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ASSESSMENT OF

LEARNING 2
his e-Portfolio is a partial fulfillment of the requirements in the subject EDUC
37B: Assessment of Learning 2 for the 2nd Semester, S.Y. 2014-2015.
Bachelor of Secondary Education, College of Industrial Technology and
Education, Isabela State University-Ilagan Campus, Ilagan City, Isabela,
Philippines.
Linggo, Disyembre 14, 2014
Field Study 5

Fs 5
Learning Assessment and Strategies
EPISODE 1
My Assessment List

Name of FS Student: Jasmin B. del Rosario


Course: BSE III-A
Resource Teacher: Mrs. Lorna Obedoza
Cooperating School: Isabela National High School

MY TARGET

At the end of this activity, you will be competent in identifying and


naming different assessment methods used in the classroom.

MY TASK
 Observe at least three classes and make a list of the assessment methods used
by teachers.
 In my list, classify assessment methods as to conventional and authentic and
alternative.
 Describe how each assessment method was used, including my personal
observations.
 Confer with my FS teacher for the assessment list.
 Reflect on my experience.

Class 1 observation
Name of the School Observed: Isabela National High School
School Address: Claravall St. San Vicente, Ilagan City, Isabela
Date Visited: December 02, 2014
Grade/Year Level: 4th year Cattleya
Subject Area: Research
Assessment tools Description
(Bulleted description of how the
assessment method is used relative to
subject matter, levels of learning
behaviour, length, etc.)
Pen and Paper  The teacher teaches how
to gather, organize, and interpret
data as a basis for their
experimental research.
 She gave activity sheets
where the students have to
organize certain data.
 This will serve as an
exercise to understand to do the
statistical analysis of their
research.

Class 2 observation
Name of the School Observed: Isabela National High School
School Address: Claravall St. San Vicente, Ilagan City, Isabela
Date Visited: December 02, 2014
Grade/Year Level: Grade 8 SPA-Aquino
Subject Area: Science

Assessment tools Description


(Bulleted description of how the
assessment method is used relative to
subject matter, levels of learning
behaviour, length, etc.)
Oral Recitation  The teacher showed in the
class how to get the electronic
configuration of a certain element.
 Afterwards, she called for
students to do the same. She also
let them explain how they arrive or
get the answer.
 Majority of the class are
cooperative, they respond
whenever the teacher has
questions. However, there are
some who have their own business
that’s why they cannot follow
immediately.

Class 2 observation
Name of the School Observed: Isabela National High School
School Address: Claravall St. San Vicente, Ilagan City, Isabela
Date Visited: December 02, 2014
Grade/Year Level: 4th year Azalea
Subject Area: Chemistry

Assessment tools Description


(Bulleted description of how the
assessment method is used relative to
subject matter, levels of learning
behaviour, length, etc.)
 The teacher gave activity
Pen and paper sheets where they need to classify
the type of chemical bond used in
the process and afterwards they
also need to determine the
electronegativity of different
compounds.
Board Work
 Teacher called for students to
tell and show the electronegativity
of a certain compound
 Students are eager in
participating because those who
can answer and show it correctly
will be given additional points.

ASSESSMENT TOOLS CLASSIFICATION SHEET


Name of the School Observed: Isabela National High School
School Address: Claravall St. San Vicente, Ilagan City, Isabela
Date Visited: December 02, 2014
Grade/Year Level: Grade 8, 4th year
Subject Area: Science

ASSESSMENT TOOLS DESCRIPTION OF HOW THE


ASSESSMENT METHOD WAS
USED
It was used as a formative
Traditional (pen and paper) assessment to track their learning
progress about the current lesson.
Oral Report The teacher grouped the class and
assigned a topic for each group.
Representative in every group present
their topic in the class. Reporters
were assessed according to their
knowledge regarding their respective
topic, while the non-reporters,
according to how they use the
information in answering some
Oral assessment exercises.

Questions are posed by the teacher to


determine if students understand
what has been presented. The strategy
is also used to develop the students’
Informal Assessment courage in expressing themselves
orally.

Teachers watch students respond to


questions and listens as they speak
and discuss with others. They also
observe the students’ behavior, their
gestures and body languages such as
attentiveness to the lesson and signs
of boredom.
Analysis
1. Was there a variety of assessment methods used by the
teacher? How relevant was/were the assessment
method/s used?
Yes, the teacher utilized a variety of both formal and informal
assessments. Through it, she was able to monitor and track the students’
level of understanding. The data gathered serves as a basis in making a
decision as to whether she is going to re-teach the lesson and give
enrichment activities for better improvement, or will proceed to the next
lesson right away.

2. Do you think the expected students’ learning behaviours


indicated in the objectives were properly and
appropriately assessed through those assessment
methods?
I think the instructional objectives set by the teachers were appropriately
assessed through the assessment methods that they used because the two
were inclined with each other. This is shown as students respond to the
question raised by their teacher. They are not merely receivers of
knowledge, but also contributors of information which helps in a better
acquisition of knowledge.

Reflection
Finding out what students know and can do requires multiple
sources of information and different types of assessment. As I have
observed, most of the assessment used are assessment for
learning, which is done before and during instruction. It is a
combination of both traditional and authentic form of assessment,
but mostly they use the traditional form. Assessments were
conducted to determine the needs and ability levels of learners for
possible adjustments, and also to find out how learners are
progressing in their understanding.
With this observation, I was able to identify the assessment
strategies utilized by the teachers and how it affect the learning
behavior and acquisition of knowledge by the students.

Episode 2
My Available Test Measures
Name of FS Student: Jasmin B. del Rosario
Course: BSE III-
A
Resource Teacher: Mrs. Lorna Obedoza
Cooperating School: Isabela National High School

My Target
At the end of this activity, you will be adept in designing, using, and interpreting
results of objective tests.

My Tools

INITIAL NOTES

Name of School Observed: Isabela National High School


School Address: Claravall St. San Vicente Ilagan City Isabela
Date of Visit: December 11, 2014
Grade/Year Level: Grade 8 SPA-Aquino
Subject Area: Science

Teacher’s Learning Objectives:


At the end of the lesson, the students shall be able to:
a. Use the periodic table of elements to identify atom properties such as groups and
electron configurations
b. Write the predicted electron configuration of elements.
c. To draw the orbital diagram based from electron configuration of elements.
Desired conditions and criterion levels of the learning objectives:

Learning Objectives guide the teachers to pursue the right aims. They provide the
basis of the tests and examinations to be prepared. The objectives must have the
SMART characteristics. When the objectives are specific and formulated in terms
of student behavior, they are more understandable. It is easy to get the meaning
of a particular objective.

Other notes:

It is important to use assessment tools and strategies that is aligned with the
given learning objectives. Though it, teachers can determine the students’
strengths and weaknesses and can evaluate their progress.

Table of Specification
Test Test
Objectives items placement

Knowledge
To identify the group where certain elements belong. 3 Test I.
1, 2, 3

Process/skills

To give the electron configuration of elements and draw their orbital 10 Test II.
diagram. 6-7, 8-9,
10-11, 12-
13, 14-15
Understanding
Test I.
To describe the elements under groups I and 5. 2 4, 5
1. Do you think the teacher’s learning objectives was appropriately assessed by
your test items?
Yes, I think the learning objectives were properly assessed by the test items because there was congruency between the learning
objectives and the assessment tool that was used.

2. Why do you have to study the teacher’s learning objectives prior to developing an
assessment tool?
The assessment tool to be used must be always aligned
with the learning objectives because they are always
related in terms of improving the leaning outcomes. It is
very much needed to study the teacher’s learning
objectives prior to developing an assessment tool for it will
serve as a guide as to what assessment tool that is
appropriate and should be used as the strategy for the
presentation and discussion for a good interaction.
Through the use of assessment tool we can determine if
the learning objectives are achieved or not, and will serve
as a basis for the revision of the instruction if the learning
objectives are not achieved.

Reflection
Write your personal reflection of thoughts and feelings regarding Peace Concept on Focus. Share your
reflection with your FS teacher and classmates.

PEACE CONCEPT ON FOCUS

Assessment is a way to evaluate the understanding and learning of


students. The assessment to be used must be fair, appropriate, valid and
reliable in order to have a high quality assessment.
In assessment, fairness is not only a matter of teachers’ attitude towards
students. It also involves the use of assessment tools that are appropriate,
valid and reliable. A fair assessment provides all students with an equal
opportunity to demonstrate achievement. Students should have knowledge
of the learning targets and assessment, they must be free from biased
assessment task and procedures.
The assessment to be used must always be appropriate to the level of the
learners and of course with the lesson to be discussed on the subject matter.
It is a must also that the output of the assessment will be known in order to
know if they understood the lesson or not.t
As teachers, we must be skillful in designing a test and interpreting the results of objective test so as to
achieve a high quality assessment.
EPISODE 3
LOG ME
Name of FS Student: Jasmin B. Del Rosario

Course: BSE 3A
Resource Teacher: Mrs. Lorna Obedoza

Cooperating School: Isabela National High School

My Target
At the end of this activity, you will be informed on the principles of
authentic assessment and its usefulness in the classroom.

My Task
Authentic assessment is an alternative way of assessing students’
learning to be able to use it, you must have a deep understanding of it. To
help you reach your goal, do the following task:
1. Visit a classroom and interview the teacher on his/her experiences in using
authentic assessment.
2. Describe how the teacher uses the authentic assessment.
3. Write a reflective journal on the activity.

My Tools
For this learning activity, please document the information gathered
from the interview with the teacher on authentic assessment. Write your
documentation using the activity form provided for you.

MY INTERVIEW NOTES

Questions:
1. Why do you think using authentic assessment important?
2. How does it differ from other forms of assessment?
3. How effective is authentic assessment as an assessment tool?
4. How can you say that authentic assessment is accurate and valid?

Responses:
1. Using Authentic assessment is important because it shows how the students
are performing in the class. We can say that a students is learning or had
learned something if they exhibit the competencies and behavior expected
from them.
2. Compared to other forms of assessment, authentic assessment does not have
a single or short correct answer. Thus, it is not confined to what is written in
the book or the information given to them by the teacher. Students may
discover or unlock their hidden abilities as they go through the tasks.
3. It enables the students to become active and thoughtful learners as they
involve themselves in the different activities required for them to do. As much
as possible, I give them tasks where they can relate their own experiences so
they may know what to do if ever they encounter it in real life.

Analysis

1. What is Authentic Assessment?

Authentic assessment is the form of assessment where


students undergo in meaningful performance tasks which are
similar to what they encounter in the real world as contrast to
what is encountering only in the school. Students acquire a first
hand experience by engaging themselves in performing the
tasks, which can either be process or product-based.
2. How was authentic assessment used? Was it used to
measure learning through the product?
Authentic assessment used by the teacher is a portfolio,
where students compile all their written outputs and works. It
is a dynamic process of gathering information about the
learners'achievement and development.

Reflection

What are your insights and feelings about the use of


authentic assessment?

Authentic assessment is a well-known form of assessing


the learners since it serves many purposes. No wonder why
teachers are encouraged to use the approach , because it urge
the students to move beyond the one and only one right
answer.

Describe how the teacher used the authentic


assessment?
The teacher used portfolio organize the works of her
students so that it will be easier for her to record and track
how they are progressing in their lessons and in the class as
well. After recording, she gives back their portfolio so that
they would also have time to reflect on their learning in the
subject.

How did you feel about the teacher’s experience in the


use of authentic assessment?

From the teacher's experience, I can say that portfolio is an


effective form of assessment as it offers multiple indicators of
students' progress.

What could be the gains of the students and teachers in


using authentic assessment?

Employing authentic assessment in the teaching-learning


process is beneficial for both teacher and her students. She
can have a more direct way of assessing the competencies
that has to be demonstrated by the students, with the aid of a
rubric. This approach allows them to reflect in the
effectiveness of the instruction.
Students, in turn, can apply their knowledge gained from the
classroom in real-life settings. They would develop a sense of
responsibility about their learning as they go through.

Which part of the teacher’s use of authentic assessment


do you feel like improving or revising?

The part of the teacher's use of authentic assessment


(portfolio) that I may want to improve is that, she does not
immediately return their papers after checking. Feedback
and reflection is vital for the learners so she should give back
their outputs right away. In this way, they may be informed
about what they need to improve in their performance.
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Katie White
Katie White is coordinator of learning for the North East School Division in
Canada. With more than 20 years in education, she has been an administrator,
a learning coach, and a classroom teacher.

Observation and Assessment:


If I Saw It, Does It Count?
By Katie White
September 9, 2016
The first step in gaining awareness is to pay attention to what’s going on. On the
surface, this sounds simple enough. However, the devil is in the details. You must be
intentional about looking for, and noticing, different components of your
classroom. (Hall & Simeral, 2015, p. 52)
This summer was all about the Olympics and as I watched events like gymnastics and
diving, I couldn’t help but think about the power of observation. Judges in these
events are tasked with closely watching a performance and evaluating it based on
specific and clear criteria. The athletes are aware of the criteria ahead of time and
work for years to perfect each element through practice, feedback, video review
(documentation), and goal-setting. The process is accepted as essential for the
highest level of professional athletics. So, why are many of us reluctant to accept
observation as a way to assess learning in our schools?
Observation is clearly the bread and butter of daily learning, but to discuss it in
relation to assessment can feel slightly taboo. However, we never question an early
learning teacher’s right to assess students through observation. We accept that
physical education teachers use observation as the foundation of their assessment
practice; coaching requires observing. However, for some reason, as learners get
older and move into other areas of study, we feel obligated to assess a thought or skill
only if it is written down. This decision removes a critical approach to formative
assessment that truly gets at the heart of thinking processes and skill development,
through which some of our greatest ability to impact a learning trajectory lies. Using
observation honors the professional knowledge and experience of the teachers who
engage in it and the diversity of the learning experiences of students in classrooms
everywhere. Observation just makes sense!
When we observe learners, we are looking for thinking patterns, processes, and
approaches. We are tuning into hesitations and missteps. In effect, we are watching
learning as it develops, noticing the ways our learners make decisions and take action
in moments of confidence and in times of challenge. Through observation, we can
intervene, re-direct, praise, and reinforce. We can differentiate instruction and offer
timely and specific feedback. Observation is a method of assessment that increases
instructional agility and student investment, impacting achievement in highly
meaningful ways.
Using observational assessment in combination with the examination of data
(demographic, academic, behavioral) and student artifacts (work samples,
photographs, videos) allows us to triangulate assessment information, and ensure
accuracy and robustness in our assessment practice. It also allows us to get at
the root of thinking—to see learning as it unfolds throughout an experience, and make
plans with our students to keep learning moving in the direction of learning goals.
When we engage in observation as an assessment tool, we need to be clear about our
learning goals (standards, outcomes) and the individual targets we are practicing and
developing in our journey toward proficiency. That way, we can be focused in both
the context and timing of our observations. We also need to be clear about what
proficiency sounds and looks like, as well as the behavior, skills, and knowledge that
indicated development. With this information in hand, we are able to capture
learning “in the moment” and assess the degree to which it is approaching the goal.
Observation is richest when it occurs in the context of a complex learning experience.
When students are solving rich problems, applying their learning, and engaging in
creative processes, the conditions are ripe for rich observation. In these
circumstances, students are often heavily engaged and this offers us the opportunity
to remove ourselves for a while, sit back, and capture their learning through focused
observation and documentation.
There are key practices that ensure our observations are aligned to learning and
attentive to both our own needs and those of our learners. When assessing through
observation, keep these things in mind:
 Describe what is happening without judgment or analysis (this will come later). As
Rodgers (2002) explains, “I define description as the process of telling the story of an
experience. It is the differentiation and naming of an experience’s diverse and
complex elements so that it can be looked at, seen, and told from as many different
perspectives as possible.” (p.237) Record language and behavior that may indicate
learning, as accurately as possible. Ex: Sophie placed her blocks in a red-black-blue-
red-black-blue sequence.
 Record the date, student name, and context of the learning experience. Ex: Oct. 3:
The class was designing an experiment to test variables that contribute to corrosion.
 Have a copy of your learning targets on hand, including criteria for proficiency. You
will need them when you analyze your observations and make decisions regarding
feedback and instruction.
 Give yourself time to observe regularly, particularly on learning goals that offer
challenge for learners. Your observations could make or break learning success in both
the immediate task and those that follow.
 Allow yourself to be proud when you see learning, growth, and success. Share your
pride with the learners. Describe what you are seeing and hearing to indicate
proficiency. This is the joy of assessment that leads to student confidence, hope, and
investment.
Observation is a powerful assessment tool that offers teachers insight into the
processes our learners employ when engaging in learning experiences. The use of
observational data allows educators and learners to impact learning and intervene, or
celebrate in timely and targeted ways. We need to feel able to use every single
assessment tool available to us, including observation, in order to advance learning
when it matters most.
References:
Hall, P. and Simeral, A. (2015). Teach, Reflect, Learn: Building Your Capacity for
Success in the Classroom. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Rodgers, C.R. (2002). Voices inside schools: Seeing student learning: Teacher change
and the role of reflection. Harvard Educational Review, 72, 2, 230-253.
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Journal
Child Care in Practice
Volume 19, 2013 - Issue 2
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Original Articles

Observation, Assessment and Planning


Practices in a Children's Centre
Patricia Giardiello ,Joanne McNulty &Babs Anderson
Pages 118-137 | Received 03 May 2012, Accepted 20 Sep 2012, Published online: 12 Mar 2013

 Download citation

 https://doi.org/10.1080/13575279.2012.743871

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Abstract
This paper reports on the research process and findings of a commissioned study of a
Sure Start Children's Centre based in the North West of England. The study focused
specifically on how child observations were being carried out in the Children's Centre to
inform assessment and planning. It was imperative that the research process should not
be perceived as something being “done” to staff of the Children's Centre but as one in
which there was a willing engagement with a view to making use of the research
findings to build on their own practice. The led to the practitioners starting a cycle of
action research themselves that informed the implementation of new approaches in the
carrying out of child observations. It was useful for the research team to relate this
course of action both to a personal and practical dimension so that practitioners could
be supported in their own research-informed practice. This study identified that the
practitioners are open to new ideas and are willing and eager to explore new
procedures to facilitate effective practice. While the current process of observation,
assessment and planning that is being followed for individual children is encouraging, it
has its limitations because some children may not be observed on a regular basis and
therefore information about their current needs, interests and abilities may be missed.
The use of observations to assess children's progress is seen by most of the
practitioners as a challenge. This study has revealed important insights into the ways in
which outsider researchers can inspire early years practitioners to reflect upon their own
practice and provision.

Additional information
Author information
Patricia Giardiello
Dr Patricia Giardiello is a Senior Lecturer at Liverpool Hope University
Joanne McNulty
Miss Joanne McNulty is a Senior Lecturer at Liverpool Hope University
Babs Anderson
Ms Babs Anderson is a Lecturer at Liverpool Hope University


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Home › Articles › Teaching and Learning › Strategies for Addressing Student Fear in the Classroom

APRIL 27TH, 2015

Strategies for Addressing Student


Fear in the Classroom
By: T. Scott Bledsoe Psy.D. and Janice Baskin

 7


 1



Upon setting foot in the classroom at the beginning of the semester, many students
experience varying degrees of anxiety or fearfulness. As educators, we often sense
nervousness among our pupils as we introduce ourselves and hand out copies of the
course syllabus to review. Most students settle in shortly, but some may remain
consistently fearful. Is it possible that their high levels of fear negatively affect their
ability to learn in the classroom from week to week? In this article, we discuss the role of
debilitating fear in some students’ lives and identify ways that educators can help them
attain success despite their anxiety.
Humans normally experience fear starting at an early age, and as we grow older, we
develop resources to manage and overcome this feeling. Those who believe they are
physically inadequate, for example, may work hard to excel in sports and other socially-
sanctioned activities. After many years of schooling, however, some develop ongoing or
chronic feelings of worry and apprehension, and this constant fear can hinder learners’
attempts to understand the information that is required for academic success. Here are
some examples of ways in which students experience fear in the classroom:

 They are overly fearful of their performance due to the perceived threat of failure.
Even temporary successes are overshadowed by the apprehension of washing out
on the next assignment or test.
 Some “choke” when comparing themselves to others. They may say to
themselves, “These people are bound to do better than me in class,” and feel
excessively burdened by competition with others to achieve sufficient grades.
 Students may be overly shy or even terrified of being singled out in class. Some
may suffer from a condition known as gelotophobia, or the fear that others will
laugh at them.
 Cultural factors can play a crucial role in perpetuating fears faced by students
from other countries. They can feel confused about the dynamics of American
classrooms, a condition sometimes called “fear of foreignness.”
Fear can cause students to experience adverse responses physiologically (e.g., shortness
of breath), cognitively (inability to focus or concentrate, obsessive thinking, replaying in
their minds problematic incidents that occurred in previous classes), and emotionally
(easily agitated, overcome by excessive nervousness, frustration, and other negative
feelings). Such levels of fear may result in inappropriate class behavior, poorly
completed or missing assignments, frequent absences, or dropping out of courses at the
first sign of trouble.
Make it a goal to promote cultural fairness so that each student can feel safe and valued
in your class.
Here are six strategies for helping students overcome their fears:

1. Educate yourself about fear and its impact on students. Take time to
learn about important biological effects of fear that include blushing and racing
heart, and cognitive factors, such as negative messages that students tell
themselves. By learning more about how fear works, we can become more aware
of important telltale signs and more proactive toward helping students feel more
comfortable and confident.
2. Recognize that some student fears may be associated with factors
outside the classroom. Many students take on multiple jobs, experience
family challenges, and face other stress factors that keep them from performing
well in the classroom. Engaging in dialogue with students about their challenges
and discussing ways to manage them may help students feel more involved in
your course and be more persistent to succeed.
3. Help students become aware of their feelings of anxiety when they
occur.Students are often unaware of their fear-based responses and thus may
feel helpless to control them. Plan to demonstrate simple anxiety management
strategies, such as breathing techniques, stretching, or relaxation methods that
can help students ease their feelings of discomfort. Research shows that these
techniques are effective in promoting calmness during high-stress activities, such
as quizzes and group discussions.
4. Create a nurturing environment for your students. Use learner-centered
activities (e.g., small groups) and provide multiple means of student engagement.
Clearly articulate instructions for assignments and assess their understanding so
that you are confident students are well-informed and less fretful about the
objectives of each lesson. Additionally, make it a goal to promote cultural fairness
so that each student can feel safe and valued in your class.
5. Be proactive in communicating with students outside the
classroom.Although busy schedules may inhibit our ability to form deep
relationships with students, a quick email to your more fearful learners can be
reassuring and helps promote better communication. Even sending a note to the
entire class (“I just wanted to send a quick ‘hello’ to touch base with all of you …”)
can go far in easing apprehension among some individuals.
6. Be aware of campus resources to help students. A number of universities
provide formal early alert systems, counseling services, and other interventions
such as workshops for reducing stress and anxiety. Obtain or create a list of key
resources and specific contacts that you can share with those who are exhibiting
behaviors that may be driven by fear.
Many of our students are challenged initially with a plethora of emotions and jittery
feelings that tend to dissipate over the semester. Yet often a small number of learners
consistently experience problematic emotions that hinder their ability to meaningfully
connect with the course-related content presented in class. As we work toward
understanding the root of their stress and promoting a safe environment for learning,
we will ultimately help our students successfully acquire the course content we work so
hard to teach them.
References:
Bledsoe. T.S., & Baskin, J.J. (2014). Recognizing student fear: The elephant in the
classroom. College Teaching, 62(1). 32-41.
T. Scott Bledsoe, is an assistant professor at Azusa Pacific University. Janice Baskin is
the director of library publications at Azusa Pacific University.

 7



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The Importance of Student Self-


Assessment
April 4th, 2017
Student self-assessment occurs when learners (students) assess their own performance and is
primarily used to help students develop specific learning skills that they will need for
professional competence. This process may assist in making students more aware of and more
responsible for their own learning process.

Skilled self-assessment can be as reliable as other forms of assessment, however as an educator


you must provide students with the right guidance and practice if you want results to closely
align with the results from other assessors’. In most cases it is beneficial to introduce your
students to the idea of self-assessment using — formative learning. Early on, this can be
achieved by using an online quiz that gives each student instant feedback on their performance,
for example. As student progress they can be guided to use a more summative form of self
assessment for example, grading their own performance.
Key Benefits of Student Self-Assessment
 Helps to develop important meta-cognitive skills that contribute to a range of important
graduate capabilities. All professionals must be able to evaluate their own performance,
so this practice should be embedded in higher education learning as early as possible.
 Increases self-awareness through reflective practice, making the criteria for self-
evaluation explicit, and making performance improvement practices intrinsic to ongoing
learning.
 Contributes to the development of critical reviewing skills, enabling the learner to more
objectively evaluate their own performance—and others’, when used in conjunction with
peer assessment. With peer assessment they become more practised in giving
constructive feedback, and receiving and acting on feedback received.
 Helps students to take control of their own learning and assessment, and giving them the
chance to manage their own learning and development more independently.
 Gives students greater agency regarding assessment, thus enriching their learning.
 Possibly, in the long run, reduces the teacher’s assessment workload—although on its
own this benefit is not sufficient to introduce student self-assessment.

Design self-assessment carefully, and ensure that you integrate its use into the assessment plan.
This way you optimise the benefits to learning, appropriately engage students in the process by
giving them clear directions and explanations, and ensure that contingency plans are in place for
if issues arise. Combining student self and peer assessment with tutor assessment makes for a
more reliable grade (Dancer & Kamvounias, 2005).

“In my experience, the most successful method has been an introduction by the unit coordinator
in combination with tutors who genuinely value the student gradings and demonstrate this
feature by marking a piece of work in a large lecture context. Involving students in this live
marking activity engages both them and the tutors in further understanding the criteria…”

Dr Darrall Thompson, UTS.

In addition to becoming an integral part of the learning process, student self-assessment plays an
important role in closing the loop throughout the Assurance of Learning (AOL) process for many
universities, in particular business schools. Whether the primary purpose of implementing an
AOL solution is to ensure students that students achieve the goals set for them by their institution
or to gain Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) accreditation.
Academ’s REVIEW software enables students to self-assess their own work against specific
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The Importance of Student Self-


Assessment
April 4th, 2017
Student self-assessment occurs when learners (students) assess their own performance and is
primarily used to help students develop specific learning skills that they will need for
professional competence. This process may assist in making students more aware of and more
responsible for their own learning process.

Skilled self-assessment can be as reliable as other forms of assessment, however as an educator


you must provide students with the right guidance and practice if you want results to closely
align with the results from other assessors’. In most cases it is beneficial to introduce your
students to the idea of self-assessment using — formative learning. Early on, this can be
achieved by using an online quiz that gives each student instant feedback on their performance,
for example. As student progress they can be guided to use a more summative form of self
assessment for example, grading their own performance.
Key Benefits of Student Self-Assessment
 Helps to develop important meta-cognitive skills that contribute to a range of important
graduate capabilities. All professionals must be able to evaluate their own performance,
so this practice should be embedded in higher education learning as early as possible.
 Increases self-awareness through reflective practice, making the criteria for self-
evaluation explicit, and making performance improvement practices intrinsic to ongoing
learning.
 Contributes to the development of critical reviewing skills, enabling the learner to more
objectively evaluate their own performance—and others’, when used in conjunction with
peer assessment. With peer assessment they become more practised in giving
constructive feedback, and receiving and acting on feedback received.
 Helps students to take control of their own learning and assessment, and giving them the
chance to manage their own learning and development more independently.
 Gives students greater agency regarding assessment, thus enriching their learning.
 Possibly, in the long run, reduces the teacher’s assessment workload—although on its
own this benefit is not sufficient to introduce student self-assessment.

Design self-assessment carefully, and ensure that you integrate its use into the assessment plan.
This way you optimise the benefits to learning, appropriately engage students in the process by
giving them clear directions and explanations, and ensure that contingency plans are in place for
if issues arise. Combining student self and peer assessment with tutor assessment makes for a
more reliable grade (Dancer & Kamvounias, 2005).

“In my experience, the most successful method has been an introduction by the unit coordinator
in combination with tutors who genuinely value the student gradings and demonstrate this
feature by marking a piece of work in a large lecture context. Involving students in this live
marking activity engages both them and the tutors in further understanding the criteria…”

Dr Darrall Thompson, UTS.

In addition to becoming an integral part of the learning process, student self-assessment plays an
important role in closing the loop throughout the Assurance of Learning (AOL) process for many
universities, in particular business schools. Whether the primary purpose of implementing an
AOL solution is to ensure students that students achieve the goals set for them by their institution
or to gain Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) accreditation.
Academ’s REVIEW software enables students to self-assess their own work against specific
criteria and monitor their disciplinary skills. Using a longitudinal approach to assessment
REVIEW allows Universities to automate marking of criteria-based assessment of students,
formulated by program learning goals and graduate attributes.

An example screen of the REVIEW software be seen here, with student self marking indicated
by the blue arrows:
*Click on the image to view details at a higher resolution*

Interested in introducing student-self assessment to your institutions marking process for


Assurance of Learning (AOL), AASCB accreditation purposes or simply to enrich your students
academic development?

Get in touch with Academ today to arrange a free demonstration of the REVIEW platform for
your organisation.

« PREV
NEXT »

CATEGORIES

 AACSB Accreditation
 Academic Assessment Software
 Asset Booking Software
 Assurance of Learning (AOL)
 Education Software
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 Uncategorized
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RECENT POSTS

 Introducing REVIEW Peer Rating: A Simple Tool for Student Feedback


 Academic Workload Management & Faculty Performance
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Compare Formative And Summative


Forms Of Assessment Education Essay
"We have not fundamentally restructured the way our schools function. We need to stop, take a
step back, and ask ourselves some hard questions about the tenets that define our work today. We
need to rethink some basic assumptions about the use of time, the structure of the school day,
and how we organize our students in their learning environment." (Arne Duncan, US Secretary
of Education)
The big picture today is the curriculum redesign or redesign and the right to learn for every child,
being one of many concerns of most countries such as the No Children Left Behind (NCLB).
Children of the 21st century need to be given adequate knowledge, skills and character as a way
of adaption to mass and evolutionary information. Adapting to 21st century needs means
revisiting each dimension and the interplay between them.

Compare formative and summative forms of


assessment.
Assessment has the power to transform both learning and teaching because it is so inherently
linked to motivation and learning. In all education systems, it is assessment that dominates
curriculum. Assessment can be divided into two major categories: formative and summative.

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Summative assessments are well known in education today. Essays, chapter tests, midterm
exams, and final exams are all examples of summative assessments. Summative assessments are
administered after learning opportunities and the point of summative assessments is to show
teachers and other adults how much students learned.
Formative assessments, on the other hand, are less commonly used in their most powerful form.
Formative assessments are administered continuously during learning opportunities. That is to
say that after a formative assessment there are still opportunities to learn and improve in order to
reach a learning goal. The formative assessment is a guide letting students and teachers know
how close students are to their learning goals and what the next step should be in helping
students reach them.
The main distinction, between these two forms of assessment is that, summative assessment is
"assessment of learning" and formative assessment is "assessment for learning". Assessment of
learning is assessment for the purposes of providing evidence of achievement for reporting.
Primary users of Assessment of Learning are Policy Makers, Program Planners and Supervisors.
The teacher’s role in assessment of learning is to follow test and administration procedures and
to use those results to help student reach their aim at the end. Assessment of learning occurs at
the end of year or at key stages.
Assessment of learning is summative and involves determining the quality of the learning that
has taken place at the end of a unit or theme, term, semester, or school year. It is the teacher who
carries out this assessment and may be either criterion-referenced (based on prescribed learning
outcomes) or norm-referenced (comparing student achievement to that of others).
With the use of summative assessment the information on student performance can be shared
with parents/guardians, school and district staff, and other education professionals (e.g., for the
purposes of curriculum development). These performance outcomes can be used to make
judgments about students’ performance in relation to the standards and to measure students’
achievement at a point in time for reporting and accountability. Specific learning outcomes and
standards are reference points, and grade levels may be the benchmarks for reporting.
On the contrary, assessment for learning is used for continuing planning for the purposes of
greater learning achievement. In an assessment for learning environment, rather than something
that happens at the end of the learning, assessment is used to support and inform learning, build
self-confidence, and capacity for success (Stiggins, 2001).
Assessment for learning is on-going, and requires deep involvement on the part of the learner in
clarifying outcomes, monitoring on-going learning, collecting evidence and presenting evidence
of learning to others. The teachers’ role is to inform students of targets, modify instruction and
involve students in assessment. The purpose is to promote further improvement of student
learning during the learning process and to involve students in the ongoing assessment of their
own achievement.
Assessment for learning is diagnostic and formative. It can be the teacher’s assessment, student
self-assessment, and/or student peer assessment. Formative assessment is based on criterion-
referenced, that is criteria based on prescribed learning outcomes identified in the official
curriculum, reflecting performance in relation to a specific learning task. It involves both teacher
and student in a process of continual reflection and review about progress.
Teachers adjust their plans and engage in corrective teaching in response to formative
assessment. Formative assessment can help both the teacher and pupils in reviewing and
reflecting on pupils' performance and progress. Pupils learning self-assessment techniques to
discover areas they need to improve are very positive in concern with assessment for learning.
Recognition that both motivation and self-esteem, crucial for effective learning and progress, can
be increased by effective assessment techniques is well part of formative assessment.
Overall, Assessment for Learning is concerned with collecting evidence about learning that is
used to adapt teaching and plan next steps in learning. Evidence about learning is crucial as it
indicates if there has been a shift (or not) in a pupil’s learning progress and possibly learning
processes. On the basis of such evidence, teachers can formulate aims and are able to provide
pupils with feedback about their learning .The feedback provided during Assessment for
Learning contributes to a pupils’ reflection on their own learning.

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Hence, to conclude, the key difference between Assessment for Learning and Assessment of
Learning can be identified as the purpose for which teachers and other professionals gather
evidence of learning. Although some tools may be the same (e.g. questioning) the key issues
emerging from the feedback provided indicated that it is necessary to keep in mind that
Assessment for Learning aims at improving learning whereas Assessment of Learning aims at
ensuring accountability (of schools and teachers). Therefore, Assessment for Learning explores
the potential for learning and indicates the next step to be taken in order to promote learning and
focuses upon the dynamics of teaching and learning and Assessment of Learning shows what has
been already achieved, memorized and absorbed and provides a snapshot of the current situation.

Do curriculum affects the way we assess?


An all-important factor of a quality education is a quality curriculum, one that is accurate,
enables students to excel and one which is easy for teachers to use. Therefore taking the question
of how curriculum affects assessment as our starting point, we need to investigate what we mean
by curriculum and by assessing, and how these interact.
We begin first with the question of what we mean by curriculum. The term curriculum comes
from Latin which means to "run a course or a race" (Merriam-Webster) and refers to a sequence
of steps or stages in teaching and learning specific content, as one can say a set of courses
constituting an area of specialization. If we think of curriculum as a sequence of learning
experiences, we immediately run into the difficulty that no one can consistently control the
experiences of individual students. All that can be done is to provide students with opportunities
to learn specific content and to use their native abilities to develop these into useful skills. One as
a teacher should always remember that children differ in abilities and they will also differ in skill
development. Thus, a good definition for curriculum is a sequence of learning opportunities
provided to students in their study of specific content.
According to the National Curriculum Framework (NCF) (pg.224 para. 15.1.1), the prosperity of
Mauritius is dependent, to a large extent, on its human capital. To prosper in a fast changing
world, individuals need to develop a lifelong learning culture. It is up to our educational system
to develop those skills into our learners. Assessment has a significant role to play in guaranteeing
that these objectives are attained and it is vital to the educational process.
Developing of a curriculum would ideally encompass the simultaneous development of an
assessment programme which fulfilled the intentions of the curriculum. In this way the
curriculum and the assessment processes would empower each other and compensate one
another in each one`s weakness. The experience in many countries has been that this duality has
been lost, particularly when a major function for assessment procedures has been to measure
teacher and school performance. Then conflict can arise between assessment to enhance learning
and assessment for measuring achievement. It would appear therefore that assessment regimes
have a powerful effect on school curricula.
The major analytical paper of Madaus (1988) on the influence of testing on the curriculum
defined high stakes tests as those whose results are perceived by students, teachers,
administrators, parents/care-givers or the general public as being used to make important
decisions that immediately and directly affect them. High stakes tests can be norm- or criterion-
referenced, internal or external in origin (which means that school assessments which may seem
to be low stake can become high stake if they become enmeshed in important decisions about
students and teachers).
Boud and Falchikov (2007) sustain the development of schemes of assessment tasks that
progressively stimulate the development of students' abilities to make increasingly sophisticated
judgments about their own learning. Such approaches to assessment place assessment as a crucial
element in developing students' capacity to learn for the longer term. It provides a framework
within which standards may be set for students’ achievement and progress. The NCF proposes a
variety of methods and approaches that can be used for assessment. These methods will depend
on the goals set for the programme and the subject that is being taught.
By determining what students have learned and what is unclear, we can focus the class more
effectively to meet the learning needs of that group. This may mean reviewing some areas, or
spending less time in other areas. Unlike summative evaluation which is typically given at the
end of the semester, these techniques provide an on-going formative evaluation. The teacher can
find out what can be changed immediately to help students to learn.
Assessment of and for students’ learning is the process of gathering and analyzing information as
evidence about what students know, can do and understand. It is part of an ongoing cycle that
includes planning, documenting and evaluating students’ learning. The NCF proposes two types
of assessment to be carried out in schools. According to it, the inclusion of continuous
assessment in our education system is a step forward to achieve this objective. Continuous
assessment, which can be complementary to the end-of-year summative assessment, must help to
reduce students’ anxiety about sitting for a high-stake exam at the end of the academic year
which, on its own, may not reflect the aptitudes, skills and knowledge gained by the student
throughout the year.(NCF Pg.229 para 15.5).
These two types of assessment are very crucial to the teaching and learning process and must be
complementary. Summative assessments are used to measure what students have learnt at the
end of a unit, to promote students, to ensure they have met required standards on the way to
earning certification for school completion or to enter certain occupations, or as a method for
selecting students for entry into further education. But assessment may also serve a formative
function.
Formative and continuous assessment must be given more emphasis according to the NCF. In
classrooms, formative assessment refers to frequent, interactive assessments of student progress
and understanding to identify learning needs and adjust teaching appropriately. Teachers using
formative assessment approaches and techniques are better prepared to meet diverse students’
needs through differentiation and adaptation of teaching to raise levels of student achievement
and to achieve a greater equity of student outcomes.
Each of the objectives under "Assessment for Learning" in the NCF promotes formative
assessment as a means to meeting the goals of lifelong learning. Teachers using formative
assessment approaches guide students toward development of their own "learning to learn"
skills; skills that are increasingly necessary as knowledge is quickly outdated in the information
society.
Moreover, the NCF states that the success of the assessment reforms depends on the teachers’
ability to bring about the concomitant changes in their practice. To empower them to achieve the
desired targets, adequate emphasis must be laid on their training and continuous professional
development. (NCF Pg.228 para 15.4)
Hence, the teacher should learn to bring about the affiliated changes in their practice throughout.
To enable them to attain the desired aims, adequate emphasis must be laid on their training and
continuous professional development. If teaching is limited, the quality of student assessment
will also be limited. Teachers need a healthy repertoire of approaches to set up learning
situations and respond to student learning needs. Formative assessment requires greater
transparency in teaching and learning, and is also quite iterative. Effective teaching, learning and
assessment centre on the quality of interactions between and among teachers and learners. High
quality interactions involve a complex mix of skills in assessment, subject matter and
pedagogical expertise, and softer skills such as patience, flexibility and empathy. Therefore,
teachers will need opportunities for effective training and professional development, as well as
the ongoing support of programme leaders and peer networks. As instructors develop their skills,
they develop the capacity to think and act reflectively, hence diagnosing needs and developing
appropriate responses.
However, the NCF infers that the main concern of the government and the aim of all reforms are
to ensure that no child is left behind and therefore the inclusion of continuous assessment in our
education system is a step forward to achieve this objective. It cannot be over-emphasised that
the mode of assessment dictates the nature of the educational experience and the quality of the
relationship between teacher and pupils. Assessment is not something separate, it is a tool by
which education may be evaluated; it acts upon the educational system so as to shape it in
accordance with what the assessment demands. Hence it is important for teachers to design
proper assessment for improvement.

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 Purposes of assessment
Purposes of assessment
Teaching and learning

The primary purpose of assessment is to improve students’ learning and teachers’ teaching as both respond to the

information it provides. Assessment for learning is an ongoing process that arises out of the interaction between teaching

and learning.

What makes assessment for learning effective is how well the information is used.

System improvement

Assessment can do more than simply diagnose and identify students’ learning needs; it can be used to assist improvements

across the education system in a cycle of continuous improvement:

 Students and teachers can use the information gained from assessment to determine their next teaching and learning

steps.

 Parents, families and whānau can be kept informed of next plans for teaching and learning and the progress being

made, so they can play an active role in their children’s learning.

 School leaders can use the information for school-wide planning, to support their teachers and determine professional

development needs.

 Communities and Boards of Trustees can use assessment information to assist their governance role and their decisions

about staffing and resourcing.


 The Education Review Office can use assessment information to inform their advice for school improvement.

 The Ministry of Education can use assessment information to undertake policy review and development at a national

level, so that government funding and policy intervention is targeted appropriately to support improved student

outcomes.

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