: for in the month Abib thou camest out from Egypt.
19 All that openeth the matrix is mine; and every firstling among
thy cattle, whether ox or sheep, that is male.
20 But the firstling of an ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb: and
if thou redeem him not, then shalt thou break his neck. All the
firstborn of thy sons thou shalt redeem. And none shall appear before
me empty.
21 ¶ Six days thou shalt work, but on the seventh day thou shalt
rest: in earing time and in harvest thou shalt rest.
22 And thou shalt observe the feast of weeks, of the firstfruits of
wheat harvest, and the feast of ingathering at the year's end.
23 Thrice in the year shall all your men children appear before the
Lord GOD, the God of Israel.
24 For I will cast out the nations before thee, and enlarge thy
borders: neither shall any man desire thy land, when thou shalt go up
to appear before the LORD thy God thrice in the year.
25 ¶ Thou shalt not offer the blood of my sacrifice with leaven;
neither shall the sacrifice of the feast of the passover be left unto
the morning.
26 The first of the firstfruits of thy land thou shalt bring unto
the house of the LORD thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in his
mother's milk.
27 ¶ And the LORD said unto Moses, Write thou these words: for
after the tenor of these words I have made a covenant with thee and
with Israel.

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Commentary.

Verse 18. The feast of unleavened bread is repeating the


original institution, the reason: coming out form Egypt (chapter
12:15); it is to be kept (as in chapter 23:15).

Verse 19. Also the rule of the firstborn being set apart for
God’s use, given also first at their coming out of Egypt (chapter
13:2,12).

Verse 20. The firstborn of donkeys are to be redeemed. None are


to appear before the Lord empty (chapter 13:15).

Verse 21. The Law of the 7th Day Sabbath, six days to work:
chapter 20:10, 13:12; 31:15. This adds the times of ploughing, and
harvests are not exceptions to the Sabbath.
Verse 22. The feast of weeks: Pentecost 50 days, reckoned from
the first day of Passover. Also called the feast of the first fruits
of the wheat harvest, and the feast of the in-gathering at year’s
end. Chapter 23:16.

Verse 23. Three times a year all their men – children are to
appear before the Lord (chapter 23:17). here “The God of Israel” is
added. Who had chosen them, brought them out from Egypt (redeemed
them); here their covenant with the Lord is renewed. These people
therefore under great obligation to appear before Him at the times
appointed by Him.

Verse 24. The nations previously mentioned (verse 11), the Lord
will cast out before them. They had no reason to fear these nations.
Thus their territory would be enlarged. Therefore no reason to not go
before the Lord, no enemies would observe the men’s gathering, and
invade their land. The lord will involve the poeples in other
concerns, so they would not think of invading the Israelites.
Therefore the men shall appear before the lord their God 3 times in
each year. God had the power to bring His will to pass.

Verse 25. There was to be no leaven in their homes when they


sacrificed the Passover lamb (chapter 23:18). Also none of the
sacrifice was to be left unto the morning. It was to be burned up.

Verse 26. Chapter 23:19 – first fruits of their land were to be


brought unto the Lord’s house. A kid was not to be boiled in its
mother’s milk.

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Verse 27. the Lord told Moses to write all these things in a
book as he had done before (chapter 22 and 23) called the book of the
covenant. This was a renewal of the covenant which, like the two
tables of the commandments, had been broken. The Lord has declared
what He will do for them, and what they are to do as required by the
Lord. Moses agreed to this in the people’s name; the writing was so
Moses could repeat them to the people.

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Verses 28-35.

28 And he was there with the LORD forty days and forty nights; he
did neither eat bread, nor drink water. And he wrote upon the tables
the words of the covenant, the ten commandments.
29 ¶ And it came to pass, when Moses came down from mount Si'nai
with the two tables of testimony in Moses' hand, when he came down
from the mount, that Moses wist not that the skin of his face shone
while he talked with him.
30 And when Aaron and all the children of Israel saw Moses, behold,
the skin of his face shone; and they were afraid to come nigh him.
31 And Moses called unto them; and Aaron and all the rulers of the
congregation returned unto him: and Moses talked with them.
32 And afterward all the children of Israel came nigh: and he gave
them in commandment all that the LORD had spoken with him in mount
Si'nai.
33 And till Moses had done speaking with them, he put a veil on his
face.
34 But when Moses went in before the LORD to speak with him, he
took the veil off, until he came out. And he came out, and spake unto
the children of Israel that which he was commanded.
35 And the children of Israel saw the face of Moses, that the skin
of Moses' face shone: and Moses put the veil upon his face again,
until he went in to speak with him.

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Commentary.

Verse 28. This was the third time Moses had been up the Mount:
chapters 25:15; 32:30; 34:4; for 40 days without bread or water. Only
the miraculous interposition of God was supporting him.
The Lord wrote upon the two tablets, the words of the ten
commandments. This he had promised to do, this records His doing so
as promised.

Verse 29. When Moses came down from the mount with the two stone
tablets, he wasn’t aware his skin glowed (illustrious) – this from
proximity to the Shechinah (glory) of the Lord when he talked to the
lord. This showed that Moses had close communion with God; to signify
the glory of the Commandments, and to cause awe and reverence among
the people. This glory was to show the people the true source of the
commandment: all doubt or questioning were irrelevant. Moses had been
with the Lord. Period!

Verses 30,31. Aaron and the peoples’ representatives were


waiting near the bottom border of the mount. They saw the face of
Moses shining. They were too afraid to get closer to him. They seemed
to have turned back toward their camp. Moses called them to come back
to him. Certainly they were reassured by recognizing his voice, and
his calling them, so they returned, coming back toward him. After
putting on a veil, Moses talked with them about what he had
experienced on the Mount. He talked in a friendly and informative
manner: including the grace and goodness of their God was proclaimed;
the laws and ordinances God called on him, and them also, to observe.

Verse 32. It took some time to get this message from Moses to
all the children of Israel. Certainly it would have been organized,
to take turns until all were informed of all the Lord had given Moses
to communicate to them as Moses was also to write a book with all
this information in it. It was a record for all people, and also what
they were to keep: all that the Lord commanded.
Verse 33. Moses had kept the cloth covering his face the entire
time he was speaking to the people.

Verse 34. But when Moses went into the tabernacle to speak to
the lord, he took off the veil. He did put it back on when he went
out to speak to the people all that the Lord had commanded.

Verse 35. This pattern was repeated by Moses because his face
still shone before the people. Some commentators propose that Moses
did this for the rest of his life.

Next, back to the building of the Tabernacle.

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Lesson XXXV

Exodus chapter 35. The Sabbath and the Building of the


Tabernacle.

Verses 1-19.

1 And Moses gathered all the congregation of the children of


Israel together, and said unto them, These are the words which the
LORD hath commanded, that ye should do them.
2 Six days shall work be done, but on the seventh day there shall
be to you a holy day, a sabbath of rest to the LORD: whosoever doeth
work therein shall be put to death.
3 Ye shall kindle no fire throughout your habitations upon the
sabbath day.
4 ¶ And Moses spake unto all the congregation of the children of
Israel, saying, This is the thing which the LORD commanded, saying,
5 Take ye from among you an offering unto the LORD: whosoever is
of a willing heart, let him bring it, an offering of the LORD; gold,
and silver, and brass,
6 and blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen, and goats'
hair,
7 and rams' skins dyed red, and badgers' skins, and shittim wood,
8 and oil for the light, and spices for anointing oil, and for the
sweet incense,
9 and onyx stones, and stones to be set for the ephod, and for the
breastplate.
10 ¶ And every wise-hearted among you shall come, and make all that
the LORD hath commanded;
11 the tabernacle, his tent, and his covering, his taches, and his
boards, his bars, his pillars, and his sockets;
12 the ark, and the staves thereof, with the mercy seat, and the
veil of the covering;
13 the table, and his staves, and all his vessels, and the
showbread;
14 the candlestick also for the light, and his furniture, and his
lamps, with the oil for the light;
15 and the incense altar, and his staves, and the anointing oil,
and the sweet incense, and the hanging for the door at the entering
in of the tabernacle;
16 the altar of burnt offering, with his brazen grate, his staves,
and all his vessels, the laver and his foot;
17 the hangings of the court, his pillars, and their sockets, and
the hanging for the door of the court;
18 the pins of the tabernacle, and the pins of the court, and their
cords;
19 the clothes of service, to do service in the holy place, the
holy garments for Aaron the priest, and the garments of his sons, to
minister in the priest's office.

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Commentary.

Verse 1. They get everything started, by renewing all of the


Lord’s commands. This happened on the day after Moses descended form
the mount. All of the children of Israel were gathered together.
Moses said unto them all the words the lord commanded that they
should do. The law of the Sabbath had a special relationship with the
making of the tabernacle and also the free-will offerings.

Verse 2. The sanctity of the Sabbath. Six days were to be used


for any work – for him and his family. This may also include the work
to be done in building the Tabernacle – six days – each week until
all was completed. The seventh was a holy day – dedicated to holy
service and religious duties – as a Sabbath rest to the Lord. The
work of the building of the tabernacle was not to be done on the
Sabbath either. Rest on the Sabbath.
The seriousness of this law: to violate it was to be punished by
being put to death (stoned – Numbers 15:35,36).

Verse 3. No fire was to be kindled throughout their habitations


on the Sabbath Day.

Verse 4. Moses now spoke to them concerning what the Lord


commanded them – but previously – their idolatry had interfered with
it being delivered to them. Now he is to deliver these commands to
them of God’s requirements.

Verse 5. They were to gather from their possessions, an offering


to the Lord. What of theirs, according to their ability, what was
suitable; and present it as free-will offering unto the Lord. This
was to be used for the Tabernacle – the building and service. This
was to be offered from a willing heart. Gold, silver, and brass. (As
previously mentioned in Chapter 25:3-7 in every detail.)
Here covered in verses 6-9. No comments necessary!
Verse 10. Any ingenious, skillful man in any of mechanical arts
or working with materials or curious or creative ways is invited by
Moses to come to him and make all that the Lord hath commanded.

Verse 11. The tabernacle – its outer and inner curtains of fine
linen, curiously wrought; the tent with curtains of goat’s hair and
covering for a roof – then a covering of ram’s and of badger skins;
taches were made which clasped and coupled them together – one sort
of silver, the other of brass; all the boards, bars, and pillars of
the dark cedar wood. The boards were the walls, the bars kept them
tight together, the pillars for the hanging of the door of the tent –
and on which the veil that separated the holy of holies, were hung
(chapter 26). and the sockets of silver that fastened the boards
(chapter 26).

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Verse 12. The ark and staves to carry it, all of shittim wood.
Mercy Seat of pure gold – set in the most holy place, the veil of the
covering – dividing between the holy place from the holy of holies.

Verse 13. The table of shew-bread, its staves and all the
vessels that went with it: to be used with the later added shrew-
bread itself.

Verse 14. The candlestick, for the light its furniture lamps
with the oil [cups, wicks (chapter 25:31-39)].

Verse 15. The incense-altar and staves (l with gold) the


anointing oil and sweet incense. The hanging for the door at the
tabernacle’s entrance at the east end of the tabernacle.

Verse 16. the altar of burnt-offering – brass grate, staves, and


all its vessels (chapter 27:1-8). The laver and its foot.

Verse 17. The hangings of the court – the outer – of fie twined
linen, 100 cubits long on each side (north and south, fifty cubits
broad, east and west – chapter 27:9-13), its pillars and sockets. On
the pillars the hangings were hung. The sockets held the pillars; the
hanging for the door of the court, the east end.

Verse 18. The pins of the tabernacle – to hold the ends of the
curtains in the ground – their cords as well (27:19). these kept them
from the wind moving them.

Verse 19. The clothes of service for use in the holy place –
holy garments for Aaron the high priest and garments of his sons, to
minister in the priest’s office.

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Verses 20-35.

20 ¶ And all the congregation of the children of Israel departed


from the presence of Moses.
21 And they came, every one whose heart stirred him up, and every
one whom his spirit made willing, and they brought the LORD's
offering to the work of the tabernacle of the congregation, and for
all his service, and for the holy garments.
22 And they came, both men and women, as many as were willing-
hearted, and brought bracelets, and earrings, and rings, and tablets,
all jewels of gold: and every man that offered, offered an offering
of gold unto the LORD.
23 And every man, with whom was found blue, and purple, and
scarlet, and fine linen, and goats' hair, and red skins of rams, and
badgers' skins, brought them.
24 Every one that did offer an offering of silver and brass brought
the LORD's offering: and every man, with whom was found shittim wood
for any work of the service, brought it.
25 And all the women that were wise-hearted did spin with their
hands, and brought that which they had spun, both of blue, and of
purple, and of scarlet, and of fine linen.
26 And all the women whose heart stirred them up in wisdom spun
goats' hair.
27 And the rulers brought onyx stones, and stones to be set, for
the ephod, and for the breastplate;
28 and spice, and oil for the light, and for the anointing oil, and
for the sweet incense.
29 The children of Israel brought a willing offering unto the LORD,
every man and woman, whose heart made them willing to bring for all
manner of work, which the LORD had commanded to be made by the hand
of Moses.
30 ¶ And Moses said unto the children of Israel, See, the LORD hath
called by name Bez'aleel the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe
of Judah;
31 and he hath filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, in
understanding, and in knowledge, and in all manner of workmanship;
32 and to devise curious works, to work in gold, and in silver, and
in brass,
33 and in the cutting of stones, to set them, and in carving of
wood, to make any manner of cunning work.
34 And he hath put in his heart that he may teach, both he, and
Aho'li-ab, the son of Ahis'amach, of the tribe of Dan.
35 Them hath he filled with wisdom of heart, to work all manner of
work, of the engraver, and of the cunning workman, and of the
embroiderer, in blue, and in purple, in scarlet, and in fine linen,
and of the weaver, even of them that do any work, and of those that
devise cunning work.

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Commentary.

Verse 20. After hearing what Moses told them of what God
required of them, they went to their tents and found many of the
things; they brought what they had that they were willing to part
with, as free-will offerings to the Lord.

Verse 21. Everyone whose heart and spirit were stirred up to


cheerfully contribute to the Lord’s service and worship and honor –
for the tabernacle and the holy garments also.

Verse 22. Men and women of willing hearts brought jewelry:


bracelets, rings, earrings, those of the arms, all of gold. This
first group brought things made of gold.

Verse 23. Wool or yarn, blue, purple or scarlet, fine linen,


goat’s hair, ram’s and badger’s skins. Te men that were willing
brought them to Moses.

Verse 25. Wise-hearted women who spun with their hands brought
their products of fine linen of blue, purple, and scarlet: yarn and
flaxen thread, all ready for the weaver.

Verse 26. Especially gifted and wise women came forth to spin
goat’s hair – of unusual fineness and length.

Verse 27. And the rulers brought the stones to be used to fill
the ouches – no stones set in rings do – for the ephod and breast-
plate of the high priest.

Verse 28. Spice and oil. Oil just for the light (pure olive
oil); other oil and spices for anointing oil, the spices for the
sweet incense.

Verse 29. The people brought all these things, willingly, every
man and woman willing to bring for the manner of work which the Lord
had commanded to be made by the hand of Moses. All that is brought is
acceptable.

Verse 30. Moses speaks to the children of Israel, tells them to


take careful notice -t he Lord has taken care to call forth the
proper persons to oversee, guide, and direct all this work in wisdom
and knowledge: Bezaleel (chapter 31:2).

Verse 31. The Spirit of god will fill him for this work (chapter
31:3-5) and in verses 32,33 here.

Verse 34. He would also be given the gift of teaching others in


the same works – a giving will and capacity to do so. He has been
also given an assistant and close companion in this same service: to
devise things and teach them to others.

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Verse 35. These two men were filled with large measure: wisdom
of heart – in all matters, as of God. This included all manner of
engraving – setting stones, and embroidery in blue, purple and
scarlet, and in fine linen; and of the weaver – linen and wool. An in
work with gold, silver, brass, wood, or stone.

End.

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Lesson XXXVI

Exodus chapter 36.

Verses 1-7.

1 Then wrought Bez'aleel and Aho'li-ab, and every wise-hearted


man, in whom the LORD put wisdom and understanding to know how to
work all manner of work for the service of the sanctuary, according
to all that the LORD had commanded.
2 ¶ And Moses called Bez'aleel and Aho'li-ab, and every wise-
hearted man, in whose heart the LORD had put wisdom, even every one
whose heart stirred him up to come unto the work to do it:
3 and they received of Moses all the offering, which the children
of Israel had brought for the work of the service of the sanctuary,
to make it withal. And they brought yet unto him free offerings every
morning.
4 And all the wise men, that wrought all the work of the
sanctuary, came every man from his work which they made;
5 and they spake unto Moses, saying, The people bring much more
than enough for the service of the work, which the LORD commanded to
make.
6 And Moses gave commandment, and they caused it to be proclaimed
throughout the camp, saying, Let neither man nor woman make any more
work for the offering of the sanctuary. So the people were restrained
from bringing.
7 For the stuff they had was sufficient for all the work to make
it, and too much.

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Commentary.

Verse 1. The men began their work as soon as the materials were
brought, the men organized and their respective areas designated.
They were under the inspection and direction of these two men. All
wisdom and understanding concerning the work were from the Lord.

Verse 2. They also must have a direct call from Moses – who was
in charge from the Lord, to see that all was done according to the
patterns shown him in the mount. Moses called the two leaders and all
of the men in whose heart the Lord had put wisdom and stirred up
their heart to come to do the work.

Verse 3. All of the material offerings Moses gave to the


leaders, then delivered to all the workmen according to their work
the materials they needed. The necessary materials had been brought
very soon after the request had been made.
The people continued to bring their free-will offerings to Moses
every morning. Apparently, Moses continued to give of these materials
to the workmen.

Verse 4. All the workmen of the sanctuary left their work


together to go to Moses to inform him of their dilemma.

Verse 5. They had taken account of their requirements of


material and what they actually had and now they had realized that
they had way too much. They had come to inform Moses – so that he
could stop the people from bringing any more offerings.

Verse 6. Moses got their message and gave commandments that


would be proclaimed throughout the camp: no men nor women were to
bring any more offerings of the sanctuary.

Verse 7. the material they had (the stuff) was already


sufficient for everything they were required to make – and too much.
Nothing is mentioned about the extra materials but they would have
been dealt with in appropriate ways.

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Verses 8-19.

8 ¶ And every wise-hearted man among them that wrought the work of
the tabernacle made ten curtains of fine twined linen, and blue, and
purple, and scarlet: with cherubim of cunning work made he them.
9 The length of one curtain was twenty and eight cubits, and the
breadth of one curtain four cubits: the curtains were all of one
size.
10 ¶ And he coupled the five curtains one unto another: and the
other five curtains he coupled one unto another.
11 And he made loops of blue on the edge of one curtain from the
selvedge in the coupling: likewise he made in the uttermost side of
another curtain, in the coupling of the second.
12 Fifty loops made he in one curtain, and fifty loops made he in
the edge of the curtain which was in the coupling of the second: the
loops held one curtain to another.
13 And he made fifty taches of gold, and coupled the curtains one
unto another with the taches: so it became one tabernacle.
14 ¶ And he made curtains of goats' hair for the tent over the
tabernacle: eleven curtains he made them.
15 The length of one curtain was thirty cubits, and four cubits was
the breadth of one curtain: the eleven curtains were of one size.
16 And he coupled five curtains by themselves, and six curtains by
themselves.
17 And he made fifty loops upon the uttermost edge of the curtain
in the coupling, and fifty loops made he upon the edge of the curtain
which coupleth the second.
18 And he made fifty taches of brass to couple the tent together,
that it might be one.
19 And he made a covering for the tent of rams' skins dyed red, and
a covering of badgers' skins above that.

Commentary.

Summary: a brief but complete listing of the things made by them


– the curtains for the tabernacle both those of linen and the ones of
goats’ hair and their coverings.

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Verses 20-34.

20 ¶ And he made boards for the tabernacle of shittim wood,


standing up.
21 The length of a board was ten cubits, and the breadth of a board
one cubit and a half.
22 One board had two tenons, equally distant one from another: thus
did he make for all the boards of the tabernacle.
23 And he made boards for the tabernacle; twenty boards for the
south side southward:
24 and forty sockets of silver he made under the twenty boards; two
sockets under one board for his two tenons, and two sockets under
another board for his two tenons.
25 And for the other side of the tabernacle, which is toward the
north corner, he made twenty boards,
26 and their forty sockets of silver; two sockets under one board,
and two sockets under another board.
27 And for the sides of the tabernacle westward he made six boards.
28 And two boards made he for the corners of the tabernacle in the
two sides.
29 And they were coupled beneath, and coupled together at the head
thereof, to one ring: thus he did to both of them in both the
corners.
30 And there were eight boards; and their sockets were sixteen
sockets of silver, under every board two sockets.
31 ¶ And he made bars of shittim wood; five for the boards of the
one side of the tabernacle,
32 and five bars for the boards of the other side of the
tabernacle, and five bars for the boards of the tabernacle for the
sides westward.
33 And he made the middle bar to shoot through the boards from the
one end to the other.
34 And he overlaid the boards with gold, and made their rings of
gold to be places for the bars, and overlaid the bars with gold.
Commentary.

Summary of the next group of parts made for the tabernacle: made
under the command of Moses, the overseeing and direction of Bezaleel
and carried out by the various craftsmen in each particular area of
their shills.

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Verses 35-38.

35 ¶ And he made a veil of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine
twined linen: with cherubim made he it of cunning work.
36 And he made thereunto four pillars of shittim wood, and overlaid
them with gold: their hooks were of gold; and he cast for them four
sockets of silver.
37 And he made a hanging for the tabernacle door of blue, and
purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen, of needlework;
38 and the five pillars of it with their hooks: and he overlaid
their chapiters and their fillets with gold: but their five sockets
were of brass.

Commentary.

Summary: the veil which parted the most holy place from the holy
place, and the hanging which divided between the holy place and the
court of the tabernacle. All were carried out as directed.

End.

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Lesson XXXVII

Exodus chapter 37.

This chapter continues the accounting of the making of the


tabernacle – particularly the furniture of the holy place and the
most holy place.

All verses.

1 And Bez'aleel made the ark of shittim wood: two cubits and a
half was the length of it, and a cubit and a half the breadth of it,
and a cubit and a half the height of it:
2 and he overlaid it with pure gold within and without, and made a
crown of gold to it round about.
3 And he cast for it four rings of gold, to be set by the four
corners of it; even two rings upon the one side of it, and two rings
upon the other side of it.
4 And he made staves of shittim wood, and overlaid them with gold.
5 And he put the staves into the rings by the sides of the ark, to
bear the ark.
6 And he made the mercy seat of pure gold: two cubits and a half
was the length thereof, and one cubit and a half the breadth thereof.
7 And he made two cherubim of gold, beaten out of one piece made
he them, on the two ends of the mercy seat;
8 one cherub on the end on this side, and another cherub on the
other end on that side: out of the mercy seat made he the cherubim on
the two ends thereof.
9 And the cherubim spread out their wings on high, and covered
with their wings over the mercy seat, with their faces one to
another; even to the mercy seatward were the faces of the cherubim.
10 ¶ And he made the table of shittim wood: two cubits was the
length thereof, and a cubit the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a
half the height thereof:
11 and he overlaid it with pure gold, and made thereunto a crown of
gold round about.
12 Also he made thereunto a border of a handbreadth round about;
and made a crown of gold for the border thereof round about.
13 And he cast for it four rings of gold, and put the rings upon
the four corners that were in the four feet thereof.
14 Over against the border were the rings, the places for the
staves to bear the table.
15 And he made the staves of shittim wood, and overlaid them with
gold, to bear the table.
16 And he made the vessels which were upon the table, his dishes,
and his spoons, and his bowls, and his covers to cover withal, of
pure gold.
17 ¶ And he made the candlestick of pure gold: of beaten work made
he the candlestick; his shaft, and his branch, his bowls, his knops,
and his flowers, were of the same:

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18 and six branches going out of the sides thereof; three branches
of the candlestick out of the one side thereof, and three branches of
the candlestick out of the other side thereof:
19 three bowls made after the fashion of almonds in one branch, a
knop and a flower; and three bowls made like almonds in another
branch, a knop and a flower: so throughout the six branches going out
of the candlestick.
20 And in the candlestick were four bowls made like almonds, his
knops, and his flowers:
21 and a knop under two branches of the same, and a knop under two
branches of the same, and a knop under two branches of the same,
according to the six branches going out of it.
22 Their knops and their branches were of the same: all of it was
one beaten work of pure gold.
23 And he made his seven lamps, and his snuffers, and his
snuffdishes, of pure gold.
24 Of a talent of pure gold made he it, and all the vessels
thereof.
25 ¶ And he made the incense altar of shittim wood: the length of
it was a cubit, and the breadth of it a cubit; it was foursquare; and
two cubits was the height of it; the horns thereof were of the same.
26 And he overlaid it with pure gold, both the top of it, and the
sides thereof round about, and the horns of it: also he made unto it
a crown of gold round about.
27 And he made two rings of gold for it under the crown thereof, by
the two corners of it, upon the two sides thereof, to be places for
the staves to bear it withal.
28 And he made the staves of shittim wood, and overlaid them with
gold.
29 ¶ And he made the holy anointing oil, and the pure incense of
sweet spices, according to the work of the apothecary.

Commentary.

This chapter continues the account of the making of the


tabernacle and everything that goes with it. Here we have the
furniture: the ark of the covenant, the mercy-seat and cherubim; the
table of shew-bread and its utensils, the candlestick, and all its
vessels; the altar of incense and the anointing oil and the pure
incense.
Bezaleel continues to make and direct the rest of the wise men
in their work also. It has been suggested that Bezaleel made the work
without any help.

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Lesson XXVIII

Exodus chapter 38.

This chapter continues the account of the making of the things


of the tabernacle, and the things pertaining to it.
The burnt-offering altar, the laver of brass, the court and all
of its parts; then the amounts of gold, silver, and brass used making
the things of the sanctuary.

Verses 1-20.

1 And he made the altar of burnt offering of shittim wood: five


cubits was the length thereof, and five cubits the breadth thereof;
it was foursquare; and three cubits the height thereof.
2 And he made the horns thereof on the four corners of it; the
horns thereof were of the same: and he overlaid it with brass.
3 And he made all the vessels of the altar, the pots, and the
shovels, and the basins, and the fleshhooks, and the firepans: all
the vessels thereof made he of brass.
4 And he made for the altar a brazen grate of network, under the
compass thereof, beneath unto the midst of it.
5 And he cast four rings for the four ends of the grate of brass,
to be places for the staves.
6 And he made the staves of shittim wood, and overlaid them with
brass.
7 And he put the staves into the rings on the sides of the altar,
to bear it withal; he made the altar hollow with boards.
8 ¶ And he made the laver of brass, and the foot of it of brass,
of the looking glasses of the women assembling, which assembled at
the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.
9 ¶ And he made the court: on the south side southward the
hangings of the court were of fine twined linen, a hundred cubits:
10 their pillars were twenty, and their brazen sockets twenty; the
hooks of the pillars and their fillets were of silver.
11 And for the north side the hangings were a hundred cubits, their
pillars were twenty, and their sockets of brass twenty; the hooks of
the pillars and their fillets of silver.
12 And for the west side were hangings of fifty cubits, their
pillars ten, and their sockets ten; the hooks of the pillars and
their fillets of silver.
13 And for the east side eastward fifty cubits.
14 The hangings of the one side of the gate were fifteen cubits;
their pillars three, and their sockets three.
15 And for the other side of the court gate, on this hand and that
hand, were hangings of fifteen cubits; their pillars three, and their
sockets three.
16 All the hangings of the court round about were of fine twined
linen.

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17 And the sockets for the pillars were of brass; the hooks of the
pillars and their fillets of silver; and the overlaying of their
chapiters of silver; and all the pillars of the court were filleted
with silver.
18 And the hanging for the gate of the court was needlework, of
blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen: and twenty
cubits was the length, and the height in the breadth was five cubits,
answerable to the hangings of the court.
19 And their pillars were four, and their sockets of brass four;
their hooks of silver, and the overlaying of their chapiters and
their fillets of silver.
20 And all the pins of the tabernacle, and of the court round
about, were of brass.

Commentary.
Verses 1-7. Continuation of making the things of the tabernacle.
The altar of burnt-offering: its horns, vessels, rings and staves
through verse 7.

Verse 8. By Bezaleel, under his direction – making of the brass


laver, and its foot of brass. This was made of highly-polished brass
– that the pries t who came to wash their hands and feet could most
clearly see their spots and how to clean them. None were yet made of
glass. Mirrors were from ancient times made of polished metal: gold,
silver, or brass.
It appears that many women brought offerings of their polished
brass mirrors for the use of the tabernacle, now used in making the
laver.

Verses 9-20. The making of the open court of the tabernacle


wherein the people meet: its pillars, sockets, hangings, hooks, and
pins.

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Verses 21-31.

21 ¶ This is the sum of the tabernacle, even of the tabernacle of


testimony, as it was counted, according to the commandment of Moses,
for the service of the Levites, by the hand of Ith'amar, son to Aaron
the priest.
22 And Bez'aleel the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of
Judah, made all that the LORD commanded Moses.
23 And with him was Aho'li-ab, son of Ahis'amach, of the tribe of
Dan, an engraver, and a cunning workman, and an embroiderer in blue,
and in purple, and in scarlet, and fine linen.
24 ¶ All the gold that was occupied for the work in all the work of
the holy place, even the gold of the offering, was twenty and nine
talents, and seven hundred and thirty shekels, after the shekel of
the sanctuary.
25 And the silver of them that were numbered of the congregation
was a hundred talents, and a thousand seven hundred and threescore
and fifteen shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary:
26 a bekah for every man, that is, half a shekel, after the shekel
of the sanctuary, for every one that went to be numbered, from twenty
years old and upward, for six hundred thousand and three thousand and
five hundred and fifty men.
27 And of the hundred talents of silver were cast the sockets of
the sanctuary, and the sockets of the veil; a hundred sockets of the
hundred talents, a talent for a socket.
28 And of the thousand seven hundred seventy and five shekels he
made hooks for the pillars, and overlaid their chapiters, and
filleted them.
29 And the brass of the offering was seventy talents, and two
thousand and four hundred shekels.
30 And therewith he made the sockets to the door of the tabernacle
of the congregation, and the brazen altar, and the brazen grate for
it, and all the vessels of the altar,
31 and the sockets of the court round about, and the sockets of the
court gate, and all the pins of the tabernacle, and all the pins of
the court round about.

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Commentary.

Verse 21. This is the sum of the material of the tabernacle, of


which the several things were made, particularly the gold, silver,
and brass. The total sums and weight are given in the following
verses. Even of the tabernacle of the testimony, which refers to the
tablets of stone in the ark. All was counted according to the
commandment of Moses; brought to him by the people, delivered by him
to Bezaleel and Aholiab, and the artificers for the service of the
Levites, who then took this account. Their overseer was Ithamar,
youngest son of Aaron.

Verse 22. Bezaleel, son of Uri, son of Hur, tribe of Judah,


carried out the exact commandments, that the Lord gave unto Moses.
All was made as ordered.
Verse 23. With him was Aholiab, son of Ahisamach, of the tribe
of Dan, an engraver, cunning workman with precious stones. Also, a
weaver and embroiderer, in blue, purple, scarlet, and in fine linen.

Verse 24. All the gold used for the various things of the holy
place: the ark of the covenant, table of shew-bread, covered or
gilded. All was supplied by the peoples’ offerings. 29 talents, 730
shekels. The weight is thought to be 3 ½ tons of gold; the value
multiplied by the value by weight: approximately 150,000 dollars.

Verse 25. Of the silver, 1,775 shekels, which equals over


100,000 dollars worth.

Verse 26. This silver was for everyone that went to be numbered,
from twenty years upward, an atonement, for their souls as ordered
(chapter 30:12-15) for 603,550 men.

Verse 27. 100 talents of silver were used in casting the sockets
of the sanctuary and the veil. A talent of silver for each socket: 96
sockets for the tabernacle, 4 for the veil, which equals 100 total.

Verse 28. The rest of the silver was used to make the hooks
(1,775 shekels), that the hangings were hung on each side of the
tabernacle. The tops of the pillars were also overlaid with silver.

Verse 29. The brass – 6,177 pounds.

Verse 30. This was used to make the sockets to the door of the
tabernacle of the congregation, the brazen altar, its gate, and all
the vessels were of brass.

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Verse 31. The sockets of the court, and the court gate, and all
the pins of the courts and the tabernacle round about. The pins for
the curtains of the tabernacle and the hangings of the court.
The pins that were used as stakes fastened all around the
tabernacle, inside and without, in the ground; cords tied to them and
the pillars. These to hold firmly from any wind. All of brass. Also
the instruments used in the setting up and taking down of the
tabernacle: hammers, picks, etc., also all of brass.

Finis.

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Lesson XXXIX

Exodus chapter 39.

Verses 1-21.

1 And of the blue, and purple, and scarlet, they made clothes of
service, to do service in the holy place, and made the holy garments
for Aaron; as the LORD commanded Moses.
2 ¶ And he made the ephod of gold, blue, and purple, and scarlet,
and fine twined linen.
3 And they did beat the gold into thin plates, and cut it into
wires, to work it in the blue, and in the purple, and in the scarlet,
and in the fine linen, with cunning work.
4 They made shoulderpieces for it, to couple it together: by the
two edges was it coupled together.
5 And the curious girdle of his ephod, that was upon it, was of
the same, according to the work thereof; of gold, blue, and purple,
and scarlet, and fine twined linen; as the LORD commanded Moses.
6 ¶ And they wrought onyx stones inclosed in ouches of gold,
graven, as signets are graven, with the names of the children of
Israel.
7 And he put them on the shoulders of the ephod, that they should
be stones for a memorial to the children of Israel; as the LORD
commanded Moses.
8 ¶ And he made the breastplate of cunning work, like the work of
the ephod; of gold, blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined
linen.
9 It was foursquare; they made the breastplate double: a span was
the length thereof, and a span the breadth thereof, being doubled.
10 And they set in it four rows of stones: the first row was a
sardius, a topaz, and a carbuncle: this was the first row.
11 And the second row, an emerald, a sapphire, and a diamond.
12 And the third row, a ligure, an agate, and an amethyst.
13 And the fourth row, a beryl, an onyx, and a jasper: they were
inclosed in ouches of gold in their inclosings.
14 And the stones were according to the names of the children of
Israel, twelve according to their names, like the engravings of a
signet, every one with his name, according to the twelve tribes.
15 And they made upon the breastplate chains at the ends, of
wreathed work of pure gold.
16 And they made two ouches of gold, and two gold rings, and put
the two rings in the two ends of the breastplate.
17 And they put the two wreathed chains of gold in the two rings on
the ends of the breastplate.
18 And the two ends of the two wreathed chains they fastened in the
two ouches, and put them on the shoulderpieces of the ephod, before
it.
19 And they made two rings of gold, and put them on the two ends of
the breastplate, upon the border of it, which was on the side of the
ephod inward.

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20 And they made two other golden rings, and put them on the two
sides of the ephod underneath, toward the forepart of it, over
against the other coupling thereof, above the curious girdle of the
ephod.
21 And they did bind the breastplate by his rings unto the rings of
the ephod with a lace of blue, that it might be above the curious
girdle of the ephod, and that the breastplate might not be loosed
from the ephod; as the LORD commanded Moses.

Commentary.

Verses 1-7. Continued account of making of the various things


belonging to the sanctuary, in particular the clothes for the
services of the tabernacle; and the garments of the priests.

Verse 1. Clothes worn by the priests in the holy place to do


service and only there. This includes the holy garments for Aaron, as
the Lord commanded Moses.

Verse 2. The ephod also was made of gold and fine twined linen.

Verse 3. Describes how the gold threads were made: thin plates
were beaten, then cut into wires that were worked in with the blue,
purple, and scarlet yarn, twisted together, one gold thread with each
color to be woven together in making the ephod and the curious girdle
(belt).

Verses 8-21. Describe the making of the breastplate, putting on


the stones in it, and fastening it to the ephod: as the Lord
commanded Moses.

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Verses 22-31.

22 ¶ And he made the robe of the ephod of woven work, all of blue.
23 And there was a hole in the midst of the robe, as the hole of an
habergeon, with a band round about the hole, that it should not rend.
24 And they made upon the hems of the robe pomegranates of blue,
and purple, and scarlet, and twined linen.
25 And they made bells of pure gold, and put the bells between the
pomegranates upon the hem of the robe, round about between the
pomegranates;
26 a bell and a pomegranate, a bell and a pomegranate, round about
the hem of the robe to minister in; as the LORD commanded Moses.
27 ¶ And they made coats of fine linen of woven work for Aaron, and
for his sons,
28 and a mitre of fine linen, and goodly bonnets of fine linen, and
linen breeches of fine twined linen,
29 and a girdle of fine twined linen, and blue, and purple, and
scarlet, of needlework; as the LORD commanded Moses.
30 ¶ And they made the plate of the holy crown of pure gold, and
wrote upon it a writing, like to the engravings of a signet, HOLINESS
TO THE LORD.
31 And they tied unto it a lace of blue, to fasten it on high upon
the mitre; as the LORD commanded Moses.

Commentary.

Verses 22-26. The making of the robe of the ephod, with the
bells and pomegranates around the bottom.

Verses 27-29. The coats, mitre, bonnets, breeches, and belts of


fine linen for Aaron and his sons.

Verses 30,31. The golden plate with “Holiness to the Lord”


written on it, tied with blue lace to the top of the mitre as Moses
was commanded by the Lord (mitre = turban).

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Verses 32-43.

32 ¶ Thus was all the work of the tabernacle of the tent of the
congregation finished: and the children of Israel did according to
all that the LORD commanded Moses, so did they.
33 And they brought the tabernacle unto Moses, the tent, and all
his furniture, his taches, his boards, his bars, and his pillars, and
his sockets;
34 and the covering of rams' skins dyed red, and the covering of
badgers' skins, and the veil of the covering;
35 the ark of the testimony, and the staves thereof, and the mercy
seat;
36 the table, and all the vessels thereof, and the showbread;
37 the pure candlestick, with the lamps thereof, even with the
lamps to be set in order, and all the vessels thereof, and the oil
for light;
38 and the golden altar, and the anointing oil, and the sweet
incense, and the hanging for the tabernacle door;
39 the brazen altar, and his grate of brass, his staves, and all
his vessels, the laver and his foot;
40 the hangings of the court, his pillars, and his sockets, and the
hanging for the court gate, his cords, and his pins, and all the
vessels of the service of the tabernacle, for the tent of the
congregation;
41 the clothes of service to do service in the holy place, and the
holy garments for Aaron the priest, and his sons' garments, to
minister in the priest's office.
42 According to all that the LORD commanded Moses, so the children
of Israel made all the work.
43 And Moses did look upon all the work, and, behold, they had done
it as the LORD had commanded, even so had they done it: and Moses
blessed them.

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Commentary.

Verse 32. Everything called for the court of the tabernacle, the
holy and the most holy place, the tent covering it, and all things
pertaining to the services of it.
The children of Israel had carefully followed the directions
that the Lord commanded Moses.
From those that gave offerings of everything needed, the
artificers and workers of all needed materials – in all fabrics,
threads, in gold, silver, and brass, in wood.
All directions were accurately followed and completed.

Verse 33. All of the parts were brought, still separated – not
yet put together, to Moses, to be inspected most carefully.

Verses 34-42. Moses proceeded to look upon all the work listed
in 33-42.

Verse 43. After looking carefully at all the work, Moses could
conclude his inspection by stating that they had actually done all of
it even as the Lord had commanded.
Certainly this was brought to pass with the help of the Holy
Spirit of God, giving wisdom and understanding to do all with His
guidance and inspiration, according to the will of God.
Moses called a blessing upon them, for all the people: may the
beauty and light of the Lord continue to be upon us, and in the works
of your hands.

Finis.

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Lesson XL

Exodus chapter 40.

Verses 1-16. Setting up the tabernacle.

1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,


2 On the first day of the first month shalt thou set up the
tabernacle of the tent of the congregation.
3 And thou shalt put therein the ark of the testimony, and cover
the ark with the veil.
4 And thou shalt bring in the table, and set in order the things
that are to be set in order upon it; and thou shalt bring in the
candlestick, and light the lamps thereof.
5 And thou shalt set the altar of gold for the incense before the
ark of the testimony, and put the hanging of the door to the
tabernacle.
6 And thou shalt set the altar of the burnt offering before the
door of the tabernacle of the tent of the congregation.
7 And thou shalt set the laver between the tent of the
congregation and the altar, and shalt put water therein.
8 And thou shalt set up the court round about, and hang up the
hanging at the court gate.
9 And thou shalt take the anointing oil, and anoint the
tabernacle, and all that is therein, and shalt hallow it, and all the
vessels thereof: and it shall be holy.
10 And thou shalt anoint the altar of the burnt offering, and all
his vessels, and sanctify the altar: and it shall be an altar most
holy.
11 And thou shalt anoint the laver and his foot, and sanctify it.
12 And thou shalt bring Aaron and his sons unto the door of the
tabernacle of the congregation, and wash them with water.
13 And thou shalt put upon Aaron the holy garments, and anoint him,
and sanctify him; that he may minister unto me in the priest's
office.
14 And thou shalt bring his sons, and clothe them with coats:
15 and thou shalt anoint them, as thou didst anoint their father,
that they may minister unto me in the priest's office: for their
anointing shall surely be an everlasting priesthood throughout their
generations.
16 ¶ Thus did Moses: according to all that the LORD commanded him,
so did he.

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Commentary. Setting up the Tabernacle.

Verses 1. After the tabernacle and everything that goes with it


had been completed, and surveyed by Moses and accepted as done
properly, the Lord spoke unto Moses instructions about setting it up.

Verse 2. On the first day of the first month (Nisan) as was the
month they had left Egypt. Almost a year had passed. They are to set
up the tabernacle of the tent of the congregation.

Verse 3. The ark of the testimony (the tables of Commandments)


shall be put in the most holy place and covered with the veil that
divided the holy place from the holy of holies. The veil divided the
two places.

Verse 4. Then bring in the furniture of the holy place: the


table of shew-bread and all its things, set in order upon it –
dishes, spoons, covers, bowls, twelve loaves in two six loaf rows.
Then the candlestick, and light its lamps.

Verse 5. Then the golden altar of pure gold, of incense, in


front of the ark, but in the holy place (in front of the veil). Then
at the last, the hanging of the door at the tabernacle – holy place.
This hid the holy things from the peoples’ view – they were forbidden
to enter as well.

Verse 6. The altar of the burnt offering, where the sacrifices


of the people were brought, and offered up by the priests. This was
set in the open court (smell and smoke), in front f the entrance of
the holy place at the proper distance from it.

Verse 7. The laver set between the above altar and the holy
place – the place of washing for the priests.

Verse 8. Setting up of the various hangings and pillars of the


open court of the congregation – east, west, north, and south (Exodus
27:9-16).

Verses 9-16. Describes the anointing of all parts, furniture,


utensils, vessels, and also anointing of Aaron and his sons, that
they may minister unto the Lord in the priest’s office. They were
washed, anointed, then clothed int heir priestly garments. This
processes would be carried on from generation to generation of the
priesthood. Moses: and thus he did, according to all that the Lord
commanded him.

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Verses 17-33.

17 And it came to pass in the first month in the second year, on


the first day of the month, that the tabernacle was reared up.
18 And Moses reared up the tabernacle, and fastened his sockets,
and set up the boards thereof, and put in the bars thereof, and
reared up his pillars.
19 And he spread abroad the tent over the tabernacle, and put the
covering of the tent above upon it; as the LORD commanded Moses.
20 And he took and put the testimony into the ark, and set the
staves on the ark, and put the mercy seat above upon the ark:
21 and he brought the ark into the tabernacle, and set up the veil
of the covering, and covered the ark of the testimony; as the LORD
commanded Moses.
22 And he put the table in the tent of the congregation, upon the
side of the tabernacle northward, without the veil.
23 And he set the bread in order upon it before the LORD; as the
LORD had commanded Moses.
24 And he put the candlestick in the tent of the congregation, over
against the table, on the side of the tabernacle southward.
25 And he lighted the lamps before the LORD; as the LORD commanded
Moses.
26 And he put the golden altar in the tent of the congregation
before the veil:
27 and he burnt sweet incense thereon; as the LORD commanded Moses.
28 And he set up the hanging at the door of the tabernacle.
29 And he put the altar of burnt offering by the door of the
tabernacle of the tent of the congregation, and offered upon it the
burnt offering and the meat offering; as the LORD commanded Moses.
30 And he set the laver between the tent of the congregation and
the altar, and put water there, to wash withal.
31 And Moses and Aaron and his sons washed their hands and their
feet thereat:
32 when they went into the tent of the congregation, and when they
came near unto the altar, they washed; as the LORD commanded Moses.
33 And he reared up the court round about the tabernacle and the
altar, and set up the hanging of the court gate. So Moses finished
the work.

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Commentary.

Verse 17. About 5 months and a half, in the winter season, they
were making the tabernacle and all that went into it. Though not
recorded, it is assumed that the place was in the midst of the camp
of Israel, near Sinai.

Verse 18. The people, under the careful direction of Moses,


began building the tabernacle. First the foundation – silver sockets
all round, the foundation held the boards. Then the bars thereof –
keeping the boards tightly together; then the pillars that supported
the veil between the holy place and the holy of holies; those on
which the door of the tabernacle, and all around the court of the
tabernacle for their hangings.

Verse 19. The tent was spread over the tabernacle, and the
covering of the tent above it: ram’s skins, then badger’s skins.
All as commanded by the Lord to Moses.

Verse 20. The tablets of the commandments were put in the ark –
the staves placed, the mercy seat on top of the ark.

Verse 21. The ark is then put into the tabernacle, the veil hung
between the holy place and the holy of holies. As the Lord commanded.

Verse 22. The shew-bread table in the holy place – north wall,
was place.

Verse 23. The bread is added – 12 loaves.

Verses 24,25. The candlestick put in the tend, and lit, before
the Lord, as the Lord commanded Moses.

Verse 26. The golden altar of incense was put in the holy place
in front of the veil – where the ark was behind it.
Verse 27. He burned sweet incense – Moses did this because Aaron
was not yet consecrated.

Verse 28. The door of the holy place was hung.

Verse 29. The altar of the burnt offering was placed in the open
court of the congregation. Offerings were then done upon the altar:
as the Lord commanded Moses.

Verse 30. The laver placed between the tent of the congregation
and the altar of burnt offering. Water was put there.

Verse 31. Moses, Aaron, and his sons, washed their hands and
feet in preparation for their consecration. They would also wash

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before every time they came near the altar of burnt offering, and of
incense, and whatever service they performed.

Verse 32. This included all services performed within the


tabernacle. The term (as the Lord commanded Moses” is repeated nearly
20 times in these lat two chapters to emphasize how loosely and
continually everything was carefully done exactly according to the
revealed will of God to Moses. No one did otherwise.

Verse 33. The court round about the tabernacle was reared up
100x50 cubits; the east end included the court gate – 20 cubits, the
hanging of it completed the setting up; thus did Moses finish the
work of the tabernacle.

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Verses 34-38.

34 ¶ Then a cloud covered the tent of the congregation, and the


glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle.
35 And Moses was not able to enter into the tent of the
congregation, because the cloud abode thereon, and the glory of the
LORD filled the tabernacle.
36 And when the cloud was taken up from over the tabernacle, the
children of Israel went onward in all their journeys:
37 but if the cloud were not taken up, then they journeyed not till
the day that it was taken up.
38 For the cloud of the LORD was upon the tabernacle by day, and
fire was on it by night, in the sight of all the house of Israel,
throughout all their journeys.

Commentary.
Verse 34. Then a cloud covered the tent of the tabernacle, glory
of the Lord filled the inside of it – the holy place, and the most
holy place. It was an uncommon brightness, and splendor; the eye of
man could not well bear to behold.

Verse 35. Moses was struck in awe and reverence of the Divine
God. He held back from going in, until he was called. The cloud
stayed above, the glory of the Lord filled it.

Verse 36. the cloud being taken up from over it was the sign to
the children of Israel to pack up and move on, in all their journeys.
The cloud would move before them, when it stopped, they stopped and
rested also.

Verse 37. If the cloud was not taken up they did not journey.
Sometimes it continued so, two days, a month, or a year. As long as
the Israelites continued in the wilderness.
On the day the cloud ascended, as being lifted up, was the sign
and signal. It was the time to move on.

Verse 38. The cloud of the Lord was over the tabernacle by day,
covering it, resting. When it stood over it on high, when it moved,
the people moved.
By night it shone like a fire (fire was in the cloud by day). A
pillar of fire in the sight of all the house of Israel throughout all
their journeys.
For guidance and protection, light, joy, and comfort – the very
presence of God in the wilderness with them is their guide and
security through this world, which is like a wilderness.

Next, Leviticus – the book of the Levitical priesthood given to


Moses to be written: 27 Chapters.

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Bibliography

Baker Bible Commentary on the Old Testament. Exodus-Ruth.


F.C. Cook, Editor, Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, Michigan.
Printed 1953-1976. Exodus: pages 1-105.

Jamieson, Fausset, & Brown A Commentary


Genesis-Deuteronomy. Pub.
Exodus: pages 275-431.

Gill’s Commentary Vol 1. Genesis to Joshua.


Baker Book House. John Gill, DD.
Reprinted in 1980 from Original by William Hill,
London, 1854-1854.
Exodus: pages 252-433.

286
A Layman's Commentary on Exodus – T.O.D. Johnston - www.biblestudylessonspdf.info

287
A Layman's Commentary on The
Book of Exodus
Author: T.O.D. Johnston
Publisher: Owen Johnston
www.biblestudylessonspdf.info
T.O.D. taught from Exodus at Paran Baptist Church on Highway 341 / Johnsonville
Hwy in Lake City, South Carolina. This commentary is based on the notes he wrote in
preparation for the lessons.

The author was licensed to preach the Gospel by Paran on May 26, 1979. He has been a
student of Scripture since 1972. He was an art teacher for over 30 years in Florence School
District 3.

Contact the publisher:


Owen Johnston
E-Mail – email@biblestudylessonspdf.info
All of the author's Bible study lessons may be read and/or downloaded for free! Visit
our website and click on the “Free Downloads” link.
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