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J.

Bui
Complete this sheet and hand it in next lesson. Example. Find √−3 − 4𝑖.
4 Unit Complex Numbers – Set 2 “Introduction II” Solution. Let 𝑧 = 𝑥 + 𝑖𝑦 where 𝑧 2 = −3 − 4𝑖.
[5] Conjugates Then (𝑥 + 𝑖𝑦)2 = −3 − 4𝑖. Expanding gives (𝑥 2 − 𝑦 2 ) + 2𝑥𝑦𝑖 = −3 − 4𝑖.
We introduce a notation for conjugates. It is a bar on top. Equating real parts gives 𝑥 2 − 𝑦 2 = −3.
If 𝒛 = 𝒙 + 𝒊𝒚 then 𝒛̅ = 𝒙 − 𝒊𝒚. → You can only do this if 𝑧 is in Cartesian form! Equating imaginary parts gives 2𝑥𝑦 = −4 i.e. 𝑥𝑦 = −2.
By inspection (or by solving simultaneously) the solution is
Some properties you need to be familiar with: 𝑥 = 1, 𝑦 = −2 and 𝑥 = −1, 𝑦 = 2.
 (𝑧) = 𝑧 (the conjugate of a conjugate is itself) Hence √−3 − 4𝑖 = 1 − 2𝑖, −1 + 2𝑖.
 𝑧1 + 𝑧2 = 𝑧1 + 𝑧2
 𝑧1 − 𝑧2 = 𝑧1 − 𝑧2 Example. Use the above to solve 𝑥 2 − 3𝑥 + 3 + 𝑖 = 0.
 𝑧1 𝑧2 = 𝑧1 . 𝑧2 Solution. Δ = 9 − 4(1)(3 + 𝑖) = −3 − 4𝑖 = (1 − 2𝑖)2
 𝑧1 ÷ 𝑧2 = 𝑧1 ÷ 𝑧2 [When we √Δ in our quadratic formula, it does not matter which square root I
For the last 4, you can just remember you can ‘break the bar’ or ‘rejoin the bar’. choose. (the ± sign takes care of that).]
As an exercise you may like to try proving them. Hence 𝑥 =
3±(1−2𝑖)
= 1 + 𝑖, 2 − 𝑖.
2
Now, additionally, if 𝑧 = 𝑥 + 𝑖𝑦, 𝑧̅ = 𝑥 − 𝑖𝑦.
[7] Powers of 𝑖
 𝑧 + 𝑧̅ = 2𝑥. That is, 𝑧 + 𝑧̅ = 2𝑅𝑒(𝑧)
In class I have taught a more extensive section on this. However all you need to
 𝑧 − 𝑧̅ = 2𝑖𝑦. That is, 𝑧 − 𝑧̅ = 2𝑖 𝐼𝑚(𝑧) (note 𝐼𝑚(𝑥 + 𝑖𝑦) = 𝑦 NOT 𝑖𝑦) know is that 𝑖 2 = −1. Cut down any powers of 𝑖 by factorising even powers of 𝑖.

Example. If 𝑧 = 1 + 𝑖, find (𝑧 + 𝑧̅)2 and (𝑧 − 𝑧̅)3 . Example. Simplify 𝑖 34 , 𝑖 2017 and 𝑖 −13.
Solution. Solution. 𝑖 34 = (𝑖 2 )17 = (−1)17 = −1.
(𝑧 + 𝑧̅)2 = (1 + 𝑖 + 1 − 𝑖)2 = (2)2 = 4. 𝑖 2017 = 𝑖. 𝑖 2016 = 𝑖. (𝑖 2 )1008 = 𝑖(−1)1008 = 𝑖
3 1 1 1 1 𝑖
(𝑧 − 𝑧̅)3 = (1 + 𝑖 − (1 − 𝑖)) = (2𝑖)3 = 8𝑖 3 = 8𝑖. 𝑖 2 = −8𝑖 (since 𝑖 2 = −1) 𝑖 −13 = 13 = (𝑖2 )6 = (−1)6 = × = −𝑖.
𝑖 ×𝑖 ×𝑖 𝑖 𝑖
(when it is just 𝑖 downstairs instead of something like 1 + 2𝑖, we just times top
[6] Square root of a complex number and bottom by 𝑖 to clean up, rather than the conjugate)
 When we write √4, we mean the positive number which we square to
give 4. Thus √4 = 2. Try these yourself:
 However in complex numbers, there is no concept of a positive or Let 𝑧 = 2 − 𝑖√3 and 𝑤 = 1 + 𝑖√3. Find 𝑧 + 𝑤 and (𝑤 − 𝑤)2 .
negative √𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒𝑥 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟
o Hence we must write two answers.
The square roots of a + ib are the solutions to 𝑧 2 = 𝑎 + 𝑖𝑏
RULE:
 Let 𝑧 = 𝑥 + 𝑖𝑦
 Sub into 𝑧 2 = 𝑎 + 𝑖𝑏
 Equate real parts, equate imaginary parts, solve simultaneously for 𝑥/𝑦
J. Bui
Find the square roots of 5 + 12𝑖. 4
[b] Write (−√2 + √2𝑖) in Cartesian form, using de Moivre’s theorem.

[Note: The mod-arg video omits the mod-arg properties as the video was
intended for revision purposes rather than a first time exposure to the concept.
They have been reproduced below; you will be expected to memorise them.]

Online content: To prepare for next week it is highly recommended that you Modulus – the first few are similar to absolute value properties!
watch the following video lectures (see the class spreadsheet online):  |𝑧1 𝑧2 | = |𝑧1 ||𝑧2 |
 Modulus and argument I [password ‘waitress’] 𝑧 |𝑧 |
 |𝑧1 | = |𝑧1 |
 De Moivre’s theorem [password ‘thegetdown’] 2 2
1 1
 |𝑧| = |𝑧| (due to the above)
Then try the following.
 |𝑧 𝑛 | |𝑧|𝑛
=
[a] Write √3 + 𝑖, −√2 + √2𝑖 and −1 − √3𝑖 in modulus-argument form.  |𝑧̅| = |𝑧|
 𝑧. 𝑧̅ = |𝑧|2 … VERY IMPORTANT

Argument – the first few are similar to log properties!


 arg(𝑧1 𝑧2 ) = arg 𝑧1 + arg 𝑧2
𝑧
 arg (𝑧1 ) = arg 𝑧1 − arg 𝑧2
2
 arg(𝑧 𝑛 ) = 𝑛. arg 𝑧
1
 arg ( ) = − arg 𝑧
𝑧
 arg 𝑧̅ = − arg 𝑧
 arg(𝑧 + 𝑘2𝜋) = arg 𝑧