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Objective(s):

EXPERIMENT NO. 2
DEMONSTRATION OF BERNOULLI’S PRINCIPLE

The objective of this experiment is to be demonstrate and evaluate the Bernoulli’s Principle of
incompressible fluid flows in pressurized closed conduits system. And the application in determining
velocity profile for a venture nozzle.

Intended Learning Outcome(ILOs):


At the end of the meeting the student shall be able to:
a.) Discuss the Bernoulli’s Principle of incompressible fluid flows.
b.) Interpret the gathered data with regards to the Bernoulli’s Principle. c.)
Evaluate the flow rate coefficient for the given venture nozzle.
Discussion:

The HM 150.07 is used to investigate the Bernoulli’s law. The measurement object is a
Venturi nozzle with six pressure measurement points. The six static pressures are displayed on a
board with six water pressure gauges.
The overall pressure can also be measured at various locations in the Venturi Nozzle and
indicated on a second water pressure gauge. Measurement is by way of a probe which can be moved
axially with respect to the venture nozzle. The probe is sealed by way of a compression gland. Water
is supplied either from the HM 150 Fluid Mechanics Basic Module or from the laboratory mains.

Table 1 : Parts
of HM 150.07

Resource(s):
1 unit Basic Hydraulic Bench HM 150 with accessories
1 unit Bernoulli’s Principle Demonstrator HM 150.07
Water
Supply
Power
Supply
1 unit Stopwatch

Procedure:
Arrange the experimentation set-up on the HM 150 such that the discharge routes the water into the
channel

• Make hose connection between HM 150 and HM 150.07


• Open discharge of HM 150
• Set cap nut (1) of probe compression gland such that slight resistance is felt on moving
probe
• Open inlet and outlet valves
• Switch on pump and slowly open main cock of HM 150
• Open vent valves (2) on water pressure gauges
• Carefully close outlet valve until pressure gauges are flushed
• By simultaneously setting inlet and outlet valve, regulate water level in pressure gauges
such that neither upper nor lower range limit (UL, LL) is overshot or undershot
• Record pressures at all measurement points. Then move overall pressure probe to
corresponding measurement level and note down overall pressure
• Determine volumetric flow rate. To do so, use stopwatch to establish time t required for
raising the level in the tank of the HM 150 from 20l to 30l

Course: CE 411 Experiment No.: 2


Group No.: 2 Section: CE42FB1
Group Leader: Casia, Michael Angelo C. Date Performed: 23 November 2017
Group Members: Date Submitted: 7 December 2017
Cano,Gabriel U. Instructor: Engr. Emmanuel Lazo
Chavez, Aldwin Jacob A.
Garcia,Camille B.
Labayo,Bryan E.
Lopega,Lara Jane A.
Moya,Angelica Fipe B.

Data and Results:

TRIA
L1
I h1 in mm h2 in mm h3 in mm h4 in mm h5 in mm h6 in mm t (10L) V (L/s)
hstat. 280 275 200 240 250 253 95s 0.11
htotal 130 130 130 130 130 130
hdyn. 1020 1025 1100 1060 1050 1047
wmeas. 4.47m/s 4.48m/s 4.65m/s 4.56m/s 4.54m/s 4.53m/s
wcalc.

Graph:

TRIA
L2
I h1 in mm h2 in mm h3 in mm h4 in mm h5 in mm h6 in mm t (10L) V (L/s)
hstat. 215 213 180 195 200 200 157s 0.06
htotal 230 230 230 230 230 230
hdyn. 2085 2087 2120 2105 2100 2100
wmeas. 6.40m/s 6.40m/s 6.45m/s 6.43m/s 6.42m/s 6.42m/s
wcalc.

Graph:

Observation
We observed that when fluids moves from a region of higher pressure to lower pressure, the
velocity of the fluid increases. There are a little bit differences on the speed of the flow and the pressure
when we use Bernoulli‟s equation and Continuity equation to calculate velocity.

Analysis

Bernoulli’s equation holds that for fluids in an ideal state, pressure and density are inversely related
such that a slow-moving fluid exerts more pressure than fast-moving fluid. Whereas in this experiment the
fluid was water in which we measured its flow from 20 to 30 liters mark; it traveled for about 95 and 157
seconds and with those data we had a 0.11 and 0.06 L/s flow rate which concluded that it was a slow-
moving fluid that exerted more pressure.

Sources of Errors

1. The operation of the inlet and outlet valves during the insertion of the needle pointing below the
pressure gauges.
2. Unfamiliarity of the equipment and its parts.
3. Misunderstanding of the procedures which leads to improper execution.

Conclusion

The velocity of the water varies as the water flow through a wider tube to narrower tube and
velocity drops in opposite case inconsiderate the pressure difference and type of water flow. Therefore, the
smaller the cross-section the higher pressure indicated and velocity eventually decrease.
Pictures
ASSESSMENT FOR LABORATORY PERFORMANCE

CRITERIA BEGINNER ACCEPTABLE PROFICIENT 3 SCORE


1 2
I. Laboratory Skills
Members do not Members always
Manipulative demonstrate needed Members occasionally demonstrate
Skills skills. demonstrate needed skills needed skills.
Members are able to set-up the Members are able to
Experimental Members are unable to
Set-up set-up the materials. materials with supervision. set- up the material with
minimum supervision.
Members do not Members occasionally Members always
Process Skills demonstrate targeted demonstrate targeted demonstrate
process skills. process skills. targeted process
skills.
Members follow safety
Safety Members do not follow precautions most of the time. Members follow safety
Precautions safety precautions. precautions at all
times.
II. Work Habits
Time
Management / Members do not finish Members finish on time with Members finish ahead
Conduct of on time with incomplete incomplete data. of time with complete
Experiment data. data and time to revise
data.

Members do not know Members have defined Members are on


their tasks and have no responsibilities most of the time. tasks and have
Cooperative defined responsibilities. Group conflicts are cooperatively defined
and Teamwork Group conflicts have to managed most of the time. responsibilities at all
be settled by the times. Group conflicts
teacher. are cooperatively
managed at all times.
Clean and orderly
Neatness and Messy workplace during Clean and orderly workplace with
workplace at all
Orderliness and after the experiment. occasional mess during and after
times during and
the experiment.
after the experiment.
Ability to do Members require Members do not need
independent supervision by the Members require occasional to be supervised by the
work teacher. supervision by the teacher. teacher.
Other Comments/Observations: Total Score

(𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑆𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑒)
𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 = × 100 24