Está en la página 1de 7

Chem 16.

1 : Stoichiometry

Stoichiometry – from Greek stoicheion = “element” + metria= “measure”


- “to measure the elements”
- Quantitative relationships involving atomic and formula masses, chemical
formulas, and chemical equations
- Calculation of the quantities of reactants and products involved in a chemical rxn.

 Therefore it is important that you know:


 Chemical nomenclature = naming and formula writing
 Balancing chemical equations (including redox reactions)

Review: Dimensional Analysis

Given info x Conversion factor = Needed info

eg.

1. Jansen wanted to buy Juliet a kilogram of papayas and 2 kg of mangoes at the public
market. The prices of the fruits were as follows:

1 kg papaya = P 30.00
1 kg mangoes = P 120.00

How much does he need to pay to the vendor?

2. The Hope diamond, probably the most famous diamond in the world, weighs
45.52 carats. Its density is 3.51 g/cm3. What is the volume, in mL, of this blue gem?
( 1 carat (c) = 200. mg)

 Mole Concept => idea of working with enormous quantities of tiny particles in groups
called moles

Mole (mol)
o SI unit used to describe an amount of substance by relating it to a number
of particles of that substance
o Amount of substance that contains the same number of elementary
entities, molecules, or formula units as there are atoms in exactly 12 g of
pure C-12.
 1 mol C-12 = 12 g
o Amount of substance containing Avogadro’s number (NA) of atoms,
formula units, or molecules
 Avogadro’s number / constant(NA) = no. of atoms in 12 g of C-12

NA = 6.02214179 x 1023 mol-1 ≈ 6.02 x 1023 mol-1


For the following theoretical balanced equation:

aA + bB → cC + dD

a, b, c, and d are stoichiometric coefficients

Stoichiometric factor – relates the amounts on a mole basis, of any two substances
involved in a chemical rxn., mole ratio

*For the example above,

“a moles of cpd. A” = “b moles of cpd. B” = “c moles of cpd. C” = “d moles of cpd. D”

eg.

1. H2 (g) + O2 (g) → H2O (l)

What type of reaction? Combination/Synthesis Rxn. & Redox Rxn.

BCE: 2 H2 (g) + O2 (g) → 2 H2O (l)

Mole ratios:

a.) 2 mol H2O are produced for every 2 mol H2 consumed

b.) 2 mol H2O are produced for every 1 mol O2 consumed

c.) 2 mol H2 are consumed for every 1 mol O2 consumed

2. KI + Br2 → I2 + KBr

Terms:

Atomic Weight (AW) – weight of a single atom of an element

Molecular Weight (MW) – sum of the atomic weights of all the atoms in a molecular
compound

Formula Weight (FW) – sum of the atomic weights of all the atoms in a formula unit of
a compound (usually used for ions)

Molar Mass – denoted by italicized M, ℳ; mass of one mole of atoms, formula units, or
molecules of a substance; AW or FW or MW, expressed in grams; unit is g/mol or amu
(atomic mass unit)
Empirical Formula

Molecular Formula

 Ways of Expressing Concentrations (for Chem 16/16.1 only)

1. Percentage (%) composition - % w/w, % v/v, or % w/v; usually used in reporting


results and analysis of data

2. Molarity or Molar concentration– denoted by MX, CX or [X]; commonly used; number


of moles of solute dissolved in one liter of solution
𝑎𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 (𝑖𝑛 𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑠) 𝑛 𝑚𝑜𝑙
[X] = =𝑉= = 𝑀 (𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑟)
𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 (𝑖𝑛 𝑚𝐿) 𝐿

3. Molality or Molal concentration– denoted by “m”; used in calculations for colligative


properties
𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 𝑚𝑜𝑙
m= = = 𝑚 (𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑙)
𝑘𝑔 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑘𝑔

 Identifying Limiting and Excess Reactants

Limiting Reactant (Limiting Reagent) – reactant that is completely consumed when a


reaction goes to completion; used to determine amount of product/s formed.

Excess Reactant – reactant that is not completely consumed when a reaction goes to
completion

Theoretical Yield – maximum amount of product that can be obtained in a reaction;


calculated based on the limiting reagent

Actual Yield (Experimental Yield) – amount of product obtained from experimental


determination

Percentage yield (% yield) – actual yield of product formed from a rxn expressed as a
percentage of the theoretical yield of the product

𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑦𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑
% 𝑦𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑 = 𝑥 100
𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑦𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑

% Error -
*Analogy: Making a ham and cheese sandwich

Materials and Recipe => Reagents and Reaction

*To make a ham and cheese sandwich, you need two slices of bread, a slice of
cheese, and a slice of ham.

a. You have 25 slices of bread, 10 slices of cheese, and 15 slices of ham. How
many sandwiches can you make?

b. The UFS needs to make 100 ham and cheese sandwiches for the orientation of
new faculty members. How many of each ingredient do they need?
Chem 16.1 Stoichiometry

1. (Kotz & Treichel, 3ed. 5-2). Assume 16.04 g of methane, CH4, is burned in oxygen.

a.) What are the products of the reaction?


b.) What is the balanced equation for this reaction?
c.) What mass of O2, in grams, is required for complete combustion?

2. (K&T, 3ed. 5-4). Aluminum reacts with oxygen to give aluminium oxide.

4 Al (s) + 3 O2 (g) → 2 Al2O3 (s)

If you have 6.0 mol of Al, how many moles of O2 are needed for complete reaction? What mass of Al2O3, in grams,
can be produced?

3. (K&T, 3ed. 5-11). Gaseous sulfur dioxide, SO2, can be removed from smoke-stacks by treatment with limestone
and oxygen.

SO2 (g) + CaCO3 (s) + O2(g) → CaSO4 (s) + CO2 (g)

a.) Name the compounds involved in this reaction.


b.) What is the mass of CaCO3 is required to remove 150. g of SO2?
c.) What mass of CaSO4 is formed when 150. g of SO2 is consumed completely?

4. (K&T, 3ed. 5-17) S2Cl2 (g) is used to vulcanize rubber. It can be made by treating molten sulfur with gaseous
chlorine:
S8 (l) + Cl2 (g) → S2Cl2 (g).
a.) Name the product formed in the reaction.
b.) What is the limiting reactant, if 32.0 g of sulfur and 71.0 g of chlorine were mixed?
c.) What mass of the product (in grams) can be produced?
d.) What mass of the excess reactant remains when the limiting reactant is consumed?

5. If 15.0 g of MgO is treated with 18.5 g of H3PO4 and 17.6 g of Mg3(PO4)2 is obtained, calculate the percent yield
and the mass, in grams, of the excess reagent.
6. Metal hydrides react with water to form hydrogen gas and a metal hydroxide. For example,

CaH2 + H2O → Ca(OH)2 + H2

You want to calculate the mass of hydrogen gas that can be prepared from 5.00 g CaH2 and 4.80 g H2O.

a. How many moles of H2 can be produced from the given mas of calcium hydride
b. How many moles of H2 can be produced from the given mass of water?
c. How many grams of hydrogen can be produced?
Chem 16.1 Drill # 4: Stoichiometry

1. Baking soda, NaHCO3, is often used as an antacid. It neutralizes excess hydrochloric acid
secreted by the stomach. The equation for the reaction is:

NaHCO3 (s) + HCl (aq) → NaCl(aq) H2O (l) + CO2 (g)

Milk of magnesia, which is an aqueous suspension of magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH) 2 is also used
as an antacid. The equation for the reaction is:

Mg(OH)2 (s) + HCl (aq) → H2O (l) + MgCl2 (aq)

Which antacid can consume the most stomach acid, 1.00 g of sodium bicarbonate or 1.00 g of
magnesium hydroxide? (10 pts.)

2. A 50.0 g sample of calcium carbonate is reacted with 35.0 g of phosphoric acid.

a.) Write the balanced chemical equation, net ionic equation, and total ionic equation. (5 pts.)
b.) What is the limiting reactant and excess reactant? (2 pts.)
c.) How many grams of calcium phosphate could be produced? (3 pts.)
d.) How many grams of excess reagent will remain? (3 pts.)
e.) If 35.4 g of calcium phosphate is actually obtained, what is the percent yield? (2 pts)

Chem 16.1 Drill # 4: Stoichiometry

1. Baking soda, NaHCO3, is often used as an antacid. It neutralizes excess hydrochloric acid
secreted by the stomach. The equation for the reaction is:

NaHCO3 (s) + HCl (aq) → NaCl(aq) H2O (l) + CO2 (g)

Milk of magnesia, which is an aqueous suspension of magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH) 2 is also used
as an antacid. The equation for the reaction is:

Mg(OH)2 (s) + HCl (aq) → H2O (l) + MgCl2 (aq)

Which antacid can consume the most stomach acid, 1.00 g of sodium bicarbonate or 1.00 g of
magnesium hydroxide? (10 pts.)

2. A 50.0 g sample of calcium carbonate is reacted with 35.0 g of phosphoric acid.

a.) Write the balanced chemical equation, net ionic equation, and total ionic equation. (5 pts.)
b.) What is the limiting reactant and excess reactant? (2 pts.)
c.) How many grams of calcium phosphate could be produced? (3 pts.)
d.) How many grams of excess reagent will remain? (3 pts.)
e.) If 35.4 g of calcium phosphate is actually obtained, what is the percent yield? (2 pts)
Chem 16.1 Drill # 4: Stoichiometry

1. Baking soda, NaHCO3, is often used as an antacid. It neutralizes excess hydrochloric acid
secreted by the stomach. The equation for the reaction is:

NaHCO3 (s) + HCl (aq) → NaCl(aq) H2O (l) + CO2 (g)

Milk of magnesia, which is an aqueous suspension of magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH) 2 is also used
as an antacid. The equation for the reaction is:

Mg(OH)2 (s) + HCl (aq) → H2O (l) + MgCl2 (aq)

Which antacid can consume the most stomach acid, 1.00 g of sodium bicarbonate or 1.00 g of
magnesium hydroxide? (10 pts.)

2. A 50.0 g sample of calcium carbonate is reacted with 35.0 g of phosphoric acid.

a.) Write the balanced chemical equation, net ionic equation, and total ionic equation. (5 pts.)
b.) What is the limiting reactant and excess reactant? (2 pts.)
c.) How many grams of calcium phosphate could be produced? (3 pts.)
d.) How many grams of excess reagent will remain? (3 pts.)
e.) If 35.4 g of calcium phosphate is actually obtained, what is the percent yield? (2 pts)

Chem 16.1 Drill # 4: Stoichiometry

1. Baking soda, NaHCO3, is often used as an antacid. It neutralizes excess hydrochloric acid
secreted by the stomach. The equation for the reaction is:

NaHCO3 (s) + HCl (aq) → NaCl(aq) H2O (l) + CO2 (g)

Milk of magnesia, which is an aqueous suspension of magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH) 2 is also used
as an antacid. The equation for the reaction is:

Mg(OH)2 (s) + HCl (aq) → H2O (l) + MgCl2 (aq)

Which antacid can consume the most stomach acid, 1.00 g of sodium bicarbonate or 1.00 g of
magnesium hydroxide? (10 pts.)

2. A 50.0 g sample of calcium carbonate is reacted with 35.0 g of phosphoric acid.

a.) Write the balanced chemical equation, net ionic equation, and total ionic equation. (5 pts.)
b.) What is the limiting reactant and excess reactant? (2 pts.)
c.) How many grams of calcium phosphate could be produced? (3 pts.)
d.) How many grams of excess reagent will remain? (3 pts.)
e.) If 35.4 g of calcium phosphate is actually obtained, what is the percent yield? (2 pts)