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Name: Pugallan A/L Nadarajah

Date: 11/4/2016

ID No: 55213114377

Experiment No. and Title: Air Flow Process Control (AF922)


1. To identify the important components of the air pressure control system and to mark them
in the P&I Diagram.
2. To carry out the start-up procedures systematically.
3. To study gas volumetric flow rate measurement using orifice plate.
4. To study gas mass flow rate measurement using orifice plate and perfect gas law to
compute the gas density from the pressure and temperature measurements.
5. To study gas mass flow rate (Fm) control using PID controller.
6. To design a PID controller using Ziegler Nichols closed loop method.
Experiment Procedures:

The following steps constitute the start-up procedure. Go through these steps before starting any

Switch the "PANEL, SCADA/DDC" selector switch at the front of the cubicle to "PANEL, SCADA"
position. Switch ON the main power supply at the front of the cubicle. All panel instruments will lit up.

If any annunciator gets activated, press the ACKNOWLEDGE button to silence the buzzer.

Set the instrument air supply regulator to the pressure indicated at the air regulators at the pneumatic
control valves FCV90 and FCV91. Purge if there is any condensed water in the air regulators.

From the process air supply, trace the two pipelines, PLI and PLII as follows:

Pipeline I (PLI):
Pipeline II (PLII):

Open fully the pipelines PLI and PLII at their various manual valves. Close fully the manual by-pass
valve around the control valve FCV91 and the ON/OFF control valve FCV90.

The pipeline PLI has two discharge manual valves, VF and MV901. Open the vent VF and close the
valve MV901.
Make sure the valves MV900A and MV900D are open and valves MV900B and MV900C are shut.
Place the panel controller FIC91 in the Manual (M) mode. Make sure the control valve positioner PP
is connected (i.e. Not by-passed).
Open fully the control valve FCV91 by setting the MV of FIC91 to -6.3%.

Shut fully the manual valve MV900A and set AR900 to the pressure indicated at AR900.

Adjust the manual valve MV900A till the air flow rate is about 50 kg/hr (Read the flow rate from PV
of FIC91).

Step (10), (11) and (12) have set the process air supply pressure and flow rate. DO NOT re-adjust
AR900 and MV900A hereafter.

Check that vent valve and bottom drain valve of vessel T90 are shut. Set MV = 106.3% at FIC91 to
fully shut the control valve FCV91.

Check control valve FCV91 (in the plant) is fully shut and FI911 reads the air volumetric flow rate as
ZERO. Also check the mass flow rate Fm at FIC91 is ZERO.

Now set the MV = 50% at FIC91 and check control valve FCV91 (in the plant) is 50% opened.

Note the variables that are recorded in each channel of the recorder FPTR91.
 Red Pen - Mass flow rate (kg/hr)
 Green Pen - Volumetric flow rate (m3/hr)
 Blue Pen - Temperature (°C)Shut MV1 and MV4 and open MV2 and MV3.


This experiment is carried out with the air is the medium and at ambient conditions.
1. Make sure that you have gone through the start up procedures carefully.
2. Set the MV = -6.3% (in Manual mode) so that control valve FCV91 is fully opened.
3. Record the reading/data in Column I of the tabular column as shown in results section.

Data to be taken AT THE CONTROL PANEL:

i) Access the following data by pressing the corresponding push buttons in FIC91 and FIC90:
PID1(main page): PV - Fm, kg/hr
I/O DATA: X1 - FT91, % of , 0 - 100
X2 - TIT911, % of 0 - 120°C
X3 - PT911, % of 0 - 60 psia
P/T REGISTER: PO1 - Fv, m3/hr
(ii) At the Recorder: Fv (Channel 2, Green) and Fm (Channel 1, Red)

Data to be taken AT THE PLANT:

Locate the rotameter FI911 and pressure gauge PG900. Take both instruments’ readings and also note
the units used. (Rotameter reading should be taken as ±0.5 Nm3/hr).
Now, take another sets of readings for MV = 50% and MV = 70% and record them in the tabular
column in the results section.

Control of Air Flow System

If you are starting this experiment in a new session, then go through the start-up procedures given in
Section 3.2.

With FIC91 in Manual (M) mode, open the control valve FCV91 fully with MV = -6.3%.

(For confirmation, check the stem position indicator of control valve FCV91. FCV91 is an Air-To-
Close (ATC) valve).

With FIC91 still in Manual mode, adjust its setpoint, SV = 25 kg/hr.

Access the PID parameters of FIC91 and set the first (I) PID trial values:
PB = 200%, TI = 6 s, TD = 0 s

Start the recorder chart drive by pressing “RCD” pushbutton at FPTR91.

Switch FIC91 to Auto (A) mode and watch the recorder response (i.e. air flow response) until the air
flow (red pen) is fairly steady.

Introduce a pulse disturbance by quickly opening and shutting fully the by-pass valve around control
valve FCV91. Observe the response till it becomes fairly steady.

Repeat step (7) (i.e. introducing pulse disturbaance) with the second (II) and third (III) sets of PID
trial values:
PB = 150% PB = 100%
TI = 6 s TI = 6 s
TD = 0 s TD = 0 s

Repeat the experiment for the above 3 sets of PID trial values with step change in setpoint for the mass
flow rate by changing the present setpoint of FIC91 from SV= 25 kg/hr to SV = 30 kg/hr. Observe and
record the response till it becomes fairly steady.

Switch back the setpoint SV = 25 kg/hr. Use the first (I) PID trial value but now with TD = 20 s.
Mark the PID values on the chart paper simultaneously.

Apply the disturbance by opening and shutting fully the by-pass valve around control valve FCV91
and observe the response.


Set FIC91 in Manual (M) mode with setpoint SV = 25 kg/hr. Adjust the PID values to the following:
PB = about 100%, TI = 9999 s (Maximum), TD = 0 s (Minimum)
Adjust MV in FIC91 until the PV value closes to the setpoint SV value (SV = 25 kg/hr).

Transfer FIC91 to Auto (A) mode. Introduce a setpoint pulse disturbance as follows:
i) Set increase SV to 28 kg/hr
ii) Hold the value for a few seconds
iii) Bring back the SV to 25 kg/hr

Observe the mass flow rate (red pen) response. Repeat the Closed Loop Tuning Method as above
with a decreasing PB value until uniform oscillation (constant amplitude) is observed. (To increase
oscillation, decrease PB value and vice versa).

Examine the chart response for the uniform oscillation. New PID value from tuning procedures can
be obtained as follows:
i) PB corresponds to uniform oscillation = PB* ultimate (correspons to ultimate gain, Kcu)
ii) Distance between two adjacent peaks = Tn* ultimate (ultimate period, Pu) Tn* can be calculated
from this formula:
iii) The approximate PI controller settings by using Ziegler Nichols formula are:
PB = 2 x PB*, TI = Tn*/1.2

To test this new PI controller settings, set this value into FIC91 (in Auto mode). Perform the test with
a pulse disturbance. Increase PB value to damp the oscillation and fine tune the PB and TI values to
get as close to Quarter Amplitude Damping response.


Stop the recorder chart by pressing”RCD” pressbutton at recorder FPTR91. Switch FIC91 to Manual
mode with MV = 0%.

Switch off the main power supply. Shut off the process air supply at AR900. Shut off the instrument
air supply.

Parameter (s) Studied in the experiment:

a) Gas volumetric/ mass flow measurement system.

b) PID flow control.
c) ON/OFF flow control.
d) Temperature control.
e) Flow Recorder.
f) Variable area flow meter.
g) Pressure Gauge.
h) Temperature Gauge.