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Article Geological Map of Colombia 2015

Article  in  Episodes · October 2017


DOI: 10.18814/epiiugs/2017/v40i3/017023

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Article 201

By Jorge Gómez Tapias1*, Nohora E. Montes Ramírez1, María F. Almanza Meléndez1,


Fernando A. Alcárcel Gutiérrez1, César A. Madrid Montoya1, and Hans Diederix1

Geological Map of Colombia 2015


1
Colombian Geological Survey, diagonal 53 No. 34-53, Bogotá, Colombia; *Corresponding author, E-mail: mapageo@sgc.gov.co

(Received: November 27, 2015; Revised accepted: July 10, 2016)

http://dx.doi.org/10.18814/epiiugs/2017/v40i3/017023

The Geological Map of Colombia 2015 summarizes the the GMC database.
superficial geological information of Colombia. It is the The base map used for GMC was provided by Geographical Insti-
final product of a process of integration and generaliza- tute Agustín Codazzi (IGAC), which was prepared from the NASA
tion of the cartographic information of the existing geo- SRTM DEM radar interferometric data (USGS, 2004) with 30 m res-
logical maps published by the Colombian Geological Survey olution. Taking into account the thematic character of the GMC, we
established a visual hierarchy always considering the priority of the
complemented by the interpretation of remote sensing
geological information over other map features. Therefore, during the
imagery of previously unmapped areas. Harmonization was
adaptation of the base map, it was necessary to reduce the complexity
controlled using remote sensing imagery such as Landsat
of the information and modify the cartographic style changing the
TM and DEM shaded relief images. Geological units rep- color patterns, where the basemap data are in grey and the streams and
resented were defined according to chronostratigraphic- rivers, in light blue.
lithostratigraphic criteria. The Geological Map of Colombia
2015 is presented in two sheets and includes: the information
of 240 geological maps at a scale of 1:100,000; updating Methodology
was carried out by means of consultation of scientific papers
published until October 2014; a “Radiometric Dating Cat- The principal tool used in the elaboration of the GMC was ESRI’s
alog of Colombia in ArcGIS and Google Earth” has been ArcMap-ArcGIS 9.3.1 desktop software. The procedure used to per-
attached; across border harmonization and adjustments form the GMC was to convert the layers of lithostratigraphic units, faults
with the geological maps of Peru and Brazil were the result and folds in different formats to shapefile. Then we proceeded to con-
of feedback discussions during international meetings; vert the shapefiles from Bogota datum (prior Colombian datum) to
the inset Map of the Tectonic Framework of NW South Amer- MAGNA datum. The transfer from the Bogota datum to the MAGNA
ica and the Caribbean was elaborated making use of dis- system was performed according to the regional processing parame-
placement vectors based on GPS data updated until 2014; ters established by the IGAC (2004). The MAGNA Datum is the offi-
the chronostratigraphic units patterns were created with cial coordinate system for Colombia established by the IGAC and it is
a font, and the map presentation is in Google Earth. noteworthy that it has an associated ellipsoid corresponding to the
GRS80 (Global Reference System 1980), equivalent to WGS84 (World
Geodetic System 1984).
Introduction Once the shapefiles had been obtained in MAGNA, they were gen-
eralized to 1:1 M scale for the GMC. Lastly, the shapefiles were transferred
The Geological Map of Colombia (GMC) released by the Colom- as Feature classes to a Feature Dataset incorporated in a File Geodata-
bian Geological Survey (CGS) in 2015 is the fruit of 14 years of con- base containing the integrated geological map named gmc2015.gdb.
tinuous data compilation. It includes the information of 240 geological One aspect of the process of data integration that required special
maps at the scale of 1:100,000 published until December 2013 that attention was the frequency of poor matching of the geological fea-
covers 57% of the Colombian territory and complemented by geolog- tures across sheet boundaries. The ArcMap-ArcGIS tools allowed the
ical data published until October 2014. display, superimposition and thus the simultaneous comparison of the
For those areas where there was no map coverage available, unpub- compiled cartographic information with remote sensing imagery; while
lished maps were used from the oil industry or geological consultancy shaded relief images facilitated the correct positioning of mapped
groups. However, due to the heterogeneous nature of the Colombian geological units and structures. Those tools improved matching process
landscape, that includes inaccessible places of high relief and/or cov- of adjacent map sheets considerably. In order to control the process of
erage by dense tropical forest, considerable gaps remain. Those gaps map joining and correlation, extensive use was made of Landsat Tem-
were filled with the interpretation from remote sensing imagery (19.2% atic Mapper (TM) imagery (bands 457) and shaded relief images.
of the country). The cartographical sources are included as a layer in These shaded relief images in combination with Landsat TM imagery

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had the capability to accentuate the geomorphologic features, making the geological surveys of Brazil, Colombia and Peru (IMGEMMET)
it possible to achieve better quality control of the compiled data. In initiated the preparation of the geological sheets NA.-19, NB.-19 and
this way, in sectors where there was no correspondence between SA.-19. For this purpose, three interdisciplinary workshops were held
physiographic features and the distribution of rock units and struc- at the University of Tabatinga in Brazil from the 1st to the 2nd October
tures indicated in the maps, harmonization was made with the aid of 2009, from the 10th to the 11th August 2010, and from the 30th Novem-
these tools. ber to the 1st December 2011. One of the main results of those work-
Shaded relief images were generated in ArcScene-ArcGIS with the shops was the cross border harmonization of the geological maps of
Hillshade tool from NASA SRTM DEM (USGS, 2004). As most of Brazil, Colombia and Peru. This task was achieved using both Geocover
the Colombian topographic features have a mainly N-NE orientation, imagery from NASA, and Aeromagnetometry and Aerogamaspec-
a combination of two shaded relief images (grouped) were used, the trometry maps. The information and feedback resulting from those
first one created with an azimuth of 45°, a vertical look angle of 45° meetings with the teams of Peru and Brazil was included in the GMC.
and a transparency of 50% superimposed, and the second one with an Following the recommendation of McLelland (2006) that points
azimuth of 315°, a vertical look angle of 45° and without transparency. out that the evaluation by the scientific community is the final part of
This configuration permits an excellent visualization of geomorpho- the scientific method; the GMC has held extensive divulgation meetings
logical features for the major part of the Colombian territory, in par- at universities, formal and informal events and national (e.g., Gómez
ticular the Andean part. et al., 2005; Gómez et al., 2009; Gómez and Montes, 2011) and inter-
Once all the information was integrated and draft maps had been national congresses (e.g., Gómez et al., 2008; Gómez et al., 2012).
printed, work proceeded on the digital editing necessary to convert the During the GMC’s divulgation important discussions and valuable
innumerable sinuous and zigzagging lines which resulted from reduc- contributions facilitated the identification of misallocated ages and
ing the scale 10 times from the original map information into smooth misinterpretations of some units. The GMC mapping team has accepted
and legible boundaries, always subjected to checks by satellite images all of these contributions, on the basis of the strength of the arguments
and shaded relief images. and the data (e.g., Triassic age of the metamorphic rocks of the cordil-
In order to update the GMC, all the published geological informa- lera Central, considered to be pre-Ordovician in the 2007 edition of
tion related to the Colombian geology was reviewed, such as national the GMC), and so those contributions were corrected and incorpo-
and international scientific journals; books; undergraduate, master and rated in the version released in 2015.
doctorate theses; geology conference proceedings; reports produced On the other hand, because of the wide areal extent and distribution
by institutions such as the National Hydrocarbons Agency (ANH); of Cretaceous rocks and their particular importance as the source rock
unpublished reports of the CGS, and geological maps of neighboring of hydrocarbons, it was decided to carry out a special study focused
countries. This information was stored in physical media for quick on a better and more complete codification definitions. This study
consultation, and the references were added to an End Note X4 library. consisted in a review of the lithostratigraphic ages assigned to each of
All of these publications permitted to update the GMC on the following the geological cartographic units and the methods used to date those
aspects: units (Gaona-Narváez, 2005). Additionally the time intervals that cor-
1. Ages of igneous and metamorphic geological units of the map responds to the ammonite content reported for each unit were validated.
were updated using geochronological data, mainly ages Ar40-Ar39 and Finally, on this basis, an update of the biostratigraphic correlation
U-Pb taken from the “Radiometric Dating Catalog of Colombia in between lithostratigraphic units was achieved. Based on this informa-
ArcGIS and Google Earth” (Gómez et al., 2015) generated specifi- tion, 20 Chronostratigraphic Units (CU) were separated within the
cally for this purpose. Cretaceous rock sequence. This separation permits the figuring out of
2. Structural and subsurface information helped to improve the the diachronous nature of these units, the spatial and temporal varia-
definition of the type, nomenclature and traces of the faults included tion of the sedimentary facies and the subsequential interpretation of
in the GMC 2015 (e.g., Barrero et al., 1998, and Restrepo-Pace et al., the marine transgressive and regressive phases during the Cretaceous.
2004). Finally, in order to make difficult choices when data collected pre-
3. Ages of many sedimentary units were updated according to sented a great deal of contradiction and ambiguity, 370 days of field
reports of macro and micropaleontological fossils (e.g., Grösser and work were made to visit many places around the country between July
Prössl, 1991; Latrubesse et al., 2010). 2004 and October 2014. Those field visits have helped to solve some
4. In order to make the Geological Terranes Map of Colombia, the of these geological problems and helped in the decision making pro-
geotectonic framework of many areas of Colombia was reviewed, cess. It also provided an opportunity to take more samples for geo-
evaluated and validated. It is worth mentioning the important contri- chronological dates and to discover new fossiliferous localities that
butions in the publications of Maya and González (1995), Tassinari have provided valuable new data.
and Macambira (1999), Kerr et al. (2002), Cordani et al. (2005), Weber
et al. (2009), Cardona et al. (2010), Weber et al. (2010), Villagómez et al.
(2011), Restrepo et al. (2011) and Martens et al. (2014). Radiometric Dating Catalog of Colombia
Currently, the Subcommission for South America of the Commis-
sion for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW) is undertaking the The science and technology of Geochronology have evolved
publication of the Geological and Mineral Resources Map of South during the ultimate decades and this has resulted in greater precision
America at a scale of 1:1 M sponsored by the Iberoamerican Mining and reliability in dating. This is of immense value to geologic research
and Geology Surveys Association (ASGMI). In this context, in 2009 in which correct geochronology constitutes a key factor. During the

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Figure 1. Geographical distribution of radiometric datings carried out in Colombia.

last decade in Colombia a great number of samples have been col- “Radiometric Dating Catalogue of Colombia in ArcGIS and Google
lected for geochronological dating. These have been critical to the Earth” (Gómez et al., 2015). It constitutes a compilation of all geo-
understanding of the geological complexity Colombia, and have led chronological data in the Colombian territory prior to October 2014
to the development of updated geologic models that have been incor- (Fig. 1).
porated in the GMC 2015. Geochronological dating of samples is based on the measuring
As the GMC is a document in a continuous process of updating, it methods of radioactive decay such as: Ar-Ar, Carbon-14, Fission Track,
was considered useful to complement the cartographic part with the K-Ar, Pb-Pb, Rb-Sr, Re-Os, Sm-Nd, U-Pb, U-Th, U-Th/He and U-Th/Pb.

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Table 1. Attributes of the radiometric ages of the radiometric dating catalog of Colombia
Field Explanation
Radiometric dating ID Numeric identifier for each dating, age ordered (youngest to oldest)
Sample code Field or laboratory sample code
Geological unit Formal or informal geologic unit reported by the author where the sample was taken
Lithology Type of rock, sediment or material analyzed
Age years BP Years Before Present obtained with Carbon-14
Error years Error in years obtained with Carbon-14
Ma age Age in millions of years calculated with the geochronological analysis
Error in millions of years as reported by the author without specifying the type (RMSE, 1 sigma, 2 sigma,
Ma Error 95% confidence interval)
Minimum single grain detrital age Minimum age reported for detrital grains of a sample
Major single grain detrital age Maximum age reported for detrital grains of a sample
Stratigraphic age Age reported in the field "Age Ma", according to the International Chronostratigraphic Chart (Cohen et al., 2013)
Inherited ages Age ranges inherited from zircons cores
Methods of radioactive decay: Ar-Ar, Carbon-14, fission tracks (EDM, LA-ICP-MS), K-Ar, Pb-Pb, Rb-Sr,
Dating method Re-Os, Sm-Nd, U-Pb (ID-TIMS, LA-ICP-MS, LA-MC-ICP-MS and SHRIMP), U-Th/He and U-Th/Pb
(LA-ICP-MS)
Material analyzed Material or mineral analyzed
Initial ratio Initial ratio of 87Sr/86Sr in Rb-Sr, 143Nd/144Nd in Sm-Nd and 187Os/186Os in Re-Os method
MSWD Mean Square Weighted Deviation
P(Χ2) % Chi square probability X2 of Galbraith (1981) and Green (1981). Values > 5% represent a single population
Dispersion of central age, algorithm of Galbraith & Lasleth (1993), expressed in percentage. Dispersion >
Dispersion (%) 30% confirms there are more than one population of age
Number of grains analyzed Number of grains used in each sample
Number of aliquots Single grain aliquots taken for U-Th / He method
Georeferencing source Brief description of how the location coordinates were obtained
X coordinate Northing meters in plane cartesian coordinates
Y coordinate Easting meters in plane cartesian coordinates
Origin of coordinates as displayed in ArcMap/ArcGIS: MAGNA Colombia West West, MAGNA_Colom-
Coordinate system bia_Oeste, MAGNA_Colombia_Bogota, MAGNA_Colombia_Este and MAGNA_Colombia_Este_Este
Latitude Latitude in degrees, minutes, seconds and milliseconds in Datum MAGNA
Longitude Longitude in degrees, minutes, seconds and milliseconds in Datum MAGNA
Reference Brief reference
Reference ID Reference identifier. Each reference has its URL when it exists
Comments The age type cf. field "Ma Age", age interpretation by the author and additional information

Each radiometric dating was stored in a File Geodatabase in Arc- graphic practice at the IGAC’s official cartography (1:100,000). Once
GIS 9.3.1. A total of 4427 records were stored, out of which 3801 are the figure was georeferenced, the sample point of geochronologic dat-
georeferenced and 626 have no coordinates. Dating information is ing was obtained.
available in a table as well as in a Feature Class created as part of a In other cases when the coordinates were not available or those
Feature Dataset in a File Geodatabase using the MAGNA geographic were wrong, the author of the publication was contacted (in fact many
coordinate system, and also as a KMZ file with the WGS84 coordi- locations were compiled in this way). For each sample the way in which
nate system to display in Google Earth. Table 1 shows the attributes the coordinates were obtained was reported in the attributes table
table that includes all the information compiled. (Table 1, cf. column Georeferencing source). When no coordinates were
Each original coordinate was checked and then sourced in the File available that was also reported.
Geodatabase. Checking consisted in verifying its coordinate system,
because quite commonly it happens that the coordinates have not been
reported by the author or they proved to have errors. In those cases Philosophy and Design
where the coordinates were not available but the published informa-
tion contains the figure that indicates the sample point, that figure was During the process of preparation of the GMC, we developed our
georeferenced. If the figure had coordinates it was georeferenced with own specific methodology which reflects the characteristics and map-
them; if not, use was made of geographical control points such a ping history of Colombia, complemented with elements and experi-
drainage links, highways, bridges, cities, etc. which is common carto- ences obtained from other geological surveys.

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Figure 2. Sheet 1 of the Geological Map of Colombia 2015.

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Figure 3. Sheet 2 of the Geological Map of Colombia 2015.

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The GMC consists of 2 sheets. Sheet 1 (Fig. 2) being the map and Caribbean at a scale of 1:5,000,000 has been plotted on a DEM and
Sheet 2 the map legend (Fig. 3). The former contains, as the main ele- shows the major tectonic features. The principal fold and fault struc-
ment, the geologic map. This map includes representations of the off- tures were copied from the GMC 2015. The values of the relative
shore islands of Colombia; but because of their large distance from motion vectors of plates were taken from the GPS data from the
the mainland and their small size, those are displayed as insets at a GEORED project of the CGS and Protti et al. (2012). GPS displace-
scale of 1:100,000 (Fig. 4). Displayed in one inset are cited the corpo- ment vectors, updated to December 2014, indicate magnitude and azi-
rate credits and author listing and another inset displays the Localiza- muth. GPS data were compiled from 57 stations that belong to the
tion of Colombia in South America. In addition, there are diagrams International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) 2005.
that provide the reader with a better contextual understanding of the Sheet 2 presents the CU, accompanied by a brief description of the
geology of Colombia. Those include a sketch of the Tectonic Frame- rock types and deposits (Fig. 4). The CU are organized according to
work of Northwestern South America and the Caribbean; the Colom- their age of formation, with the more recent materials placed at the
bian Physiographic Map, showing the location of the most prominent top of the sheet. In order to display those elements, the International
features frequently quoted in geological description of the country, Chronostratigraphic Chart (ICC) (Cohen et al., 2013) was reproduced
and the Geological Terranes Map of Colombia (Fig. 4). Finally, there on the left margin of the sheet.
are insets that display the conventions, which describe the structural All map units were defined according to a mixed chronostratigraphic-
elements and a list that displays the citations used for the Quaternary lithostratigraphic classification scheme that took into account 3 crite-
volcanoes. ria: age, lithology and geological terrane.
The Tectonic Framework of Northwestern South America and the In this classification scheme a distinction was made between rocks

Figure 4. Design of the two sheets of the Geological Map of Colombia. To the left, the sheet 1 insets. (1) Geological Map of Colombia, (2) Geo-
logical Map of San Andrés, (3) Geological Map of Providencia, (4) Tectonic Framework of Northwestern South America and the Caribbean,
(5) Geological Terranes Map of Colombia, (6) Localization Map of Colombia in South America, (7) Physiographic Map of Colombia, (8) sug-
gested citation, (9) cartographic sources of the base map, (10) Quaternary volcanoes of Colombia, (11) geological conventions, (12) lithologic
pattern chart, (13) credits and (14) Geological Map of Gorgona. To the right, the sheet 2. The International Chronostratigraphic Chart (ICC)
was reproduced on the left margin of the sheet. The Geological Map of Colombia 2015 working hypothesis, which takes into account that the
crustal evolution of Colombia is consequence of successive accretion events, was used to design the gray background of the legend sheet on
which chronostratigraphic units (CU) are showed according to their relationship with these tectonic events. 4 chronostratigraphic units’
examples were enlarged with their description of rocks or deposits that compose them. Note the location maps in the lower left corner of each
terrane, 2 were expanded as examples. (RNJP) Río Negro–Juruena Province, (CHT) Chibcha Terrane, (TT) Tahamí Terrane, (AT) Anacona
Terrane, (QT) Quebradagrande Terrane, (ART) Arquía Terrane, (TC) Caribe Terrane and (LGT) La Guajira Terrane.

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Figure 5. (continued).

and unconsolidated deposits. The latter were subdivided according to


type of deposit in: alluvium, terrace, alluvial fan, paludal, glacial, pyroclas-
tic, dune, swamp and volcanoclastic. On the other hand, rocks were
represented in accordance with their principal types in: igneous, meta-
morphic and sedimentary with volcaniclastic rocks as a separate type.
Igneous rocks were differentiated both according to their composition
(ultramafic, mafic, intermediate and felsic) and to their environment
of formation (plutonic, hypabyssal and volcanic).
Metamorphic rocks were differentiated according to their grade of
metamorphism into very low, low, medium, and high grade and high
pressure (sensu the Geological Map of South America compiled by
Schobbenhaus and Bellizia, 2001, and the International Geological Map
of Europe and Adjacent Areas compiled by Asch, 2005). An exception
was made in the case of marbles due to their occurrence in several grades
of metamorphism and their relative economic importance.
For the sedimentary and volcanoclastic rocks the main environment
of accumulation was indicated as marine, transitional or continental,
whereas transitional environments include delta plains, coastal lagoons,
intertidal flats and coastal fans. However, due to the extent of the out-
crops and to the map scale at which the information is displayed, some
stratigraphic intervals cover diverse environments and for this reason
it was necessary to create subdivisions that considered the merging of
various environments (continental–transitional, continental–transitional–
marine, and transitional–marine).
With respect to the color scheme used to indicate the age of the
GMC’s units, classification and values of Red, Green and Blue (RGB)
were adopted from the Commission for the Geological Map of the
World (Pellé, 2008). In order to improve the identification of the CU
and the readability of the map, a pattern was designed for each type
and formation environment of rocks and deposits (Fig. 5). Half of these
were taken from FGDC (2006) and the other half was developed by
the GMC’s team at the CGS. In this way, each CU is represented by a
color that represents its age and a pattern which corresponds to its
lithology and by extension its formation environment.
For improved visualization patterns were created with a font loaded
in ArcGIS to generate the pattern. This methodology was adapted from
the Geologic Map of North America (Reed et al., 2005) and has the
advantage that the display of the map in ArcGIS is faster, printing time is
reduced around to 80% and the map has a sharper control in the graphics
output, both in paper and in PDF format.
In addition, to each CU was assigned with a code composed by the
recommended notation for geochronologic units (Remane, 2000),
separated by a hyphen from an acronym that shows the rock type and
its formation environment. The main rock type is indicated by uppercase
Figure 5. Lithologic pattern chart. letters (M: metamorphic, VC: volcaniclastic, etc.) followed by lower-

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Figure 6. Geological Terranes Map of Colombia. Terrane abbreviation is in parenthesis in the legend, followed by a hyphen and age notation. K1:
Early Cretaceous, T: Triassic, P: Permian, D: Devonian, C1: Mississippian, MP: Mesoproterozoic, NP: Neoproterozoic, and PP: Paleoproterozoic.

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case letters that depict its composition, metamorphic grade or deposi- annotations were added containing the map code identification of
tional environment in accordance to whether it is igneous, metamorphic individual units, as well as the names of the main tectonic structures.
or sedimentary rock respectively (u: ultramafic, lg: lower grade of These annotations were put on the map to facilitate identification of
metamorphism, ct: continental–transitional). The following example each polygon in such a way that they do not interfere with the annota-
illustrates this notation: tions of the base map, which were eventually modified.
Finally, when at the beginning of the age notation appears the letter
ρ (rho), it indicates that the CU can be assigned to any period poste-
rior to that age (e.g., ρT-Sm was assigned to marine sedimentary rocks
with a post-Triassic age).
Assignment of the age code was made in each case according to the
existing knowledge of the CU geochronological age. In some cases,
because of the uncertainty of available knowledge it was decided to GIS
assign a code of era for the CU (e.g., PZ-Sm corresponds to Paleozoic
As part of constructing the digital database for the GMC a data model
marine sedimentary rocks). When geochronological data allowed the pre-
was designed. This data model, in addition to its characteristics as an
cise definition of the rock age the assignment of the code was specified at
independent GIS for an ArcMap-ArcGIS File Geodatabase, could be
the level of age (e.g., b2-Vf for felsic volcanic rocks of the Valanginian).
implemented into a corporate geodatabase integrated in the CGS´s
When geochronological data indicated time intervals of rock ages, their
GIS. CGS’s GIS is supported by a technological platform that handles
limits were shown (e.g., k5E1-Stm indicates Campanian to Paleocene
data with the database management system Oracle 10 g, spatial data
age sedimentary rocks of transitional and marine environments). When
engine ArcSDE 9.1 and ArcGIS 9.3.1 for spatial data handling.
rock age data was doubtful, uncertainty was expressed with question
For users who do not have ArcGIS, the GMC 2015 were implemented
marks (e.g., b5?k6-Sctm, it suggests that we deal with sedimentary
as image overlays in Google Earth. The CU layer attributes can be
rocks accumulated in continental, transitional and marine environ-
displayed clicking on the map because the CU layer is overlaid with
ments between the Maastrichtian and possibly the Aptian; n1?n5?-
99% of transparency. Likewise, the Colombian Quaternary volcanoes
VCc stands for volcaniclastic rocks accumulated in continental envi-
are also included as a layer in the KMZ file.
ronments, possibly between the Aquitanian and Tortonian).
Additionally, when an acronym is followed by one digit, this number
represents the geological terrane (e.g., K2-Vm7 refers to Upper Creta- Final Considerations and Conclusions
ceous mafic volcanic rocks of the Caribbean Terrane). Geological terrane
is used here according to the definition of Neuendorf et al. (2005). The GMC 2015, released on 20th August 2015, 99 years after the
The Geological Terranes Map of Colombia proposal (Fig. 6) was anniversary of the installation of the Colombian National Scientific
prepared based on information compiled for the GMC and the “Radiomet- Commission by Decree of Law 83 of 1916 with the task of surveying
ric Dating Catalog of Colombia in ArcGIS and Google Earth” (Gómez et the Colombian territory, summarizes the work of exploration and geo-
al., 2015). In this map, the Anacona Terrane is used sensu Martens et al. logical investigations carried out since then. However, never before
(2014), the Tahamí and Chibcha terranes sensu Restrepo et al. (2011) the information has been as accessible as it is now, being available in
and the Río Negro-Juruena province sensu Tassinari & Macambira (1999). GIS format. Nowadays, we have a system that not only permits easy
The boundaries among Arquía, Quebradagrande and Caribbean terranes consultation but also facilitates rapid updating. This task in the CGS is
are sensu Maya and Gonzalez (1995). carried out by an ongoing project whose unique purpose is to produce
Taking into account that proper map readings of the colors and pat- periodic versions of the GMC in the light of new information and sci-
terns used for the representation of CU were insufficient, additional entific advances in the interpretation of geological phenomena. Our

Table 2. URL to download the GMC and the radiometric dating catalog of Colombia in different formats
Product Format URL
MXD https://www.sgc.gov.co/ProgramasDeInvestigacion/Geociencias/Documents/Descargables/MXD_GMC.zip
ArcGIS File Geodatabase,
LYR and style https://www.sgc.gov.co/ProgramasDeInvestigacion/Geociencias/Documents/Descargables/SIG_GMC.zip
Geological PDF https://www.sgc.gov.co/ProgramasDeInvestigacion/Geociencias/Documents/Descargables/gmc2015.pdf
Map of
Colombia TIFF https://srvags.sgc.gov.co/Archivos_Geoportal/Geologia/TIFF_GMC.zip
2015
Google Earth (Spanish) https://srvags.sgc.gov.co/Archivos_Geoportal/Geologia/mgc2015.zip
Web service http://srvags.sgc.gov.co/Flexviewer/Mapa_Geologico_Colombia_2015/
ArcGIS Online http://arcg.is/1QJKWCq
ArcGIS File Geodatabase https://www.sgc.gov.co/ProgramasDeInvestigacion/Geociencias/Documents/Descargables/SIG-CDR.zip
Radiometric
dating catalog Google Earth https://www.sgc.gov.co/ProgramasDeInvestigacion/Geociencias/Documents/Descargables/KMZ_CDR.zip
of Colombia
EndNote reference https://www.sgc.gov.co/ProgramasDeInvestigacion/Geociencias/Documents/Descargables/EndNote_References.zip

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goal is to have a new Geological Map of Colombia updated at least of Colombia 2007 as a contribution to the OneGeology Project: 33th
each four years. International Geological Congress, Oslo, Memoirs CD ROM, 1 p.
Table 2 contains the URL where the GMC and “Radiometric Dating Gómez, J., Nivia, Á., and Montes, N.E., 2009, Geological Map of Colombia:
X Simposio Bolivariano Exploración Petrolera en las Cuencas Suban-
Catalog of Colombia in ArcGIS and Google Earth” can be downloaded
dinas, Cartagena, Resúmenes, 48 p.
in different formats completely free of charge from the website of the Gómez, J., and Montes, N.E., 2011, Geological Map of Colombia (2nd edi-
CGS. tion): XIV Congreso Latinoamericano de Geología y XIII Congreso
The GMC team hope that this model could be useful to different Colombiano de Geología, Medellín, Memorias, pp. 258–259.
geological surveys and geoscientists all around the world, with regard Gómez, J., Galán, B., and Muñoz, G., 2012, Geological atlas of Colombia:
Proceedings of the 34th International Geological Congress 2012, Bris-
to Earth scientists frequently have to deal with similar compilation
bane, Memoirs CD ROM, pp. 790.
tasks, such as build large scale geological maps. Gómez, J., Montes, N.E., Alcárcel, F.A., and Ceballos, J.A., 2015, Catálogo
de dataciones radiométricas de Colombia en ArcGIS y Google Earth:
in Gómez, J., and Almanza, M.F. (eds.), Compilando la Geología de
Acknowledgements Colombia: Una Visión a 2015: Bogotá, Servicio Geológico Colombiano,
Publicaciones Geológicas Especiales, 33, pp. 63–419.
We are grateful with the CGS´s Director, Oscar Paredes Zapata and Green, P.F., 1981, A new look at statistics in fission-track dating: Nuclear
Tracks, v. 5, no. 1, pp. 77–86.
with the Basic Geosciences Director, Alberto Ochoa Yarza, for his help,
Grösser, J.R., and Prössl, K.F., 1991, First evidence of the Silurian in
support and comprehension during the compilation work. Colombia: Palynostratigraphic data from the Quetame Massif, Cordil-
lera Oriental: Journal of South American Earth Sciences, v. 4, no. 3, pp.
231–238.
References IGAC, 2004, Adopción del marco geocéntrico nacional de referencia
MAGNA-SIRGAS como datum oficial de Colombia: Instituto Geográf-
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1:5,000,000. Evidence from the late Cretaceous Caribbean-Colombian oceanic pla-
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The equipment works in Geological Map of Colombia Project in the Basic Geosciences Directorate of the Colombian Geological Survey. From left to right:
Jorge Gómez Tapias is the coordinator of the Project, since 2010 is Secretary General for South America of the Commission for the Geological Map of the
World (CGMW); Nohora E. Montes Ramírez is co-author of this continental projects and has a postgraduate degree in Geomatic. María F. Almanza Melén-
dez is geologist and most of her work is concerned with texts edition, she is a Master in Geology candidate with the Honor Degree scholarship at the National
University of Colombia. Hans Diederix works as a consultant at the CGS, he is interested is in neotectonics and paleoseismology, and crustal dynamics of the
Northern Andes. Fernando A. Alcárcel Gutiérrez supports research works, he developed the Google Earth version of the Radiometric Catalog of Colombia
and the Geological Map of Colombia 2015, César A. Madrid Montoya has been working in the actualization of the GMC in the latest two versions, and
Mónica A. Gómez Correa is the new member of the team.

September 2017

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