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GLOSSARY

pencil case /'UCmgo YMg/ estuche


Introduction
pink /UBnY/ rosa
April /'CBUpLo/ abril purple /'UKUo/ morado/a
August /'GZLgW/ agosto red /pCX/ rojo/a
birthday /'VKeXM/ cumpleaños rubber /'pJVL/ goma (de borrar)
black /VoDY/ negro/a ruler /'pIoL/ regla
blue /VoI/ azul Saturday /'gDWLXM/ sábado
book /VHY/ libro schoolbag /'gYIoVDZ/ mochila
brown /VpPm/ marrón second /'gCYLmX/ segundo/a
December /XB'gClVL/ diciembre September /gCU'WClVL/ septiembre
eight /CBW/ ocho seven /'gCdm/ siete
eighteen /CB'WAm/ dieciocho seventeen /gCdm'WAm/ diecisiete
eighth /CBWe/ octavo/a seventh /'gCdme/ séptimo/a
eighty /'CBWi/ ochenta seventy /'gCdmWi/ setenta
eleven /B'oCdm/ once six /gBYg/ seis
February /'cCVpILpi/ febrero sixteen /gBYg'WAm/ dieciséis
fifteen /cBc'WAm/ quince sixth /gBYge/ sexto/a
fifth /cBce/ quinto/a sixty /'gBYgWi/ sesenta
fifty /'cBcWi/ cincuenta Sunday /'gJmXM/ domingo
first /'cKgW/ primero/a ten /WCm/ diez
five /cOd/ cinco tenth /WCme/ décimo/a
forty /'cGWi/ cuarenta third /eKX/ tercero/a
four /cG/ cuatro thirteen /eK'WAm/ trece
fourteen /cG'WAm/ catorce thirty /'eKWi/ treinta
fourth /cGe/ cuarto/a three /epA/ tres
Friday /'cpOXM/ viernes Thursday /'eKhXM/ jueves
green /ZpAm/ verde Tuesday /'WqIhXM/ martes
grey /ZpCB/ gris twelve /WrCod/ doce
January /'bDmqHLpi/ enero twenty /'WrCmWi/ veinte
July /bI'oO/ julio two /WI/ dos
June /XjIm/ junio Wednesday /'rCmhXM/ miércoles
March /lEa/ marzo white /rOW/ blanco/a
May /lM/ mayo yellow /'qCoN/ amarillo/a
Monday /'lJmXM/ lunes
nine /mOm/ nueve
Unit 1
nineteen /mOm'WAm/ diecinueve
Algeria /Do'bBLpiL/ Argelia
ninety /'mOmWi/ noventa
Belgium /'VCoXjLl/ Bélgica
ninth /mOme/ noveno/a
brother /'VpJfL/ hermano
notebook /'mNWVHY/ cuaderno
Cambodia /Yæl'VNXiL/ Camboya
November /mLH'dClVL/ noviembre
capital city /'YæUBWo gBWi/ capital (de un país)
October /FY'WNVL/ octubre
children /'WiBoXpLm/ niños; hijos
one /rJm/ uno
China /'WiOmL/ China
one hundred /rJm 'kJmXpLX/ cien
Chinese /WiO'mAh/ chino/a
orange /'FpBmb/ naranja
daughter /'XGWL/ hija
pen /UCm/ bolígrafo
Ecuador /'CYrLXG/ Ecuador
pencil /'UCmgo/ lápiz, lapicero

Build Up 1 Spanish © B Burlington Books 


glossary

Ecuadorian /CYrL'XGpiLm/ ecuatoriano/a clock /YoFY/ reloj


England /'BnZoLmX/ Inglaterra do homework /XI 'kNlrKY/ hacer los deberes
English /'BnZoBi/ inglés/esa early /'Koi/ pronto
Ethiopia /Aei'NUiL/ Etiopía easy /'Ahi/ fácil
father /'cEfL/ padre everybody /'CdpiVFXi/ todos/as
flag /coæZ/ bandera fun /cJm/ divertido/a
France /cpEmg/ Francia get dressed /ZCW 'XpCgX/ vestirse
French /cpCma/ francés/esa get up /ZCW 'JU/ levantarse (de la cama)
Germany /'bKlLmi/ Alemania go home /ZN 'kNl/ ir a casa
grandfather /'ZpDmcEfL/ abuelo go shopping /ZN 'iFUBn/ ir de compras
grandmother /'ZpDmlJfL/ abuela go swimming /ZN 'grBlBn/ ir a nadar
grandparents /'ZpDmUSpLmWg/ abuelos go to bed /ZN WL 'VCX/ ir a la cama
Greece /ZpAg/ Grecia go to school / ZN WL 'gYIo/ ir al colegio
Holland /'kFoLmX/ Holanda great /ZpCBW/ genial
Hungary /'kJmZpi/ Hungría guess /ZCg/ adivinar
Ireland /'OLoLmX/ Irlanda have a shower /kDd L 'iPL/ darse una ducha
Italy /'BWLoi/ Italia have breakfast /kDd 'VpCYcLgW/ desayunar
Moroccan /lL'pFYLm/ marroquí have dinner /kDd 'XBmL/ cenar
Morocco /lL'pFYLH/ Marruecos have lunch /kDd 'oJmWi/ comer
Moscow /'lFgYN/ Moscú holiday /'kFoLXM/ vacaciones
mother /'lJfL/ madre hourglass /'PLZoEg/ reloj de arena
Norway /'mGrCB/ Noruega Japan /bL'UDm/ Japón
parents /'UCLpLmWg/ padres Japanese /XjDULm'Ah/ japonés/esa
Poland /'UNoLmX/ Polonia join /bQm/ unir(se)
Romania /pH'lMmiL/ Rumanía late /oCBW/ tarde
Romanian /pH'lMmiLm/ rumano/a listen to music /oBgm WL 'lqIhBY/ escuchar música
royal family /'pQLo cDlLoi/ Familia Real measure /'lCjL/ medir, calcular
Russia /'pJiL/ Rusia meet friends /lAW 'cpCmXh/ quedar con amigos/as
Russian /'pJim/ ruso/a mobile phone /lNVOo 'cNm/ teléfono móvil
Scotland /'gYFWoLmX/ Escocia play football /UoM 'cHWVGo/ jugar al fútbol
sister /'gBgWL/ hermana play games /UoM 'ZMlh/ jugar a juegos
son /gJm/ hijo play the guitar /UoM fL ZB'WE/ tocar la guitarra
Spain /gUCBm/ España read a book /pAX L 'VHY/ leer un libro
Spanish /'gUDmBi/ español/a ride a bike /pOX L 'VOY/ montar en bicicleta
Sweden /'grAXm/ Suecia schoolwork /'gYIorKY/ trabajo escolar/de clase
Switzerland /'grBWgoLmX/ Suiza send text messages /gCmX 'WCsW lCgBbBh/ mandar
mensajes de texto
Wales /rMoh/ (país de) Gales
shadow /'iDXLH/ sombra
whiteboard /'rOWVGX/ pizarra
shoe /iI/ zapato
star /gWE/ estrella
Unit 2 study /'gWJXi/ estudiar
ancient /'MmiLmW/ antiguo/a sundial /'gJmXOLo/ reloj de sol
astrolabe /'DgWpLoMV/ astrolabio teenager /'WAmMbL/ adolescente
buy things /'VO eBnh/ comprar cosas watch /rFa/ reloj (de pulsera)
candle /'YæmXo/ vela (de cera) watch TV /rFa WA'dA/ ver la televisión
century /'gCmaLpi/ siglo work /rKY/ funcionar
chat with friends /'aDW rBf cpCmXh/ charlar con
amigos/as
clean my room /'YoAm lO pIl/ limpiar mi cuarto

Build Up 1 Spanish © B Burlington Books 


glossary

Unit 3 Unit 4
amphibian /Dl'cBViLm/ anfibio all over the world /Go NdL fL 'rKoX/ alrededor del
arm /El/ brazo mundo
bathroom /'VEepIl/ cuarto de baño
at the top /DW fL 'WFU/ en la cima/cumbre
bed /VCX/ cama
bird /VKX/ pájaro, ave
bedroom /'VCXpIl/ dormitorio
butterfly /'VJWLcoO/ mariposa
block /VoFY/ bloque
canary /YL'mSpi/ canario
carpet /'YEUBW/ alfombra
carnivore /'YEmBdG/ carnívoro/a
chair /aS/ silla
consumer /YLm'gqIlL/ consumidor/a
character /'YæpLYWL/ personaje
eagle /'AZo/ águila
company /'YJlULmi/ compañía, empresa
ear /R/ oreja, oído
cook dinner /YHY 'XBmL/ hacer la cena
elephant /'CoBcLmW/ elefante/a
cupboard /'YJVLX/ armario
eye /O/ ojo
desk /XCgY/ escritorio, pupitre
foot /cHW/ pie, pata
dining room /'XOmBn pIl/ comedor
frog /cpFZ/ rana
do the laundry /XI fL 'oGmXpi/ hacer la colada
giraffe /bL'pEc/ jirafa
electricity /BoCY'WpBgLWi/ electricidad
gorilla /ZL'pBoL/ gorila
feed the dog /cAX fL 'XFZ/ dar de comer al perro
hair /kCL/ pelo, cabello
garage /'ZDpEj/ garaje
hamster /'kDlgWL/ hámster
garden /'ZEXm/ jardín
hand /kæmX/ mano
kitchen /'YBWiBm/ cocina
head /kCX/ cabeza
lamp /oDlU/ lámpara
herbivore /'kKVBdG/ herbívoro/a
living room /'oBdBn pIl/ sala de estar, salón
horse /kGg/ caballo
look for /'oHY cG/ buscar
insect /'BmgCYW/ insecto
make the bed /lMY fL 'VCX/ hacer la cama
leg /oCZ/ pierna, pata, anca (de rana)
Pope /UNU/ Papa (de la Iglesia)
lion /'oOLm/ león
portable /'UGWLVo/ portátil
look like /'oHY oOY/ parecer(se)
President /'UpChBXLmW/ Presidente/a
meat /lAW/ carne
Prime Minister /UpOl 'lBmBgWL/ Primer/a
mountain /'lPmWLm/ montaña Ministro/a
mouth /lPe/ boca reading corner /'pAXBn YGmL/ rincón de la lectura
nose /mNh/ nariz really /'pBLoi/ realmente, verdaderamente
own /Nm/ propio/a sheep /iAU/ oveja(s)
panda /'UDmXL/ oso panda shelves /iCodh/ baldas, estantes
pet /UCW/ animal de compañía, mascota sofa /'gLHcL/ sofá
producer /UpL'XqIgL/ productor start /gWEW/ comienzo, principio
reptile /'pCUWOo/ reptil strange /gWpMmb/ extraño/a
shark /iEY/ tiburón street /gWpAW/ calle
size /gOh/ tamaño streetlamp /'gWpAWoDlU/ farola
snake /gmMY/ serpiente suddenly /'gJXLmoi/ de repente, de pronto
teeth /WAe/ dientes sweep the floor /grAU fL 'coG/ barrer el suelo
tiger /'WOZL/ tigre table /'WMVo/ mesa
weight /rMW/ peso take out the rubbish /WMY PW fL 'pJVBi/ sacar la
whale /rMo/ ballena basura
zebra /'hCVpL/ cebra tiny /'WOmi/ diminuto/a, minúsculo/a
together /WL'ZCfL/ juntos/as
tunnel /'WJmo/ túnel
under the ground /JmXL fL 'ZpPmX/ debajo de la
tierra

Build Up 1 Spanish © B Burlington Books 


glossary

unusual /Jm'qIjHLo/ inusual salad /'gDoLX/ensalada


wash the dishes /rFi fL 'XBiBh/ fregar los platos sandwich /'gDmrBa/ bocadillo
water /'rGWL/ agua spaghetti /gUL'ZCWi/ espagueti
water the plants /rGWL fL 'UoEmWg/ regar las sugar /'iHZL/ azúcar
plantas surprised /gL'UpOhX/ sorprendido/a
thirsty /'eKgWi/ sediento/a
Unit 5 tired /'WOLX/ cansado/a
angry /'DnZpi/ enfadado/a tomato /WL'lEWN/ tomate
bad /VDX/ malo/a
bean /VAm/ alubia, judía Unit 6
Belgian /'VCoXjLm/ belga
Ash Wednesday /Di 'rCmhXM/ miércoles de ceniza
bored /VGX/ (estar) aburrido/a
basketball /'VEgYBWVGo/ baloncesto
bread /VpCX/pan
bounce /VPmg/ botar
Bulgarian /VJo'ZSpiLm/búlgaro/a
boxing /'VFsBn/ boxeo
cake /YMY/tarta, pastel
carry /'YDpi/ llevar
cheese /aAh/queso
catch /YDa/ coger
chicken /'aBYBm/pollo
champion /'aDlUiLm/ campeón/ona
chips /aBUg/patatas fritas chariot racing /'WiDpiLW pMgBn/ carrera de carros /
chocolate /'aFYoLW/chocolate cuadrigas
cola /'YNoL/refresco de cola cook /YHY/ cocinero/a
cup /YJU/taza dance /XEmg/ bailar
diet /'XOLW/dieta discus throwing /'XBgYLg epNBn/ lanzamiento de
egg /CZ/huevo disco
excited /BY'gOWBX/entusiasmado/a drive /XpOd/ conducir
fat /cæW/grasa goal /ZNo/ portería
fish /cBi/pescado Good luck! /ZHX 'oJY/ ¡Buena suerte!
frightened /'cpOWmX/ asustado/a gymnastics /bBl'mægWBYg/ gimnasia
fruit /cpIW/fruta hit /kBW/ golpear
grain /ZpMm/cereal horse riding /'kGg pOXBn/ equitación
gram /ZpDl/gramo ice skating /'Og gYMWBn/ patinaje sobre hielo
happy /'kæUi/feliz, contento/a It’s great fun /BWg ZpCBW 'cJm/ es muy divertido
have a look /kDd L 'oHY/echar un vistazo javelin /'bDdoBm/ jabalina
healthy /'kCoei/sano/a, saludable Join the fun! /bQm fL 'cJm/ ¡Únete a la fiesta!
hungry /'kJnZpi/hambriento/a judo /'bIXN/ judo
ice cream /Og 'YpAl/ helado jump /bJlU/ saltar
mayonnaise /lML'mMh/mayonesa jumping /'bJlUBn/ salto
meat /lAW/carne kick /YBY/ golpear, dar una patada
meatball /'lAWVGo/albóndiga Lent /oCmW/ Cuaresma
milk /lBoY/leche lose /oIh/ perder
nut /mJW/nuez prize /UpOh/ premio
olive /'FoBd/aceituna race /pMg/ carrera
rollerblading /'pNoLVoMXBn/ patinaje (con patines
onion /'JmqLm/cebolla
en línea)
orange juice /'FpBmb bIg/ zumo de naranja rule /pIo/ regla, norma
potato /UL'WMWN/patata run /pJm/ correr
pyramid /'UBpLlBX/pirámide Shrove Tuesday /ipNd 'WqIhXM/ martes de
recipe /'pCgLUi/receta carnaval
rice /pOg/arroz skateboard /'gYMWVGX/ monopatín, patinete
sad /gDX/triste skateboarding /'gYMWVGXBn/ ir en monopatín

Build Up 1 Spanish © B Burlington Books 


glossary

skiing /'gYABn/ esquí on /Fm/ sobre, encima de


surfboard /'gKcVGX/ tabla de surf opposite /'FULhBW/ enfrente de
surfing /'gKcBn/ surf palace /'UDoLg/ palacio
swim /grBl/ nadar Parliament /'UEoLlLmW/ Parlamento
team /WAl/ equipo restaurant /'pCgWpFmW/ restaurante
tennis /'WCmBg/ tenis road /pNX/ carretera
the Olympics /fA L'oBlUBYg/ las Olimpiadas Roman /'pNlLm/ romano/a
third /eKX/ tercero/a shoe shop /'iI iFU/ zapatería
throw /epN/ arrojar, lanzar shopping centre /'iFUBn gCmWL/ centro comercial
town /WPm/ ciudad sports centre /'gUGWg gCmWL/ polideportivo
tradition /WpL'XBim/ tradición supermarket /'gIULlEYBW/ supermercado
volleyball /'dFoiVGo/ voleibol, balonvolea under /'JmXL/ debajo de
weightlifting /'rMWoBcWBn/ levantamiento de peso western /'rCgWLm/ occidental
welcome /'rCoYLl/ bienvenidos/as wild west /rOoX 'rCgW/ salvaje oeste
win /rBm/ ganar, vencer
winner /'rBmL/ ganador/a
wrestling /'pCgoBn/ lucha Unit 8
adventure /LX'dCmWiL/ aventura
Unit 7 army /'Eli/ ejército
beautiful /'VqIWBco/ guapo/a, precioso/a
above /L'VJd/ encima de, sobre
cape /YMU/ capa
Anglo-Saxon /DnZoN'gDYgm/ anglosajón/ona
clay /YoCB/ arcilla, barro
bakery /'VMYLpi/ panadería
dark /XEY/ oscuro/a
behind /VB'kOmX/ detrás de
die /XO/ morir
bell /VCo/ campana
discover /XB'gYJdL/ descubrir
between /VB'WrAm/ entre (dos cosas)
disguise /XBg'ZOh/ disfraz
bookshop /'VHYiFU/ librería
dress /XpCg/ vestido
building /'VBoXBn/ edificio
earplugs /'RUoJZh/ tapones para los oídos
butcher’s /'VHaLh/ carnicería
exhibit /BZ'hBVBW/ objeto expuesto
café /'YæcM/ café, cafetería
exhibition /CYgB'VBim/ exposición
church /WiKa/ iglesia
fat /cæW/ gordo/a
cinema /'gBmLlL/ cine
film /cBol/ película
cow /YP/ vaca
funny /'cJmi/ raro/a; divertido/a
either /'OfL/ tampoco
Greek /ZpAY/ griego/a
fire /'cOL/ incendio
general store /'bCmpLo gWG/ tienda (de hat /kDW/ sombrero
comestibles), almacén jacket /'bDYBW/ chaqueta, americana, cazadora
ghost /ZNgW/ fantasma jeans /bAmh/ pantalones vaqueros
gold /ZLHoX/ oro job /bFV/ trabajo, empleo
hospital /'kFgUBWo/ hospital light /oOW/ claro/a
in /Bm/ en, dentro de long /oFn/ largo/a
in front of /Bm 'cpJmW Ld/ delante de nanny /'mDmi/ niñera
lesson /'oCgLm/ clase, lección new /mqI/ nuevo/a
library /'oOVpLpi/ biblioteca old /NoX/ viejo/a
museum /lqI'hALl/ museo pirate /'UOpLW/ pirata
music shop /'lqIhBY iFU/ tienda de música plaster /'UoEgWL/ yeso
need /mAX/ necesitar ready /'pCXi/ preparado/a
next to /'mCYgW WI/ al lado de sandals /'gDmXoh/ sandalias
noise /mQh/ ruido scarf /gYEc/ bufanda, pañuelo

Build Up 1 Spanish © B Burlington Books 


glossary

shirt /iKW/ camisa scooter /'gYIWL/ escúter


shoes /iIh/ zapatos ship /iBU/ barco
short /iGW/ corto/a steam /gWAl/ vapor
shorts /iGWg/ pantalones cortos Swiss /grBg/ suizo/a
skirt /gYKW/ falda Switzerland /'grBWgoLmX/ Suiza
socks /gFYg/ calcetines take /WMY/ coger (un medio de transporte)
still /gWBo/ todavía taxi /'WæYgi/ taxi
sweater /'grCWL/ jersey train /WpMm/ tren
swim hat /'grBl kDW/ gorro de baño tram /WpDl/ tranvía
swimsuit /'grBlgIW/ bañador underground /'JmXLZpPmX/ metro
teen /WAm/ juvenil van /dDm/ furgoneta
thin /eBm/ delgado/a wonder /'rJmXL/ maravilla
trainers /'WpMmLh/ zapatillas de deporte
Trojan horse /WpNbLm 'kGg/ caballo de Troya
trousers /'WpPhLh/ pantalones
truth /WpIe/ verdad
T-shirt /'WAiKW/ camiseta
ugly /'JZoi/ feo/a
waistcoat /'rMgYNW/ chaleco

Unit 9
aeroplane /'CLpLUoCBm/ avión, aeroplano
beach /VAWi/ playa
bicycle /'VOgBYo/ bicicleta
boat /VNW/ barco/a
bus /VJg/ autobús
canyon /'YæmqLm/ cañón
car /YE / coche, automóvil
conquer /'YFnYL/ conquistar
contest /'YFmWCgW/ concurso
desert /'XChLW/ desierto
drive /XpOd/ conducir
fly /coO/ volar, pilotar
forest /'cFpBgW/ bosque
helicopter /'kCoBYFUWL/ helicóptero
island /'OoLmX/ isla
jeep /bAU/ vehículo todoterreno
jungle /'bJnZo/ selva
lake /oMY/ lago
lorry /'oFpi/ camión
motorbike /'lNWLVOY/ moto
mountain /'lPmWLm/ montaña
ocean /'Nim/ océano
reef /pAc/ arrecife
ride /pOX/ montar (a caballo, en bicicleta, en
moto)
river /'pBdL/ río
sail /gMo/ navegar

Build Up 1 Spanish © B Burlington Books 


SPEAKING GUIDE

INTRODUCTION UNIT
Greetings and introductions
Hello, I’m (Daniel). /kLoLH Ol ('XDmqLo)/ Hola, soy (Daniel).
I’m (Lucy) and this is my friend (David). /Ol ('oIgi) DmX fBg Bh lO cpCmX ('XMdBX)/ Soy (Lucy) y este es mi
amigo (David).
Nice to meet you. /mOg WL 'lAW qI/ Encantado de conocerte.

Classroom language
When is (the English lesson)? /rCm Bh (fA 'BnZoBi oCgLm)/ ¿Cuándo es (la clase de inglés)?
Who knows the answer to question (1)? /kI mNh fA 'EmgL WL YrCgWiLm (rJm)/ ¿Quién sabe la respuesta a la
pregunta (1)?
Where is (your pencil)? /rCL Bh (qG 'UCmgo)/ ¿Dónde está (tu lapicero)?
What is the homework? /rFW Bh fL 'kNlrKY/ ¿Cuáles son los deberes?
Do you understand the question? /XI qI JmXLgWDmX fL 'YrCgWiLm/ ¿Entiendes la pregunta?
Can you spell this word? /YLm qI 'gUCo fBg rKX/ ¿Sabes deletrear esta palabra?
Please be quiet. /UoAh VA 'YrOLW/ Callaos, por favor.
Please read the (text). /UoAh pAX fL ('WCsW)/ Por favor, leed el (texto).
Open your books to page (15). /NULm qG 'VHYg WL UMb (cBcWAm)/ Abrid los libros por la página (15).
Please sit down. /UoAh gBW 'XPm/ Sentaos, por favor.
What’s your name? /rFWg qG 'mMl/ ¿Cómo te llamas?
How do you say this in English? / kP XI qI gM fBg Bm 'BnZoBi/ ¿Cómo se dice esto en inglés?
Answer the questions. /EmgL fL 'YrCgWiLmh/ Contestad las preguntas.
Copy and complete the chart. /YFUi DmX YLlUoAW fL 'aEW/ Copiad y completad el cuadro.
Can you help me, please? /YLm qI 'kCoU lA UoAh/ ¿Puedes ayudarme, por favor?
Match the words to the pictures. /lDWi fL 'rKXh WL fL UBYWiLh/ Relaciona las palabras con las fotografías /
los dibujos.
Choose the correct answer. /aIh fL YLpCYW 'EmgL/ Elige la respuesta correcta.
Write the words in the correct order. /pOW fL 'rKXh Bm fL YLpCYW GXL/ Escribe las palabras en el orden
correcto.

Unit 1
Introductions
Where are you from? /rCL L qG 'cpFl/ ¿De dónde eres?
I’m from (England). /Ol cpLl ('BnZoLmX)/ Soy de (Inglaterra).
What’s your (name / nationality)? /rFWg qG ('mMl / mæiL'mDoLWi)/ ¿Cómo te (llamas)? / ¿Cuál es tu
(nacionalidad)?
My name is (David). /lO mMl Bh ('XMdBX)/ Me llamo (David).
Exchanging personal information
I’m (English / thirteen years old). /Ol ('BnZoBi / eK'WAm qRh NoX)/ Soy (inglés). / Tengo (trece años).
I’ve got (a brother). /Od ZFW (L 'VpJfL)/ Tengo (un hermano).

Build Up 1 Spanish © B Burlington Books 


speaking guide

Unit 2
Talking about routines
I often get up at (seven o’clock). /O 'Fcm ZCW JU LW (gCdm LYoFY)/ A menudo me levanto a (las siete en punto).
You always ... /qI 'GorCBh/ Tú siempre...
She sometimes ... /iA 'gJlWOlh/ Ella algunas veces...
They never ... /fM 'mCdL/ Ellos nunca...
We go to school at (eight o’clock). /rA ZN WL 'gYIo LW (CBW LYoFY)/ Vamos al colegio a (las ocho en punto).
They have breakfast at (half past seven). /fM kDd 'VpCYcLgW LW (kEc UEgW gCdm)/ Desayunan a (las siete y
media).

Talking about activities


(Darren) plays (computer games). /('XDpm) UoMh (YLlUqIWL ZMlh)/ (Darren) juega (con el ordenador).
I play (computer games), too. /'O UoM (YLlUqIWL ZMlh WI)/ Yo también juego (con el ordenador).

Unit 3
Exchanging information
What colour is it? /rFW 'YJoL Bh BW/ ¿De qué color es?
What does it do? /rFW XJh BW 'XI/ ¿Qué hace?
When does it (sleep)? /rCm XJh BW ('goAU)/ ¿Cuándo (duerme)?
Describing animals
It’s got (big ears). /BWg ZFW ('VBZ Rh)/ Tiene (las orejas grandes).
It’s a (snake). /BWg L ('gmMY)/ Es una (serpiente).

Unit 4
Talking about current actions
What are you doing? /rFW L qG 'XIBn/ ¿Qué estás haciendo?
Where is (your sister)? /rCL Bh (qG 'gBgWL)/ ¿Dónde está (tu hermana)?
Do you usually (eat in the kitchen)? /XL qI qIhILoi (AW Bm fL 'YBWiBm)/ ¿Normalmente (comes en la cocina)?
Describing a picture
He’s in (the garden). /kAh Bm (fL 'ZEXm)/ Está en (el jardín).
They’re (watching TV). /fS (rFaBn WA'dA)/ Están (viendo la televisión).

Unit 5
Expressing likes and dislikes
I love / like (chocolate). /O 'oJd/'oOY (aFYoLW)/ Me encanta / gusta (el chocolate).
I don’t mind (fish). /O XNmW 'lOmX (cBi)/ No me desagrada (el pescado).
I hate / dislike (onions) . /O 'kMW/XBg'oOY (JmqLmh)/ Odio / No me gusta/n (las cebollas).
Ordering food
Do you want to order? /XL qI rFmW WL 'GXL/ ¿Quieres pedir?
Yes, I want (fish) and (chips), please. /qCg O rFmW ('cBi) DmX ('aBUg) UoAh/ Sí, quiero (pescado) y (patatas fritas),
por favor.
OK, that’s (€20). /NYM fDWg (WrCmWi 'qHLpLHh)/ De acuerdo, son (20 €).

Build Up 1 Spanish © B Burlington Books 


speaking guide

Unit 6
Talking about abilities
Can you (swim) well? /YLm qI ('grBl) rCo/ ¿Sabes (nadar) bien?
I can’t (play volleyball) well. /O YEmW (UoM 'dFoiVGo) rCo/ No sé (jugar) bien (al voleibol).
I can (play basketball) well. /O YLm (UoM 'VEgYBWVGo) rCo/ Sé (jugar) bien (al baloncesto).

Making rules
You must (kick the ball). /qI 'lJgW (YBY fL VGo)/ Debes (golpear la pelota).
You mustn’t (catch the ball with your hands). /qI 'lJgmW (YDa fL VGo rBf qG kDmXh)/ No debes (coger la pelota
con las manos).

Unit 7
Talking about past events
Where were you on (Sunday)? /rCL rK qI Fm ('gJmXM)/ ¿Dónde estabas (el domingo)?
Were you at the (cinema)? /rK qI LW fL ('gBmLlL)/ ¿Estabas en (el cine)?
I was at the (sports centre). /O rFh LW fL ('gUGWg gCmWL)/ Estaba en (el polideportivo).

Comparing past and present


There are (shops on Town Street). /fS L ('iFUg Fm WPm gWpAW)/ Hay (tiendas en Town Street).
There wasn’t (a bakery near the cinema five years ago). /fS rFhmW (L 'VMYLpi mR fL gBmLlL cOd qRg LZN)/
No había (una panadería cerca del cine hace cinco años).

Unit 8
Going shopping
Can you help me, please? /YLm qI 'kCoU lA UoAh/ ¿Puedes ayudarme, por favor?
What size are you? /rFW 'gOh L qI/ ¿Qué talla tienes / usas?
What colour do you want? /rFW 'YJoL XL qI rFmW/ ¿Qué color quieres?
Do you like this one? /XL qI oOY 'fBg rJm/ ¿Te gusta este/a?

Talking about the past


I went to (a party at the weekend). /O rCmW WI (L 'UEWi LW fL rAYCmX)/ Fui a (una fiesta el fin de semana).
I wore (my blue jeans). /O 'rG (lO VoI bAmh)/ Llevé / Llevaba (mis vaqueros azules).

Unit 9
Buying a ticket
How much is a (museum) ticket? /kP 'lJa Bh L (lqIhALl WBYBW)/ ¿Cuánto cuesta una entrada (al museo)?
It’s (£10) for adults and (£5) for children. /BWg (WCm UPmXh) cL 'DXJoWg DmX (cOd UPmXh) cL 'WiBoXpLm/ Son (10 £) por
adulto y (5 £) por niño.
When is the (museum) open? /rCm Bh fL (lqIhALl) 'NULm/ ¿Cuándo está abierto (el museo)?
It’s open from (9.00) to (4.00). /BWg 'NULm cpLl (mOm) WL (cG)/ Está abierto desde las (9) hasta las (4).

Making plans
Let’s go to (the museum). /oCWg 'ZN WL (fL lqIhALl)/ Vamos / Vayamos (al museo).
Why don’t we (take the tram)? /rO XNmW rA (WMY fL 'WpDl)/ ¿Por qué no (cogemos el tranvía)?
We’re going to (sail to the island). /rR ZNBn WL (gMo WL fL 'OoLmX)/ Vamos a (navegar hasta la isla).
That’s a good / bad idea. /fDWg L 'ZHX / 'VDX OXR/ Esa es una buena / mala idea.

Build Up 1 Spanish © B Burlington Books 


GRAMMAR APPENDIX

introduction

to be
Lo utilizamos para describir cosas, expresar hechos generales e indicar la edad. Recuerda que en la
conversación am, is y are se suelen contraer con el pronombre sujeto.
I’m thirteen years old. (Tengo trece años.)
En negativa añádele la partícula not, que con is y are se contrae en isn’t y aren’t.
I’m not in the park. (No estoy en el parque.)
The teacher isn’t in the classroom. (El profesor no está en la clase.)
My books aren’t on my desk. (Mis libros no están sobre mi pupitre.)
Para preguntar se invierte el orden del sujeto y el verbo. Las respuestas breves llevan solo los
pronombres sujeto y el verbo to be sin contraer en afirmativa, o contraído en negativa.
Is your birthday in May? Yes, it is. / No, it isn’t. (¿Tu cumpleaños es en mayo? Sí. / No.)

1 Circle the correct answers. 4 Answer the questions so they are true for
you. Use short answers.
1. Miss Brown am / is / are a teacher.
2. The boys am / is / are 14 years old. 1. Is your schoolbag pink?

3. I am / is / are in the classroom. 2. Is your pencil yellow?

4. My pencil case am / is / are white. 3. Are your pens blue?

5. The rubbers am / is / are £2. 4. Are you twelve years old?


5. Is your birthday in March?
2 Complete the sentences with the correct 6. Is today Tuesday?
form of the verb to be.

Check Yourself!
1. The girls are at school.
2. I (not) 12 years old.
3. Tina my friend.
4. My notebooks (not) red. Complete the sentences with the correct
5. The pen blue. form of the verb to be.
6. My birthday (not) in November. 1. The teacher in the
classroom.
3 Write questions with the words below and the 2. My notebook (not) in my
correct form of the verb to be. schoolbag.
1. the teacher / at school 3. you at school?
Is the teacher at school? 4. I a student.
2. the students / in the classroom 5. Carol and Mark my friends.
6. David 12 years old?
3. Mike / 13 years old 7. They (not) my pens.
8. I in this class?
4. the pencils / two pounds
Answers, see page 30

5. the schoolbag / green

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GRAMMAR APPENDIX

Las partículas interrogativas


Las partículas interrogativas aparecen solo en preguntas que no pueden contestarse con un
“sí” o un “no”.
Who is she? She’s the teacher. (¿Quién es? Es la profesora.)
What is that? It’s a notebook. (¿Qué es eso? Es un cuaderno.)
Where are your friends? They’re in the school. (¿Dónde están tus amigos? Están en el colegio.)
When is the English test? It’s on Monday. (¿Cuándo es el examen de inglés? Es el lunes.)
Why are you at home? Because I’m ill. (¿Por qué estás en casa? Porque estoy enfermo.)

5 Match the questions and the answers.


Questions Answers
1. Who is that? a. She’s at school.
2. Where is Jane? b. Because it’s the English classroom.
3. What day is it? c. It’s Monday.
4. When is your birthday? 1 d. That’s Pete.
5. Why are you in this classroom? e. It’s in January.

6 Read the answers to the questions. Then choose the correct question word.
1. What / Where is my ruler? It’s in your pencil case.
2. When / Where is your birthday? It’s in September.
3. Who / Why is the teacher? Miss Smith.
4. What / Where is Benny? At school.
5. Why / When is Helen at school? Because it’s Tuesday.
6. Who / What is that? It’s my English book.

7 Answer the questions so they are true for you.


1. What is your name?
2. Who is your English teacher?
3. Where are you?
4. When is your birthday?

Check Yourself!
Complete the questions with Who, What, Where, When or Why.
1. colour is that pen? It’s black.
2. is the English lesson? It’s on Thursday.
3. is Emma? She’s in the classroom.
4. is that? That’s Davy.
5. is Jill at home? Because it’s Saturday.
6. are they? They’re my pencils.
7. is the teacher? She’s at home.
8. is your birthday? It’s in August.
Answers, see page 30

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GRAMMAR APPENDIX

unit 1

have got
Se usa have got con I, you, we y they, pero has got con he, she e it.
We have got two schoolbags. (Tenemos dos carteras.)
Ecuador has got a yellow, blue and red flag. (Ecuador tiene una bandera amarilla, azul y roja.)
En negativa añadimos not a have y has, pero se usan más las formas contraídas.
John hasn’t got Russian postcards. (John no tiene postales rusas.)
E n interrogativa ponemos have o has + el sujeto + got. En las respuestas breves usamos solo los pronombres
sujeto y have / haven’t o has / hasn’t, sin got.
Have you got a postcard collection? Yes, I have. (¿Tienes una colección de postales? Sí.)
Has Paul got a sister? No, he hasn’t. (¿Paul tiene una hermana? No.)

1 Complete the sentences with have got or


has got.
1. John has got a pen.
2. They a new computer.
3. I a dog.
4. My friend a sister.
5. We friends from
Romania.

2 Complete the sentences with the correct

Check Yourself!
affirmative or negative form of have got.
1. The students haven’t got (not)
an English lesson today.
2. Our school (not) Complete the sentences with the correct
a computer room. affirmative, negative or interrogative form
3. Tony a football of have got or has got.
collection.
1. I a brother.
4. Alfonso and María His name is Steve.
(not) a son.
2. We red
5. I a brother. schoolbags. They’re blue.
3.  you
3 Write questions with Have got or Has got
and the words below. my pencil?

1. Peter / a pencil / in his schoolbag 4. No, Harry


a sister.
Has Peter got a pencil in his schoolbag?
5.  China
2. the teacher / an autograph collection
a yellow flag?

6. Ryan a dog.
3. Rachel and Mandy / French parents Its name is Blackie.
7. January 32 days.
4. you / a sister 8.  your class
20 students?
5. I / your book
Answers, see page 30

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GRAMMAR APPENDIX

Los adjetivos posesivos


my mi, mis
your tu, tus, su, sus (de usted)
his su, sus (de él)
her su, sus (de ella)
its su, sus (de cosa o animal)
our nuestro/a, nuestros/as
your vuestro/a, vuestros/as, su, sus (de ustedes)
their su, sus (de ellos/as)
Siempre van delante de la cosa poseída sin importar el género ni el número que esta tenga,
pues su forma indica quién es el poseedor: our car (nuestro coche) – our bikes (nuestras bicis).
En la 3ª persona del singular se diferencia muy claramente si el poseedor es de género
masculino (his), femenino (her) o neutro (its).
His grandmother is eighty years old. (Su abuela tiene ochenta años.)
Her nationality is Moroccan. (Su nacionalidad es la marroquí.)

4 Circle the correct answers.


1. I’m from London. My / Your nationality is English.
2. Cathy is my friend. Her / Our brother is my friend, too.
3. The students haven’t got a lesson. His / Their teacher isn’t at school.
4. Look at that dog. Your / Its name is Rex.
5. We’ve got a new house. Our / Their house is big.
6. You’ve got my pen. This is his / your pen.
7. Sarah and I have got a new desk. My / Our desk is blue.
8. Mark is in my class. His / Its brother is in my class, too.

Check Yourself!
Complete the sentences with the correct possessive adjectives.
1. You aren’t English. nationality is French.
2. I have got a new schoolbag. schoolbag is purple.
3. Bill and Andy are brothers. family name is Smith.
4. Jane has got two sisters. sisters are great.
5. Danny has got a sport collection. collection is big.
6. The cat is white. name is Fluffy.
7. We are in Year 8. class is 8A.
8. You and Simon have got a new teacher. teacher is Mrs Dawson.

Answers, see page 30

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GRAMMAR APPENDIX

unit 2

El Present Simple en afirmativa


y los adverbios de frecuencia
Recuerda que el Present Simple se usa para expresar:
rutinas y horarios I have breakfast at eight o’clock every morning.
(Desayuno a las ocho todas las mañanas.)
gustos y opiniones I like the Harry Potter books very much.
(Me gustan mucho los libros de Harry Potter.)
hechos generales Many children go to bed early.
(Muchos niños se van a la cama temprano.)
En afirmativa es igual que el infinitivo sin to, excepto en la 3ª persona del singular que termina en s.
En algunos casos, dependiendo de las terminaciones de los verbos, se añade es:
• los terminados en ss, sh, ch y x
miss ➝ misses finish ➝ finishes watch ➝ watches fix ➝ fixes
• los que acaban en o
do ➝ does go ➝ goes
• los que terminan en consonante + y
study ➝ studies
En este caso, cambia la y por una i antes de añadirle la terminación en es.
Los adverbios de frecuencia son palabras muy usadas con el Present Simple. Expresan la frecuencia con que
hacemos algo.
always (siempre) often (a menudo) never (nunca)
usually (normalmente) sometimes (a veces, algunas veces)
Siempre van delante del verbo pero, si se trata del verbo to be, se colocan detrás.
School always starts at half past eight. (El colegio siempre empieza a las ocho y media.)
People’s routines are often very different. (Las rutinas de la gente son a menudo muy diferentes.)

1 Write sentences with the words below. 2 Add the adverbs of frequency to the
Use the Present Simple affirmative. sentences below.
1. my mother / read / books / at night 1. I eat pizza. (never)
My mother reads books at night. I never eat pizza.
2. I / clean / my room / every day 2. The boys get up at seven o’clock. (always)


3. Anna watches TV after school. (often)
3. the children / play / football / on Mondays


4. My friends buy me presents on my
4. Tom / go / to bed / at eight o’clock birthday. (usually)

5. Lee and Ben / get up / at seven o’clock 5. Tom meets friends on Saturdays.
(sometimes)

6. the teacher / look / at our notebooks /
every week

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GRAMMAR APPENDIX

Check Yourself!
Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.
Use the Present Simple affirmative.
1. Paul usually (start) school at 9 o’clock.
2. I (walk) to school in the morning.
3. We sometimes (go) to bed at 10 o’clock.
4. Sally (clean) her room every day.
5. The teacher often (write) questions on the board.
6. Jake never (do) homework at school.
7. My father and I (watch) TV every evening.
8. My brother always (study) at night.
Answers, see page 30

El genitivo sajón
Para indicar de quién es algo añadimos un apóstrofo (’ ) y una s al poseedor, en caso de
ser un sustantivo singular o un nombre propio.
Peter’s shoes (los zapatos de Peter)
Si el nombre propio acaba en s, podemos añadirle solo el apóstrofo (’ ) o las dos cosas.
Charles’ car / Charles’s car (el coche de Charles)
Si el sustantivo es plural y termina en s, solo se pone el apóstrofo, pero si es un plural
irregular, añadimos las dos cosas.
the teachers’ books (los libros de los profesores)
the men’s cars (los coches de los hombres)

3 Complete the sentences with the words in brackets and the Saxon Genitive.
1. The girls’ (girls) schoolbags are red.
2. My (friend) shoes are pink.
3. The (dog) ball is blue.
4. My (sisters) friends are from Morocco.
5.  (John) grandmother is French.

Check Yourself!
Complete the sentences with the words in brackets and the Saxon Genitive.
1. The (students / work) is good.
2. My (brother / notebook) is blue.
3. The (boys / names) are Ben and Jake.
4. (Alice / house) is new.
5. The (girl / dog) is in the classroom.
6. My (parents / birthdays) are in June.
7. The (teacher / sister) is a teacher, too.
8. My (friends / schoolbags) are in the classroom.
Answers, see page 30

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GRAMMAR APPENDIX

unit 3

El Present Simple en negativa e interrogativa


En negativa añadimos do not (don’t) delante del verbo. Para la 3ª persona del singular utilizamos does not
(doesn’t).
I don’t play the guitar. (No toco la guitarra.)
Helen doesn’t watch TV. (Helen no ve la televisión.)
En interrogativa añadimos do al comienzo de la oración. Para la 3ª persona del singular utilizamos does.
En este último caso, como does ya expresa que es 3ª persona del singular, no se añade s al verbo principal.
En las respuestas breves usa los pronombres sujeto y do / does si son afirmativas o don’t / doesn’t si son
negativas.
Does María water the plants? Yes, she does. / No, she doesn’t. (¿Riega María las plantas? Sí. / No.)

1 Write the words in the correct order to make sentences.


1. work / doesn’t / my mother / at home 4. don’t / English books / read / Pete and Alice /
My mother doesn’t work at home. usually
2. eat / don’t / butterflies / other animals

3. TV / watch / my dog / doesn’t 5. doesn’t / at school / homework / Harry / do

2 Complete the sentences with the verbs in brackets. Use the Present Simple negative.
1. I don’t wear (wear) a tracksuit for school.
2. Giraffes (live) in houses.
3. Tom (listen) to music every day.
4. Mario and María (play) football at school.
5. I (like) snakes.
6. My canary (sing) songs.

3 Change the words in bold to make negative sentences. Use the words in brackets.
1. I go to school at eight o’clock. (nine o’clock)
I don’t go to school at nine o’clock.
2. Benny cleans his room once a week. (every day)

3. We usually have lunch at school. (always)

4. Tina rides her bike every morning. (every evening)

5. Pandas live up to 20 years. (40 years)

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GRAMMAR APPENDIX

4 Complete the questions with the verbs in brackets. Use the Present Simple interrogative.
1. Do you like (like) hamsters?
2. your snake (eat) frogs?
3. giraffes (come) from Europe?
4. Lisa (work) with horses?
5. you (study) biology at school?

5 Write questions with the words below. Use the Present Simple.
1. your parents / get up / at 7 o’clock
Do your parents get up at 7 o’clock?
2. your family / have dinner / at 8 o’clock

3. you / love / animals

4. a cat / sleep / in your room

5. pandas / live / in your country

6 Answer the questions in Exercise 5.


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Check Yourself!
Circle the correct answers.
1. I usually meet / meets my friends after school.
2. Do / Does you want to adopt an animal?
3. Caitlin don’t like / doesn’t like insects.
4. Andy and I don’t go / doesn’t go to the zoo every week.
5. Do / Does a whale weigh up to 200 tons?
6. Lin sometimes help / helps at the pet shop.
7. My dog never sleep / sleeps in my room.
8. Zorses don’t have / doesn’t have babies.

Answers, see page 30

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GRAMMAR APPENDIX

unit 4

El Present Continuous
Recuerda que el Present Continuous expresa lo que estamos haciendo o lo que está pasando en el momento
en el que se está hablando. Suele ir acompañado de las expresiones at the moment (en este momento),
now (ahora), right now (ahora mismo) y today (hoy).
La afirmativa se forma con el presente del verbo to be (am, is, are) + el verbo principal terminado en ing.
Josh is reading now. (Josh está leyendo ahora.)
En negativa añadimos not a am, pero a is y are podemos añadirles not o la contracción n’t.
People aren’t walking in the street. (La gente no está andando por la calle.)
En interrogativa el sujeto va entre el verbo to be y el verbo terminado en ing. En las respuestas breves afirmativas
se usan los pronombres sujeto y am, is o are sin contraer, pero en las negativas sí se contraen.
Is Belinda listening to music at the moment? Yes, she is. / No, she isn’t. (¿Belinda está escuchando música en este
momento? Sí. / No.)
Cuando añadas la terminación ing a un verbo debes seguir las siguientes reglas ortográficas:
• Si acaba en e muda, pierde la e.
write ➝ writing drive ➝ driving come ➝ coming
• Si es monosílabo y acaba en vocal + consonante, dobla la consonante.
stop ➝ stopping run ➝ running sit ➝ sitting

1 Complete the sentences. Use the Present Continuous affirmative.


1. My friends are playing (play) football at the moment.
2. Brad (do) homework right now.
3. Gabriella (read) a good book now.
4. We (listen) to music at the moment.
5. Helen and Paul (watch) TV now.

2 Complete the sentences with the words below.

Check Yourself!
Use the Present Continuous negative.

play • have • wash • feed • water



1. Kenny isn’t playing tennis right now. Complete the sentences. Use the correct
2. The girls the plants now. form of the Present Continuous.
3. Mark the dishes at 1.  you (go) to bed
the moment. now?
4. I the dog at the moment. 2. Dan (not play) football
at the moment.
5. Jean and I dinner now.
3. We (have) dinner now.
3 Circle the correct answers. 4. I (listen) to music right
1. Am / Is / Are we going to the party now? now.
2. Am / Is / Are Jenny swimming at the moment? 5.  Donna (get)
dressed at the moment?
3. Am / Is / Are Jo and Mike working in
the garden right now? 6. I (not study) right now.
4. Am / Is / Are the teachers watching TV at 7.  I (talk) to
the moment? David?
5. Am / Is / Are your father cooking dinner 8. They (not eat) right now.
right now?
Answers, see page 30

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GRAMMAR APPENDIX

t Simple
Contraste Present Continuous / Presen
El Present Simple habla de hechos habituales, mientras que el Present Continuous dice lo que
está ocurriendo en el momento presente.
I make the bed every day. (Hago la cama todos los días.)
I am making the bed now. (Estoy haciendo la cama ahora.)
Fíjate en que las expresiones temporales ayudan a diferenciar un tiempo del otro.

4 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. Use the Present Simple or
Present Continuous.
1. I am watching (watch) TV at the moment.
I watch (watch) it every evening.
2. Don (not play) tennis on Wednesdays.
Today, he (not play) because it’s Wednesday.
3. you (do) homework now?
you always (do) homework after school?
4. My grandfather usually (work) in the garden.
He (not work) in the garden now because he is having lunch.

Check Yourself!
Choose the correct answers.
1. The teacher … at the moment.
a. is talking b. talks
2. Emily usually … in the afternoon.
a. is reading b. reads
3. The boys … on the Internet now.
a. don’t chat b. aren’t chatting
4. … Jane … to school every day?
a. Does … walk b. Is … walking
5. Mark … TV every night.
a. isn’t watching b. doesn’t watch
6. … Pete … the guitar right now?
a. Is … playing b. Does … play
7. I … to you right now.
a. am not listening b. don’t listen
8. We … English every day.
a. are studying b. study
Answers, see page 30

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GRAMMAR APPENDIX

unit 5

There is / There are; a, an, some, any


Afirmativa
There is (o la contracción there’s) va delante de nombres contables en singular y de nombres no contables.
Con los nombres contables utilizamos a (o an cuando el nombre empieza con vocal) y con los no contables
utilizamos some.
There is a tomato. (Hay un tomate.)
There is an onion. (Hay una cebolla.)
There is some meat. (Hay algo/un poco de carne.)
Utilizamos there are solo delante de nombres contables en plural.
There are some chips. (Hay [algunas] patatas fritas.)
Negativa
Añadimos not o n’t detrás de is/are. En lugar de a/an o some utilizamos any, que significa ningún/a o nada de,
aunque normalmente no se traduce.
There isn’t any vinegar. (No hay vinagre.)
There aren’t any nuts. (No hay ninguna nuez.)
Interrogativa
Para preguntar ponemos is o are delante de there. En las respuestas breves volvemos al orden normal. Si son
negativas, usamos las formas contraídas. Al igual que en las negativas, en las oraciones interrogativas empleamos
any en lugar de a/an o some.
Is there any milk? Yes, there is. (¿Hay [algo de] leche? Sí.)
Are there any potatoes in the shop? No, there aren’t. (¿Hay patatas / alguna patata en la tienda? No.)

1 Complete the chart with the words below. Countable Nouns


Uncountable Nouns
Add a, an or some. Singular Plural

tomato • sheep • bread • rice • fish a tomato some tomatoes


cheese • sugar • meat • pencil • ear

2 Complete the sentences with a, an, some or 3 Complete the sentences with There is,
any. There isn’t, There are or There aren’t.
1. There are some chips on the table. 1.  There are some sandwiches in my
2. Have you got sugar? schoolbag.
3. I want rice with my chicken, 2. any cheese for lunch.
please. 3.  a fish in the aquarium.
4. There aren’t men in the It’s blue and yellow.
kitchen. 4.  some sauce on the rice.
5. There is sandwich for you in 5.  any women at the café.
the dining room. 6.  a meatball on my
6. Do you want orange? spaghetti. Please give me one.

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GRAMMAR APPENDIX

Check Yourself!
4 Write questions with Is there or Are there
and the words below.
1. any / olives / on the pizza
Are there any olives on the pizza? Circle the correct answers.
2. any / orange juice / in the house 1. I’m thirsty. I want some / a milk, please.
2. There is / There are some sandwiches
3. a / good café / in your town for lunch.
3. Is there / Are there any potatoes in the
4. any / eggs / on the table kitchen?
4. There are three men / man at the
restaurant.
5. any / food / in your bedroom
5. Tom doesn’t want some / any lunch.

6. There isn’t / There aren’t any rice in
6. any / programmes / about food / on TV the house.
7. Please don’t put a / an egg in my salad.
7. an / onion / in your hand 8. There is / There are a new café here.

Answers, see page 30

EXTRA!

How much / How many


Utilizamos how much y how many para preguntar sobre cantidades.
Utilizamos how many con nombres contables.
How many meals are there? (¿Cuántas comidas hay?)
Utilizamos how much con nombres no contables.
How much food is there? (¿Cuánta comida hay?)
También utilizamos how much para preguntar sobre el precio de las cosas.
How much is it? (¿Cuánto cuesta?)

Complete the sentences with How much or How many.


1. How many students are there in your school?
2. chocolate do you eat every day?
3. time have we got for lunch?
4. pens have you got?
5. cola do you drink every day?
6. brothers and sisters has Helen got?

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GRAMMAR APPENDIX

unit 6

Can / Can’t, Must / Mustn’t


can / can’t
Can expresa la habilidad (saber), la posibilidad (poder) o el permiso para hacer algo.
He can dance very well. (Sabe bailar muy bien.)
We can run today. (Podemos correr hoy.)
En negativa se usa cannot, sin separación, o la forma contraída can’t.
I can’t drive. (No sé conducir.)
They can’t carry me. (No me pueden llevar.)
En interrogativa se invierte el orden y se coloca el sujeto detrás de can. En las respuestas breves se utiliza
el pronombre conveniente y can o can’t.
Can you play tennis? Yes, I can. (¿Sabes jugar al tenis? Sí.)
Can I do judo? No, you can’t. (¿Puedo hacer yudo? No.)
must / mustn’t
Must expresa la necesidad, conveniencia u obligación de hacer algo (significa “deber”).
You must listen to the teacher. (Debes escuchar a la profesora.)
En cambio, mustn’t, que es la contracción de must y de not, indica que la acción expresada por el otro verbo
no es conveniente o está prohibida.
We mustn’t speak in class. (No debemos hablar en clase. [no está bien])
You mustn’t swim in the river. (No debéis bañaros en el río. [está prohibido])

1 Circle the correct answers.

Check Yourself!
1. A baby can / can’t cook food.
2. A fish can / can’t swim.
3. A frog can / can’t jump.
4. A dog can / can’t read. Choose the correct answers.
5. An elephant can / can’t ride a bike. 1. You … listen to your teachers.
a. mustn’t b. must
2 Complete the sentences with must or mustn’t. 2. I … do the homework. It’s hard!
1. The teacher is talking. You mustn’t a. can’t b. mustn’t
talk. 3. Jenny … run very fast. She always gets first
2. You listen to your parents. prize.
a. can b. must
3. Students sit on their desks.
4. You … use your mobile phone in the lesson.
4. You stop at a red light. a. can’t b. mustn’t
5. You feed the animals at the 5. An elephant … sweep the floor.
zoo. a. mustn’t b. can’t
6. You drink water on a hot day. 6. The classroom … be clean at the end
of a lesson.
a. must b. mustn’t
7. I … speak French, but my German is very
good.
a. can b. can’t
8. You … kick the ball in football.
a. must b. mustn’t

Answers, see page 30

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GRAMMAR APPENDIX

Los adverbios de modo


Los adverbios de modo describen la forma en que se realiza la acción. Con ellos se responde
a las preguntas que empiezan con How ...? (¿Cómo...?). La mayoría son regulares y se forman
añadiendo la terminación ly al adjetivo correspondiente, aunque algunos no siguen esta regla
y hay que saberlos de memoria (good – well, fast – fast, hard – hard).
I can’t run quickly. (No puedo correr deprisa.)

3 Complete the sentences with the adverb form of the adjectives in brackets.
1. Dan can win the race. He runs quickly (quick).
2. Brian works (hard). He works ten hours every day.
3. Wendy loves tennis. She always plays (happy).
4. Pete’s geography mark is 20%. He didn’t do (good).
5. I’m not a good dancer. I dance (bad).
6. Donna sings (beautiful).

Check Yourself!
Complete the sentences with the adverb form of the adjectives below.
sad • happy • good • hard • bad • slow • beautiful • hungry
1. She comes to the lessons because she loves them.
2. Dave reads . He only reads one book a year.
3. Keith is good on the piano. He plays it .
4. Mandy always works . She’s a good student.
5. Shakira sings . I listen to her every day.
6. “I want to eat,” the boy says .
7. Laura isn’t happy. She talks .
8. I don’t play football well. I play it .

Answers, see page 30

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GRAMMAR APPENDIX

unit 7

El verbo to be en pasado
En afirmativa, usa was cuando el sujeto sea I, he, she o it, y were si el sujeto es we, you o they. Fíjate en la
expresión temporal que suele haber en la oración (yesterday, last month, the other day, etc.).
John was next to the cinema yesterday. (John estaba al lado del cine ayer.)
Peter and Carla were a good couple. (Peter y Carla eran una buena pareja.)
En negativa añadimos not, que con was y were se contraen en wasn’t y weren’t.
He wasn’t at the church. (No estaba en la iglesia.)
En interrogativa ponemos was y were al principio y en las respuestas breves usamos los pronombres sujeto y
was / wasn’t o were / weren’t.
Were the students at the museum? Yes, they were. / No, they weren’t.
(¿Estuvieron los alumnos en el museo? Sí. / No.)

1 Complete the sentences with was, wasn’t, were or weren’t. Make the sentences true for you.
1. I at home last night.
2. Our teacher late yesterday.
3. My friends at the cinema yesterday.
4. My family and I at a football game last Thursday.
5. I at the library yesterday.
6. My friend and I at a party at the weekend.

2 Write the words in the correct order to make questions.

Check Yourself!
1. the bank / open / was / yesterday
Was the bank open yesterday?
2. you / were / last week / at school
Complete the sentences with the correct
past form of the verb to be.
3. angry / the teacher / was / yesterday
1. My friends (not) at

home yesterday.
4. Lin and Lee / last night / at the party / were
2.  Chloe happy at the
party?
5. Tony / was / at home / last weekend 3. I late for school
yesterday.
4.  you at home on Saturday
morning?
5. I (not) at school on
Tuesday.
6.  the children with you
at the supermarket?
7. We at the museum last
week.
8. Sarah (not) in my class
last year.
Answers, see page 30

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GRAMMAR APPENDIX

There was / There were


There was indica que había una cosa, sea un nombre contable en singular o uno no contable.
There was a restaurant under the house. (Había un restaurante debajo de la casa.)
There was good meat at the butcher’s. (Había buena carne en la carnicería.)
There were indica que había dos cosas o más, y por eso se utiliza con nombres contables en plural.
There were hundreds of people in the shops. (Había cientos de personas en las tiendas.)
En negativa añadimos not, que con was y were se contraen en wasn’t y weren’t.
There weren’t any children at the sports centre. (No había niños en el polideportivo.)
Las preguntas empiezan con was o were, y en las respuestas breves volvemos al orden normal.
Si son negativas, usamos las formas contraídas.
Were there many people at the library? Yes, there were. / No, there weren’t. (¿Había mucha gente
en la biblioteca? Sí. / No.)

3 Complete the sentences with There was, There were, There wasn’t or There weren’t.
1. There was a maths test yesterday and it was hard.
2. any cheese in the sandwich.
3. a snake in the classroom and the students were frightened.
4. any computers 200 years ago.
5. some pencils in my pencil case five minutes ago.

4 Write the words in the correct order to make questions.


1. there / were / teachers / any / in the room
Were there any teachers in the room?
2. there / at the sports centre / was / a basketball game

3. were / any / people / there / at the museum

4. there / was / any / in the tea / sugar

5. a / good film / there / was / at the cinema

Check Yourself!
Complete the sentences with There was, There were, There wasn’t,
There weren’t, Was there or Were there.
1.  any books on the desk.
2. any people at the bookshop?
3. a cat in the room but there is one now.
4. some lions and tigers at the zoo.
5. a giraffe near the zebra. Where is it now?
6. any food at the party?
7. some food on the table.
8. any milk in the kitchen?

Answers, see page 30

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GRAMMAR APPENDIX

unit 8

El Past Simple en afirmativa


El Past Simple se usa para expresar acciones ocurridas en un momento concreto del pasado y para contar
historias en pasado.
I saw a great jacket last week. (Vi una chaqueta estupenda la semana pasada.)
Se usan las mismas expresiones temporales que con el verbo to be en pasado, pues indican el momento en
que ocurrió la acción.
Antes de añadirle ed a un verbo regular para ponerlo en pasado, hay que fijarse en estas reglas ortográficas:
• Si acaba en e muda, solo añadimos d.
arrive ➝ arrived
• Si es monosílabo y acaba en vocal + consonante, dobla esa consonante.
stop ➝ stopped
• Si acaba en consonante + y, cambia la y por una i antes de añadirle ed.
study ➝ studied
Los verbos irregulares no añaden ed y por lo tanto tienes que aprendértelos de memoria. Puedes encontrar
la lista en las páginas 31-32.

1 Complete the chart. -ed -d -ied


 ance • play • try • change • carry
d danced
walk • bounce • wait • study

2 Complete the sentences with the correct


form of the verbs below. Use the Past Simple.



watch • like • walk • talk • study

1. The teacher talked to my mother


Check Yourself!
yesterday. Complete the sentences with the
2. We the new teacher. She was Past Simple form of the verbs below.
very nice. buy • start • take • wear • study • see
3. Judy to school yesterday. chat • visit

4. Adam TV for five hours 1. We our grandparents in


last night. London last weekend.
5. I hard for the test. 2. Lisa out the rubbish an
hour ago.
3 Complete the sentences with the Past Simple 3. Don for the history test
form of the verbs in brackets. last night.
1. Carol wrote (write) an e-mail to 4. I on the phone with my
her friend yesterday. friend after school.
2. I (buy) a new sweater two 5. They a new computer
days ago. last week.
3. We (go) to the sports centre 6. Mandy and Pete
last night. a good film on TV yesterday.
4. Mario (draw) a beautiful 7. The film at 8 o’clock.
picture at school yesterday. 8. Mary new trainers
5. The students (have) two tests at school yesterday.
last week.
Answers, see page 30
6. I (see) that film last night.
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GRAMMAR APPENDIX

Los demostrativos
This – este, esta, esto
That – ese, esa, eso o aquel, aquella, aquello
These – estos, estas
Those – esos, esas o aquellos, aquellas
Recuerda que concuerdan con el sustantivo al que se refieren solo en número (singular / plural),
mientras que en castellano también concuerdan en género (masculino / femenino).
That is his scarf. (Aquella es su bufanda.)
These are your trousers. (Estos son vuestros pantalones.)
Funcionan como adjetivos cuando van delante de un sustantivo. En este caso, this y that no
conservan los significados de “esto”, “eso” o “aquello”.
This car is clean. (Este coche está limpio.)
Those men are Chinese. (Esos hombres son chinos.)

4 Complete the sentences with This, That, These or Those.


1 2 3

“ This is a “ books are “ is a new


great computer game.” Danny’s.” school.”

4 5 6

“ are my “ dogs are “ is your


parents.” beautiful.” pen.”

Check Yourself!
Circle the correct answers.
1. This / These is my new scarf.
2. Are this / these your shoes?
3. That / Those boy is in my class.
4. That / This is my new hat. It’s on my head.
5. These / Those trousers in the shop window are very nice.
6. Is these / this my pencil?
7. Look at that car. Are those / these your sisters in the car?
8. These / This chocolates are fantastic!
Answers, see page 30

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GRAMMAR APPENDIX

unit 9

be going to
En afirmativa se forma con el presente de to be + going to y un verbo en la forma base, y significa “ir a” +
infinitivo. Como expresa nuestros planes e intenciones, suele llevar alguna expresión de futuro que indique
cuándo haremos la acción (tomorrow, later, soon, etc.).
I’m going to ride a horse tomorrow. (Voy a montar a caballo mañana.)
En negativa añadimos not o n’t al verbo to be.
She isn’t going to sail this summer. (Ella no va a navegar este verano.)
Las preguntas empiezan con am, is o are, y en las respuestas breves solo repetimos estas formas de to be, sin
contraer en afirmativa y contraídas en negativa.
Are your friends going to go to the beach on Wednesday? Yes, they are. / No, they aren’t. (¿Tus amigos van a ir
a la playa el miércoles? Sí. / No.)

1 Complete the sentences with the verbs in brackets. Use be going to.
1. Jack is going to travel (travel) to school by train.
2. We (not eat) hamburgers for lunch.
3. I (study) for the test later.
4. My mother (not work) at the hospital today.
5. Donna and Faye (buy) new clothes after school.

2 Write questions with the words below. Use be going to.


1. the boys / play / basketball / tomorrow
Are the boys going to play basketball tomorrow?
2. Ben / start / the project / today

3. you / meet / your friends / at the shopping centre / later

4. Jack and Laura / have / dinner / at eight o’clock

5. Sue / do / her homework / tonight

Check Yourself!
Complete the sentences with the verbs in brackets. Use be going to.
1. My friends (make) me a party for my birthday.
2. Jodi (not read) that book.
3. the girls (finish) the project tomorrow?
4. I (meet) Mark at the café later.
5. We (not play) computer games tonight.
6. Carla (buy) an iPod soon?
7. Sally (drive) to France in the summer.
8. I (be) in your class next year?
Answers, see page 30

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GRAMMAR APPENDIX

uro
El Present Continuous con valor de fut
Anuncia un evento que ocurrirá en el futuro próximo porque así se ha fijado de antemano.
Para que esa idea de futuro esté clara debemos decir cuándo ocurrirá la acción.
We are flying at three o’clock tomorrow. (Volamos / Volaremos mañana a las tres.)
Recuerda, si es una intención usa be going to. Si es algo seguro, usa el Present Continuous
(también en castellano usamos el presente para anunciar lo que haremos con toda seguridad).
I am staying at home tonight. (Me quedo / quedaré en casa esta noche.)
En la Unidad 4 vimos cómo se forman la negativa, la interrogativa y las respuestas breves del
Present Continuous. Repásalas allí si lo necesitas.
My brother is not coming later. (Mi hermano no viene / no vendrá después.)
Are you having lunch in an hour? Yes, we are. / No, we aren’t. (¿Coméis / Comeréis dentro
de una hora? Sí. / No.)

3 Complete the sentences with the correct


form of the verbs below. Use the Present
Continuous.
Check Yourself!
 o • leave • play • have • not meet
g Complete the sentences with the correct form
not work of the Present Continuous.

is leaving 1.  Lynn (fly) to


1. The bus at 1 o’clock.
America tonight?
2. Sue and Pam tennis on
2. My friends (go) to the sports
Monday.
centre after school.
3.  Dave to
3. I (not ride) my bicycle to
the bakery soon?
school this morning.
4. My dad at home
4. We (not have) a test tomorrow.
tomorrow.
5.  you (take)
5.  Brad and Andy
your brother to the shops soon?
a party after school?
6. Tania (not play) tennis later.
6. I Tom this evening.
7. The train (come) at 6 o’clock.
8. I (leave) in five minutes.
EXTRA! Answers, see page 30

Los pronombres personales objeto


Sustituyen a un sustantivo que ya se ha mencionado antes y, como hacen la función
de complemento, van detrás del verbo o de una preposición.
I’ve got two cats. Do you want to see them? (Tengo dos gatos. ¿Quieres verlos?)
This motorbike is for you. (Esta moto es para ti.)
me me (a mí) it lo, la (una cosa o un animal)
you te (a ti), lo, la, le, se (a usted) us nos (a nosotros/as)
him lo, le, se (a él) you os (a vosotros/as), los, las, les (a ustedes)
her la, le, se (a ella) them los, las, les, se (a ellos/as)

Complete the sentences with the correct object pronouns.


1. This is Jane’s sweater. Please give it to her .
2. We are going to a restaurant. Do you want to come with ?
3. Our new bicycles are red. Do you want to see ?
4. I have got Greg’s pen. I must give it to .
5. That’s my sandwich. Mum made it for .

Build Up 1 Spanish © B Burlington Books 29


check yourself! answer key

Introduction, page 10, to be Unit 5, page 21, There is / There are; a, an, some, any
1. is 3. Are 5. are 7. aren’t 1. some 5. any
2. isn’t 4. am 6. Is 8. Am 2. There are 6. There isn’t
3. Are there 7. an
Introduction, page 11, Las partículas interrogativas 4. men 8. There is
1. What 3. Where 5. Why 7. Where Unit 6, page 22, Can / Can’t, Must / Mustn’t
2. When 4. Who 6. What 8. When
1. b 3. a 5. b 7. b
2. a 4. b 6. a 8. a
Unit 1, page 12, have got
1. have got 5. Has … got Unit 6, page 23, Los adverbios de modo
2. haven’t got 6. has got
1. happily 5. beautifully
3. Have … got 7. hasn’t got
2. slowly 6. hungrily
4. hasn’t got 8. Has … got
3. well 7. sadly
4. hard 8. badly
Unit 1, page 13, Los adjetivos posesivos
1. Your 3. Their 5. His 7. Our Unit 7, page 24, El verbo to be en pasado
2. My 4. Her 6. Its 8. Your
1. weren’t 3. was 5. wasn’t 7. were
2. Was 4. Were 6. Were 8. wasn’t
Unit 2, page 15, El Present Simple en afirmativa y
los adverbios de frecuencia
Unit 7, page 25, There was / There were
1. starts 3. go 5. writes 7. watch
1. There weren’t 5. There was
2. walk 4. cleans 6. does 8. studies
2. Were there 6. Was there
3. There wasn’t 7. There was
Unit 2, page 15, El genitivo sajón
4. There were 8. Was there
1. students’ work 5. girl’s dog
2. brother’s notebook 6. parents’ birthdays Unit 8, page 26, El Past Simple en afirmativa
3. boys’ names 7. teacher’s sister
1. visited 5. bought
4. Alice’s house 8. friends’ schoolbags
2. took 6. saw
3. studied 7. started
Unit 3, page 17, El Present Simple en negativa e
4. chatted 8. wore
interrogativa
1. meet 3. doesn’t like 5. Does 7. sleeps Unit 8, page 27, Los demostrativos
2. Do 4. don’t go 6. helps 8. don’t have
1. This 3. That 5. Those 7. those
2. these 4. This 6. this 8. These
Unit 4, page 18, El Present Continuous
1. Are … going 5. Is … getting Unit 9, page 28, be going to
2. isn’t playing 6. am not studying
1. are going to make 5. aren’t going to play
3. are having 7. Am … talking
2. isn’t going to read 6. Is … going to buy
4. am listening 8. aren’t eating
3. Are … going to finish 7. is going to drive
4. am going to meet 8. Am … going to be
Unit 4, page 19, Contraste Present Continuous /
Present Simple
Unit 9, page 29, El Present Continuous con valor
1. a 3. b 5. b 7. a de futuro
2. b 4. a 6. a 8. b
1. Is … flying 5. Are … taking
2. are going 6. isn’t playing
3. am not riding 7. is coming
4. aren’t having 8. am leaving

Build Up 1 Spanish © B Burlington Books 30


IRREGULAR VERB LIST

BASE FORM (V1) PAST SIMPLE (V2) PAST PARTICIPLE (V3) CASTELLANO
be /VA/ was/were /rFh/rK/ been /VAm/ ser, estar
beat /VAW/ beat /VAW/ beaten /'VAWm/ golpear
become /VB'YJl/ became /VB'YMl/ become /VB'YJl/ llegar a ser
begin /VB'ZBm/ began /VB'Zæm/ begun /VB'ZJm/ empezar
bend /VCmX/ bent /VCmW/ bent /VCmW/ doblar(se)
bet /VCW/ bet /VCW/ bet /VCW/ apostar
bite /VOW/ bit /VBW/ bitten /'VBWm/ morder
bleed /VoAX/ bled /VoCX/ bled /VoCX/ sangrar
blow /VoLH/ blew /VoI/ blown /VoLHm/ soplar
break /VpMY/ broke /VpLHY/ broken /'VpLHYLm/ romper
bring /VpBn/ brought /VpGW/ brought /VpGW/ traer
build /VBoX/ built /VBoW/ built /VBoW/ construir
burn /VKm/ burnt/burned /VKmW/VKmX/ burnt/burned /VKmW/VKmX/ quemar
buy /VO/ bought /VGW/ bought /VGW/ comprar
catch /Yæa/ caught /YGW/ caught /YGW/ coger, agarrar
choose /aIh/ chose /aLHh/ chosen /'aLHhm/ elegir
come /YJl/ came /YMl/ come /YJl/ venir
cost /YFgW/ cost /YFgW/ cost /YFgW/ costar
cut /YJW/ cut /YJW/ cut /YJW/ cortar
dig /XBZ/ dug /XJZ/ dug /XJZ/ cavar
do /XI/ did /XBX/ done /XJm/ hacer
draw /XpG/ drew /XpI/ drawn /XpGm/ dibujar
dream /XpAl/ dreamt/dreamed /XpClW/XpAlX/ dreamt/dreamed /XpClW/XpAlX/ soñar
drink /XpBnY/ drank /XpænY/ drunk /XpJnY/ beber
drive /XpOd/ drove /XpLHd/ driven /'XpBdm/ conducir
eat /AW/ ate /CBW/ eaten /AWm/ comer
fall /cGo/ fell /cCo/ fallen /'cGoLm/ caer(se)
feed /cAX/ fed /cCX/ fed /cCX/ alimentar
feel /cAo/ felt /cCoW/ felt /cCoW/ sentir(se)
fight /cOW/ fought /cGW/ fought /cGW/ luchar
find /cOmX/ found /cPmX/ found /cPmX/ encontrar
fly /coO/ flew /coI/ flown /coLHm/ volar
forget /cL'ZCW/ forgot /cL'ZFW/ forgotten /cL'ZFWm/ olvidar
forgive /cL'ZBd/ forgave /cL'ZMd/ forgiven /cL'ZBdm/ perdonar
freeze /cpAh/ froze /cpLHh/ frozen /'cpLHhm/ congelar(se)
get /ZCW/ got /ZFW/ got /ZFW/ conseguir; llegar
give /ZBd/ gave /ZMd/ given /ZBdm/ dar
go /ZN/ went /rCmW/ gone /ZFm/ ir
grow /ZpN/ grew /ZpI/ grown /ZpNm/ crecer; cultivar
hang /kæn/ hanged/hung /kænX/kJn/ hanged/hung /kænX/kJn/ colgar
have /kæd/ had /kæX/ had /kLX/ tener; haber
hear /kBL/ heard /kKX/ heard /kKX/ oír
hide /kOX/ hid /kBX/ hidden /'kBXm/ esconder(se)
hit /kBW/ hit /kBW/ hit /kBW/ golpear, pegar
hold /kNoX/ held /kCoX/ held /kCoX/ sujetar
hurt /kKW/ hurt /kKW/ hurt /kKW/ herir, hacer daño
keep /YAU/ kept /YCUW/ kept /YCUW/ guardar, mantener
know /mN/ knew /mqI/ known /mNm/ saber, conocer
lay /oCB/ laid /oCBX/ laid /oCBX/ poner, extender
lead /oAX/ led /oCX/ led /oCX/ guiar, conducir

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IRREGULAR VERB LIST

BASE FORM (V1) PAST SIMPLE (V2) PAST PARTICIPLE (V3) CASTELLANO
learn /oKm/ learnt/learned /oKmW/oKmX/ learnt/learned /oKmW/oKmX/ aprender
leave /oAd/ left /oCcW/ left /oCcW/ dejar; irse, salir
lend /oCmX/ lent /oCmW/ lent /oCmW/ prestar
let /oCW/ let /oCW/ let /oCW/ permitir, dejar
lie /oO/ lay /oCB/ lain /oCBm/ tumbarse, echarse
lie /oO/ (regular verb) lied /oOX/ lied /oOX/ mentir
light /oOW/ lit /oBW/ lit /oBW/ encender
lose /oIh/ lost /oFgW/ lost /oFgW/ perder
make /lCBY/ made /lCBX/ made /lCBX/ hacer, fabricar
mean /lAm/ meant /lCmW/ meant /lCmW/ significar, querer decir
meet /lAW/ met /lCW/ met /lCW/ conocer a; reunirse con
pay /UM/ paid /UMX/ paid /UMX/ pagar
put /UHW/ put /UHW/ put /UHW/ poner
read /pAX/ read /pCX/ read /pCX/ leer
ride /pOX/ rode /pLHX/ ridden /'pBXm/ montar
ring /pBn/ rang /pæn/ rung /pJn/ llamar (por teléfono)
rise /pOh/ rose /pLHh/ risen /'pBhm/ elevarse, alzarse
run /pJm/ ran /pæm/ run /pJm/ correr
say /gM/ said /gCX/ said /gCX/ decir
see /gA/ saw /gG/ seen /gAm/ ver
sell /gCo/ sold /gLHoX/ sold /gLHoX/ vender
send /gCmX/ sent /gCmW/ sent /gCmW/ enviar
set /gCW/ set /gCW/ set /gCW/ colocar
shake /iMY/ shook /iHY/ shaken /'iMYLm/ agitar
shine /iOm/ shone /iFm/ shone /iFm/ brillar
shoot /iIW/ shot /iFW/ shot /iFW/ disparar
show /iLH/ showed /iLHX/ shown /iLHm/ mostrar
shut /iJW/ shut /iJW/ shut /iJW/ cerrar
sing /gBn/ sang /gæn/ sung /gJn/ cantar
sink /gBnY/ sank /gænY/ sunk /gJnY/ hundirse
sit /gBW/ sat /gæW/ sat /gæW/ sentarse
sleep /goAU/ slept /goCUW/ slept /goCUW/ dormir(se)
smell /glCo/ smelt/smelled /glCoW/glCoX/ smelt/smelled /glCoW/glCoX/ oler
speak /gUAY/ spoke /gULHY/ spoken /gULHYLm/ hablar
spell /gUCo/ spelt/spelled /gUCoW/gUCoX/ spelt/spelled /gUCoW/gUCoX/ deletrear
spend /gUCmX/ spent /gUCmW/ spent /gUCmW/ gastar; pasar (tiempo)
stand /gWæmX/ stood /gWHX/ stood /gWHX/ estar de pie
steal /gWAo/ stole /gWLHo/ stolen /'gWLHoLm/ robar
stick /gWBY/ stuck /gWJY/ stuck /gWJY/ pegar
sweep /grAU/ swept /grCUW/ swept /grCUW/ barrer
swim /grBl/ swam /græl/ swum /grJl/ nadar
take /WMY/ took /WHY/ taken /'WMYLm/ coger, llevar
teach /WAa/ taught /WGW/ taught /WGW/ enseñar
tear /WCL/ tore /WG/ torn /WGm/ romper, desgarrar
tell /WCo/ told /WLHoX/ told /WLHoX/ decir, contar
think /eBnY/ thought /eGW/ thought /eGW/ pensar
throw /epN/ threw /epI/ thrown /epNm/ arrojar, tirar
understand /JmXC'gWæmX/ understood /JmXC'gWHX/ understood /JmXC'gWHX/ comprender, entender
wake up /rMY 'JU/ woke up /rLHY 'JU/ woken up /rLHYLm 'JU/ despertar(se)
wear /rCL/ wore /rG/ worn /rGm/ llevar puesto, ponerse
win /rBm/ won /rJm/ won /rJm/ ganar
write /pOW/ wrote /pLHW/ written /'pBWm/ escribir

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WRITING GUIDE

las MAYÚSCULAS
(Capital letters)

Se escriben con mayúscula:


• los nombres: Tom Ashton
• los nombres de lugares como ciudades, países, continentes, edificios famosos, museos, etc.:
London, France, Europe, Madame Tussauds, the British Museum
• las nacionalidades: English, Moroccan
• los días: Saturday, Tuesday, Thursday
• los meses: July, August, November
• la primera palabra de una oración: We are at school.
• el pronombre personal I: I am Russian.
• los idiomas: English, French, German

las preposiciones de tiempo


(Prepositions of time)

Se usan distintas preposiciones delante de las horas y los periodos de fiesta, los días y las fechas, los meses,
los años y las partes del día. Es muy importante que sepas utilizar la correcta preposición en cada caso.
Presta atención a estos ejemplos:
at horas: at four o'clock
festividades: at New Year
on días de la semana: on Tuesday
fechas: on 26th November
on Christmas Day
in meses: in January
años: in 2015
partes del día: in the morning
Excepciones:
at the weekend
at night

la puntuación
(Punctuation)

• El punto (.) va al final de las oraciones afirmativas y negativas.


Whales live in the ocean.
Giraffes don’t eat animals.
• El signo de interrogación (?) se pone solo al final de las preguntas.
Have you got a hamster?
Do you like snakes?
• El de exclamación (!) también se pone solo al final de la frase y sirve para expresar una emoción o un
sentimiento y para hacer hincapié en algo.
Wow! This is great!
• La coma (,) se usa para separar palabras o ideas. Normalmente no se pone delante de and.
I’ve got a dog, a cat and a snake.

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writing guide

el orden de las palabras: sujeto – verBo


(Word order: Subject – Verb)

El sujeto de la oración se pone delante del verbo.


Mark speaks English. They are in the garden.
s v s v
Pero en las preguntas, el verbo va delante del sujeto.
Is Helen tall? Are you at home?
v s v s

el orden de las palabras: Los adjetivos


(Word order: Adjectives)

Normalmente van delante de los sustantivos.


big sandwich great food
adj n adj n
Y también detrás del verbo to be.
The sandwich is big. The food is great.
n adj n adj

las conjunciones
(Linking words)

Son palabras que unen dos o más ideas.


• and (y) une dos oraciones o ideas parecidas.
I can swim and I can dance.
• but (pero) une dos ideas contradictorias entre sí.
I like basketball but I can’t play it.
• because (porque) da la razón o causa de algo.
I must run because I’m late.

los conectores de secuencia


(Connectors of sequence)

Cuando contamos una serie de hechos usamos estas palabras para mostrar el orden en que ocurrieron:
• first (primero, en primer lugar)
• then (luego, entonces)
• next (a continuación)
• after that (después)
• finally (finalmente, para terminar)
First indica lo primero que pasó y finally lo último.
Yesterday I was in town. First, I went shopping. Then, I had lunch with my friends.
After that, I went to a museum. Finally, I went home.

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