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HAIM DIAMANT

GRAMÁTICA INGLESA

THE ENGLISH GRAMMAR


IN A NUTSHELL

Herder
...

PRÓLOGO

El objeto de este volumen es ayudar a los estudiantes


y, en general, a todos los que deseen aumentar su
conocimiento del inglés ya sea háblado o escrito. No
pretende sustituir el normal estudio de la gramáti-
Diseño de la cubiena: CLAUDIO BADO y MÓNICA BAZÁN ca inglesa, sino que, por e! contrario, podrá ser uti-
lizado para refrescar los temas ya estudiados por el
lector en el pasado.

H.D.

© 2002, Haim Diamant

© 2002, Empresa Editorial Herder, S.A., Barcelona

La reproducción total o parcial de esta obra sin el consentimiento expreso


de tos titulares del Copyright está prohibida al amparo de la legislación vigente.

Imprenta: REINBOOK
Depósito Legal: B - 32.801 - 2002
Printed in Spain

ISBN: 84-254-2244-2 Herder Código catálogo: ID02244


Provenza, 388. 08025 Barcelona - Teléfono 93 476 26 26 - Fax 93 207 34 48
e-mail: editorialherder@herder-sa.com- http://www.herder-sa.com
ÍNDICE

Prólogo. ... . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 7

TIEMPOS VERBALES ••...• •• •.. •••••• • ••• • 11


1. Present simple tense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2. Present progressive tense . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3. Present perfect tense .;. ............. 14
4. Present perfect progressive tense ... .. . 16
5. Past simple tense .......... . . ..... . . 20
, 6. Past progressive tense ...... ... .•. ... 21
7. Past perfect tense .......... ......... 22
8. Past perfect progressive tense ..... .. .. 23
9. Past participle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
10. Future tense ............. .... .. .. . 30

CAMBIOS ORTOGRÁFICOS EN LOS PLURALES DE


ALGUNOS SUSTANTIVOS . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . . 33

ADJETIVO . ••• • • • • • • • • . • • • • . • • • • • . • • • . •• 36

ADVERBIO • • • • . . • • • • . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 40

PRONOMBRE • . . .. • . • .••• • ••. ••••• .• •• ••• 43


Pronombres relativos .. . . . . . . . • • . • . . . .. 45
Pronombres interrogativos . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 48

DISCURSOS DIRECTO E INDIRECTO .. • • • • . • • •• 52

VOCES ACTIVA Y PASIVA 58

9
FRASES CONDICIONALES . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . . . . 62

LA PREPOSICIÓN . • . . . • . . • . . . . • • • • . . . . • • . . 63

LA FORMA -ing ... .................... .. 68 TIEMPOS VERBALES


REGLAS ÚTILES 70
A continuación presentamos los principales tiempos
verbales y su uso apropiado.
Soluciones a los ejercicios . , .. , . . • . . . . • . .. 79

1. PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE

Usamos este tiempo en los siguientes casos:

• a) Cuando queremos expresar un hábito o una cos-


tumbre, por ejemplo:
1 sometimes eat breakfast at work.
1 read the newspaper every day.
He always drinks water with his meals.
She never smokes in publico
You ofien shout at me.
1 seldom drink líeer.
We usually go home together.
1 generally go home afier work.

Las palabras que señalan este tiempo son:


always
generally
never
I ofien
seldom
sometimes
usually

10 11
b) Cuando queremos expresar una verdad general e 2. PRESENT PROGRESSIVE TENSE
indiscutible:
Cold winds blow in the Aretie zone. Usamos este tiempo cuando una acción se está rea-
The sun rises in the east. lizando en este momento; lo construimos agregan-
Tbe moon sbines at night. do al verbo en cuestión "el sufijo -ing, por ejemplo:
1 am eating now.
e) Cuando queremos expresar sentimientos o el uso You are pushing too hard.
de los sentidos, por ejemplo: He is running too fast.
I see you.
He laves her. Este tiempo siempre aparece precedido pof:
We believe him. I am
They like you. you are
he is
d) Después de las palabras: she is
as soon as it is
befare we are
if you are
until theyare
when

Por ejemplo :
If you see him tomorrow
(y no: Ifyou will see him ... ).
When you come to Rome
(y no: When you will come ... ).
Let me know before you speak to him
(y no: before you will ... ).
He will start as soon as 1 arrive
(y no: as 1 will arrive ...).
You may play until the bus arrives ,
(y no: the bus will arrive ... ).

"
12 J3
3. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE He has rung his mother today. (El día aún
no ha concluido.)
Este tiempo aparecerá siempre precedido por: Danny has eaten too mueh this week. (La
1 have semana no ha terminado.)
you have 1 have not se en him lately. (El período
he has "lately" QO ha terminado aún -última-
she has mente.)
it has He has not spoken to me sinee last week.
we have (El período "sinee" -desde- no ha termi-
youhave nado aún. Ambos períodos se prolongan
they have hasta el presente.)
1 have given it to him already.
y lo usaremos en los casos siguientes: He has ealled me twiee reeently.
1 have never se en it.
a) Para expresar una acción iniciada tiempo atrás She is the most intelligent woman 1 have
pero que aún continua en el presente, por ejemplo: ever met.
1 have lived in this house for 5 years.
SIGNIFICADO: Vivo en esta casa desde hace Viendo las oraciones precedentes usaremos este
5 años. tiempo cuando se relacione con las palabras:
already
1 have be en married for 10 years. ever
SIGNIFICADO: Estoy casado desde hace lately
10 años. never
reeently
b) Para expresar una acción realizada en un tiempo since
desconocido o, por lo menos, no mencionado, por this week
ejemplo: \ this month
The groeer has closed his shop. (¿Cuándo? this year
No lo sabemos.) today
1 have broken the ehair. (¿Cuándo? No lo
sabemos.)

e) Para expresar una acción comenzada en un tiempo


o período no concluido aún: ,
1 have written to my father 4 times this
year. (El año no ha terminado aún.)

14 15

d
4. PRESENT PERFECT Exereise No. 1
PROGRESSIVE TENSE
Rewrite Ihe senlences in Ihe following exereises no. 1-2-3-4
Usaremos este tiempo para expresar la continuidad using Ihe correclfonn oflhe verb in brackels (presenl simple.
de una acción desde un cierto momento en el pasa- present progressive, present perfect and present peifect pro-
do hasta el presente, por ejempl9: gressive).
1 have been taking English lessons for
6 months. 1. We sometimes (lo drive) lo Ihe beach on Sundays.
SIGNIFICADO: Empecé a estudiar inglés 6 me- 2. My brolher sometimes (lo come) home lale.
ses atrás y aún lo estoy estudiando. 3. Dan and David somelimes (lo go) lo school logelher.
4. 1 always (lo visil) my falher on Salurdays.
She has be en using the phone a lot today. 5. He always (to drink) wine wilh his dinner.
SIGNIFICADO:Ella hoy ha usado mucho el 6. They atways (lo eal) brealifasl in the moming.
teléfono y aún lo sigue haciendo. 7. 1 never (to walch) TV during meals.
8. She never (lo smoke) in publico
We have been selling our furniture this 9. Simon never (lo run) on an empty slornach.
month. 10. He often (lo ride) his bicycle in the moming.
Este mes hemos comenzado a
SIGNIFICADO: 11. Dan often (lo drive) his car on Sundays.
vender nuestros muebles y aún los 12.1 (nol lo go) to Ihe thealre very often.
vendemos. 13. We seldom (lo eal) fish in Ihe moming.
14. David lives in London bul he seldom (to visil) the ZOO.
15. He seldom (10 shout) al his son.
16. She usually (lo go) lo the library after schaol.
17. Judy usually (lo visil) her grandfalher twice a week.

Exercise No. 2

1. 1 usually (lo wear) short lrousers.


2. lf she (lo arrive) tomorrow we will go lo Ihe ZOO.
3. lfit (lo rain) lomorrow we will cancel the Irip.
4. He will get high marks ifhe (lo sludy) hard.
5. When you (10 come) lo Paris do nol hesitale lo call me.
• 6. Do nolforgel to send me Ihe book when you (lo gel) il.
7. When you (lo write) to your brolher remind hirn lo wrile
tome.

16 17
8. Let me know before you (to send) the money. 13. The teaeher (to enler) the class already.
9. The game will start not before the president (lo arrive). 14. The boy (lo break) his lego
10. You will eat the soup before you (lo eat) Ihe ice eream. 15. The prisoner (lo break) oulfromjail.
11. The show will start as soon as the lights (to gol off. 16. My aunt (to get) married.
12. I will pay you as soon as I (to reeeive) sorne money. 17. I (to pass) my examinalion in history.
13. I will call you as soon as I (to arrive).
14.1 will stay here until the bu. (to leave).
15. He will not leave the room until he (tofinish) his work. Exereise No. 4
16. They will not oeeupy Ihe house until he (to repair) the
roo! 1. We (to be) in Europe a few limes this year.
17. Why you (to eat) bread now? You never (to eat) bread in 2. My friend (lo be) here sinee early morning, he usually
the morning. •,. (to stay) wilh me the whole day.
3. He (lo behave) funny sinee yesterday morning.
4. We (lo plant) trees for Ihree weeks.
Exerei.e No. 3 5. We nol yet (lo finish) our study whieh (to gol on all day.
6. We (to wail) here for them sinee midday, but Ihey nol (to
1. 1 cannot leave the house now because it (to snow) out- arrive) yet.
side. 7. I (to study) hislory for seven years.
2. They generally (to play) tennis but today they (lo play) 8.' Whal (lo do) wilh yourself all this time?
cricket. 9. He (to play) his guitar for Ihree monlhs.
3. The driver who (lo drive) ear number eight seldom (lo I 10. She not yet (to finish) Ihe painling whieh she (10 paint)
win) a race. all day long.
4. The sun always (lo rise) in Ihe easl. Look, il (lo rise) 11. It (to snow) all aftemoon.
now. 12. He (lo look) for his pen all day, bul he nol (to find) il
5. I usually (lo eat) bread in the morning but today I (lo yel.
eat) a cake instead. 13. The mother is worried beeause her ehild not (to eat)
6. Your molher (lo wait) for you at the gale. properly for Ihe lasl Ihree days. He never (to make) any
7. Dan (to eat) dinner now. He will eall you after he (lo sueh problems before.
finish). 14. That book (to be) on your deskfor days and you nol (to
8. He seldom (to wrile) letlers, bul this week he (lo write) read) it yet.
four letlers. 15. Although he (to play) tennis for only four months, he (lo
. 9. I nol (lo speak) to him this month, allhough I usually (to play) il quite well.
speak) lo him every week.
10. He (lo live) in Paris for four years.
11. She (to eall) me twiee reeenlly.
12. He (to be) ill sinee Ihe beginning ofthe week.

18 19
5. PAST SIMPLE TENSE 6. PAST PROGRESSIVE TENSE

Usamos este tiempo en los siguientes casos: Usamos este tiempo para expresar una acción que
se ejecutaba en el pasado, al mismo tiempo que
a) Cuando expresamos una acción acaecida y com- otra:
pletada en el pasado, por ejemplo: He was washing his car when we arrived.
Dannyate fish yesterday. SIGNIFICADO: Cuando llegamos, él estaba
1 spoke to him last week. lavando su coche (llegamos mientras lavaba
su coche).
b) Cuando nos referimos a varias acciones acaecidas
una después de la otra, por ejemplo: We were walking along the beach when
When he was in París last year, he went to the storm started.
the Louvre, but found it closed. SIGNIFICADO:La tormenta se desencadenó
mientras estábamos caminando a lo
largo de la playa.

20 21
7. PAST PERFECT TENSE 8. PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE
TENSE
Este tiempo siempre va precedido por la palabra had
y se usa cuando dos acciones se desarrollan en el Este tiempo expresa la continuidad de una acción
pasado y una de ellas se completa antes que la otra desarrollada en el pasado durante un lapso determi-
se inicie, por ejemplo: nado de tiempo (limitado entre un principio y un fin),
When 1 met her, she had already eaten din- por ejemplo:
ner: He had been running for two hours
She had already eaten (primera acción when 1 told him to stop.
completada). Befare we came to Florence we had been
When 1 met her (se realizó la segunda living in Naples for 5 years.
acción). 1 had be en workin¡¡; for nearly 3 hours
when you arrived.
The bus had already left the station when We had been living in the same town for
we arnved. 10 years before we decided to move
The bus had left (primera acción comple- elsewhere. .,
tada). We had been driving for 5 hours when we
We arrived (se realizó la segunda acción). finally found a place to stay for the night.

He went to bed after he had read a book.


He had read a book (primera acción com-
pletada).
He went to bed (se realizó la segunda
acción).

NOTA: Usamos el participio pasado (had been) cuan-


do la primera acción ha sido completada antes de
que la segunda se realizara:
Had eaten.
Had left the station.
Had read a book.
Pero para la segunda acción usamos el pasado '
simple:
1 met her.
We arrived.
He went to bed.

22 23
Exercise No. 5 3. He (to thank) usforwhatwe (to do).
4. When we (to arrive) at the theater, the show (to start)
Rewnte the following sentences in both exercises no. 5-6 already.
using the correct form of the verb in brackets (past simple, 5. They (to go) home after they (to complete) their work.
past progressive, past peifect and past peifect progressive), 6. Thefire (to destroy) the house befare thefiremen (to
arnve).
], He (to go) to the pictures lasl night, 7. 1 (to work) in the gardenfor two hours when my father
2. When 1 (to arrive) at my friend's house last night, he (to (to teU) me to stop.
watch) Iv. 8. We (to play) tennis for one hour befare we (to decide) to
3. While 1 (to run) yesterday moming, 1 (to see) a white take a break.
horse. 9. Last week 1 (to visit) my uncle after 1 (to speak) with
4. When 1 (to visit) my aunt last week, 1 (to meet) my old him on the telephone.
friend and (to teU) him the latest news. 10. After they (to return) from London they (to go) to the
5. What you (to do) at ten o'clock last night? beach.
6. When 1 (to visit) Haifa yesterday, 1 (to go) to the beach 11. He (to thank) mefor what 1 (to do).
and (to swim) in the sea. 12. He (to wear) his new suit befare he (to go) to the
7. While 1 (to play) in our garden yesterday, 1 (to faU) and wedding.
(to break) my lego 13.1 (to write) a letter to my father after 1 (to receive) the
8. He (to bring) me a nice present when he (to visit) me
last week.
9. 1 (to ask) him what kind of colours he (to use) and he (to
, results of my test.
14. She (to thank) himfor what he (to do).
15. He (to tell) me that he (to visit) London last year.
tell) me that he (to use) water colours.
10.1 (to see) a very funny thing when 1 (to walk) in the park
yesterday. 1 (to see) a monkey (to eat) a banana.
11.1 (to eat) lunch when the telephone (to ring).
12. After they (to eat) dinner, they (to go) home.
13. The teacher (to tell) the pupil that he (to pass) the
examination.
14.1 (to read) for two haurs when you (to arrive).
15.1 (to find) the pen which 1 (to lose) last week.

Exereise No. 6

1. Yesterday 1 (to catch) the dog which (t~ bite) my sister.


2. 1 (to drink) tea after 1 (to eat) my dinner.

24 25
9. PAST PARTICIPLE Present Past Past Participle

bear ..... . . .• .. . bore ... ...... borne (born)


a) Constituye la tercera forma del verbo y representa beat ... . .. ... . .. . beat .. . . . . . . . beaten
todos los verbos irregulares a los que no basta become . . .. . .... became ...... become
agregar una -d o una partícula -ed al infinitivo sin begin . .. ... . . .. . began ..... . . begun
la partícula to para transformarlo en pasado, como behold .. . .. .. .. . beheld . . . . . .. beheld (beholden)
ocurre en los verbos regulares: bet . ••.. .... . .. . bet . . . . . . . . .. bet
bid . ....... . . .. . bade... ...... bidden
stop - stopped
bind . . .. . . . • ... . bound .. . .. . . bound
work - worked bite. . . . . . . . . . . . . bit .... ...... bitten
love - loved blow . . . . . . . . . . . . blew... . . .... blown
hate - hated break . .. . •. . .... broke . . . . . . . . broken
brin~ .. ...... .. . brou~ht .. . . .. brought
b) Como ya hemos visto, usamos el participio pasa- build . . . . . . . . . • . • built... .... . . built
burn . . . . . • . . . . . . burnt . . . . . . . . burnt
do (Past Participle) con los tiempos perfectos
buy .. .......... ' bought....... bought
(Perfect Tenses) aunque también se usa en otros cast . ... , . ... + • • cast .......... cast
casos que veremos más adelante. catch . .. . .. . .. . . caught . . . . . .. caught
choose .. .. , ..... chose .. ...... chosen
c) Podemos ver a continuación la lista de los verbos come . .......... carne ... . . .. . come
irregulares más importantes; se constata que el cost . . .. . . . .. . .. cost .... . .. . . , cost
creep . .. ... . . ... crept .. ... .. . crept
pasado de estos verbos no se forma agregando
cut .. . .. . .. . .. .. cut . . . . . . . . .. cut
una -d o una partícula -ed al infinitivo sin to como dig .. . .. . .. •. .. . dug (digged) .. dug (diggen)
sucede en los verbos regulares, y es necesario do . . . . . . . . . . . . .. did . . . . . . . . .. done
memorizarlos. draw . . . . . . . . . . .. drew ........ drawn
dream .... , ..... dreamt....... dreamt
(dreamed)
drink . . .. .. . .. . . drank ....... . drunk
drive ..... . , . . . .. drove . . . . . . .. driven
eat . ..... . ...... ate .... . .. . . . eaten
fal! .. . .. . .. . .. . . fel! .. . . . . . . . . fal!~n
feed . .. .. .... . . . fed .. . . . . . . . . fed
feel . . . . . . • . . . . .. felt . . . . . . . . . . felt
fight . , .• . .. . .. " fought ....... fought
find .. •. .. . . .... fouod . . . . . . .. found
!lee . . . . . . . . . . . .. !led ..... .. . . !led
!ly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . !lew . . . . . • . . • Ilown
forbid . . . . . . . . . .. forbade ...... forbidden
forget .. . . . . . . . .. forgot.... .. . . forgotten
forgive . . . . . . . . .. forgave ...... forgiven

26 27
Present Past Past Participle Present Past Past Participle

freeze . . . . . . . . . . . froze . . .. .. . . frozen shake ••• •• . • . . .. shook .. ..... . shaken


get ... ...• . ..• .. got . .. .. . . . .. got . shine .. . . . . . . . .. sbone .. . . .. . . shone
give .. . .. . .. . . .. gave.. .. .. . .. given shoot ......•.. . . sbot ... .•..•. sbot
go . . . . . . . . . . . . .. went . ... .... gone show .... .. . . ... showed ..... . shown
grow . ......... . . grew . .. . . .. . grown sbul . . . . .. . .. .. . shuI ... . ... .. . shu! Ceíro I er©luJ
hang ... .. .. .. . .. hung (hanged) hung (hanged) sing ....... .. ... sang .. ..••••. sung
hear .. . ........ . heard ...• .. . . heard sink .. .. . .. . .. .. sank ... . .. . . . sunk Iv..rdfl':. cae,.
hold ... . . . . . . .. . held . .. . ... .. held sit .. .. ........ o' sal ... . . . ... . sat
hide .. . .... . .. .. hid . . .. . • ... . hidden slay .. .. .. .. • .... slew .. ..... .. t3
slain h\::I:\:..f¡ Lt'x:....;\."".,:v
hit .. .. • .. •... . .. hit . .... . .. . . hit sleep .. . . .. . . . .. slepl ...... . . . slepl
hurt . . . .. .. . . .. . hurt . .. .. .. . . hurt smeU .. . . . .•... . smeit . . .. ... . smelt
keep .. . ....... . . kept ...•. .. .. kepl speak .. . . . . . . . .. spoke . . . . ... . spoken
know o ••••• • • • •• knew .... .. . . known spend . . . . . . . . . . . spenl ....... . spent
lay .. . .. . . .. . . . . laid .. ...... . laid spi! . . . . . . . . . . . . . spal .. . .. . .. . spat~~, ~, :j;\;.¡o
lead . ....... .• .. led .. . .. .. .. . led spread . .. . . . .. . . spread ...... . spread .
let .. ... ......' .. . let . . . .. . ... . let spring . . . . ... . . .. sprang ...... . sprung b,"'" A,,'( 1:', \,,,,,,,,,,
leap . • .. . . . . . ... leapt . . .. . .. . leapl stand ..... .. ...• stood . ... ... . stood
iearn ....... . . . . learnt ...... . . learnt (learned) steal . ...•..•.... stole .... . . . . . stoien
leave ......... . . left .. ....... . left sting " " __ " ' ' ' ' stung .. ..... . stung ~ ltal, ""'fY1l¡f
lend ......... .. . lent . .. .. . .. . lenl strike ......•. .. . struck ..••• ... struck, stricken ~\~e"" , rej"
let . .... ...... .. . let . ... __ . .. . lel swear . . . . . . . . . . . swore . . . . .. . . sworn
Jie .. ......... .. . lay .. .... .. .. lain sweep .. .. . .. . .. . swept .. .. .. .. swept b:,m:, , Ó'''S>'
lose . . . .. . . . ... . lost ... . .. . .. . losl swim . ..... .. .. . swam . ... .. . . swum
make .. ... .... .. made ..•. . . .' . made take . . ..... . . .. . took .... . .. . . taken
mean .. .. . .. . . . . meant o •• • ••• meant teach .. . .. . . . .. . taught ..... . . taught
meet .......... . . met .. .. . . . . . mel tear . . . .... . . . .. tote .. ...... . torn 'ú."3-v I ~,-.~
pay . . •....•• . . .. paid ... . . . .. • paid teU .. . .. . .. .... . told .... . .. .. told
put .. .. . .. .... .. put ... . ... .. . put Ihink . .. ..• ... .. thought ..... . thought
read . . ..•..•.. .. read .. • . . ... . read Ibrow .. .. . .. .. .. threw .. ..... . thrown
rid . . ....... .. . . rid .. .... " .. rid \.: hMII\OI ,\\b.W'. wake . .. . .. . .. . . woke ... . .. . . woke (wakened,
ride ......... .. . rode . . . . . ... . ridden (wakened) woken)
ring .......... .. rang ..... .. .. rung wear . . . . . . . . . . .. wore .. . ..... worn
rise . . . . . . . . . . . .. rose ......... risen weep ... .. . . .. . . wept . . .... .. wept \\o.ú1
run . . . . . . . . . . . .. ran.... .. .. . . run win . . . . . . . . . . . .. won .. ..... o. won
say . ....... ... .. said . .. .. .. .. said write ........... WTole . ... , . .. written
see . .... . . . ... .. saw . .. ...... seeo ~.
seek .. . . .. . .. . .. soughl .. . . . .. sought O-r..t¡;, p Ir
seU . ... . .... . . .. sold . .. ...... sold
seod . . . . . . . . • . .. sent . .. ...... sent
set ...... . . .. . .. sel . .... . .. . . set

28 29
10. FUTURE TENSE Exercise No. 7

a) SIMPLE FuTURE TENSE . Rewrite the following sentences using the corree! form of the
El uso correcto de este tiempo se obtiene, ade- verb in brackets ljuture andfuture progressive):
más de con el uso del verbo will, construyendo
1. Tomorrow 1 (get) up early and (run)for two hours.
frases en futuro con el verbo to be conjugado en
2. 1 (to be) glad ifyou (to call) him up tomorrow.
presente + going to. Lo usamos también en el
3. We (to stay) here until the train (to arrive).
presente continuo para expresar acciones en el
4. They promised that they (to visit) us next week.
futuro (cercano o lejano), por ejemplo:
5. She (to go) to play tennis tomorrow.
She is going to get married next year.
6. 1 (to go) to watch TV tonight.
1 am going to buy a hat tomorrow. .
7. 1 (to go) to France next month where 1 (to study) French
We are going to go to a wedding on Sunday
for su months.
night.
8. At this time next week 1 (to enjoy) myselfin Rome.
It is going to rain any minute.
9. When 1 am in Paris next week 1 (to stay) with my friendo
10. They (to buy) a birthday present tomorrow.
b) FuTURE PROGRESSIVE TENSE
11. The train (to be) late because ofbadweather.
Usamos este tiempo para:
12. Next week 1 (to visit) my grandmother and (to stay) with
1. Expresar una acción futura durante su ejecu-
her for three days.
ción, por ejemplo:
13. When she (to come) to Rome tomorrow, 1 (to tell) her
At 10 o'clock tomorrow night 1 will be
that while we (to wait) for her mother 1 (to read) to her
watching TV.
mynew poem.
SIGNIFICADO: Mañana a las 10 de la noche
14. He (to join) my club tomorrow and 1 (to enjoy) myself
estaré mirando la televisión (desde
watching the ceremony.
antes de esa hora).
15. She (to visit) (he art museum all tomorrow evening. ¡
I
~
2. Para expresar una acción en el futuro que con-
tinúa durante un lapso prolongado de tiempo,

~
Exercise No. 8
por ejemplo:
General exercise
They will be staying with us for 6 months.
He will be studying French in Paris for
three months.
Rewrite the following sentences using the correct form of the
verb in brackets (all tenses):
¡
"1
1. Tomorrow my aunt (to arrive) from London. She (to visit)
us every year this time.
2. On my way to schooll usually (to meet) our neighbours
who (to have) brealifast in their garden.
1,
30
31 BIBLIOTECA CENTRAL II
UNAM ji
j
3. After she (lo relum) from school, she (10 feel) suddenly
dizzy and nol yel (10 recover).
4. [hope [(lo pass) my examinalion nexl week, meanwhile [
(lo work) very hard on il.
5. As [(lo eal) dinner, my molher (lo come) in and (lo tel!) CAMBIOS ORTOGRÁFICOS
me lo hurry up. EN LOS PLURALES DE ALGUNOS SUSTANTIVOS
6. [jumped off Ihe bus while il (10 move) aad I (10 hurl) my
ankle. Normalmente para pasar un sustantivo al plural bas-
7. Although she (10 Ireal) me rudely lasl week, [(lo forgive) ta agregar una -s al final, como en: books, dogs,
her yeslerday when [(10 see) how sorry she (lo be). cats. No obstante, se observan excepciones cuan-
8. He (lo cry) withjoy after he (10 win) Ihe game. do se producen los siguientes cambios:
9. Yeslerday, rny sisler (lo fall) down aad hurl her arm. A
doclor (lo come) lo Ireat her, aad her eondilion (lo a) Cuando el sustantivo termina en o
improve) now. . 1. Si la letra anterior es una consonante agre-
10. Yeslerday, as 1 (10 eross) Ihe bridge, [(10 see) an old man gamos la partícula -es al final, por ejemplo:
(lo ride) a bicycle. tomato - tomatoes
11. Dan (lo promise) lasl week Ihal he (lo pay) Ihe money he hero - heroes
(lo owe) my falher, bul he nol (lo do) so yel. patato - potaloes
12. Tomorrow he (lo come) lo visil me if he (nol busy). mango - mangoes
i3.1 (lo read) a bookfor two hours befare you (lo arrive).
14. While we (10 play) lennis yeslerday, my partner (lo fall) 2. Si la letra anterior es una vocal, como es ha-
down and (lo hurt) his lego He nol (to be) able lo walkfor bitual agregamos sólo una -s al final, por ejem-
afewdays. plo:
15. After [(10 spend) a monlh in Paris [(lo relurn) horneo radio - radios
16. [ asked David if he (lo see) Dan loday, as [ (lo look) for folio - folios
him since early morning. carneo - carneas
17. Dina (lo suffer)from a bad eoughfor Ihree days now.
18. They (lo live) in Paris befare Ihey (lo move) lo London. b)Cuando el sustantivo termina en eh, sh, s, x,
[9. From lomorrow early morning lilJ lale evening [ (to agregamos la partícula -es en lugar de la -s, por
sludy) al my friend's home. ejemplo:
20. When we (10 arrive) al Ihe Ihealer the show (lo slarl) bush - bushes
already. fax -foxes
21. [nol (to lravel) abroad since [(lo visil) Paris last year. class - classes
22. He (lo slay) wilh us for four monlhs ~efore he (10 begin) box - boxes
his studies. branch - branches

32 33

1
e) Cuando el sustantivo termina en y Exercise No. 9
1. Si la letra precedente es una consonante se
cambia la y por una i y se agrega al final la Rewrite the following words into the plural:
partícula -es, por ejemplo:
account loaf brush
lady - ladies
advance match half
fly - flies
bush peach monkey
baby - babies
country play puppy
copy - copies
man property watch
spy - spies
tooth quality wife
foot ruby valley
2. Si la letra precedente es una vocal agregamos
mouse thief hero
simplemente una -s, por ejemplo:
child arch wolf
trolley - trolleys
ox attomey navy
day - days
cross ranch fox
monkey - monkeys
difficulty university radio
tray - trays
echo worry life
ray - rays
leaf bakery knife
d) Cuando el sustantivo termina en f o fe, éste cam-
bia al plural en -ves, por ejemplo:
wolf - wolves
life - Uves
wife -wives
knife - knives
half - halves

I
I
1,,

,,
34 35
1
I 2. Si el adjetivo está formado por al menos dos
sílabas, usamos las palabras more para el com-
parativo y most para el superlativo, por ejem-
plo:
ADJETIVO patient - more patient - most patient
elever - more elever - most elever
honest - more honest - most honest
a) Los adjetivos se colocan generalmente antes del beautiful - more beautiful - most beautiful
sustantivo y no cambian a causa del género o del expensive - more expensive - most expen-
número, por ejemplo: sive
fat man beautiful girl
fat woman beautiful boy 3. Cuando el adjetivo termina en y precedida por
fat women beautiful girls una consonante, la y cambia en i, y agregamos
-er para el comparativo y -est para el superla-
b) Para indicar el nivel de los adjetivos usamos el tivo; por ejemplo:
comparativo y el superlativo. En inglés, éstos se noisy - noisier - noisiest
forman siguiendo algunas leyes que deberemos ugly - uglier - ugliest
estudiar y recordar: angry - angrier - angriest
1. Cuando el adjetivo tiene una sola sílaba, agre- lazy - lazier - laziest
gamos la partícula -er para formar el compa-
rativo y -est para el superlativo, por ejemplo: Cuando la y va precedida por una vocal no cam-
black - blacker - blackest bia, por ejemplo:
dark - darker - darkest gray - grayer - grayest
pale - paler - palest
late - later - latest

Cuando el adjetivo termina con una consonan-


te precedida por una vocal, la última letra se
duplica, ya sea en el comparativo como en el
superlativo, por ejemplo:
fat - falter - fattest
wet - wetter - wettest
lhin - thinner - lhinnest
big - bigger - biggest

36 , 37
Exercise No. 10 7. My hair is (red) than yaurs.
8. His last book is Ifamaus) than his first ane.
Rewrite thefollowing sentences in exercises 10-11 using the 9. Your engine is (noisy) than mine.
the adjectives in the brackets in the correct comparative and 10. My shaes are (dirty) than yaurs, but they are nat the
superlative forms (pay attention to the correct spelling): (dirty) in the elass.
.11. Dina is the (pretty) girl in school.
1. Rose is the (smart) ofthe two sisters. 12. Taday 1 hove heard the (sad) story ever.
2. Rome is (big) than Venice. 13. Danny is the (stupid) boy 1 have ever meto
3. Danny is the (tall) boy in the elass. 14. Columbus was the (famaus) seaman in his days.
4. London is the (large) city in England. 15. Bread is (cheap) than butter.
5. Today it is (cold) than it was yesterday.
6. His brother is the (elever) hoy in the whole village.
7. Yesterday was (hot) than today.
8. Sara is (tall) than Dina.
9. 1 have (blue) eyes than my sister but she has the (blue)
eyesin her class.
10. My brother is the (brave) soldier in his platoon. He is
even (brave) than my cousin.
11. Qur school bus driver is the (careful) driver 1 have ever
seen.
12. The crow in our garden is (black) than the one on the
roof.
13. She is the (elever) student in the elass.
14. She has bought herself the (pretty) gown in the shop.
15. The weather is (pleasant) today than it was yesterday.

Exereise No. 11

1. Roses have a (sweet) smell than all other flowers.


i
2. Cars are now (expensive) than they were last year.
3. A scorpion's sting is (dangerous) than a bee's sting.
4. My grandmother's hair is (gray) than my mothr's hair.
5. My mother is the (busy) in our house. /)he is (busy) than
all of us together.
6. Yesterday Was the (hot) day of the week.
I
1

38 39

I
L J
Exercise No. 12

Rewrite the following sentences, using adverbs instead o/


{he adjectives given:
ADVERBIO l.
slO\;JI"I
Danny is a slow ealer. 'i'c'Cd~
.

2. My friend is a very quick runner. l..-c..1·i"!'1


a) El adverbio se forma agregando la partícula -lyal 3. Our neigkbour draws beautiful pos!ers'l
adjetivo, por ejemplo: .
4. 1 am a very careful swimmer. ,\,,11 . '\ -,1 J .' I
5. · 1 k
My teac k er IS a very e ear spea er. e \(' (,H Ij{i é'~' (el . .
The girl has a beautiful roice -she smgs
beautifully. i{¡¡(, !,'l:x,n(,,1( 6. Mickael is a boxer and a very fiereefigkter. h" oh ¡ (
7. 1t is easy for an athlete to chmb a k¡gk tree. ,. 't,
The man is a slow driver -he drives slowly.
8. OUT gardener cut the grass in a clumsy way. C luíf"ls\ hl
He is a careful driver -he drives carefully.
9. My parents always plan tkeir kolidac in a very wise "" \$" \ '1
way. fYlO. I .. i
b) Si el adjetivo termina en y, ésta cambia en i y
se transforma en adverbio cuando se le agrega la
la. My sister was very kappy to rnarry David.
11. The horse ran in a s~eadv ,manner during the whole
partícula -ly, por ejemplo:
Tace. 5it'O;Jt i~ . w,ld~
lazy - lazily
happy - happily 12. David's be/u;¡viour as a boy was very wlld. 1 el ~ \j(' ¡.
merry - merrily
13. He usually solves all problems in a very elever manner. t
14. My sister's appearance is always very pretty. rtC1-1 ¡!i
angry - angrily
15. 1 usually speak in a very loud voice. \
ffi~'l \ovJ
Exereise No. 13

Rewrite the following sentences, using the correet form in


tke brackets:
K,f'{») '1
1. We must treat our neighbour (kind).
.2- Wken 1 told my father tkat [ kad passed tke examinatio~<G ,1
I
C)J('~C':~\')¡:) (successful), he smiled (pleasant) and skook my kand. f I
j My friend acted (foolisk) and t/z~ teacker (angry),asked
kim to leave the elass. (O~ \ ' , '" , 0\\)\ 1\ 'i

4. After tkeir marriage my brotker and his wife lived


(kappy) togetker.
\-!off' \1'1 41
40

J
\--.~ , ~l VI

5. lt was snowing (heavy) last week. \ova i·"


6. My /ittle boy sings (loud) in the shower. l '

7. David usually gets high mark,s. and therefore he thinks


very (high) ofhimself. ""9 "'"( . .•
8. Our dog reaets (fierce) to ;trangers. (.~, ( "." ( , . PRONOMBRE
9. The chUd spoke lO his. f11,Qther (arrogant). 0.\\"'>,36 " " .J
10.I/ike to wateh TV (qu¡~ti bce<;llf5e 1 am (easy) disturbed. ,.,'
11. The boy acted (Joolish) h;;J ';;a/punished (severe) . .:.c.,N El pronombre es una palabra que·sustituye al sus-
12. They were lucky to reach their destination (sqfe) as the tantivo y se usa en los casos siguientes:
rout was not safe at all. so\ . ¡ I
13. He was very careful not to drop the glass statue and a) Cuando el pronombre representa el sujeto y sus-
suceeeded doing so by acting (eareft.<lJ all along the pro- tituye personas o cosas, por ejemplo:
cedure. ((.Iy ~J~',ñ", J we
14. When 1 saw him he was walking (slow) u'p the hill. you you
15. He drew lhe last painling (beaulif¡¡l) ami added it lO his he Ihey
beaUliful colleelion. 'veo.v~ IrO 111 she
il
Danny said: "1 am hungry" .
. "You are responsible" said Tom lo Danny .
•I •
"We arrived yeslerday" said rny parenls.
They received tbe book in time.
Danny is very cJever, he underslands
everything.
The chair is new, il was boughl yeslerday.

b)Cuando el pronombre es el objeto, por ejemplo:


me us
you you
him tbem
her
it
Tom gave me tbe peno
I senl you tbe book yeslerday.
I lold her a slory.
We lold Ihem nol lo come.
The postman broughl us a leuer.

42 43
e) Cuando el pronombre es posesivo (expresa una I am going to eat it myself.
posesión), por ejemplo: . You should bJame yourself.
my our The ehild hurt himself.
your your We drank it ourselves.
his their They took it for themselves.
her
its NOTAS:
This is my book. a) Préstese atención al hecho que la -f en plural se
This is your book. tra nsforma en -ves
The window is out of order, its handle is b) Préstese atención a la diferencia entre las dos ora-
broken. ciones siguientes:
Our house is near the river. The child hurt himself.
Their ear is out of order. The ehild himself hurt the cal.
-La primera establece que ha sido el niño
d) Si usamos el pronombre posesivo sin el sustanti- quien se ha causado daño a sí mismo.
vo o con el sustantivo precediéndolo, por ejemplo: -La segunda establece que sólo el niño en
mine ours cuestión ha lastimado al gato.
yours yours
his theirs
hers PRONOMBRES RELATIVOS
ils
The book is mine (en lugar de: This is my Las palabras que siguen son pronombres relativos y
book). se usan en los casos siguientes:
Anything you eateh is yours. who whom
The car was his. which that
These toys do not belong to you -they are whose
ours.
The boy told us that the bird was theirs. a) La palabra who se usa cuando se refiere a las per-
sonas (singular, plural, masculino y femenino),
e) Si el pronombre evidencia que la acción realizada por ejemplo:
por el sujeto recae sobre sí mismo, por ejemplo: The man who was here last week ...
rnyself ourselves The girls who where here yesterday ...
yourself yourselves
himself themselves, b) La palabra which se usa con el resto de los sus-
herself tantivQs, por ejemplo:
itself The chair which was broken.

44 45
The cars which were sold. Pero en los casos siguientes se usa por lo común
This is Ihe horse which was given to me. sólo that:
1. Después de un superlativo, por ejemplo:
e) La palabra whose se usa cuando queremos rela- The largest bouse Ihat was built...
cionar algo con alguien (objetos con personas), He is Ihe greatest painter Ihat lived ...
por ejemplo: .
This is Ihe woman whose ehild is erying. 2. Después de un número ordinal, por ejemplo:
The pupils whose books were torn ... Tbe seeond boy that .arrived was David.
The lirst girl !hat arrived was Eve.
d) La palabra whom se usa en algunos casos en lugar The seeond world war Ihat started on ...
de who,
. cambiando
.la construcción de la frase ,
por eJemolo: 3. Después de expresiones como:
1 have ful! trust in Dr. Brown, who is also nothing
my friendo somelhing
I everything
( Dr Brown, in whom I have full trust, is also
my friendo al!.
Por ejemplo: .
Existen otras oraciones en las que tenemos que 1 told him something !hat made him happy.
usar esta palabra sola, por ejemplo : AlI that was given to us ...
This is Ihe boy to whom 1 gave Ihe peno We sent him everything !hat he had asked
The elerk, about whom you were eom- foro
plaining, was lired. He has nothing that belongs to me.
The man whom you represented in eourt
last week ... 4. Si una frase incluye tanto personas como nom-
bres comunes, por ejemplo:
e) La palabra !hat se puede usar indistintamente con The rider and Ihe horse Ihat cáme lirs!...
personas o con cualquier sustantivo, por ejemplo: He referred to artist and paintings that
The boy Ihat stole !he pen should be were involved ...
punished.
NOTA. En muchos casos podemos omitir direc-
y también: The boy who stole !he pen
should be punished. tamente el pronombre relativo, por ejemplo:
The book Ihat was stolen was very Where is tbe book Ihat 1 was reading?
valuable. Where is !he book 1 was reading?
y también: The book which was stolen The lawyer !hat you recommended was
was very valuable. elever.
The lawyer you recommended was clever.

46 47
PRONOMBRES INTERROGATIVOS d) Las palabras where, when y how se usan exac-
tamente con referencia a lugares, momentos y
maneras, por ejemplo:
Cuando las palabras Where is lhe book 1 was reading?
who Where do you live?
which When did you arrive?
whose Vllhen did it happen?
whorn How are you?
where How was it possible?
when
how
encabezan una o ~ación, la transforman en una pre-
gunta y se usan de la siguiente manera:

a) La palabra who se usa con referencia a personas,


por ejemplo:
Who is lhe rnan?
Who wrote the letter?

b) La palabra which se usa con toda clase de nom-


bres cuando se refiere a una parte de un grupo,
por ejemplo:
Which window is broken?
Which of lhese boys did you reeognize?
Whieh horse earne first?

e) Las palabras whose y whom se usan en relación


con todos los nombres, por ejemplo:
Whose father wrote the letter?
Whose book is lhis?
Whose horse won the raee?
Whorn do you prefer?
Whorn does he like rnost?
Whorn did lhey ehoose?

48 49
Exercise No. 14 5. He told me nothing 1 did not know.
6. Something I told her yestenday made _ __
Rewrite the following sentences in exercises 14-15 using the very angry.
proper pronouns in the blanks: 7. We gave him everything _ _ _ belonged to him.
8. The longest bridge _ _ _ was built.
l. The boy _ _ broke the door is your brother. 9. The highest mountain _ _ _ overlooks the vil/age is...
2. This is the man watch was stolen. JO. The jirst boy _ _ _ ente red the room.
3. He _ _ is responsible for his actions. 11. Danny was the thind boy _ _ _ received tickets.
4. Your car is larger than _ _ _ . 12.1 was the second in my class _ _ _ received high
5. They _ _ _ are to be blamed. marks.
6. 1 will wait and see for _ _ who is in the room. 13. ___ car was the fastest?
7. The girl_···.,_·_ visited me yesterday is my niece. 14. ___ of all swimmers got the price?
8. My son is the boy _ _,_ won the Tace. 15. time is it now?
9. Danny broke the pen _ _ _ was given fo me on 16. To _ _ _ did you send the letter?
_ _ _ birthday. 17. ___ is taller, my brother or your sister?
JO. The lawyer _ _ _ I met yesterday is very good. 18. ___ of the boys broke the windows?
11. The window _ _ _ was broken is in the big room. 19. ___ do you trust mast?
12. The boys and girls _ _ were present in the classroom 20. _ _ _ did they give the ticket to?
were sitting in places exactly as the teacher 21. ___ won the prize?
had told to. 22. ___ did you meet at the train station? W" t: l
13. The big building _ _ _ was built opposite _ __
house belongs fa uncle.
23. ~__ pen was stolen? vJ' '.>;';te
24. The boy _ _ _ " f ather was elected is my friendo
14. The man _ _ _ wife fell. blamed _ _ _ for not 25. ___ sister won the prize? Ü1~,~; <> '"
taking better care of _ _ _·
15. The table was too large to be moved. was left
in _ _ _ original place.

Exercise No. 15

1. All children _ _ were present won prizes.


2. The man with the black dog were injured
yesterday were no! from _ _ _ street.
3. All was told to us was true.
4. The boys _ _ _ won the prizes dona'ted _ _ _ to
poor c'midren.

50 51

J
III. Cuando pasamos una oración de discurso direc-
to a indirecto deberemos prestar atención a los
siguientes cambios :

DISCURSOS DIRECTO a) Cambio del pronombre personal:


E INDIRECTO 1. [ cambia en h e / she.
2. w e cambia en they.
3. y ou cambia en Rim.

1. DIRECT SPEECH b) Cambio del tiempo verbal:


(DISCURSO DIRECTO) 1. De presente a pasado (véanse párrafos 1 y Il,
ejemplos 1 y 2).
Es una oración que reproduce exactamente las pala- 2. De pasado a pasado perfecto (véanse párrafos
bras de una persona y viene escrita entre comillas . 1 y Il, ejemplo 3) .
1. He said:"1 am hungry". 3. De futuro a condicional (véanse párrafos 1 y
2. She said: "1 am listening to the radio". Il, ejemplo 4) .
3. They said: "yesterday we played tennis".
4. He said: "1 will pay you tomorrow". e) Las siguientes palabras que expresan cercanía (de
tiempo o espacio) cambian por otras que expre-
san lejanía, por ejemplo:

n. INDIRECT SPEECH 1. This y these cambian en that y those, por


(DISCURSO INDIRECTO)' ejemplo:
He said: "1 gave him this book".
Es una oración que transmite el mismo significado He said that he had given him that book.
del discurso directo pero no reproduce las palabras He said: "1 gave him these books".
exactas del orador; por lo tanto, no viene transcrI- He said thal he had given him those books.
ta entre comillas, por ejemplo:
1. He said that he was hungry. . 2. Now cambia en then, por ejemplo :
2. She said that she was listening to the radio. They said: "We do not want anything now".
3. They said that they had played tennis the They said lhat they did not want anything
previo us day. then.
4. He said that he would pay him the n ext day.
3. Today cambia en that day :
He said: "1 am eoming h ome today".
He said that h e was eoming home that day.

52 53
4. Last night cambia en the previ0lls night o IV. En los siguientes casos no se produce ningún
the night befare : cambio de tiempo verbal o lugar cuando pasamos
He said: "1 saw him last night". del modo directo al indirecto:
He said tbat he had seen him the previous
night. a) Cuando el verbo que introduce el modo indirecto
He said tbat he had se en mm tbe night está en presente, por ejemplo:
befare. He says: "1 am here now".
He says that he is here now.
5. Tomorrow cambia en the next day o the day
ailer o the following day; por ejemplo: b) Cuando el verbo que introduce el modo indirecto
He said: "We are going to visit him tomor- está en presente perfecto, por ejemplo:
row" . He has said to me: "1 have been very tired
He said tbat tbey were going to visit him lately".
tbe next day. He has toId me tbat he has been very tired
He said tbat they were going to visit him lateIy.
tbe day alleT.
He said tbat tbey were going to visit him e) Cuando el verbo que introduce el modo indirecto
the following day. está en futuro, por ejemplo:
He will say to bim: "1 do not want anytbing".
6. Here cambia en there, por ejemplo: He will teH him that he does not want
He said: "1 brought you here". anything.
He said tbat he bad brought him tbere.
NO TA:En cualqu ier circunstancia referida por el
7. Yesterday cambia en the previous day o the orador con respecto a una persona específica, la
daybefore; por ejemplo: palabra say en el modo directo se transforma en
He said: "1 reeeived tbe letter yesterday". teH en el modo indirecto.
He said tbat he bad reeeived tbe letter tbe
previous day. d) Cuando nos referimos a verdades generales que
He said tbat he had reeeived tbe letter tbe no cambian, por ejemplo :
day before. The teacher said: "Cold winds blow in !he
Artic zone".
8. Ago cambia en before, por ejemplo: The teacher said tbat coId winds blow in
He said: "1 reeeived tbe letter two days tbe Artic zone.
ago".
He said tbat he had reeeived tbe letter
before two days.

54 55
Exercise No. 16 2. "Because [ am no! hungry", Danny said to me "[ am not
going to eat lunch today".
Change the following sentences in exercises 16-17 into 3. "[ have never eaten in this restaurant before" said Dina.
indirect speech:
j 4. She says: "[ am watching TV now ".
5. My mother says: "Finish your breakfas! because you are
1. He said: "[ am in a hurry". about to miss the school bus".
2. She said: "1 am eating break/ast now". 6. The bus driver says: "[ am driving slowly because the
3. They said: "We visited our grandmother last week". engine is out of order".
4. The doctor said to the palient: 'Tour health is perfect, 7. He has said to me: "[ have not beenfeeling welllately".
but you have to reduce weight". 8. The guide has said !o the tounst: "We have been wast-
5. He said to him: "take this chair away from here". ing too much time this moming ".
6. She said: "[ have no wish to see him now". 9. [will say to her: "[ do not want to watch TV during
7. The driver said to the passengers: "[ am afraid that we meals".
have lost our way". 10. We will say to them: "Come in andjoin us".
8. He said: "My father gave me this golden pen". 11. As my room mate [ will tell him: "Do not forget to lock
9. [said to her: "there is no room for you in this tent". the main door".
10. He said : "Nothing in my long career has pleased me 12. The farmer said to me: ''Apples grow on trees while
more than what happened today". strawbernes grow on creeping plants".
11. They said: "We give you this painting today because it is 13. The Teacher said: "All rivers run into the see".
your birthday". 14. Danny says: "[ don't drink liquor at all".
[2. She said: "My children sent us these flowers on our 15. He has satd to me: "[ have never been in Europe
wedding anniversary". before".
[3. My brother said to me: "[ am coming home today,
please call my boss and tell him [ am coming to work
tomorrow".
14. The guide said to the tourists: "[ have brought you here
today because yesterday it was c/osed".
[5. My brother said to me: "[ went to the beach yesterday
and [found my watch which [ [ost two days ago ".

Exereise No. I7

[. She said: "[ went to the theater [ast night and the show
reminded me of the one [ saw two months ago ".

56 , 57

1 J
NOTA: En las oraciones en voz pasiva usamos el
participio pasado.

VOCES ACTIVA Y PASIVA e) En el siguiente cuadro se ejemplifica el uso de los


tiempos verbales para las voces pasiva y activa:

a) Sólo las oraciones que contienen un objeto direc- Tense Active Passive
to y un sujeto pueden cambiar de voz activa a Present simple. . .. 1 give . . . . . . .. 1 am given
pasiva, ya que el sujeto en la voz activa se trans- Present
forma en objeto en la pasiva; por ejemplo: progressive . . . .. I am giving ... 1 am being given
Past simple ...... I gave .... ... 1 was given
The boy draw a picture. Past progressive .. 1 was giving . .. 1 was being given
The teacher punished David. Futnre simple .... 1 will give .... 1 will be given
Dannyele ate the cake. Futnre progressive 1 will be giving
Present perfect ... 1 have given 1 have been given
En estas tres oraciones la acción respectiva fue Present perfect
realizada por los sujetos The boy, The teaeher y progressive . . . .. ' have been
giving .... .
Dannyele; por lo tanto las oraciones están com- Past perfect ...... 1 had given 1 had been given
puestas en voz activa. Las mismas oraciones se Past perfect
transforman en la voz pasiva cambiando el suje- progressive . . . .. 1 had be en
to por el objeto, precedido por la preposición by; giving
por ejemplo:
A pieture was drawn by the boyo
David was punished by the teaeher.
The cake was eaten by Dannyele.

b) Habitualmente usamos la voz pasiva cuando el


sujeto es desconocido o poco importante, por
ejemplo:
The offiee is cleaned at night.
The eourse was giyen three times a week.
All kind of things are spread by word of
mouth.
The prize will be given at the end of the
eompetition.

58 59

d
,
i
Exercise No. 18
I 12. You must shut the windows before leaving the house.
13. The hungry dogs ate the meato 1. VI
Change thefollowing sentences in exercises 18-19 into 14. We have not yet finished our dinner.
passive voice: 15. He was running after the bus.

l. The carpenter bui/ds tables. I


2. Farmers grow vegetables. •
3. She does not understand English.
4. The barber cuts hair. I
5. The doctor treated the wounded boyo I
6. The farmer grew barley.
7. My brother saw a white horse yesterday.
8. A policemen accompanied the prisoner. j
9. 1 will buy a book. '1
JO. You will eat breakfast in the kitchen. I
11. My sister is reading a book.
12.1 am playing tennis professionally.
13. The driver was driving the car carefully.
14. We were throwing stones at him.
15.1 have written a book on nature.

Exercise No. 19

l. She has never seen such a thing in her whole lije.


2. 1 did not see my brother.
3. We did not buy the shoes. 1, .'
4. My father has given me a presento
5. Someone is making a terrible noise outside.
6. 1 will pay you back the money next month.
7. The pupi/s did not understand the lesson.
8. He has to return the book.
9. I am singing a song now. r)
la. People needfood and water.
11. He speaks three languages.

60 61

FRASES CONDICIONALES LA PREPOSICIÓN

Las siguientes frases de ejemplo muestran tres for- Una preposición es una palabra ubicada delante de
mas comunes de oraciones condicionales introduci- un sustantivo o de un pronombre; habitualmente
das por la palabra if: indica relaciones de tiempo y de lugar. Los siguien-
If you teIl him he wiIl be upset. tes apartados ilustran el uso de algunas de las pre-
If you told him he would be upset. posiciones más comunes:
Ir you had told him he would have been
upset. a)At
Se usa en los siguientes casos:
1. Cuando nos referimos a un tiempo o momento
específiCO, por ejemplo:
It is now 9 o'clock, ring me back at 11.
The game started at 20:00.
1 wanted to go hunting, so 1 had to get up at
dawn.

2. Cuando nos referimos a lugares de pequeñas


dimensiones, por ejemplo:
He reads the paper at home.
We arrived at the train station.

5. De uso común en frases como:


She stared at me.
He threw stones .at him.
1 am surprised at you.
They laughed at him.
1 was pointing at you.
He was shouting at them.

62 63
1-

b)In .
He depends on his friends.
Esta preposición se usa en los siguientes casos: ",'~ 1
She insists on living with us,
1. Cuando nos referimos a un período de¡~ 1)'
You rely on him.
por ejemplo: Q
,.,
I am busy now, ring me baek in the after- d)Between
noon.
I arrived at 10 o'c!oek in the morning. Usamos esta preposición sólo cuando nos referi-
I wiIl be there in an hour. mos a dos objetos o personas, por ejemplo:
He sat between me and my friendo
2. Cuando nos referimos a países y ciudades im- He divided the money between his two
sonso
portantes, por ejemplo:
During my visit in London, I stayed at the He put his ehair between two trees.
Lion hotel. e) Among
I was born in Franee, but now I am living
in Italy in Rome. Usamos esta preposición cuando nos referimos
a más de dos objetos, por ejemplo:
3. También usamos esta preposición de otra He sat among the members of the club.
forma, por ejemplo: The money was divided among the five
winners.
I was at home in my room.
You arrived in good time to help me.
I am now in good health.
1 believe in God.
1 took part in the game.

e)On
Se usa de las siguientes maneras:
1. Cuando nos referimos a un día particular de la
semana o del mes; por ejemplo:
We have an appointment al. 9 o'c!oek in the
morning on Monday.
He arrived on the 27th of January.

2. Usamos también esta preposición de otras


maneras, como: /';'\.
The eat c!imbed Al)' the roor.
He lives on his ptmsion.

64
65
=-

5. We all depend you.


Exercise No. 20 6. Our whole project ended total disaster.
7. Our firm deals metals.
Fill in the spaces in exereises no. 20-21 with suitable prepo- 8. Joseph's brothers took revenge him.
sitions - al, In, 011, betweell, omonlf: 9. Cattle feed grass and additional
supplements.
1. The peifonners will start 9 o'dock - - - - 10. The policeman told ¡he pedestrians to go _ _ walking.
the afternoon. 11. We alllaughed his proformance.
2. The hunter aimed ¡he lion. 12.1 am very elever chess.
3. We were throwing seeds ___ the birds - - - - 13. We were pleased her achievement.
the cage. 14. We are sad ___ the bad news.
4. They called .. , us our shop. 15. I will wai¡ for you ¡he market.
5. 1 have aiways relied my brother's wisdom. (
6. We will meet _ _ Saturday morning ___ 09:00.
7. 1 was surprised the sudden lightening.
8. We were angry _ _ her misbehaviour.
9. We arrived Nahalal Sunday - - - -
3 o' dock the afternoo n.
10. We called his office which is situated ¡he city.
11. The demonstrators threw bricks the windows.
12. We will arrive London Monday
morning and will be staying the HUton.
13. They have promised to be here . three haurs.
14. I am going to make an efiort and complete the Job
a week.
15. All will be done ___ good time.

Exereise No. 21

1. I am engaged writing one artide a day.


2. He always dresses dark suits.
3. I called her twice Sunday 9
and 11 ¡he moming, and once _ _ Monday
--'--
aftemoon.
4. Do not call _ _ _ me before 08:00 _ _ _ the
moming.
67
66

5
Pero en el caso de las palabras
alter - altering
answer - answering
la r no se duplica porque las palabras no son
LA FORMA -ing agudas sino graves.

a) Además del uso en los tiempos progressive (del 3. Los verbos que terminan en dos vocales más
gerundio) usamos esta forma en los siguientes consonante no duplican la consonante, por
casos: ejemplo:
1. Como adjetivo, por ejemplo: rain - raining
a sitting duck look - looking
a laughing girl eat - eating
the nying Dutchman

2. Como sustantivo, por ejemplo:


Boxing is a wonderful sport.
Smoking is not healthy.

b) Debemos prestar atención a las siguientes reglas:


1. Los verbos de una sola sílaba que terminan en
vocal más consonante, duplican la consonante
y se les agrega la partícula -ing, por ejemplo:
sit - sitting
swim - swimming
let - letting

2. Los verbos de más de una sílaba que terminan


en una vocal más consonante, si son agudos
(acentuados en la última sílaba) duplican la
consonante, por ejemplo:
forbid - forbidden
prefer - preferring
forget - forgetting

68 69

d
1. La h en las palabras anteriores se pronuncia
como si fuera una o y por lo tanto debe ir pre-
cedida de an aunque no se trate de una vocal.
2. La e en las palabras anteriores se pronuncia
REGLAS ÚTILES como una y (.ruropean) y por lo tanto debe ir
precedida de la forma a, aunque sea una vocal;
por ejemplo:
A continuación veremos algunas reglas importantes Half an hour.
que deberemos estudiar y recordar. He is an honest mano
It was an honour.
He is a European.
REGLA NÚMERO 1

a) El artículo a deberá ser colocado antes de un sus-


REGLA NÚMERO 2
tantivo o de un adjetivo, a menos que usemos el
artículo the en su lugar; por ejemplo:
En la tercera persona del presente simple se debe
1 have a peno
agregar la letra -s al verbo, por ejemplo:
It's a beautifuI house. he eats
she sleeps
b) Cuando la palabra siguiente comienza con u~a it smells.
vocal debemos cambiar a por an, por ejemplo.
Pero en ciertos casos se constatan las siguientes
an apple alteraciones:
an eagle
an oven
a) Si el verbo termina en eh, sh, s, x u 0, en lugar
de -s añadiremos la partícula -es; por ejemplo:
e) Existen algunos casos excepcionales que no res- he reaehes
petan las reglas que anteceden, como las pala- she blushes
bras siguientes: it presses
hour he fixes
honest she goes
honour
European b) Si el verbo termina con la letra y:
Eurasian,
1. Si aparece precedida por una consonante, pon-
y todos los sustantivos y adjeti,vos que comien-
dremos -ies en lugar de la y: por ejemplo:
cen con las letras eu-, por las siguientes razo- try - he tries
nes: fly - it flies
70 , 71
2. Si va preced ida por una vocal, pondremos como REGLA NúMERO 4
de costumbre la -s, por ejemplo:
stay - he stays Debemos prestar atención a la diferencia entre las
pray - she prays palabras each other y one another:

a) Usamos ~ach olhcl' cuando nos referimos a una


REGLA NÚMERO 3 pareja (dos) solamente, por ejemplo:
The two brothers respect each other.
a) Deberemos prestar atención a la diferencia exis-
tente entre un sustantivo que termina con la s b) Usamos one anolher cuando nos referimos a más
precedida por un apóstrofo ('s) y otro con un após- de una pareja, por ejemplo:
trofo que va a continuación de la s (s '). Many students do not know nne another.
I
b) Ambos apóstrofos expresan posesión pero el pri-
mer caso se refiere a un sustantivo singular, por REGLA NÚMERO 5
ejemplo:
The worker's time is being wasted, Toda pregunta relativa al pasado que empiece con
indicando que el tiempo del trabajador (singular) la palabra when debe ser formulada en pasado sim-
ha sido desperdiciado, mientras que el segundo ple, pues nos interesa específicamente el tiempo
se refiere a un sustantivo plural, por ejemplo: exacto (véase párrafo 3, b); por ejemplo:
The workers' time is being wasted, When did you meet him?
indicando que el tiempo de los trabajadores (plu- When did she arrive?
ral), ha sido desperdiciado.

e) Debemos recordar que todo lo dicho se usa gene- REGLA NÚMERO 6


ralmente con personas y animales, mientras que
en otros sustantivos usamos la partícula oC, por Como ya hemos dicho, usamos el participio pasado
ejemplo: con
. .todos los géneros, tiempos y números , en los
The steering wheel of the car is broken sigUientes casos:
(y no : The car's steering wheel is
broken). a) Con la voz pasiva, por eJemplo:
r was chosen
rl) Cuando el sustantivo en plural no termina en s, le she was ehosen
agregamos 's como en el singular, por ejemplo: he was ehosen
men - men's tliey were chosen
children • ehildren's

72 73

1
b)Como adjetivo, por ejemplo: REGLA NÚMERO 8
a beaten child
the chosen people La diferencia entre las palabras before yago es:
the forbidden city
a}Before
El significado es: «antes de», «más temprano
REGLA NÚMERO 7 que», «delante de»; por ejemplo:
Before 10 o'clock.
Cómo usar las palabras eitber y neitber, y cuál es 1 arrived before him.
la diferencia entre ellas:
b)í\gl)
a) 'EUher Se refiere a algo que comenzó en el pasado, por
1. Cuando nos referimos a una u otra entre dos ejemplo:
posibilidades, por ejemplo: 1 arrived here ayear ago (y no: before a
He is either sick or drunk. year).
SIGNIFICADO: Está enfermo o está borracho. 1 saw him 3 weeks ago (y no: before
2. Cuando entre dos posibilidades nos referimos 3 weeks).
a ambas, por ejemplo:
On either side of the road grew trees.
SIGNIFICADO: En los dos lados de la calle REGLA NÚMERO 9
crecen árboles.
La diferencia entre las palabras litUe y a litUe es:
b) Neither
Cuando entre dos posibilidades descartamos a)'Little
ambas (ni una ni la otra), por ejemplo: El significado es el contrario de «mucho», por
1 have two sisters neither is blondo ejemplo:
SIGNIFICADO: Ninguna de las dos es rubia. 1 am a poor man, 1 have little money.
Neither his uncle nor his aunt is living. ,
SIGNIFICADO: Ninguno de los dos está vivo. b) íUittIe
El significado es «algo», «un poco»; por ejemplo:
NOTA. Debemos recordar que las palabras either 1 can take care of myself, 1 have a little
y neitber requieren el verbo en singular (is blond, money.
is living, y no: are).

74 75

j
REGLA NÚMERO 10 1 told him he would get sick if he kept on
smoking.
Diferencia del significado entre las palabras few, a SIGNIFICADO: Le dije que enfermaría si
few y quite a few: seguía fumando.

a)Few
Es el contrario de «mucho» (many), por ejemplo: REGLA NÚMERO 12
1 feellonely here because 1 have few
friends. Normalmente, en una conversación, después de una
afirmación pedimos una ratificación de la frase; ésta
b)Afew · puede hacerse de dos maneras:
Significa «algunos» (some), por ejemplo:
1 like to go to Madrid because 1 have a few a) Si la frase se ha postulado afirmativamente, la
friends there. ratificación se pide de modo negativo, por ejemplo:
He worked very hard, didn't he?
e) Quite a few He has spoken to him, hasn't he?
Significa «mucho» (many), por ejemplo: You are speaking English, aren't you?
1 prefer to spend my holidays in N ew York They like him, don't they?
because 1 have quite a few friends there.
b) Si la frase se postula negativamente, la ratifi-
cación se pide de manera afirmativa, por ejem-
REGLA NÚMERO 11 plo:
He didn't work very hard, did he?
Diferencias entre las palabras whether e if: He hasn't spoken to him, has he?
You are not going to school today, are you?
a) Habitualmente no existe diferencia entre estas dos They don't lik~ him, do they?
palabras, por ejemplo:
1 asked him if he ate dinner.
1 asked him whether he ate· dinner. REGLA NÚMERO 13

b) Pero cuando la frase está en condicional debemos Transformar una afirmación en interrogación, colo-
usar sólo if, por ejemplo: cando el verbo auxiliar o modal al inicio de la ora-
1 asked her to ring me up if she was ción, por ejemplo:
coming.
SIGNIFICADO: Le pedí que me llamara sólo You eat breakfast every morning (afirma-
si tenía la intención de venir. ción).

76 77

d
Do you eat breakfast every rnoming?
(pregunta).
(Y no: You eat breakfast every rnoming?)
SOLUCIONES
Re carne horne late last night (afirmación). A LOS EJERCICIOS
Did he come horne last night? (pregunta).
(Y no: Re carne horne late last nigt?)
Exercise No. 1
You are going to school now (afirmación).
Are you going to school now? (pregunta). 1. We sometimes drive lo (he beach on Sundays.
2. My brother sometimes comes home late.
They have been rnarried for 5 years 3. Dan and Daviá'somelimes go lO school together.
(afirmación). 4. 1 always visit my father on Saturdays.
Rave they been rnarried for 5 years? 5. He always drinks wine with his dinner.
(pregunta). 6. They always eat brealifast in the morning.
7. 1 never watch TV during meals.
She willlet you know (afirmación). 8. She never smokes in publico
Will she let you know? (pregunta). 9. Simon never runs on an empty stomach.
10. He ofien rides his bicycle in the morning.
I can do it (afirmación). 11. Dan ofien drives his car on Sundays.
Can I do it? (pregunta). 12.1 do not go to the theatre very ofien.
13. We seldom eat fish in the moming.
14. David lives in London but he seldom visits ¡he ZOO.
15. He seldom shouts at his son.
16. She usually goes to the library afier schoo/.
17. Judy usually visits her grandfather twice a week.

Exercise No. 2

1. J usually wear shon trousen',


2. lf she arrives tomorrow we will go lo the zoo.
3. lf it rains tomorrow we will cancel (he tTip.
4. He wil/ get high marks if he studies hard.

, 79
78

J
5. When you come to Paris do not hesitate to cal! me. 10. He has lived in Paris for four years.
6. Do not forget to send me the book when you get it. 11. She has caUed me twiee reeently.
7. When you write to your brother remind him to write to 12. He has been ill sinee the beginning of the week.
me. 13. The teaeher has ente red the class already.
8. Let me know before you send the money. 14. The boy has broken his lego
9. The game will start not befare the president arrives. 15. The prisoner has broken out from jail.
10. You will eat the soup before you eat the iee eream. 16. My aunt has got married.
11. The show will start as soon as the lights go off. 17.1 have passed my examination in history.
12. 1 wil! pay you as soon as 1 receive sorne money.
13. 1 will cal! you as soon as 1 arrive.
14.1 will stay here until the bus leaves. Exercise No. 4
15. He will not leave the room until he finishes his work.
16. They will not oecupy the house until he repairs the roo! l. We have been in Europe a few times this year.
17. Why are you eating bread now? You never eat bread in 2. My friend has been here sinee early morning, he usually
the morning. stays with me the whole day.
3. He has been behaving funny sinee yesterday morning.
4. We have been planting trees for three weeks.
5. We have not yet finished our study whieh has been going
Exercise No. 3 on all day.
6. We have been waiting here for them sinee midday, but
1. 1 cannot Ieave the house now because it is snowing out- they have not arrived yet.
side. 7. I have been studying history for seven years.
2. They gene rally play tennis but today they are playing 8. What have you been doing with yourself all this time?
cricket. 9. He has been playing his guitar for three months.
3. The driver who is driving ear number eight, selOOm wins 10. She has not yet finished the painting whieh she has been
a race. painting all doy long.
4. The sun always rises in the east. Look, it is rising noW. 11. It has been snowing all afternoon.
5. I usually eat bread in the moming but today I am eating 12. He has been looking for his pen all day, but has not
a cake instead. found it yet.
6. Your mother is waiting for you at the gate. 13. The mother is worried beeause her ehild has not been
7. Dan is eating dinner now. He will eall you after he eating properly for the last three doys. He has never
finishes. made any sueh problems before.
8. He selOOm writes letlers, but this week he has written 14. That book has been on your deskfor days and you have
four letlers. not read it yet.
9. I have not spoken to him this month, although I usually 15. Although he has been playing tennis for only four
speak to him every week. months, he plays it quite well.

80 81

j
Exereise No. 5 546665
5. They went home after they load completed their work.
1. He went 10 the pietures last night. 6. The fire load destroyed the house before the firemen
2. When 1 arrived at my friend's house lasl night, he was arrived.
walching TV 7. 1 had been working in the garden for two hours when
3. While 1 was running yesterday moming, 1 saw a white my falher lold me to SIOp.
horse. 8. We had been playing tennis for one hour before we
4. When 1 visited my aunt tast week, 1 met my old friend decided to lake a break.
and IOId him the latest news. 9. Last week 1 visited my unele after 1 had spoken with him
5. Whal were you doing at len o'dock lasl nighl? on the lelephone.
6. When 1 visited Haifa yesterday, 1 went 10 the beaeh and /O. Afier Ihey had returned from London they wenl lo the
swam in Ihe sea. beach.
7. Whiie ¡ was piaying in our garden yesterday, 1 feU and II. He thanked me for whnt T had done.
broke my leg. 12. He had wom his new suit before he went to the wedding.
8. He brought me a nice present when he visited me lasl 13. 1 wrole a letter to my father after 1 had received the
week. results of my tesl.
9. 1 asked him what kind of eolours he was using and he 14. She thanked him for what he load done.
taid me rhat he was using water colours. 15. He lold me that he load visited London last year.
/O. 1 saw a very funny Ihing when 1 was wa/king in ¡he park
yesterday. 1 saw a monkey eating a banana.
11. 1 was eating lunch when Ihe telephone rango
12. After they load eaten dinner, they went home. Exereise No. T ·
13. The leacher told the pupil that he had passed the
examination. 1. Tomorrow 1 will get up early and TUn for two hours.
14.1 have been reading for two hours when you arrived. 2. 1 wiU be glad if you call him up tomorrow.
15. 1 found the pen which 1 load lost last week. 3. We will stay here untU the train arrives.
4. They promised that they will visit us next week.
5. She is going to play tennis tomorrow.
6. 1 am going to watch TV tonight.
Exereise No. 6 7. 1 am going to France nexl monlh where 1 will be
studying French for six monlhs.
1. Yeslerday 1 caught the dog which had billen my siSler. 8. At Ihis lime next week 1 will be enjoying myself in Rome.
2. 1 drank tea after 1 had eaten my dinner. 9. When 1 am in Paris nexl week 1 wi/l slay with my friendo
3. He lhonked us for whal we had done. /O. They are going 10 buy a birlhday present tomorrow.
4. When we arrived al Ihe ¡heater, Ihe shów had already II. The Irain is going lO be lale because of bad wealher.
started. 12. Nexl week 1 am going lo visil my grandmother, and will
be slaying wilh her for Ihree days.
82 , 83 BIBLIOTECA CENTRAL
UNAM

d
13. When she comes lo Rome lomorrow, I will rell her Ihat 14. Whíle we were playing lennis yeslerday, my parlner feU
whi/e we will be waiting for her molher I will read lo down and hurt his leg. He will nol be able lo walk for a
her my new poem. few days.
14. He is going lo join my club lomorrow and I will be 15. After I had spenl a month in Paris I retumed hame.
enjoying myself watching Ihe ceremony. 16. I asked David ifhe had seen Dan today, as'have been
15. She will be visiling the art museum all lomorrow looking for him since early morning.
evening. 17. Dina has been suffering from abad cough for Ihree days
noW.
18. They have been living in Paris before they moved lo
London.
Exereise No. 8 19. From lomorrow early moming ti/llate evening I will be
sludying at my friend's home.
1. Tomorrow my aun! will arrive from London. She visits 20. When we arrived al Ihe theater the show had already
us every year this time. started.
2. On my way lO school I usually meel our neighbours who 21.1 have no! traveled abroad since 1 visited Paris las! year.
are having brealifasl in Iheir garden. 22. He will be slaying with us for four months before he will
3. Afler she had retumed from school, she fell suddenly begin; his sludies.
dizzy and has nOl yel recovered.
4. I hope I wiU pass my examinaríon nexl week, meanwhíle
1 am working very hard on il.
5. As I was eating dinner. my mOlher came in and lold me Exereise No. 9
lo hurry up.
6. I jumped off the bus while it was moving and I hurt my , accounts [aaves brushes
ankle. advances matches halves
7. Allhough she trealed me rudely last week, I forgave her bushes peaches monkeys
yesterday when 1 saw how sorry she was. countries plays puppies
8. He cried with joy after he had won the game. men properties watches
9. Yeslemay my sister feU down and hurt her arm. A doclor leeth qualities wives
came fa treal her. and her condition is improving now. feel rubies val/eys
la. Yestemay, as I was crossing the bridge, I saw an old mice thieves heroes
man riding a bicycle. children arehes wolves
11. Dan promised lasl week that he will pay the money he oxes attorneys navies
owes my falher. bul he has nol done so yet. crosses ranches loxes
12. Tomorrow he will come lo visil me if /le is nol busy. difficulties universities radios
13. I had been reading a bookfor Iwo haurs before you echoes worries Uves
arrived. leaves bakeries knives

84 85
-
Exereise No. JO 9. Your engine is noisier than mine.
10. My shoes are dirtier than yours. but they are not the
1. Rose is the smartest o/ the two sisters. dirtiesf in the class.
2. Rome is bigger than Venice. 11. Dina is the prettiest girl in schoo/.
3. Danny is the tallest boy in the cms. 12. Today l have heard the saddest story ever.
4. London is the largest city in England. 13. Danny is the most stupid boy l have ever meto
5. Today it is colder than it was yesterday. 14. Columbus was the mast famous seaman in his days.
6. Bis brother is the mas! elever boy in the whole village. 15. Bread is cheaper than butter.
7. Yesterday was hotter than today.
8. Sara is taller than Dina.
9. l have bluer eyes than my sister but she has the bluest
eyes in her clas~. Exereise No. 12
JO. My brother is the bravest soldier in his platoon. He is
even braver than my cousin. l. Danny eats slowly.
11. Our school bus driver is the most careful driver l have , 2. My friend runs very quickly.
ever seen. 3. Our neighbour draws posters beautifully.
12. The crow in OUT garden it blacker than the one on the 4. 1 swim very carefully.
roof. 5. My teacher speaks very elearly.
13. She is the most e/ever student in the e/ass. 6. Michael is a boxer and fights very fiercely.
14. She has bought herselfthe prettiest gown in the shop. 7. An athlete elimbs dhigh tree easily.
15. The weather is more pleasant today than it was 8. OUT gardener cut the grass clumsily.
yesterday. 9. My parents always plan their holidays wisely.
JO. My sister married David very happily.
11. The horse ran steadily during the whole race.
12. David behaved very wildly as a boy.
Exereise No. 11 13. He usually solved all problems very eleverly.
14. My sister always appears very prettily.
l. Roses have a sweeter smell than all other flowers. 15. l usually speak very loudly.
2. Cars are now more expensive than they were las! year.
3. A scorpion's sting is more dangerous than a bee's sting.
4. My grandmother's hair is grayer than my mother's hair.
5. My mother is the busiest in OUT house. She is busier than Exercise No. 13
all of us together.
6. Yesterday was the hottest day of the waek l. We must treat our neighbour kindly.
7. My hair is redder than yours. 2. When 1 told my father that 1 had passed the examination
8. His last book is more famous than his first one. successfully, he smiled pleasantly and shook my hand.

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3. My friend actedfoolishly and the teacher angrily asked 10. The lawyer who 1 met yesterday is very good.
him lo leave the class. Il. The window which was broken is in the big room.
4. After their marriage my brother and his wife lived 12. The boys and girls which were present in the classroom
happily together. were sitting in (heir places exactly as the teacher had
5. It was snowing heavily las! week. told them too
6. My litlle boy sings loudly in the shower. 13. The big building which was built opposite our house
7. David usually gets high marks, and therefore he thinks belongs lo my unde.
very highly of himself. 14. The man whose wife fell. blamed himself for not taking
8. OUT dog reacts fiercely fo strangers. better caTe o/ her.
9. The child spoke to his mother arrogantly. 15. The table which was too large to be moved, was left in
10. 1 like to watch TV quietly because 1 am easily disturbed. its original place.
Il. The boy actedfoolishly and was punished severely.
12. They were lucky to reach their destination safely as the
TOut was no! saJe al alZ.
13. He was very carejitl not to drop the glass statue and Exereise No. 15
succeeded doing so by acting carejitlly all along the
procedure. l. All children that were present won prizes.
14. When 1 saw him he was walking slowly up the hill. 2. The man with the black dog which were injured
15. He drew the last painting beautifully and added it to his yesterday were no! from OUT street.
beautiful collection. 3. All that was told to us was true.
4. The boys who won the prices donated them to poor
chi/dren.
5. He told me nothing that 1 did not know.
Exereise No. 14 6. Something that 1 told her yesterday made her very
angry.
7. We gave him everything that belonged to him
l. The boy who broke the door is your brother. 8. The longest bridge that was bui/t.
2. This is the man whose watch was stolen. 9. The highest mountain that overlooks the village is...
3. He himself is responsible for his actions. 10. The first boy that entered the room.
4. Your car is larger (han mine. Il. Danny was the third boy that received tickets.
5. They themselves are to be blamed. 12.1 was the second in my class that received high
6. 1 will wait and see for myself who is in the room. marks.
7. The girl who visited me y~sterday is my niece. 13. Which car was the fastest?
8. My son is the boy who won the race. 14. Which of all swimmers got the price?
9. Danny broke (he pen which was given [o me on my 15. What time is it now?
birthday. 16. To whom did you send the letter?

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17. Who is taller, my brother or your sister? there Ihal'day because the previous day it had been
18. Which of Ihe boys brok.e the windows? closed.
19. Whom do you trusl most? 15. My brother lold me lhat he had gane ro lhe beach lhe
20. Whom did Ihey give the ticket ro? previous day and had found his walch which he had lost
21. Who won Ihe prize? two days beJore.
22. Who did you meet at the train station?
23. Whose pen was stolen?
24. The boy whose father was elecled is my friendo
25. Whose sister won the prize? Exereise No. 17

1. She told me that she had gane to the theater the night
befare and lhat Ihe show had reminded her of the one
Exercise No. 16 she had seen befare twO monlhs.
2. Danny told me thal because he was nol hungry, he was
l. He said lhal he was in a hurry. not going to eal lunch that doy.
2. She said that she was eating brealifast Ihen. 3. Dina said that she had never ealen in tha! restaurant
3. They said Ihat Ihey had visited lheir grandmother the befare.
week befo re. 4. She says Ihal she is watching TV now.
4. The doclor told the patient lhal his hea/lh was peifecI, 5. My molher te/ls me 10 ftnish my breakJasl because I am
.but he had to reduce weighl. about to miss ¡he school bus.
5. He told him lO lake Ihal chair away from there. 6. The bus driver says thal he is driving slowly because the
6. She said that she did not wish lo see him then. engine is out olorder.
7. The driver told Ihe passengers lhat he was afraid ¡hal 7. He has lold me that he has not been Jeeling welllately.
they had losl ¡heir way. 8. The guide has lold the tourisls lhat they have been
8. He said that his father had given him that golden peno wasting too much time (hal moming.
9. I told her thal there was no room for her in that tent. 9. 1 will lell her Ihal 1 do nol want lo watch TV during
JO. He said that nothing in his long career had pleased him meals.
more than what had happened that day. JO. We will tel! lhem lo come in and join uso
11. They said Ihat Ihey gave him that painting that day 11. As my room male, I will lel! him nol to forget lo /ock the
beca use il was his birthday. main door.
12. She said thal her children had sen/ Ihem those flowers 12. The farmer lold me that apples grow on trees while
on (heir wedding anniversary. strawberries grow on creeping plants.
13. My brother toid lo me thal he was coming home thal day 13. The teacher said lhal all rivers ron in/O Ihe sea.
and asked me lo call his boss and lell !lim that he was 14. Danny says Ihal he does nol drink liquar al alL
coming lO work next day. 15. He has rold me Ihat he has never been in Europe before.
14. The guide told the tourisls that he had brought them

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Exercise No. 18 13. The meat was eaten by the hungry dogs.
14. Our dinner has not yet been finished by uso
l. Tables are built by the carpenter. 15. The bus was being run after by him
2. Vegetables are grown by farmers.
3. English is not understood by her.
4. Hair is cut by the barber.
5. The wounded boy was treated by the doctor. Exereise No. 20
6. Barley was grown by the farmer.
7. A white horse was oseen by my brother yesterday. l. The performers will start at 9 o'dock in the afternoon
8. The prisoner was accompanied by the policemen. 2. The hunter aimed al the /ion.
9. A book will be bought by me. 3. We were throwing seeds at the birds in the cage.
10. Brealifast >vill be eaten by you in the·kitchen. 4. They cal/ed on.us at our shop.
11. A book is being read by 11Tj sister. j. ¡ have always relied un my brother's wisdom.
12. Tennis is being played by me professional/y. 6. We will meet on Saturday moming at 09:00.
13. The car was driven by the driver careful/y. 7. 1 was surprised at the sudden /ightening.
14. Stones were being thrown at him by uso 8. We were angry at her misbehaviour.
15. A book on nature has been written by me. 9. We arrived at Nahalal on Sunday al 3 o' dock in the
aftemoon.
10. We cal/ed his office which is situaled in the city.
11. The demonstrators threw bricks at the windows.
Exereise No. 19 12. We will arrive in London on Monday morning and will
be staying at the Hi/ton.
l. Such a thing has never been seen by her in her whole 13. They have promised to be here in three hours.
lije. 14.1 am going lo make an effort and complete the job in a
2. My brother was not seen by me. week.
3. The shoes were not bought by me. 15. Al/ will be done in good lime.
4. A present has been given to me by my father.
5. A terrible noise ii being made by someone outside.
6. The money will be paid to you by me next month.
7. The lesson was nol understood by Ihe pupils. Exereise No. 21
8. The book has to be returned by him.
9. A song is being sung by me now. l. 1 am engaged in writing one artide a day.
10: Food and water are needed by the people. 2. He always dresses in dark suits.
11. Three languages are spoken by him. 3. 1 cal/ed on her t",ice on Sunday at 9 and 11 in the
12. The windows must be shut by you before the house is moming, and once on Monday aftemoon.
being left. 4. Do not cal/ on me before 8 in the morning.

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5. We all depend on you.
6. Our whole project ended in total disaster.·
7. Our firm deals in metals.
8. Joseph's brothers took revenge on him
9. Cattle feed on grass and on additional supplements.
10. The policeman told the pedestrians to go on walking.
11. We alllaughed at his profonnance.
12.1 am very clever at chess.
13. We were pleased at her achievement.
14. We are sad at the bad news.
15.1 will wait for you at the market.

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Gramática sucinta de la lengua inglesa
Las gramáticas sucintas del método Gasper
Qtto Sauer son cursos teóricos y prácticos,
editados por Herder, para el estudio de las
lenguas modernas. Cada lección va acom-
pañada de reglas gramaticales, vocabulario,
ejemplos, diálogos y fragmentos escogidos
de lectura. Las sucesivas ediciones de este
método actualizan los textos utilizados y
modernizan las explicaciones teóricas.

304 págs. 32' edición.


ISBN 84-254-0807-5