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Amplitude Modulation Reception  SENSITIVITY

- minimum RF signal level that can be detected at


RF SECTION
the input to the receiver and still produce a
- first stage of the receiver usable demodulated info signal
- RECEIVER FROM END - RECEIVER THRESHOLD
- Detecting, bandlimiting and amplifying the
DYNAMIC RANGE
received RF signals
- difference in decibels between minimum input
MIXER / CONVERTER SECTION
level necessary to discern a signal and the input
- Converts received RF frequencies to level that will overdrive the receiver and
Intermediate frequencies (Ifs), frequencies in- produce distortion
between RF and information frequencies - input power range over which the receiver si
useful
IF SECTION - amplification and selectivity
FIDELITY – measure of the ability of a communications
AM DETECTOR – demodulates the AM wave and system to produce, at the output of the receiver, an
converts it to the original information signal exact replica of the original source information
AUDIO SECTION – amplifies the recovered information 1. Amplitude
RECEIVER PARAMETERS – commonly used to evaluate 2. Frequency
the ability of the receiver to successfully demodulate a 3. Phase
radio signal ABSOLUTE PHASE SHIFT – total phase shift encountered
 SELECTIVITY – measure the ability of the by a signal and can be tolerated as long as all freq.
receiver to accept a given band of frequencies undergo the same amount of phase delay
and reject others DIFFERENTIAL PHASE SHIFT – different frequencies
SHAPE FACTOR undergo different phase shifts and may have
detrimental effect on a complex waveform
𝐵(−60 𝑑𝐵)
𝑆𝐹 = INSERTION LOSS – frequencies that fall within the
𝐵(−3 𝑑𝐵)
passband of a filter and defined as a ratio of the power
B(-60 dB) – bandwidth 60dB below maximum signal level transferred to a load with a filter in the circuit to the
power transferred to a load without filter
B(-3 dB) – bandwidth 3 dB below maximum signal level
𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡
BANDWIDTH IMPROVEMENT (BI) – noise reduction 𝐼𝐿(𝑑𝐵) = 10 log
𝑃𝑖𝑛
ratio achieved by reducing the bandwidth
𝐵𝑅𝐹 NOISE TEMP & EQUIVALENT NOISE TEMP.
𝐵𝐼 =
𝐵𝐼𝐹 𝑁
𝑇=
𝐾𝐵
NOISE FIGURE IMPROVEMENT – corresponding
reduction in the noise figure due to the reduction in T – environmental temp (K)
bandwidth
N – noise power (W)
𝑁𝐹𝑖𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 10 log 𝐵𝐼
K – Boltzmann’s Constant (1.38x10-23 J/K)

B – bandwidth (Hertz)
EQUIVALENT NOISE TEMPERATURE, Te - hypothetical  RF Section
value that cannot be directly measured - consists of preselector and amplifier stage
- separate circuits or a single combined circuit
𝑇𝑒 = 𝑇(𝐹 − 1)
Preselector – provide enough initial band limiting to
prevent an unwanted radio frequency, IMAGE FREQ.
Two basic types of radio receivers:
 Mixer/Converter Section
COHERENT
Local Oscillator – radio-frequency oscillator
- SYNCHRONOUS RECEIVER
First Detector – mixer/converter stage
- Frequencies are synchronized to the oscillator
frequencies generated in the transmitter 455 kHz – most common IF used in AM broadcast-band
NONCOHERENT  IF Section
- Consists of a series of IF amplifiers and band
- ASYNCHRONOUS RECEIVER
pass filters, IF STRIP
- ENVELOPE DETECTION
- No frequencies are generated in the receiver or
are completely independent from the  Detector Section
transmitter’s carrier frequency - AUDIO DETECTOR / SECOND DETECTOR
- -information is recovered from the received - convert the IF signals back to the original source
waveform by detecting the shape of the information
modulated envelope
 Audio Amplifier Section
TUNED RADIO FREQUENCY RECEIVER (TRF) - Several cascaded audio amplifiers and one or
more speakers
- Earliest type of AM receivers
- Simplest designed radio receiver but have Receiver operation:
several shortcomings
1. RF is converted to IF
𝑋𝐿 2. IF is converted to the source information
𝑄=
𝑅
GANG TUNED
𝑓
𝐵=
𝑄 - Adjustment for the center frequency of the
preselector and LO frequency
- Two adjustments are mechanically tied
STAGGER TUNING – tuning each amplifier to a slightly together so that a single adjustment will change
different frequency, slightly above or below the desired the center frequency and LO frequency
center frequency
Frequency Conversion
HETERODYNE – mix two frequencies together in a
HIGH-SIDE INJECTION – LO frequency is tuned above RF
nonlinear device or to translate one frequency to
another using nonlinear mixing 𝑓𝐿𝑂 = 𝑓𝑅𝐹 + 𝑓𝐼𝐹

Sections of noncoherent superheterodyne receiver:

1. RF LOW-SIDE INJECTION – LO frequency is tuned below RF


2. Mixer/converter
𝑓𝐿𝑂 = 𝑓𝑅𝐹 − 𝑓𝐼𝐹
3. IF
4. Audio detector
5. Audio amplifier
TRACKING – ability of the local oscillator to oscillate
above or below the selected radio frequency carrier
TRACKING ERROR – difference between the actual LO 9. Automatic Gain Control Circuits
frequency and the desired frequency 10. Squelch Circuits
11. Noise Limiters and Blankers
THREE-POINT TRACKING – reducing tracking error
12. Alternate Signal-to-Noise Measurements
IMAGE FREQUENCY 13. Linear Integrated-Circuit AM Receivers

- Frequency other than the selected radio Double Conversion AM Receivers


frequency carrier that will produce a cross-
First IF – relatively high frequency for good image-
product frequency equal to the intermediate
frequency rejection
- Equivalent to a second radio frequency that will
produce an IF that will interfere with the IF Second IF – relatively low frequency for easy
from the desired radio frequency amplification

For high-side injection: NET RECEIVER GAIN – ratio of the demodulated signal
level at the output of the receiver to the RF signal level
𝑓𝑖𝑚 = 𝑓𝐿𝑂 + 𝑓𝐼𝐹
𝐺𝑑𝐵 = 𝑔𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑠𝑑𝐵 − 𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑠𝑑𝐵
𝑓𝑖𝑚 = 𝑓𝑅𝐹 + 2𝑓𝐼𝐹
Gains = ARF + AIF + AAudio
IMAGE-FREQUENCY REJECTION RADIO – ability of a
preselector to reject the image frequency Losses = Lpreselector+Lmixer+Ldetector

𝐼𝐹𝑅𝑅 = √1 + 𝑄 2 𝜌2
𝑓𝑖𝑚 𝑓𝑅𝐹
𝜌= ( )−( )
𝑓𝑅𝐹 𝑓𝑖𝑚
DOUBLE SPOTTING

- receiver picks up the same station at two


nearby points on the receiver-tuning dial
- one point is the desired location, the other is
the SPURIOUS POINT

AM RECEIVER CIRCUITS

1. RF Amplifier Circuits
2. Low- Noise Amplfiers
a) Integrated-Circuit RF amplifiers
3. Mixer/Converter
a) Integrated-Circuit mixer/oscillator
4. IF Amplifier Circuits
5. Inductive Coupling
a) Single-tuned transformers
b) Double-tuned transformers
c) Bandwidth Reduction
6. Integrated-Circuit IF Amplifiers
7. AM Detector Circuits
a) Peak Detector
b) Detector distortion
8. Automatic Gain Control Circuits
a) Simple AGC
b) Delayed AGC
c) Forward AGC
SHAPE FACTOR IMAGE-FREQUENCY REJECTION RADIO
𝐵(−60 𝑑𝐵) 𝐼𝐹𝑅𝑅 = √1 + 𝑄 2 𝜌2
𝑆𝐹 =
𝐵(−3 𝑑𝐵)
𝑓𝑖𝑚 𝑓𝑅𝐹
𝜌= ( )−( )
𝑓𝑅𝐹 𝑓𝑖𝑚
BANDWIDTH IMPROVEMENT (BI)
𝐵𝑅𝐹 NET RECEIVER GAIN
𝐵𝐼 =
𝐵𝐼𝐹
𝐺𝑑𝐵 = 𝑔𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑠𝑑𝐵 − 𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑠𝑑𝐵
NOISE FIGURE IMPROVEMENT
Gains = ARF + AIF + AAudio
𝑁𝐹𝑖𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 10 log 𝐵𝐼
Losses = Lpreselector+Lmixer+Ldetector

INSERTION LOSS
𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡
𝐼𝐿(𝑑𝐵) = 10 log
𝑃𝑖𝑛

NOISE TEMP & EQUIVALENT NOISE TEMP.


𝑁
𝑇=
𝐾𝐵
EQUIVALENT NOISE TEMPERATURE, Te

𝑇𝑒 = 𝑇(𝐹 − 1)

TUNED RADIO FREQUENCY RECEIVER (TRF)


𝑋𝐿
𝑄=
𝑅
𝑓
𝐵=
𝑄

Frequency Conversion

HIGH-SIDE INJECTION

𝑓𝐿𝑂 = 𝑓𝑅𝐹 + 𝑓𝐼𝐹


LOW-SIDE INJECTION

𝑓𝐿𝑂 = 𝑓𝑅𝐹 − 𝑓𝐼𝐹


IMAGE FREQUENCY

For high-side injection:

𝑓𝑖𝑚 = 𝑓𝐿𝑂 + 𝑓𝐼𝐹


𝑓𝑖𝑚 = 𝑓𝑅𝐹 + 2𝑓𝐼𝐹
Ex. Determine the improvement in the noise figure for a Ex. For an AM broadcast-band superheterodyne
receiver with an RF bandwidth equal to 200 kHz and an receiver with IF, RF, and LO frequencies of 455 kHz, 600
IF bandwidth equal to 10kHz kHz, and 1055 kHz, respectively. Determine:

a) Image frequency
b) IFRR for a preselector Q of 100

Ex. For an AM commercial broadcast-band receiver (535


kHz to 1605 kHz) with an input filter Q-factor of 54,
determine the bandwidth at the low and high ends of
the RF spectrum

Ex. For a citizens band receiver using high-side injection


with an RF carrier of 27 MHz and an IF center frequency
of 455 kHz, determine:

a) fLO
b) Image Frequency
Ex. For an AM superheterodyne receiver that uses high-
c) IFRR for a preselector Q of 100
side injection and has a fLO of 1355kHz, determine the IF
d) Preselector Q required to achieve the same
carrier, upperside frequency and lower side frequency
IFRR as that achieved for an RF carrier of 600
for an RF wave that is made up of a carrier and upper
kHZ in the previous example
and lower side frequencies of 900 kHz, 905 kHz, and 895
kHz, respectively.