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AERODYNAMICS OF LARGE BRIDGES

PROCEEDINGS OF THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON AERODYNAMICS OF


LARGE BRIDGES / COPENHAGEN / DENMARK/19 - 21 FEBRUARY 1992

Aerodynamics of Large
Bridges
Edited by
ALLAN LARSEN
COWIconsult

Organized by
DANISH MARITIME INSTITUTE

A. A. BALKEMA / ROTTERDAM / BROOKFIELD / 1992


The texts of the various papers in this volume were set individually by typists under the supervision of each of the
authors concerned.

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granted by A A . Balkema, Rotterdam, provided that the base fee of US$ 1.00 per copy, plus US$0.10 per page is
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tions that have been granted a photocopy license by CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged. The
fee code for users of the Transactional Reporting Service is: 90 5410 042 7/92 US$1.00 + US$0.10.

Published by
A. A. Balkema, P.O.Box 1675,3000 BR Rotterdam, Netherlands
A. A. Balkema Publishers, Old Post Road, Brookfield, VT 05036, USA
ISBN 13: 978-90-5410-0423

© 1992 A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam


Aerodynamics of Large Bridges, A. Larsen (ed.) © 1992 Balkema, Rotterdam. ISBN 905410 042 7

Table of contents

Preface vn

1 Overview
Bridge engineering and aerodynamics 3
Klaus H.Ostenfeld & Allan Larsen

2 Wind
Aspects of the natural wind of relevance to large bridges 25
N.O.Jensen, J.Mann & LKristensen
Wind criteria for long span bridges 33
Henrik Overgaard Madsen & Peter Ostenfeld-Rosenthal

3 Aerodynamic aspects
Wind dynamics of long-span bridges 47
R.H.Scanlan
The improvement of aerodynamic performance 59
R.LWardlaw
Wind engineering of large bridges in Japan 71
M.Ito

4 Tools
Similitude and modelling in bridge aerodynamics 83
H.Tanaka
Section model tests 95
E.Hjorth-Hansen
Taut strip model tests 113
A.G.Davenport, J.P.C.King & G.LLarose
Full aeroelastic model tests 125
P.A. Irwin
A new wide boundary layer wind tunnel at the Danish Maritime Institute 137
Leif Wagner Smitt & Michael Brinch

5 Application!design
The construction phase and its aerodynamic issues 147
Fabio Brancaleoni
Recent British developments: Windshielding of bridges for traffic 159
T.A.Wyatt
Examples of analytical aerodynamic investigations of long-span bridges 171
Holger S.Svensson & Imre Kovacs
Wind design and analysis for the Normandy Bridge 183
Michel Virlogeux
Akashi Kaikyo Bridge: Wind effects and full model wind tunnel tests 217
Toshio Miyata, Koichi Yokoyama, Masahiko Yasuda & Yuichi Hikami
The bi-stayed bridge concept: Overview of wind engineering problems 237
J. Muller

6 Great Belt experience


The fixed link across the Great Belt 249
Christian Tolstrup
Wind tunnel tests for the Great Belt link 255
Timothy A. Reinhold, Michael Brinch & Aage Damsgaard
Aerodynamic design of the Great Belt East Bridge 269
Allan Larsen & Arne SJacobsen
Simulation of marine traffic for assessment of bridge span 285
Jens Bay & Stig E. Sand

1 The future
Large bridges of the future 295
Niels J.Gimsing
Author index 305

VI
Aerodynamics of Large Bridges, A. Larsen (ed.) © 1992 Balkema, Rotterdam. ISBN 905410 042 7
Preface

As bridge spans get longer, lighter and more slender, aerodynamic loads become a matter for serious
study. The very long spans currently under design and construction notably in Japan, France and
Denmark have necessitated thorough investigations into the wind conditions at the bridge site and
the aerodynamic performance of the bridge structures. Future bridges with ultra-long spans, partly
built in new light weight materials, will further accentuate the need for a thorough aerodynamic
understanding even at early planning and design stages.
Bridge Aerodynamics fall into a ‘grey zone’ between established fields of work associated with
Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Meteorology. Hence most of the literature on the
aerodynamics of bridges is scattered in periodicals and conference proceedings related to Structural
Dynamics, Fluid Dynamics and Wind Engineering.
The 1992 International Symposium on Aerodynamics of Large Bridges - ISALB’92 - is
arranged at the occasion of the extensive aerodynamic investigations carried out for the Great Belt
East Bridge, a 1624 meter main span suspension bridge, currently under construction in Denmark.
This very long span has warranted a wide range of analytical and experimental investigations,
including testing of a full aeroelastic bridge model in a wide purpose built wind tunnel at the Danish
Maritime Institute. The ISALB ’92 symposium brings together internationally recognized experts in
Bridge Building, Meteorology and Wind Engineering to present state-of-the-art contributions
within a common framework: The analysis and design of long span bridges for adequate aerodyna­
mic performance.
The proceedings contain specially invited papers presented at seven plenary sessions held in
Copenhagen, Denmark, 19-21 February 1992. An additional paper on the design and performance
of the new wide wind tunnel inaugurated at this occasion is included for completeness. The
sequence of the papers in the proceedings is based on the division into sessions during the
symposium.
The proceedings are printed by direct offset from the individual authors’ original manuscripts.
The editor is therefore not responsible for misprints or errors in the text. The opinions expressed are
those of the authors and not necessarily those of the editor.
The editor and the organizers extend warm and sincere thanks to all authors and co-authors for
their valuable contributions.
Also the editor and organizers convey appreciation to the COWIfoundation for ensuring financial
support which allows wide publication of the proceedings.

Allan Larsen, Arne Hasle Nielsen,


Editor and Chairman of Technical Committee Chairman of Organizing Committee
SYMPOSIUM ORGANIZED BY:
The Danish Maritime Institute (DMI) under the auspices of:
The Danish Group of the International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE)
and
The Danish Society for Structural Science and Engineering

SYMPOSIUM SPONSORED BY:


B.H0jlund Rasmussen, Consulting Engineers
CMFSudS.p.A.
Commission of the European Communities
Danish Maritime Institute
Danish Technical Research Council
Great Belt A. S.
Kampihl

PROCEEDINGS SPONSORED BY:


COWIfoundation

ORGANIZING COMMITTEE
Arne Hasle Nielsen (Chairman), Director, Danish Maritime Institute
Erik Kasper (Secretary), Danish Maritime Institute
Mikael W. Braestrup, Danish Society for Structural Science and Engineering
Ole Damgaard Larsen, Danish Group of the International Association for Bridges and Structural
Engineering (IABSE)

TECHNICAL COMMITTEE
Allan Larsen (Editor and Chairman), COWIconsult
Niels J.Gimsing, Professor, Technical University of Denmark
Timothy A. Reinhold, Danish Maritime Institute

VIII
1 Overview
Aerodynamics of Large Bridges, A. Larsen (ed.) © 1992 Balkema, Rotterdam. ISBN 905410 042 7

Bridge engineering and aerodynamics

Klaus H.Ostenfeld & Allan Larsen


COWIconsult, Consulting Engineers and Planners AIS, Denmark

ABSTRACT: Aerodynamic performance of long span bridges is accentuated by the trends to


span still wider straits and busy shipping lanes, safely and economically. The present paper
outlines the salient aerodynamic features in present and future bridge design. The theoretical
and experimental tools available to the designer are addressed. Research and development
needs are identified in order to meet the aerodynamic challenges where costs, construction and
maintenance will introduce new structural materials with improved strength/weight ratios. Such
very light structures will be aerodynamically sensitive if special precautions are not taken. A
computer controlled active stabilization system is outlined inspired by active control surface
systems in advanced aircraft.

1 INTRODUCTION the 19th Century. James Finley built some 40


bridges in the first decade. They were quite
The oldest form of bridge used for spanning daring, prone as they were to destruction by
land or water is probably pure suspension relatively light loads - and winds.
bridges. The earliest examples had cables con­ For more than 150 years interaction
sisting of jungle creepers or iron chains. This between wind and structure was poorly under­
material was used in China already two hun­ stood in suspension bridge design. Many sus­
dred years BC. pended spans were damaged or completely
The load was carried by the tension cables wrecked by storm winds. Notable examples
acting alone, and the flexible deck had to recorded by eye witnesses are: Brighton Chain
follow the curve of the cables although it did Pier (1836), Menai Straits (1839), Wheeling
not always rest directly on them. The purpose (1854) and Niagara-Clifton (1888) (Shirly-
of these bridges was to provide a pathway - Smith 1964, Plowden 1974).
and it was not always a safe one. The awakening for aerodynamic investiga­
They were highly deformable as the pure tions did not come until the very light and
tensional members had to deform from the slender Tacoma Narrows Bridge was
catenary shape in order to carry imposed destroyed by a relatively low 20 m/s wind in
concentrated load. The much later introduced 1940 (Farquahrson et. al. 1949).
stiffening girder was an improvement. It stiff­ It was probably the problem of dynamic
ens the bridge and distributes concentrated instability and structure/wind interaction that
loads along the cable by shear and moments. caused most of the earlier wind-induced fail­
The age of the fully developed suspended ures of suspension bridges as well.
span with a horizontal traffic path began in

3
2 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS AND 3.1 Truss Girders
WIND EFFECTS
Historically most long span cable supported
The challenges for the designer are to develop bridges have been built with truss girders in
bridge concepts with sufficient structural relia­ order to facilitate fabrication and erection,
bility and avoid e.g. excessive deformations, whereas little attention was paid to mainte­
cracking, plastic deformation, and of course nance and aerodynamic performance. A
collapse. notable exception to the latter is the design
Long service life requires a structure with philosophy proposed by Roebling who sug­
minimum deterioration and wear: durability. gested truss railings for stiffening the storm-
Likewise, the users require a high level of wrecked Wheeling span reconstructed in 1855
comfort: serviceability. (Plowden 1974). Roebling also devised deep
The society requires a low level of risk timber trusses for the two level Niagara rail
associated with operation of the bridge struc­ and road suspension bridge (1855) which,
tures: third party risk. unlike other suspended spans at the Niagara,
The aerodynamic phenomena which must
be considered with respect to the above cri­
teria can roughly be categorized as follows:
- Aerodynamic instability - statical divergence
or flutter - which if allowed to develop, will
destroy the bridge.
- Buffeting, the forced movements caused by
randomly fluctuating wind loads (turbulent)
present at all wind speeds. Buffeting should
be limited in order to obtain sufficient
reliability and adequate comfort.
- Vortex shedding, including forced vibra­
tions induced in non streamlined objects
like buff deck sections.
- Rain induced vibration of cables, caused by
change of aerodynamic properties from
water flow along the cables.
- Traffic comfort requires low acceleration
levels for the structures and limitation of
variations of lateral wind loads and wake
turbulence on passing vehicles. I -------------------------- -—-----------------------J-

3 ELEMENT SHAPES AND


CONFIGURATIONS

In long span cable supported bridges all the


different structural elements contribute as an
assembly to the overall aerodynamic perform­
ance. The stiffening girder generates normally
the major part of the wind loading. For very
long span bridges the towers, cables and
equipment also contribute considerably to the Fig. 3.1 Drag coefficient CDOfor a truss section
overall aerodynamic behaviour of the struc­ and a streamlined box section (Little Belt sus­
ture. pension bridge).

4
survived the frequent storms at this location 3.2 Box Girders
(Shirly-Smith 1964).
Trusses can be designed to exhibit suffi­ The need for fast and efficient rebuilding of
cient torsional stiffness to safeguard the approximately 8500 bridges in post-war Ger­
bridge against torsional flutter instability by many called for the development of new
introducing horizontal top and bottom wind- design concepts and fabrication techniques.
bracings and adopting a truss depth of 1:170 - The box girder, originally introduced by
1:120 of the span length. Robert Stephenson in the 19th Century, was
The flutter resistance can be further perfected into the thin-walled all-welded
enhanced by longitudinal open slots in the structural member commonly used today
road deck, a well known feature from post (Plowden 1974). Contrary to the traditional
World War II suspension bridges in North truss girder, the orthotropic steel deck in a
America and Japan. contemporary box girder serves as an integral
The open lattice truss structure perpendicu­ part of the structure. Substantial savings in
lar to the wind also prevents periodic forma­ weight are obtained, also in construction and
tion and shedding of large vortices in the maintenance costs, but aerodynamic problems
wake of the truss with associated risk of res­ persist. In particular during the erection
onant oscillation. phases when the girder lacks the final torsio­
However, truss sections usually exhibit nal stiffness, mass and continuity.
quite high wind forces (drag loading) which Aerodynamically the box section concept
must be resisted by the bridge structure. This holds a promise to reduce the lateral wind
will have a relative effect on costs. As an loading in comparison with the truss girder, as
example, figure 3.1 compares the drag coeffi­ demonstrated in figure 3.1, while maintaining
cient Qdo at zero incidence measured for a the structural stiffness in torsion. A drawback
truss and box design for the Little Belt bridge is the tendency of the wind to form and shed
(Ostenfeld et. al. 1970). It is noted that the vortices in the wake of the box because of
drag of the truss section is more than 3 times insufficiently aerodynamical shaping of the
that of the streamlined box. The Little Belt downstream edge of the girder. In many
bridge was one of the two first suspension instances this leads to small amplitude oscilla­
bridges adopting the modern box girder tions at low wind speeds. Vortex induced
design. oscillations may not have immediate cata­
The high lateral wind loads for truss girders strophic consequences for the bridge structure
compared to streamlined box girders are itself, but are unacceptable to users, and may
usually only of relative minor importance for cause structural fatigue and wear in joints and
medium span classical suspension bridges. It bearings. Vortex shedding action can be
is of fundamental importance in the design of reduced to an acceptable level by "streamlin­
long span cable-stayed bridges, particularly ing" the box section, i.e. use of aerodynamic
during the cantilever erection, and in the case fairings - guide vanes - at the wind-ward and
of very long span suspension bridges. down-wind edges as used for the first time for
Truss girders are commonly found to be the Little Belt bridge (Ostenfeld et. al. 1970).
15% - 20% heavier than box girders designed This method has also found its use as a
for similar live load. Also maintenance is diffi­ retrofit measure i.e. in case of the Long’s
cult, and costs are considerably higher. Creek cable-stayed bridge (Wardlaw & Goett-
Nevertheless, the truss girder still remains ler 1968).
an alternative for future long span bridges - In bridge design a set of conflicting
particularly from the point of view of aerody­ requirements becomes apparent in case of the
namic stability. Further development would be box girder. A slender airfoil shaped bridge
useful to minimize structural dead load and girder would produce minimum drag and effi­
drag loading. This may partly be accomplished ciently prevent vortex shedding. Practical
by use of aerodynamically shaped (circular or bridge decks with an upper surface suitable
- even better - elliptical) members. for traffic can only with difficulty be shaped

5
with a sufficiently low thickness ratio to of cross sections may conveniently be com­
obtain minimum drag. Ideally, low thickness pared to that of a flat plate section with iden­
ratio (depth/width) should be combined with tical width and dynamic properties. The criti­
soft curvatures of panels extended thin trail­ cal wind speed U f for the onset of flutter for
ing edge and rounded upstream nose (airfoil a flat plate (which can be determined theo­
design). For real bridges the deck may be retically) becomes a suitable reference figure
exposed to wind from both sides. Thus a box for evaluation of the flutter performance of
design, symmetrical about the vertical centre actual bridge section designs. Figure 3.2 shows
plane and featuring rounded off edges, is pre­ the critical wind speed relative to that of the
ferable. In this case, disadvantageous down­ flat plate, U/U f, for three box section
stream flow may develop, but can be compen­ geometries investigated for the Little Belt
sated/improved by introduction of guide suspension bridge (Ostenfeld et. al. 1970). It
vanes. is observed that by gradually ’’streamlining"
The aerodynamic instability of box girders the rectangular box, i.e. by fitting of canti-
is often found to be of the classical flutter levered decks or wedge shaped fairings suc­
type (2 Degree Of Freedom - 2 DOF - ben­ cessively, it is possible to more than double
ding/torsion) also encountered in aeronautical the critical wind speed of the proposed box
engineering for the wings of aircraft. Flutter section.
often becomes a governing factor in the Further enhancement of the critical wind
design of very long span bridges, and it is con­ speed Uc can be obtained by longitudinal
ceivable to have catastrophic consequences ventilated slots as known from traditional
for the bridge structure, if stability require­ truss girders. Figure 3.3 shows the critical
ments are not observed as for the Tacoma wind speed relative to that of the flat plate,
bridge. The aerodynamic stability performance U /U f for five girder sections intended for
suspension bridges with main spans in the
range of 2000 m - 3000 m. Two box sections
JH for road bridges are shown along with propo­
sals for two level combined box/truss sections
designed for road and rail traffic. It is noted
Uc /U f = 0.43 that longitudinal ventilated slots present a
means to subdue aerodynamic instability of
s V i s bridge girder cross sections. The penalty is
increased drag - and construction costs.
Judging from figure 3.3 the slotted box
Uc /U f = 0.62 section performs approximately 20% better
(critical wind speed) than the conventional
"streamlined" box. The actual increase in criti­
cal wind speed for a given bridge design is
somewhat higher due to the increase of tor­
Uc /U f = 0.91 sional stiffness and mass of the slotted box
over that of the conventional design. This is
illustrated in figure 3.4 which compares criti­
cal wind speeds of conventional 3 span sus­
Uc / Uf : Critical Wind Speed pension bridges with main span lengths from
Relative to Flat Plate 2000 m - 5000 m based on the slotted and the
conventional box girder concept. It is
observed that the critical wind speeds
Figure 3.2 Critical wind speeds for three box obtained for the slotted box girder are
girder concepts suggested for the Little Belt sus­ enhanced by approximately 38%, but at the
pension bridge. expense of a 36% increase in structural steel.

6
Proposed Sections 2000m - 3000m Cable Supported Spans

Road/Rail

Uc /U f = 0.85 Uc /U f = 0.98 Uc /U f = 1.22

Figure 3.3 Flutter performance of five girder sections proposed for 2000 m - 3000 m main span
suspension bridges.

The figure is based on smooth flow assump­ Most box girders are built from flat trough
tion. Turbulent flow conditions will generally stiffened panels in order to ensure adequate
reduce flutter speeds. stiffness and minimize fabrication costs.
Hence the cross sections will be polygonal
straight lined trapezoids. Curved wind-ward
Critical Wind Speed Uc
and down-wind fairings will reduce the section
drag (lateral wind loading), and the vortex
shedding performance somewhat, but the
critical wind speed is likely to remain virtually
unaffected. This trend is demonstrated in
figure 3.5 where drag coefficients at zero in­
cidence CD0 for basic sharp edged and
rounded-off two dimensional shapes are com­
pared to drag coefficients obtained for the
box sections proposed for the Normandie
cable-stayed bridge under construction in
Main Span Lenght (m) France (Szechenyi 1989). This is an excellent
example of application of the "streamlining”
process as mentioned earlier in this section.
Figure 3.4 Estimated critical wind speeds for The box girder possesses qualities which
3 span suspension bridges based on conventional today makes it structurally and economically
and slotted box girders. Side span/main span superior to the truss girder, but aerodynami­
ratio = 1/3, cable sag ratio = H9. Traffic capac­ cally the box girder may encounter stability
ity: 4 lanes of road traffic. problems if applied to the extreme spans of

7
Basic Section Forms flow separation and turbulent wake (similar to
an airfoil stall). Such devices may include
guide vanes, winglets or various types of
■ t c wedge shaped or perforated edge fairings.
Appendages may be applied as a retrofit
measure in order to relieve adverse aerody­
namic effects unforseen at the design stage, or
incorporated in the original design.
An example of the latter approach is the
0.90 guide vane developed for the Little Belt sus­
pension bridge. It is situated at the outer edge
of the roadway, see figure 3.6, and has two
Proposed Sections, Normandie Bridge aerodynamic functions:
- To avoid or reduce the formation of coher­
ent large scale vortices in the wake of the
girder due to the relatively abrupt change
of surface angle, and thus eliminate vortex
induced vibrations at low wind speeds.
- To increase the aerodynamic damping in
torsion and thus enhance the critical wind
speed for onset of flutter.
do = 0-42 This guide vane was not found strictly
necessary for the 600 m span of the Little Belt

Drag Coefficient: C D0 = Drag Load/Unit Length


bridge, but was adopted as an extra and inex­
1/2 p U h pensive safety precaution. The guide vane has
later found its use on a number of bridge
Figure 3.5 Influence of edge configuration on girders. In the St. Nazaire cable-stayed bridge
drag coefficients for simple two dimensional in France which is designed with a consider­
shapes and box girder sections proposed for the ably more bluff box girder than the Little Belt
Normandie bridge. bridge, the guide vanes were found necessary
to improve flow conditions and reduce the

the future. Research and development activ­


ities should thus focus on box girder concepts
which alleviate the aerodynamic problems. A
closed box version of the twin deck girder
(Richardson 1988) may constitute one way to
achieve this goal without increasing mainten­
ance and fabrication costs dramatically. New
active control systems may however be even
more promising and economical as further
Railing
presented in section 5.
Guide vane
3.3 Aerodynamic Appendages

The aerodynamic performance of trapezoidal


bridge girders - often called "streamlined", but St. Nazaire Bridge
not really streamlined in a true aerodynamic
sense - may be enhanced through application Figure 3.6 Guide vanes as incorporated in the
of various types of appendages which reduce Little Belt and St. Nazaire girder designs.

8
vortex shedding oscillations to acceptable
levels (Wardlaw 1971). Guide vanes are also
reported to be incorporated in the design of
the future Tsing Ma suspension bridge in
Hong Kong (Simpson et. al. 1991).

3.4 Wind Screens

Wind screens might be necessary for bridges


at certain locations to protect light traffic
from strong cross-winds. They may be
designed as porous fences with a height simi­
lar to tall vehicles. Typical designs constitute
shields composed of longitudinal or horizontal
equispaced bars or of perforated plates with
holes, see figure 3.7. Wind tunnel tests indi­
cate that the shape of the openings is of
minor importance for the efficiency of the
screen. The porosity however, i.e. the ratio of
openings to the total screen area, is of signifi­
cant importance to the shelter provided and
to the drag loading generated by the screens
on the bridge.
Wind screens of small porosity, say 0.1 -
0.2, provide very effective shelters character­
ized by mean wind speeds as low as 10% -
25% of the onset wind speed. The penalty
paid for low porosity screens is a very high
drag loading which may amount to twice that
of the bridge girder itself. Also low porosity
will create separating turbulent flow behind
the screen which will cause unfavourable fluc­
tuating wind loads on vehicles travelling at a
certain distance from the screen outside the
directly sheltered zone. Wind screens of Figure 3.7 Wind screens of bar and perforated
porosity 0.4 - 0.5 are more suitable for bridge plate design suggested for a 1624 m main span
design, because they offer a reasonable com­ suspension bridge.
promise between shelter efficiency (reduction
in onset wind speed) in the range of 50% -
75%, and the drag loading will equal that of 3.5 Cables
a well designed box girder. Wind tunnel tests
have shown that wind screens of 0.5 porosity Wire cables constitute an important load
can be arranged on "streamlined” box girders carrying element in both suspension and
with little if any penalty to the aerodynamic cable-stayed long span bridges.
stability. An appropriate air-gap must however Main cables in suspension bridges have
be allowed for between the bottom member of never been reported to cause aerodynamic
the screen and the deck to ensure undisturbed problems for the bridge in service, but their
flow (Ostenfeld 1989). drag loading must be assessed during design
and incorporated in the overall wind loading
on the bridge. Dynamic actions, such as vortex

9
shedding oscillations or galloping under iced-
up conditions, are not possible due to the
fixation of the cable by the stiffening girder
via the multiple hangers.
During erection of main cables using the
air-spinning method, thin steel wires are
pulled across the span from anchorage to
anchorage via the tower tops. This procedure
is sensitive to wind conditions, and on windy
days work has to be stopped.
The use of prefabricated parallel wire
strands, e.g. hexagonal bundles of 127 single
wires as the building block of main cables,
decreases the wind sensitivity of the cable
erection process, but current cable technology
only allows this method to be used in suspen­
sion bridges of main spans up to approximate­
ly 2000 m (Akashi bridge, Japan).
Long hangers are slender and relatively
light and often characterized by very low
structural damping. The mechanical properties
in connection with the circular or hexagonal
cross sections promote vortex shedding oscil­
lations which are self-limiting in nature, but
may be objectionable from a psychological
point of view. Figure 3.8 Design measures for suppression of
Vibration phenomena in stay cables and cable vibrations.
hangers are often remedied by interconnecting
the individual stay- or hanger cables by auxili­
ary ropes of wires at non-equidistant points - by ice accumulation or water adhering to the
thereby efficiently preventing higher mode surface, galloping becomes a risk. Galloping
vibrations. This strategy has been adopted for grows without limits at increasing wind speeds
the Far0 cable-stayed bridge in Denmark until failure or violent motions are counter­
(Langs0 & Larsen 1987) and also for the 856 acted by nonlinear energy absorbing effects.
m main span world record Normandie cable- The large amplitude oscillations thus pro­
stayed bridge under construction in France duced may be harmful to the bridge structure
(Virlogeux 1991). Other possibilities are the and are certainly objectionable from a psycho­
introduction of dashpot dampers (shock logical point of view. Again dampers and
absorbers) between elements with relative m- auxiliary ropes may be of use, but more effec­
ovements, or fitting of Stockbridge units tive means are to remove the cause of the
(tuned mass dampers) to the cables, see figure evil, i.e. prevent building of ice and formation
3.8. Dashpot damping elements between deck of rain water rivulets on the cables.
and stay cables were provided on the Broto- Recent research in Japan has identified
nne bridge and later on the Sunshine Skyway various cable surface appendages as possible
Bridge in Florida. Stockbridge dampers are means to suppress cable galloping due to
mounted on the long hangers of the Humber formation of rain water rivulets (Matsumoto
suspension bridge. 1989). Axial grooves, helical strakes and semi­
Long cables of circular or nearly circular circular fins, see figure 3.9, are reported to
cross sections are not prone to galloping oscil­ accomplish the task with various degrees of
lations, but if the external form is altered e.g. success. However, they increase the risk of ice

10
accumulation and add to the aerodynamic tural weight is limited. By contrast, concrete
drag loading to be resisted by the bridge towers are commonly built as thick-walled
structure. Reduction of the adhesion between reinforced structures leading to structural
water or ice and the cable surface is another weights of approximately 6-7 times that of
method which is attractive from a designer’s steel towers. The weight combined with
point of view. increased damping relative to steel alleviates
potential aerodynamic instability problems
and greatly reduces the need for temporary
measures. This effect is demonstrated in prin­
ciple in the aerodynamic stability diagram,
Axial Grooves figure 3.10, which identifies typical values of
the structural mass/damping parameter
2/7?8s/pd,2for steel and concrete towers rela­
tive to the stability boundaries for vortex
shedding excitation and galloping of rectangu­
lar sections. Galloping of concrete towers
could theoretically occur at high wind speeds,
but the galloping wind speeds are consider­
Helical Strakes ably lower for steel towers. Important practi­
cal examples of aerodynamic instabilities of
steel towers are the vortex shedding oscilla­
tions encountered in the free standing towers
of the Firth of Forth suspension bridge
(Walshe 1972) and the destruction by gallop­
ing of a hexagonal cross section pylon of the
Cable Fins cable-stayed Lodemann Briicke (Mahrenholtz
& Bardowicks 1979).
Steel towers are often resorted to in earth­
quake regions and/or in cases where speedy
erection justify an additional cost of approxi­
Figure 3.9 Design measures for elimination of mately 30%-50% above concrete towers. The
the formation of rain rivulets on cable stays. designer of slender steel structures must be

3.6 Towers

Most towers for long span bridges are slender


and flexible structures. They remain relatively
insensitive to wind vibrations, when elastically
supported by the main- or stay cables at
saddle levels. During construction, however, it
is necessary to consider the aerodynamic per­
formance of the completed tower in a free­
standing or pulled back position.
The aerodynamic performance of bridge 2mds
p d2
towers is influenced by the structural prop­
erties and external shape. Steel towers are Figure 3.10 Aerodynamic stability diagram for
often built as mono- or multi-cellular thin- square sections identifying typical relative values
walled boxes in order to achieve high strength of the mass/damping parameter for steel and
and rigidity at a minimum cost. Thus struc­ concrete towers.

11
prepared to specify temporary measures such If the girder width is fixed, the torsional
as friction-, tuned mass, or sloshing dampers. stiffness may be enhanced either by increasing
Corner cuts, chamfers, rounded edges or the thickness of the shell plating, or more
guide vanes may also be introduced to the effectively, by increasing the depth of the box.
rectangular cross sections of the tower legs in The first possibility leads to a higher steel
order to reduce vortex shedding excitation. quality which makes the second solution pre­
Such measures are a complication and could ferable from an economical point of view.
be in conflict with aesthetic requirements. However, this design philosophy produces
bluff sections which may suffer degradation of
the aerodynamic performance relative to a
shallow "streamlined" design. In particular,
4 STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS attention must be given to vortex induced
oscillations at low wind speeds. In this context
The key structural parameters affecting the it is interesting to note that an increase of the
aerodynamic performance of long span cable depth of the girder was proposed as a
supported bridges are mass and stiffness prop­ measure for enhancing the aerodynamic sta­
erties, and to some extent, the structural bility of the box girder alternative for the 1990
damping of the bridge. m main span Akashi suspension bridge in
Basic considerations reveal that buffeting Japan. Wind tunnel tests reveal that satisfac­
response to turbulent wind and vortex shedd­ tory aerodynamic stability is ensured (Fujino
ing excitation response decreases with increas­ et. al. 1988), but the vortex shedding perform­
ing structural mass density, and the critical ance at low wind speeds is not reported.
wind speed for onset of flutter increases. Very By way of comparison truss girders can be
heavy bridge structures, such as the George designed to any particular depth and thus
Washington and Verrazano Narrows suspen­ torsional stiffness without encountering vortex
sion bridges are rarely plagued by aerodynam­ shedding problems, as demonstrated in the
ic problems, but control of the aerodynamic Mackinac bridge. The penalty is an increase
performance by means of mass is hardly ac­ of the lateral wind loading on the bridge and
ceptable from an economic point of view. The possibly in addition an unacceptable raise in
designer’s challenge is to save material (struc­ maintenance costs.
tural weight) and still maintain a suitably stiff
structural system that will keep buffeting- and
vortex shedding response within acceptable 4.2 Suspension Systems - Cables and Towers
limits and ensure a sufficiently high critical
wind speed. New lighter materials will accen­ The stiffness of the main cable system in clas­
tuate this need. sical suspension bridges can be enhanced in a
number of ways leading to higher torsional
4.1 Girders stiffness and improved aerodynamic perform­
ance (Astiz & Andersen 1990).
The torsional stiffness of a classical suspen­ Probably the oldest modification is the
sion bridge derives from the cable system and introduction of auxiliary stay cables radiating
the stiffening girder. For bridges accommodat­ from the tower tops as devised by Roebling
ing 4-6 lanes of vehicle traffic and spanning for the Brooklyn bridge. Aerodynamic perfor­
up to about 1000 m, shallow box girders are mance was not of primary concern in that
usually found to possess adequate torsional case, but Roebling’s idea was adopted in the
stiffness to comply with common requirements Bronx-Whitestone suspension bridge when
for aerodynamic stability. In case of spans in fitted with auxiliary cable stays upon comple­
the range of 1000 m - 2000 m, it may be tion. The objective was to suppress annoying
necessary to consider special measures to vortex shedding oscillations developing in
obtain sufficient torsional girder stiffness. moderate to high winds (Plowden 1974). The

12
Figure 4.1 Alternative suspension systems for very long span bridges and their relative aerodynamic
stability performance.

system is an efficient torsional stiffening torsional inertia of the total system. By mov­
device if applied to bridges with rigid tower ing the main cables to the centre line of the
structures or alternatively, if the cables are bridge, torsional inertia is decreased and
anchored near the centre line in case of higher dynamic stiffness is a result.
bridges with flexible towers. Incompatibility The mono-duo cable concept, where main
between behaviour and deformation of sus­ cables are close together near the pylons and
pension and cable stay systems can also cause separate towards girder edges at 1/3 or 1/4
problems. span points, allows for a combination of low
Another system devised for enhancement of torsional inertia with desirable deflection
aerodynamic performance is the lateral-stay or characteristics. The aerodynamic stability of a
’’crossed hanger" system applied as a retrofit long span mono-duo cable bridge is thus simi­
measure e.g. in the Deer-Isle suspension lar to that of a classical suspension bridge of
bridge (Bosch 1987). Crossed hangers increase considerably shorter main span.
the torsional stiffness of suspension bridges as Classical 3 span suspension bridges are, for
they counteract "in-phase" movement of main economical reasons, often built with flexible
cables and girder edges at the cable planes. towers which results in substantial dynamic
Crossed hangers require that the main cables interaction between main span and side spans.
are mutually fixed in the lateral direction, i.e. This interaction may be reduced considerably
by introduction of compression members be­ by torsionally stiff A-frame towers which
tween the main cables. approach the aerodynamic performance of the
In the above mentioned systems the main 3 span bridge to that of a 1 span suspension
cables are situated at the outer edges of the bridge of equal main span length.
girder and thus contribute significantly to the The different suspension systems outlined

13
above and their aerodynamic stability per­ together along the entire span, i.e. 1-2 cable
formance relative to that of a classical 3 span diameters apart, ensures a cable system with
suspension bridge with side span/main span high torsional stiffness but relatively little tor­
ratio of 1/3 are illustrated in figure 4.1. sional inertia. A combination of this cable
system with a closed elliptical steel sandwich
4.3 A Desigti Example deck as proposed for the Gibraltar crossing
(Astiz & Andersen 1990), will lead to a high
Ultra-long span suspension bridges must be torsional stiffness of the bridge ensuring to
designed to possess adequate aerodynamic high flutter wind speeds. The closed elliptical
stability, and further, the horizontal wind cross section has also the advantage that the
loading should be minimized in order to avoid drag loading may be reduced to approximately
large horizontal deflections of the bridge 30% of the drag loading of a conventional
girder. A possible solution that combines ’’streamlined” deck section of equal width. In
these features is outlined below. addition, traffic will be completely sheltered
The discussion of cable systems given above to high winds.
has emphasized that the mono-duo cable The closely spaced main cables will exert
concept in combination with stiff A-frame relatively small twisting force couples on the
towers enhances the flutter speed significant tower tops as compared to a classical suspen­
ly. Taking this concept to its extreme by allow­ sion bridge. The configuration thus eliminates
ing the main cables to be positioned close strong dynamic torsional coupling between
main span and side span girders. The particu­
lar bridge configuration, which is envisaged
for main spans in the 3500 - 5000 m range is
illustrated in figures 4.2 and 4.3.

5 SYSTEM CONTROL

Under extreme conditions and for very long


spans it may be necessary to provide special
facilities or to prescribe specific operational
procedures in order to ensure satisfactory
performance of the bridge under all conceiv­
able weather conditions.

5.1 Damping

If properly arranged, damping will reduce the


amplitudes of the wind response due to buffe­
ting and vortex shedding and furthermore
enhance the critical wind speed for onset of
aerodynamic instability.
Application of structural materials with a
high internal structural damping is the most
direct way to introduce damping, but not pra­
ctical. Discrete damping elements can also be
used. Dashpots and damping elements based
Figure 4.2 Elliptical cross section and cable on friction or viscoelastic materials may be
configuration envisaged for ultra-long span sus­ arranged between elements with relative
pension bridge. mutual displacements, or between the struc-

14
Suspension
Attachment: Edges | centerj , Edges
3500m

Figure 4.3 Elevation of ultra-long span suspension bridge indicating areas of central and edge
attachment of hangers.

ture and fixed points at ground level. hancement of the aerodynamic stability of
Viscoelastic damping elements are, to our suspension bridges under construction.
knowledge, not yet applied in bridges, but If placed inside bridge girders and movable
have been built into several high rise buildings in transverse direction, eccentric masses con­
e.g. in a large quantity in the World Trade stitute a possible means of improving the
Centre to increase the structural damping aerodynamic stability of very long span
(Mahmoodi et. al. 1987). bridges in service. This concept requires auto­
Tuned mass dampers are widely used in matic systems to monitor wind conditions and
girders and towers for damping of global vi­ to initiate positioning of the masses to prede­
brations. Tuning to critical oscillation frequen­ termined positions in due time. A devise com­
cies is effectuated by proper combination of bining the eccentric mass concept and a liquid
masses, spring elements and dashpots (Malh- column damper could be envisaged being
orta & Wieland 1987). Liquid column
dampers have been proposed for damping of
steel towers during construction, but this Critical Wind Speed
damper type may also have a potential for Active Control
application in permanent bridge structures
(Sakai et. al. 1991).

5.2 Deployment of Eccentric Mass

Additional masses placed eccentrically wind­


ward of the centre-line inside or on the bridge
girder, will increase the critical wind speed for
onset of flutter. The principle is well lmown in
aeronautical engineering and is used for sta­
bilization of control surfaces of aircraft. Basic
considerations reveal that eccentric mass de­
ployment is most effective for systems where
the natural frequencies for vertical- and tor­ Figure 5.1 Potential enhancement of aerody­
sional oscillations are relatively close. Hence namic stability through actively controlled
this method is particularly suitable for en­ control surfaces.

15
somewhat similar to roll-damping tanks found tions and to assure the comfort of the occu­
in ships. pants. Contemporary systems do not entirely
rely on passive elements, but also comprise
5.3 Active Control Systems computer controlled servo-hydraulic actuators
to emulate a Den-Hartog tuned damper. Ho­
The damping concepts presented above have wever, only serviceability aspects are
the common characteristic with exception of enhanced by these elements. The structural
the moving mass that they are passive and rely reliability of the system depends solely on the
on relatively simple mechanical concepts. structure itself.
Hence the performance can be made so reli­ Research is dealing with actively controlled
able that not only the comfort may be en­ tendons aiming to reduce e.g. bridge deflec­
hanced by the damping effect, but even the tions or sway motion of high rise buildings.
structural reliability may rely on some of the Active control is applied in advanced aircraft
concepts e.g. stationary winglets (Ragget for suppression of aerodynamic instability.
1987). The mechanism involves actively controlled
In high rise buildings tuned mass dampers surfaces acting with a prescribed amplitude
are applied to control wind induced oscilla- and phase-lag relative to the main surfaces
(wings, flaps or ailerons) on which they exert
control. Such control surfaces are operated
via hydraulics governed by a computerized
feed-back loop which responds to sensors
attached to the main surfaces.
A preliminary theoretical study conducted
by COWIconsult has explored the potential of
actively controlled surfaces for enhancement
Suspenslon System of the flutter instability of long span cable
supported bridges. The system is based on the
idea of constantly monitoring movements of
the deck and use of control surface move­
ments to generate stabilizing aerodynamic
stabilizing forces (lift) counteracting any ten­
dency to movement. An excerpt of the study
is presented in figure 5.1, which displays the
potential increase in critical wind speed to be
obtained by fitting actively controlled sur­
faces to a "streamlined" box section. The cord-
length of the control surfaces corresponds to
j Suspension System 10% of the deck section width. The control
surfaces are assumed to be situated up-stream
and down-stream of the deck, and the pitch of
the leading and trailing control surfaces is
IL
controlled to be of opposite phase. It is
'V '' Hydraulic Cylinder observed that the critical wind speed may be
!,5° Actuator enhanced by 50% or more, relative to that of
^ W /l ...
— BulWiead ( Torsion Box) the flat plate UJUp provided the actuator
function amplitude and phase of the control
surface pitch is appropriately chosen.
Figure 5.2 Suggestions for implimentation of An active control system has been con­
Active Control Surface Systems in streamlined ceived by the authors to be applied for very
bridgegirders. long span bridges, where adequate flutter

16
stability or possibly static divergence stability The control surfaces, which most of all
is difficult to attain. resemble so-called all-flying elevators on air­
The concept is based on application of craft, will be efficient for both torsion and
actively governed control surfaces installed in bending (vertical) movements with their very
front and behind the leading/trailing edges of efficient long moment arm relative to the
an aerodynamically smooth girder. It is of centre line. The computer will guide relative
course necessary that the control surfaces are movements of leading and trailing edge con­
located outside the turbulent boundary layer trol surfaces as well as the various control
and as far away from the local flow pattern surfaces along any edge in an out of phase
around the bridge girder as practical to be motion in order to efficiently counteract (sta­
effective. bilize) any relevant movement of the girder.
Therefore it is also essential that the girder The system, which is patent pending, will be
does not create wake turbulence/vortices
which will decrease the efficiency of the Classical Flutter (2DOF)
trailing edge control surface.
The principle is attractive because the aero­
dynamic forces acting on the control surfaces
will increase proportionally to the wind speed
squared, and thus proportional to forces act­ U
ing on the box girder.
A location in front/behind the girder edges

V Chord
and below the bottom cord is preferred in t
cases with undisturbed flow along the smooth 4
bottom of the girder, see figure 5.2.
Standardized control surfaces fabricated as
Open Guard Rail
symmetrical airfoils of a simple polyurethane
foamed stainless steel sheeted sandwich can U% f =0.98
be supported at 5-10 m distances by
aerodynamically shaped pylons.
Control rods located inside the pylons and
activated by hydraulic cylinders with short rise
time will govern the control surfaces. Torsional Flutter (1DOF)
The hydraulic cylinders are activated by
means of computer controlled servo pumps.
The computer operates on the basis of signals
from accelerometers located in the box.
The computer operates the servo in accord­
ance with a service function developed on the
basis of mathematical modelling and wind
tunnel tests.
Adequate system reliability will - as in air­ V2 Chord
craft - be accomplished by sectionizing and
duplication or triplication of parallel indepen­ Snow Blocked Guard Rail
dent systems with independent power sup­
plies. U5fif = 0.44
All members of the box/control surface
assembly are shaped for minimum drag loads
thereby minimizing lateral displacement of the Figure 5.3 Flutter behaviour of bridge girder
girder and overall wind resistance on the with open railings and railings blocked by snow
bridge. accumulation.

17
further developed and tested for practical been made, and today wires with a tensile
application. strength of 1800 Mpa have been adopted for
Actively controlled systems are envisaged in the Akashi bridge in Japan.
the future as common elements in wind sensi­ As span lengths for suspension bridges are
tive bridges to enhance the comfort of the increasing, new materials with improved speci­
users and to reduce fatigue damage. fic strength (ratio between strength and den­
sity) for cables become of interest. Composite
5.4 Winter Conditions materials from carbon fibres embedded in a
plastic matrix hold promise for the future - in
Accumulation of ice on cables can modify particular if mass production can lower prices.
their aerodynamic shape to such a degree that In the aerospace industry these new
oscillations from wind may occur as elabor­ materials are widely used for structure compo­
ated in section 3.5. Furthermore, falling ice nents, but also bridge engineers have
sheets constitute a risk to users. To our know­ recognised the perspectives in relation to
ledge, deicing systems, common to aircraft, suspension bridge cables.
have not yet been used on a bridge. Future The three most interesting and relevant
suspension bridges in areas where ice accumu­ types of fibres are carbon and aramid.
lation is common may be envisaged with simi­ Fibres may either be laid out continuous in
lar systems. This is partly necessary for lead­ the direction of principal stress, or chopped
ing edges and in case of active control sys­ into short lengths and laid in a random
tems. fashion, depending on the need for isotropic
If snow ploughs leave barriers along the or anisotropic behaviour. In the manufactur­
railings it will disturb a smooth air flow past ing process, fibres can be placed as either
the railing elements and girder edges. A continuous rovings or in mat form where lay­
severe reduction of the aerodynamic stability ers of rovings can be built up in different
properties of bridge girders has been docu­ directions, either stitched of woven together.
mented in wind tunnel tests with section Three-dimensional reinforcement is available
models (Damsgaard et. al. 1990) as demon­ as well, giving assured through-thickness prop­
strated in figure 5.2. Although snow removal erties.
is not normally a remedy to be included in the
structural design, it can be an absolutely 6.1 Design Examples
necessary precaution in order to obtain a
reliable structure under all circumstances. The outer diameter of cable stays may be
If sloping areas on bridge girders are prone reduced through new materials. As an
to snow accumulation, special surface treat­ example, Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polyester,
ments or installation of deicing heating CFRP, with tensile strength of 3300 MPa and
elements may relieve the snow accumulation density of 1.56 kg/m (Meier 1991), may reduce
problem. the external diameter by theoretically 35%
compared to steel cables, and still maintain
the vertical load carrying capacity. For a large
6. MATERIAL SELECTION cable-stayed bridge it will typically lead to a
15%-20% reduction in the lateral wind load­
During the 20th Century, the main cables for ing. Lateral wind loading and structural
suspension bridges have been steel wires with weight decrease. The susceptibility of cables
a tensile strength higher than 1450 Mpa. The to vortex shedding oscillations increases con­
first bridge with cables of such a high strength siderably as shown in the stability diagram,
was the Williamsburg bridge (1903). figure 6.1. It is observed that the
Already in 1909 the tensile strength was mass/damping parameter 2mbs/ p d 2 for CFRP
improved to 1500 Mpa for the Manhattan cables is only about 20% of that of steel
bridge. Since then, only small increases have cables.

18
Adopting as design criterion that deflections
must remain unchanged, leads to a 50%
increase of the cable area of the CFRP design
over the steel design, but this would of cause
not be economical. As a result critical wind
speeds for onset of flutter are enhanced by
10%-15% over the all steel design, depending
on the main span length. Figure 6.2 displays
the critical wind speed estimated for a classi­
cal 3 span suspension bridge as function of
main span length. The steel cables and the
2m5S CFRP cables are designed for the maximum
fld*~ allowable stress and the unchanged deflection
criterion. A conventional ’’streamlined” box
Figure 6.1 Stability diagram for vortex girder section as shown in figure 3.3 is
shedding excitation of circular cylinders indicat­ assumed.
ing typical mass/damping parameters for steel
and CFRP cables.
Critical Wind Speed Uc

According to figure 6.2 suppression of vor­


tex shedding oscillations in steel cables may
be effectuated by a modest increase in the
logarithmic decrement of structural damping.
This may be accomplished by external
dampers mounted at the cable base. CFRP
cables will, in contrast, require substantially
more external damping in order to eliminate
the risk for vortex shedding oscillations.
CFRP is attractive for main cables in very Main Span Lenght (m)
long span suspension bridges because the high
tensile strength to weight ratio allows con­
siderably higher payload/unit mass of cable Figure 6.2 Estimated critical wind speeds for
than steel does. Designing for maximum classical 3 span suspension bridges equipped
allowable stresses in main cables (1700/2.2 with steel and CFRP main cables. Conventional
MPa for steel and 3300/2.8 MPa for CFRP) box section accommodating 4 lanes for road
leads to lighter and more flexible superstruc­ traffic.
tures. Assuming a classical 3 span suspension
bridge with CFRP main cables, the critical The buffeting response in torsion of the
wind speed for onset of flutter decreases steel and CFRP designs remains almost of the
about 10% relative to that of the all steel same magnitude with a slight tendency to
superstructure. decrease for the CFRP cable design. An effect
If CFRP main cables are designed for maxi­ attributed to the fact that lower structural
mum allowable stress it would probably lead masses in the CFRP designs are almost bal­
to suspended structures with unacceptably anced by an increase in the natural frequenci­
high flexibility due to the decrease in main es of the system. For vertical motions the
cable area and further, because the E- buffeting response is almost doubled for the
modulus for CFRP is slightly lower than that CFRP design relative to the all steel suspen­
of cable steel (165000 Mpa for CFRP versus sion bridge.
205000 Mpa for steel). Large deflections can The current cost ratio of material cost/unit
be controlled by increasing the cable area. weight of approximately 36 for CFRP com­

19
pared to steel cables (Meier 1991) indicates a tal approaches used in wind engineering lab­
break-even point beyond the 5000 m main oratories.
span length for the present example, provided
the maximum allowable stress design philos­
ophy applies. Also more fundamental 8 TOOLS IN AERODYNAMIC DESIGN
structural and aerodynamic problems have to OF LONG SPAN BRIDGES.
be solved in order to achieve the necessary
level of safety, before CFRP cables are used The development of tools for aerodynamic
in classical suspension bridges for road traffic. design of long span bridges started with the
investigation into the collapse of the first
Tacoma Narrows suspension bridge and the
7 PROBABILISTIC METHODS efforts to design an aerodynamically stable
replacement bridge. The now classical experi­
Stochastic models of the wind field have now mental investigations, headed by Farquharson
been applied for decades in wind engineering at the University of Washington (Farquharson
to estimate the wind response of structures. 1949-1954), began with the development of
But the uncertainty of other important para­ procedures for wind tunnel testing of full
meters, e.g. damping and masses, has not been aeroelastic bridge models. Later Farquhar-
treated with a similar stringency. son’s investigations lead to the section model
Contemporary probabilistic reliability concept, the work-horse in most aerodynamic
methods provide the necessary tools to bridge design to this day. The basic goal of
include such uncertainties in complete analy­ section model testing remains unchanged, i.e.
ses of the probability of limit state exceedance identification of aerodynamic stability, vortex
- serviceability, ultimate or others. The shedding performance and measurement of
methods have been used to establish design steady-state wind load coefficients for candi­
criteria for aerodynamic stability of suspension date girder configurations. The methods have
bridges on a rational basis (Ostenfeld-Rosen- changed with the advent of computer based
tahl et. al, 1991). Reliability of towers against data acquisition and analysis. Today’s section
failure due to buffeting loads has also been model tests are commonly supplemented by
treated by the methods, and it is expected buffeting measurements in simulated turbu­
that other wind phenomena will be analyzed lent flows and extraction of aerodynamic deri­
routinely in the future. vatives. Altogether highly useful studies to be
At a first glance it may seem to be of minor used in conjunction with analytical assessment
importance to apply probabilistic methods, but of equivalent static buffeting loads and aero­
as the methods provide the designer with dynamic stability during different mass- and
quantified assessments of the reliability stiffness conditions to be encountered during
against failure, it is possible to compare the erection.
threat to the structure from the various causes Wind tunnel testing of full aeroelastic
of failure due to wind. Similar analyses of bridge models has seen a revival with the
other failure mechanisms finally enable the number of record breaking spans currently
designer to make a rational assignment of risk under design and construction. In contrast to
to the various failure mechanisms - depending Farquharson’s pioneering tests, which were
on the consequences - and make a backward conducted in smooth flow and beam winds,
calculation to establish design criteria. In this contemporary tests are performed in simu­
process even accidental events may be lated atmospheric boundary layer flows, and if
included. required, under skew winds. Testing of full
In future wind engineering analyses it is aeroelasic bridge models is expensive and time
envisaged that stochastic models of structural consuming, hence this method is mainly
parameters will be necessary. This develop­ resorted to as a means of verifying extrapola­
ment is expected to influence the experimen­ tions of proven designs.

20
Development of analytical tools for analysis wind tunnel for verification. This strategy is
of the aerodynamic performance of long span currently adapted in the aerospace industry,
bridges was also sparked of by the Tacoma i.e. for evaluation of air intakes and high lift
Narrows incident and proceeded in parallel devices such as multi-element slats and flaps.
with the experimental investigations. Bleich In the automotive industry computational
advanced second order linearized deflection fluid dynamics are applied in the aerodynamic
theory for calculation of vibration characteris­ design of car bodies, and for evaluation of
tics of suspension bridges and adapted Theo- internal flow and heat transfer in reciprocat­
dorsen’s unsteady thin airfoil theory to the ing engines.
calculation of critical wind speeds of sus­ A quotation by David B. Steinmann, the
pended bridge decks (Farquharson 1949- legendary American bridge designer, states
1954). The Theodorsen theory is still proving that ”The modem bridge engineer has to be an
useful as a first estimate for the critical wind artist and a poet as well as a mathematician,
speed of "streamlined” box sections, although scientist, financier and contractor" - an appro­
computer based routines are preferred to priate summary of the present journey
look-up tables or graphical methods. through elements of past and present engin­
Later developments of analytical methods eering of long span bridges. With the chal­
involved the adaptation of linear stochastic lenge to accomplish clear spans of 3000 m and
response methods used in the aerospace in­ beyond, we may include yet another pro­
dustry for calculation of buffeting response of fession - that of the aerodynamicist.
bridges to turbulent winds. These methods,
often referred to as linear buffeting theory,
are now used on a routine basis for analytical 9 REFERENCES
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Aeroelastic Problems at Masts and Chimneys. London, Canada.
3rd Colloquium on Industrial Aerodynam­
ics: 261-272. Aachen: Elsevier
Fujino, Y., Ito, M. et. al. 1988. Wind Tunnel
Study of Long-Span Suspension Bridge under
Smooth and Turbulent Flow. International
Colloquium on Bluff Body Aerodynamics
and its Applications, M. Ito (ed.): 313-322.
Kyoto: Elsevier
Astiz, M.A. & Andersen, E.Y. 1990. On Wind
Stability of very long Spans in Connection
with a Bridge across the Strait of Gibraltar.
Strait Crossings, J. Krokeborg (ed.): 257-
264. Rotterdam: Balkema
Bosch, H. 1987. A Wind Tunnel Investigation of
the Deer Isle - Sedgewick Bridge (Phase 1).
Federal Highway Administration Report
No. FHWA/RD-87/027. McLean, Virginia.
Mahmoodi, P., Robertson, L.E. et al. 1987.
Performance of Viscoelastic Dampers in
World Trade Center Towers. Dynamics of
Structures Proc. of 6th Structures congress
of ASCE: 632-644. Orlando, Florida.

22
Overview
Shirly-Smith, H. 1964. The Worlds Great Bridges. London: Phoenix House.
Plowden, D. 1974. The Spans of North America. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
Farquaharson, F.B. (Ed.) 19491954. Aerodynamic Stability of Suspension Bridges. University of Washington
Engineering Station, Bull. No. 16: Parts I V.
Ostenfeld, C. , Frandsen, A.G. & Haas, G. 1970. Motorway Bridge across Lilleblt, Publ. X, aerodynamic
Investigations for the Superstructure. Bygningsstatiske Meddelelser Vol. 41, No. 2.
Wardlaw, R.L. & Goettler, L.L. 1968. A Wind Tunnel Study of Modifications to Improve the Aerodynamic
Stability of the Longs Creek Bridge. Report No. LTR-LA-8, NAE, National Research Council, Ottawa, Canada.
Szchnyi, E. 1989. Etude de componentes dans le vent du tablier dfinitif du pont de Normandie. Rapport
Technique No. 15/3588 RY 091R-391G. Office National dEtudes et de Recherches Arospatiales.
Wardlaw, R.L. 1971. Some Approaches forImproving the Aerodynamic Performance of Bridge Road Decks.
3rd. Int. Conf. on Wind Effects on Buildings and Structures. Tokyo.
22 Simpson, A. , Beard. A. & Young, J. 1991. Design Evolution of the Tsing Ma Bridge. IABSE Symposium:
461466. Leningrad.
Ostenfeld, K.H. 1989. Denmarks Great Belt Link. The 1989 ASCE Annual Civil Engineering Convention. New
Orleans.
Richardson, J.R. 1988. Radical deck Designs for Ultra-long Span Bridges. 13th IABSE Congres Report:
901904. Helsinki.
Langs, H.E. & Larsen. O.D. 1987. Generating Mechanism for Cable Stay Oscillations at the Far Bridge. Int.
Conf. on Cable-Stayed Bridges. Bangkok
Virlogeux, M. 1991. Design and Construction of the Normandie Bridge. Innovation in Cable-Stayed Bridges, H.
Otsuka (ed.): 2340. Fukuoka: Maruzen
Matsumoto, M. , Knisely, C.M. , et. al. 1989. Inclined Cable Aerodynamics. ASCE Structures Congerss: 8190.
San Francisco.
Walshe, D.E.J. 1972. Wind Excited Oscillations of Structures. Publication of Her Majestys Stationary Office.
London.
Mahrenholtz O. , & Bardowicks, H. 1979. Aeroelastic Problems at Masts and Chimneys. 3rd Colloquium on
Industrial Aerodynamics: 261272. Aachen: Elsevier
Fujino, Y. , Ito, M. et. al. 1988. Wind Tunnel Study of Long-Span Suspension Bridge under Smooth and
Turbulent Flow. International Colloquium on Bluff Body Aerodynamics and its Applications, M. Ito (ed.): 313322.
Kyoto: Elsevier
Astiz, M.A. & Andersen, E.Y. 1990. On Wind Stability of very long Spans in Connection with a Bridge across the
Strait of Gibraltar. Strait Crossings, J. Krokeborg (ed.): 257264. Rotterdam: Balkema
Bosch, H. 1987. A Wind Tunnel Investigation of the Deer Isle Sedgewick Bridge (Phase 1). Federal Highway
Administration Report No. FHWA/RD-87/027. McLean, Virginia.
Mahmoodi, P. , Robertson, L.E. et al. 1987. Performance of Viscoelastic Dampers in World Trade Center
Towers. Dynamics of Structures Proc. of 6th Structures congress of ASCE: 632644. Orlando, Florida.
Malhorta, P.K. & Wieland, P. 1987. Tuned Mass damper for Supressing Wind Effects in a Cable-Stayed Bridge.
Int. Conf. on Cable-Stayed Bridges: 557568. Bangkok
Sakai, F. , Takaeda, S. & Tamaki, T. 1991. Tuned Liquid Colum Dampers for Cable Stayed Bridges. Innovation
in Cable-Stayed Bridges, H. Otsuka (ed.): 197205. Fukuoka: Maruzen
Ragget, J.D. 1987. Stabilizing Pair of Winglets for Slender Bridge Decks. Bridges and Transmission Line
Structures, Proc. of 6th Structures congress of ASCE: 292302. Orlando, Florida
Damsgaard, A. , Jensen A.G. , et. al. 1990. The Use of Section Model Wind Tunnel Tests in the Design of the
Storeblt East Bridge in Denmark. Strait Crossings, J. Krokeborg (ed.): 281287. Rotterdam: Balkema
Meier, U. 1991. Modern Materials in Bridge Engineering. IABSE Symposium: 311323. Leningrad.
Ostenfeld-Rosentahl, P. , Madsen, H. & Larsen, A. 1991. Probabilistic Flutter Criteria for Long Span Bridges.
8th Int. Conf. on Wind Engineering, A. Davenport (ed.): London, Canada.

Bridge engineering and aerodynamics


Shirly-Smith, H. 1964. The Worlds Great Bridges. London: Phoenix House.
Plowden, D. 1974. The Spans of North America. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
Farquaharson, F.B. (Ed.) 19491954. Aerodynamic Stability of Suspension Bridges. University of Washington
Engineering Station, Bull. No. 16: Parts I V.
Ostenfeld, C. , Frandsen, A.G. & Haas, G. 1970. Motorway Bridge across Lilleblt, Publ. X, aerodynamic
Investigations for the Superstructure. Bygningsstatiske Meddelelser Vol. 41, No. 2.
Wardlaw, R.L. & Goettler, L.L. 1968. A Wind Tunnel Study of Modifications to Improve the Aerodynamic
Stability of the Longs Creek Bridge. Report No. LTR-LA-8, NAE, National Research Council, Ottawa, Canada.
Szchnyi, E. 1989. Etude de componentes dans le vent du tablier dfinitif du pont de Normandie. Rapport
Technique No. 15/3588 RY 091R-391G. Office National dEtudes et de Recherches Arospatiales.
Wardlaw, R.L. 1971. Some Approaches forImproving the Aerodynamic Performance of Bridge Road Decks.
3rd. Int. Conf. on Wind Effects on Buildings and Structures. Tokyo.
22 Simpson, A. , Beard. A. & Young, J. 1991. Design Evolution of the Tsing Ma Bridge. IABSE Symposium:
461466. Leningrad.
Ostenfeld, K.H. 1989. Denmarks Great Belt Link. The 1989 ASCE Annual Civil Engineering Convention. New
Orleans.
Richardson, J.R. 1988. Radical deck Designs for Ultra-long Span Bridges. 13th IABSE Congres Report:
901904. Helsinki.
Langs, H.E. & Larsen. O.D. 1987. Generating Mechanism for Cable Stay Oscillations at the Far Bridge. Int.
Conf. on Cable-Stayed Bridges. Bangkok
Virlogeux, M. 1991. Design and Construction of the Normandie Bridge. Innovation in Cable-Stayed Bridges, H.
Otsuka (ed.): 2340. Fukuoka: Maruzen
Matsumoto, M. , Knisely, C.M. , et. al. 1989. Inclined Cable Aerodynamics. ASCE Structures Congerss: 8190.
San Francisco.
Walshe, D.E.J. 1972. Wind Excited Oscillations of Structures. Publication of Her Majestys Stationary Office.
London.
Mahrenholtz O. , & Bardowicks, H. 1979. Aeroelastic Problems at Masts and Chimneys. 3rd Colloquium on
Industrial Aerodynamics: 261272. Aachen: Elsevier
Fujino, Y. , Ito, M. et. al. 1988. Wind Tunnel Study of Long-Span Suspension Bridge under Smooth and
Turbulent Flow. International Colloquium on Bluff Body Aerodynamics and its Applications, M. Ito (ed.): 313322.
Kyoto: Elsevier
Astiz, M.A. & Andersen, E.Y. 1990. On Wind Stability of very long Spans in Connection with a Bridge across the
Strait of Gibraltar. Strait Crossings, J. Krokeborg (ed.): 257264. Rotterdam: Balkema
Bosch, H. 1987. A Wind Tunnel Investigation of the Deer Isle Sedgewick Bridge (Phase 1). Federal Highway
Administration Report No. FHWA/RD-87/027. McLean, Virginia.
Mahmoodi, P. , Robertson, L.E. et al. 1987. Performance of Viscoelastic Dampers in World Trade Center
Towers. Dynamics of Structures Proc. of 6th Structures congress of ASCE: 632644. Orlando, Florida.
Malhorta, P.K. & Wieland, P. 1987. Tuned Mass damper for Supressing Wind Effects in a Cable-Stayed Bridge.
Int. Conf. on Cable-Stayed Bridges: 557568. Bangkok
Sakai, F. , Takaeda, S. & Tamaki, T. 1991. Tuned Liquid Colum Dampers for Cable Stayed Bridges. Innovation
in Cable-Stayed Bridges, H. Otsuka (ed.): 197205. Fukuoka: Maruzen
Ragget, J.D. 1987. Stabilizing Pair of Winglets for Slender Bridge Decks. Bridges and Transmission Line
Structures, Proc. of 6th Structures congress of ASCE: 292302. Orlando, Florida
Damsgaard, A. , Jensen A.G. , et. al. 1990. The Use of Section Model Wind Tunnel Tests in the Design of the
Storeblt East Bridge in Denmark. Strait Crossings, J. Krokeborg (ed.): 281287. Rotterdam: Balkema
Meier, U. 1991. Modern Materials in Bridge Engineering. IABSE Symposium: 311323. Leningrad.
Ostenfeld-Rosentahl, P. , Madsen, H. & Larsen, A. 1991. Probabilistic Flutter Criteria for Long Span Bridges.
8th Int. Conf. on Wind Engineering, A. Davenport (ed.): London, Canada.

Wind
Abild, J. and B. Nielsen 1991. Extreme values of wind speeds in Denmark. RisM2842,107 pp.
Choi, E.C.C. 1983. Gradient height and velocity profile during typhoons, J. Wind Eng. and Industr. Aerodyn.,
13, 3141.
Cook, N.J. 1985. The designers guide to wind loading on building structures. Buttersworth, London, 371 pp.
Georgiou, P.N. , A.G. Davenport and B.J. Vickery 1983. Design wind speeds in regions dominated by tropical
cyclones. J. Wind Eng. and Industr. Aerodyn., 13: 139152.
Jensen, N.O. 1978. Change of surface roughness and the planetary boundary layer. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc.,
15: 95108.
Jensen, N.O. , E.L. Petersen and I. Troen 1984. Extrapolation of mean wind statistics with special regard to
wind energy applications. WMO, World Climate Programme, Report No. WCP-86, 85 pp.
Jensen, N.O. , M. Nielsen and B. Nielsen 1988. Climatic overview of the Great Belt region. RisM2842, 37 pp.
Jensen, N.O. and B. Nielsen 1989. Extreme values of wind speeds over the Great Belt region. Ris-M-2842, 25
pp.
Kristensen, L. and N.O. Jensen 1979. Lateral coherence in isotropic turbulence and in the natural wind.
Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 17, 353373.
Kristensen, L. M. Casanova, M.S. Courtney and I. Troen 1991. In search of a gust definition. Boundary-Layer
Meteorol., 55, 91107.
Kristensen, L. and K. Frydendahl 1991. Denmarks wind climate from 1870 until now (in Danish). Havforskning,
nr. 2, Miljstyrelsen, Strandgade 29, DK-1401 Copenhagen, 57 pp.
Mann, J. , L. Kristensen and M.C. Courtney 1991. The Great Belt Coherence Experiment. A study of
atmospheric turbulence over water. RisR596, 51 pp.
Nielsen, N.W. 1991. An exposive storm development at the Faroes in September 1990 (in Danish). Vejret, nr.
3, 13: 319.
Sanders, F. and J.G. Gyakum 1980. Synoptic-Dynamic climatology of the bomb. Mon. Wea. Rev., 108:
15891606.
Sempreviva , Anna Maria , S.E. Larsen , N.G. Mortensen and I. Troen 1990. Response of neutral boundary
layers to changes of roughness. Boundary-Layer Meteor., 50, 205225.
Shapiro, M.A. and D. Keyser 1990. Fronts, jet streams and the tropopause. In: Extratropical Cyclones. The Erik
Palmn Memorial Volume ( C. Newton and E.O. Holopainen , Eds.) American Meteor. Soc., Boston, MA, p. 262.
Tennekes, H. and J.L. Lumley 1972. A first course in turbulence. The MIT Press, MA, 300 pp.
Troen, I. and E.L. Petersen 1989. European Wind Atlas. Published for the European Community by Ris
National Laboratory, 656 pp.
von Krmn, T. 1948. Progress in the statistical theory of turbulence. Proceedings National Acad. Sci., 334,
530539.
Willoughby, H.E. 1990. Temporal changes of the primary circulation in tropical cyclones. J. Atmos. Sci., 47:
242264.
H.O. Madsen , R. Skjong & F. Kirkemo : Probabilistic Fatigue Analysis of Offshore Structures Reliability
Updating through Inspection Results, in Integrity of Offshore Structures by D. Faulkner (ed.), Glasgow, 1987.
H.O. Madsen , S. Krenk and N.C. Lind , Methods of Structural Safety, Prentice-Hall Inc., 1986.
Danish Standard DS 409 & 410, The Safety of Structures & Loads for the design of Structures, Teknisk Forlag,
Translation, June 1983.
NKB-publication no. 36: Recommendation for loading. and safety regulations for structural design, November
1978.
A. Damsgaard et al., The use of section model wind tunnel tests in the design of the Storeblt East Bridge in
Denmark, Proc. 2nd Symp. on Strait Crossings, Trondheim, Norway, June 1990.
J. Abild and B. Nielsen , Extreme Values of Wind Speeds in Denmark, 1989.
D. Rosbjerg , Lecture Notes 5733 Surface Water Hydrology, 2. Exceedance Series, ISVA, DtH, August 1985.
A.G. Davenport , Considerations in Relating Wind Tunnel Results to Design for a Specific Site, Proc. of Intl.
Workshop, Gaithersburg, 1982.
H.W. Tennissen , Validation of Boundary-Layer Simulation: Source Comparisons between Model and Full-
Scale Flows, Intl. Workshop, Gaithersburg, 1982.
43 W.A. Dalgliesh , Comparison of Model and Full-Scale Tests of the Commerce Court Building in Toronto, Intl.
Workshop, Gaithersburg, 1982.
A.G. Frandsen , Wind Stability of Suspension Bridges Application of the Theory of Thin Airfoils. Reprinted from
Bygningsstatiske Meddelelser, Vol. 41, 1970, No 2.
A.G. Davenport , Comparison of Model and Full-Scale Tests on Bridges, Intl. Workshop, Gaithersburg, 1982.
R.L. Wardlaw , H. Tanaka & H. Utsonomiga : Wind tunnel experiments on the effects of turbulence on the
aerodynamic behaviour of bridge road decks. Intl. Workshop, Gaithersburg, 1982.
J.M.W. Brownjohn et al., Ambient vibration measurements of the Humber suspension bridge and comparison
with calculated characteristics, Proc. Instn. Civ. Engrs. Part 2, 1987, p.p. 561600.
A.G. Davenport & G. Larose : The Structural damping of long span bridges: an interpretation of observations.
Presented at the Canada-Japan Workshop on Bridge Aerodynamics, Ottawa, Canada, 2527 Sept., 1989.
PROBAN manuals, Det norske Veritas, Hvik, Norway.
P. Ostenfeld-Rosenthal , H.O. Madsen & A. Larsen : Probabilistic Flutter Criteria for Long Span Bridge in the
Proceedings Eight International Conference on Wind Engineering, London, Ontario, July 1991.

Aspects of the natural wind of relevance to large bridges


Abild, J. and B. Nielsen 1991. Extreme values of wind speeds in Denmark. RisM2842,107 pp.
Choi, E.C.C. 1983. Gradient height and velocity profile during typhoons, J. Wind Eng. and Industr. Aerodyn.,
13, 3141.
Cook, N.J. 1985. The designers guide to wind loading on building structures. Buttersworth, London, 371 pp.
Georgiou, P.N. , A.G. Davenport and B.J. Vickery 1983. Design wind speeds in regions dominated by tropical
cyclones. J. Wind Eng. and Industr. Aerodyn., 13: 139152.
Jensen, N.O. 1978. Change of surface roughness and the planetary boundary layer. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc.,
15: 95108.
Jensen, N.O. , E.L. Petersen and I. Troen 1984. Extrapolation of mean wind statistics with special regard to
wind energy applications. WMO, World Climate Programme, Report No. WCP-86, 85 pp.
Jensen, N.O. , M. Nielsen and B. Nielsen 1988. Climatic overview of the Great Belt region. RisM2842, 37 pp.
Jensen, N.O. and B. Nielsen 1989. Extreme values of wind speeds over the Great Belt region. Ris-M-2842, 25
pp.
Kristensen, L. and N.O. Jensen 1979. Lateral coherence in isotropic turbulence and in the natural wind.
Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 17, 353373.
Kristensen, L. M. Casanova, M.S. Courtney and I. Troen 1991. In search of a gust definition. Boundary-Layer
Meteorol., 55, 91107.
Kristensen, L. and K. Frydendahl 1991. Denmarks wind climate from 1870 until now (in Danish). Havforskning,
nr. 2, Miljstyrelsen, Strandgade 29, DK-1401 Copenhagen, 57 pp.
Mann, J. , L. Kristensen and M.C. Courtney 1991. The Great Belt Coherence Experiment. A study of
atmospheric turbulence over water. RisR596, 51 pp.
Nielsen, N.W. 1991. An exposive storm development at the Faroes in September 1990 (in Danish). Vejret, nr.
3, 13: 319.
Sanders, F. and J.G. Gyakum 1980. Synoptic-Dynamic climatology of the bomb. Mon. Wea. Rev., 108:
15891606.
Sempreviva , Anna Maria , S.E. Larsen , N.G. Mortensen and I. Troen 1990. Response of neutral boundary
layers to changes of roughness. Boundary-Layer Meteor., 50, 205225.
Shapiro, M.A. and D. Keyser 1990. Fronts, jet streams and the tropopause. In: Extratropical Cyclones. The Erik
Palmn Memorial Volume ( C. Newton and E.O. Holopainen , Eds.) American Meteor. Soc., Boston, MA, p. 262.
Tennekes, H. and J.L. Lumley 1972. A first course in turbulence. The MIT Press, MA, 300 pp.
Troen, I. and E.L. Petersen 1989. European Wind Atlas. Published for the European Community by Ris
National Laboratory, 656 pp.
von Krmn, T. 1948. Progress in the statistical theory of turbulence. Proceedings National Acad. Sci., 334,
530539.
Willoughby, H.E. 1990. Temporal changes of the primary circulation in tropical cyclones. J. Atmos. Sci., 47:
242264.

Wind criteria for long span bridges


H.O. Madsen , R. Skjong & F. Kirkemo : Probabilistic Fatigue Analysis of Offshore Structures Reliability
Updating through Inspection Results, in Integrity of Offshore Structures by D. Faulkner (ed.), Glasgow, 1987.
H.O. Madsen , S. Krenk and N.C. Lind , Methods of Structural Safety, Prentice-Hall Inc., 1986.
Danish Standard DS 409 & 410, The Safety of Structures & Loads for the design of Structures, Teknisk Forlag,
Translation, June 1983.
NKB-publication no. 36: Recommendation for loading. and safety regulations for structural design, November
1978.
A. Damsgaard et al., The use of section model wind tunnel tests in the design of the Storeblt East Bridge in
Denmark, Proc. 2nd Symp. on Strait Crossings, Trondheim, Norway, June 1990.
J. Abild and B. Nielsen , Extreme Values of Wind Speeds in Denmark, 1989.
D. Rosbjerg , Lecture Notes 5733 Surface Water Hydrology, 2. Exceedance Series, ISVA, DtH, August 1985.
A.G. Davenport , Considerations in Relating Wind Tunnel Results to Design for a Specific Site, Proc. of Intl.
Workshop, Gaithersburg, 1982.
H.W. Tennissen , Validation of Boundary-Layer Simulation: Source Comparisons between Model and Full-
Scale Flows, Intl. Workshop, Gaithersburg, 1982.
43 W.A. Dalgliesh , Comparison of Model and Full-Scale Tests of the Commerce Court Building in Toronto, Intl.
Workshop, Gaithersburg, 1982.
A.G. Frandsen , Wind Stability of Suspension Bridges Application of the Theory of Thin Airfoils. Reprinted from
Bygningsstatiske Meddelelser, Vol. 41, 1970, No 2.
A.G. Davenport , Comparison of Model and Full-Scale Tests on Bridges, Intl. Workshop, Gaithersburg, 1982.
R.L. Wardlaw , H. Tanaka & H. Utsonomiga : Wind tunnel experiments on the effects of turbulence on the
aerodynamic behaviour of bridge road decks. Intl. Workshop, Gaithersburg, 1982.
J.M.W. Brownjohn et al., Ambient vibration measurements of the Humber suspension bridge and comparison
with calculated characteristics, Proc. Instn. Civ. Engrs. Part 2, 1987, p.p. 561600.
A.G. Davenport & G. Larose : The Structural damping of long span bridges: an interpretation of observations.
Presented at the Canada-Japan Workshop on Bridge Aerodynamics, Ottawa, Canada, 2527 Sept., 1989.
PROBAN manuals, Det norske Veritas, Hvik, Norway.
P. Ostenfeld-Rosenthal , H.O. Madsen & A. Larsen : Probabilistic Flutter Criteria for Long Span Bridge in the
Proceedings Eight International Conference on Wind Engineering, London, Ontario, July 1991.

Aerodynamic aspects
Bucher, C.G. & Y.K. Lin 1988. Stochastic stability of bridges considering coupled modes. Jnl. Engrg. Mech.
ASCE, Vol.114, No.12: 20552071.
Bucher, C.G. & Y.K. Lin 1988. Effect of spanwise correlation of turbulence field on the motion stability of long-
span bridges. Jnl. Fluids and Structures, Vol.2: 437451.
Bucher, C.G. & Y.K. Lin 1989. Stochastic stability of bridges considering coupled modes II. Jnl. Engrg. Mech.
ASCE, Vol.115, No.2: 384400.
Cermak, J.E. , B. Bienkiewicz , J.A. Peterka &. R.H. Scanlan 1979 Active turbulence generation for study of
bridge aerodynamics. Proc. Third ASCE Engrg. Mech. Div. Specialty Conf. Austin, TX
Curami, A. , M. Falco & A. Zasso 1991. Nonlinear effects in sectional model aeroelastic parameter
identification. Paper 134, Summary Papers, 8th International Conf. on Wind Engrg. London, Ont. Canada.
Davenport, A.G. 1962. Buffeting of a suspension bridge by storm winds. Jnl. Struct. Div. ASCE, Vol.88, No.ST3:
233268.
Farquharson, F.B. 19491954. Aerodynamic stability of suspension bridges. Univ. of Washington Experiment
Station Bulletin No.116, Parts I-V.
Frazer, R.A. & C. Scruton 1952. Wind tunnel tests on sectional bridge models. Aerodynamics Papers
150,152,160,162,177, Natl. Phys. Lab., Teddington, U.K.
56 Huston, D.R. 1986. The effects of upstream gusting on the aeroelastic behavoir of long suspended-span
bridges. Doctoral dissertation, Dept. of Civil Engineering. Princeton Univ.
Irwin, P.A. 1987. Wind buffeting of cable-stayed bridges during construction. Bridges and Transmission Line
Structures ( L. Tall , Ed.) Proc. ASCE Struct. Congress, Orlando, FL: 164177.
Imai, H. , C.-B. Yun , O. Maruyama & M. Shinozuka 1989. Fundamentals of system identification in structural
dynamics. Probabilistic Engrg. Mech. Vol.4, No.4: 162173.
Jones, N.P. , R.H. Scanlan & P.P. Sarkar 1991. System identification for estimation of flutter derivatives. Paper
1310, Summary Papers, 8th International Conf. on Wind Engrg. London, Ont. Canada.
Kobayashi, H. & A. Hatanaka 1991. Active generation of wind gusts in two-dimensional wind tunnel. Paper 117,
Summary Papers, 8th International Conf. on Wind Engrg. London, Ont. Canada.
Kumarasena, T. , R.H. Scanlan & F. Ehsan 1991. Wind-induced motions of Deer Isle Bridge. Jnl. Struct. Engrg.
ASCE (To appear Nov. 1991).
Lin, Y.K. 1979. Motion of suspension bridges in turbulent winds. Jnl. Engrg. Mech. ASCE, Vol.105, No.EM6:
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Lin, Y.K. & S.T. Ariaratnam 1980. Stability of bridge motion in turbulent winds. Jnl. Struct. Mech. ASCE, Vol.8,
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Lin, Y.K. & J.N. Yang 1983. Multimode bridge response to wind excitations. Jnl. Engrg. Mech. ASCE, Vol.109,
No.2: 586603.
Miyata, T. , H. Yamada , K. Yokoyama , T. Iijima , M. Tatsumi & T. Kanazaki 1991. Construction of a boundary
layer wind tunnel for long-span bridges. Paper 118, Summary Papers, 8th International Conf. on Wind Engrg.
London, Ont. Canada.
Namini, A. 1991. Investigation of analytical modeling for long-span bridge flutter. Paper 1318,Summary Papers,
8th International Conf. on Wind Engrg. London, Ont. Canada.
Poulsen, N.K. , A. Damsgaard & T.A. Reinhold 1991. Determination of flutter derivatives for the Great Belt
Bridge. Paper 1321, Summary Papers, 8th International Conf. on Wind Engrg. London, Ont. Canada.
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Va.
Scanlan, R.H. 1984. Role of indicial functions in buffeting analysis of bridges. Jnl. Struct. Div. ASCE, Vol.110,
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Scanlan, R.H. 1987. Interpreting aeroelastic models of cable-stayed bridges. Jnl. Engrg. Mech. Div. ASCE,
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Scanlan, R.H. 1988. On flutter and buffeting mechanisms in long-span bridges. Probabilistic Engrg. Mech.,
Vol.3, No.1: 2227.% March 1988
Scanlan, R.H. 1991. Bridge buffeting by skew winds in erection stages. Submitted October 1991 to Jnl. Engrg.
Mech. Div. ASCE.
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57 Scanlan, R.H. & J.J. Tomko 1971. Airfoil and bridge deck flutter derivatives. Jnl. Engrg. Mech. Div. ASCE,
Vol.97, EM 6: 17171737.
Scruton, C. 1948. Severn bridge wind tunnel tests. Surveyor, Vol.107, No.2959: 555. London.
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IABSE Congress: 463473.
Shinozuka, M. , H. Imai , Y. Enami & K. Takemura 1976. Identification of aerodynamic characteristics of a
suspension bridge based on field data. Stochastic Problems in Dynamics (ed. B.L. Clarkson ) IUTAM
Symposium, Southampton, U.K., Pittman Publ: 214236.
Szchnyi, E. 1987. Pont de Normandie: effets du vent; tude arolastique-essais. ONERA, Rapport No. 10/3588
RY070 R370G.% Aug. 1987
Tanaka, H. & K. Kimura 1991 Bridge buffeting due to wind with yaw angles. Paper 1322, Summary Papers, 8th
International Conf. on Wind Engrg. London, Ont. Canada.
Tanaka, H. , N. Yamamura & M. Tatsumi 1991. Coupled mode flutter analysis using flutter derivatives. Paper
1323, Summary Papers, 8th International Conf. on Wind Engrg. London, Ont. Canada.
Ukeguchi, M. , H. Sakata & H. Nishitani 1966. An investigation of aeroelastic instability of suspension bridges.
Proc. Sympos. on Suspension Bridges, Lisbon.
Wall, F.J. 1991. Benerregte Schwingungen von weitgespannten Brcken. Report 2991, Institut fr Mechanik,
Universitt Innsbruck, Austria.
Xie, Jiming 1988. CVR method for identification of nonsteady aerodynamic data. Jnl. Wind Engrg. and Indust.
Aerodynamics, (Elsevier, Amsterdam) Vol.29: 389397.
Yamada, H. & T. Miyata 1991. Measurement of aerodynamic coefficients by a system identification method.
Paper 1326, Summary Papers, 8th International Conf. on Wind Engrg. London, Ont. Canada.
Zan, S.J. & R.L. Wardlaw 1987. Wind buffeting of long-span bridges with reference to erection phase behavoir.
Bridges and Transmission Line Structures ( L. Tall , Ed.) Proc. ASCE Struct. Congress, Orlando, FL: 432448.
Anderson, J.K. , Hamilton, J.A.K. , Henderson, W. , McNeill, J.S. , Sir Gilbert Roberts , Shirley-Smith, H. , 1965.
Forth Road Bridge. Proc. Inst. of Civil Engineers, Vol. 32: 321
Farquharson, F.B. , Smith, F.C. , Vincent, G.S. , 194954. Aerodynamic stability of suspension bridges with
special reference to the Tacoma Narrows Bridge. Univ. of Washington, Engineering Experiment Station Bulletin
No. 116, Parts I to V.
Ferraro, V. , Irwin, P.A. , 1989. Recent experiences with aeroelastic wind tunnel studies of cable-stayed
bridges. Proc. Canada-Japan Workshop on Bridge Aerodynamics, 227238.
Frazer, R.A. , Scruton, C. , 1952. A summarized account of the Severn Bridge aerodynamic investigation.
National Physical Laboratory, England, NPL Aero Report 222.
Fujisawa, N. , 1989. Statistical analysis on aerodynamic devices to reduce vortex excitation. Proc. Canada-
Japan workshop on bridge aerodynamics, 91100.
Hikami, Y. , Shiraishi, N. , 1988. Rain-wind induced vibrations of cables in cable stayed bridges. Jrnl of Wind
Engineering, Vol. 29: 409418.
Inoue, A. , Yoshizaki , Fujita, T. , Tanaka, C. , Kaji, K. , Abiru, H. , Yoshimura, T. , Mutou, K. , 1987. On the
aerodynamic stability of the tower of Aratsu-Ohashi Bridge. Jrnl. Structures and Materials in Civil Engineering,
Vol. 2.
Irwin, H.P.A.H. , Wardlaw, R.L. , 1976. Sectional model experiments on Lions Gate Bridge, Vancouver. National
Research Council of Canada, NAE LTR-LA-205
Irwin, H.P.A.H. , Schuyler, G.D. , 1977. Experiments on a full aeroelastic model of Lions Gate Bridge in smooth
and turbulent flow. National Research Council of Canada, NAE LTR-LA-206
Irwin, H.P.A.H. , 1977. A wind tunnel investigation of the proposed St. Johns River Bridge, Jacksonville, Florida.
National Research Council of Canada, NAE LTR-LA-212.
Irwin, H.P.A.H. , Savage, M.G. , Wardlaw, R.L. , 1978. A wind tunnel investigation of a steel design for the St.
Johns River Bridge, Jacksonville, Florida. National Research Council of Canada, NAE LTR-LA-220.
Irwin, P.A. , 1984. Wind tunnel tests of long span bridges. Proc. 12th Congress IABSE.
Kawahito, T. , Tsuji, M. , Kano, I. , Tsumura, N. , 1984. Pendulum-type tuned mass damper to suppress wind-
induced vibration of the tower of Meiko-Nishi Bridge under construction. Proc. 8th National Symp. on Wind
Engineering.
Masaki, Y. , Sano, S. , Sakai, F. , 1987. Analysis and design of wind- and earthquake-resistance of an S-curved
cable-stayed bridge. Proc. Bridges and Transmission Line Structures, ASCE Structure Congress, 341356.
Matsumoto, M. , Knisely, C.W. , Shiraishi, J. , Kitazawa, M. , Saitoh, T. , 1989. Inclined cable aerodynamics.
ASCE Structural Design, Analysis and Testing Structures Congress 89.
Matsuzaki, M. , Ushio, M. , Nanjo, M. , Kumagai, A. , Nakazaki, R. , Tanaka, H. , 1986. Wind-induced vibration
in suspension bridge towers and its control measures. Hitachi Zosen Technical Report, 8898.
Ogawa, K. , Sakai, Y. , Sakai, F. , 1988. Aerodynamic device for suppressing wind-induced vibration of
rectangular section structures. Jrnl of Wind Engineering, Vol 28: 391400.
70 Ogawa, K. , Matsumoto, M. , Kitazawa, M. , Yamasaki, T. , 1990. Aerodynamic stability of the tower of a
long-spanned cable-stayed bridge (Higashi-Kobe Bridge). Jrnl of Wind Engineering, Vol. 33: 341348.
Ohshima, K. , Nanjo, M. , 1987. Aerodynamic stability of the cables of a cable-stayed bridge subject to rain (a
case history of the Ajigawa Bridge). Proc. 3rd US-Japan Bridge Workshop.
Ostenfeld, C. , Haas, G. , Frandsen, A.G. , 1966. Motorway bridge across Lilleblt. Model tests for the
superstructure of the suspension bridge. Proc. Int. Symp. on Suspension Bridges, 597608.
Saito, T. , Ito, M. , Yamauchi, H. , Eya, S. , 1988. Yokohama Bay Bridge use of a dynamic damper for
aerodynamic stability of its support tower. Proc. 4th US-Japan Workshop on Bridge Engineering.
Takeuchi, T. , 1990. Effects of geometrical shape on vortex-induced oscillations of bridge tower. Jrnl of Wind
Engineering, Vol. 33: 349358.
Vincent, G.S. , 1958. Golden Gate Bridge vibration studies. Jrnl Structural Div., Proc. American Society of Civil
Engineers, paper 1817.
Wallace, A.A.C. , 1985. Wind influence on Kessock Bridge. Engineering Structures, Vol. 7.
Walshe, D.E. , 1967. A resum of the aerodynamic investigations for the Forth Road and the Severn Bridges.
Proc. Inst. of Civil Engineers, Vol. 37: 87108.
Wardlaw, R.L. , 1968. A wind tunnel study of the aerodynamic stability of the proposed Papineau Bridge.
National Research Council of Canada, NAE LTR-LA-6
Wardlaw, R.L. , Goettler, L.L. , 1968. A wind tunnel study of modifications to improve the aerodynamic stability
of the Longs Creek Bridge. National Research Council of Canada, Report NAE LTR-LA-8.
Wardlaw, R.L. , 1969. A preliminary wind tunnel study of the aerodynamic stability of four bridge sections for the
proposed new Burrard Inlet crossing. National Research Council of Canada, NAE LTR-LA-31.
Wardlaw, R.L. , 1970. Further wind tunnel studies of the aerodynamic stability of bridge sections for the
proposed new Burrard Inlet crossing. National Research Council of Canada, NAE LTR-LA-54.
Wardlaw, R.L. , 1974. A wind tunnel study of the Aerodynamic stability of the proposed Pasco-Kennewick
Intercity Bridge. National Research Council of Canada, NAE-LTR-LA-163.
Wardlaw, R.L. , Tanaka, H. , Savage, M.G. , 1984. Wind tunnel investigation of the Mississippi River Bridge
steel alternative, Quincy, Illinois. National Research Council of Canada, NAE LTR-LA-268.
Wardlaw, R.L. , 1990. Wind Effects on Bridges. Jrnl of Wind Engineering, Vol. 33: 301312.
Watson, S.C. , Stafford, D. , 1988. Cables in trouble. Civil Engineering, Vol. 58, 3841.
Wianecki, J. , 1979. Cables wind excited vibrations of cable stayed bridge. Proc. 5th Int. Conf. on Wind
Engineering, Vol. 2, 13811393
Yoshimura, T. , Inoue, A. , Kaji, K. , Savage, M.G. , 1989. A study of the aerodynamic stability of the Aratsu
Bridge. Canada-Japan Workshop on Bridge Aerodynamics.
Burden, A.R. 1991a. Modern Japanese suspension bridge design: Proc. Inst. Civ. Engrs. Part 1, Vol. 90: Paper
9654.
Burden, A.R. 1991b. Japanese cable-stayed bridge design: Proc. Inst. Civ. Engrs. Part 1, Vol. 90: Paper 9777.
Fujino, Y. & M. Ito 1980. Probability distribution of yearly maximum wind speeds in Japan: Proc. International
Conf. Engg. for Protection from Natural Disasters, Bangkok.
Hikami, Y. & N. Shiraishi 1987. Rain-wind-induced vibrations of cables in cable-stayed bridges: Proc. 7th
International Conf. Wind Engg., Aachen.
Hirai, A. 1942. On the stability of torsional vibration of a suspension bridge (in Japanese): Jour. Japan Soc. Civ.
Engr. Vol. 28, No. 9.
Hirai, A. & T. Okubo 1966. On the design criteria against wind effects for proposed Honshu-Shikoku Bridges:
Proc. International Symp. Suspension Bridges, Lisbon.
Ito, M. 1987. Measures against wind-induced vibrations of bridges: Proc. Structures Cong. 87. ST Div/ASCE.
Ito, M. & T. Iijima 1988. Full-scale dynamic testing of cable-supported bridges: Proc. 1st Oleg Kerensky
Memorial Conf., London/ISE.
79 Ito, M. 1991a. Long span steel bridges in Japan: Symp. Report 64. Bridges-Interaction between
Construction Technology and Design. IABSE.
Ito, M. 1991b. Cable-stayed bridges in Japan: Cable-stayed Bridges-Recent Developments and Their Future.
Elsevier.
Ito, M. & T. Miyata 1991. Recent topics of wind effects on long span bridges: Structures Cong. 91. Compact
Papers. ST Div/ASCE.
Okubo, T. , N. Narita , K. Yokoyama & H. Sato 1979. Field Observation of aerodynamic behaviour of long span
bridges: Proc. 5th International Conf. Wind Engg. Heathrow.
Yokoyama, K. & H. Sato 1990. On the proposed wind resistant design manual for highway bridges in Japa:
Bluff Body Aerodynamics and Its Applications. Elsevier.

Wind dynamics of long-span bridges


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suspension bridge based on field data. Stochastic Problems in Dynamics (ed. B.L. Clarkson ) IUTAM
Symposium, Southampton, U.K., Pittman Publ: 214236.
Szchnyi, E. 1987. Pont de Normandie: effets du vent; tude arolastique-essais. ONERA, Rapport No. 10/3588
RY070 R370G.% Aug. 1987
Tanaka, H. & K. Kimura 1991 Bridge buffeting due to wind with yaw angles. Paper 1322, Summary Papers, 8th
International Conf. on Wind Engrg. London, Ont. Canada.
Tanaka, H. , N. Yamamura & M. Tatsumi 1991. Coupled mode flutter analysis using flutter derivatives. Paper
1323, Summary Papers, 8th International Conf. on Wind Engrg. London, Ont. Canada.
Ukeguchi, M. , H. Sakata & H. Nishitani 1966. An investigation of aeroelastic instability of suspension bridges.
Proc. Sympos. on Suspension Bridges, Lisbon.
Wall, F.J. 1991. Benerregte Schwingungen von weitgespannten Brcken. Report 2991, Institut fr Mechanik,
Universitt Innsbruck, Austria.
Xie, Jiming 1988. CVR method for identification of nonsteady aerodynamic data. Jnl. Wind Engrg. and Indust.
Aerodynamics, (Elsevier, Amsterdam) Vol.29: 389397.
Yamada, H. & T. Miyata 1991. Measurement of aerodynamic coefficients by a system identification method.
Paper 1326, Summary Papers, 8th International Conf. on Wind Engrg. London, Ont. Canada.
Zan, S.J. & R.L. Wardlaw 1987. Wind buffeting of long-span bridges with reference to erection phase behavoir.
Bridges and Transmission Line Structures ( L. Tall , Ed.) Proc. ASCE Struct. Congress, Orlando, FL: 432448.

The improvement of aerodynamic performance


Anderson, J.K. , Hamilton, J.A.K. , Henderson, W. , McNeill, J.S. , Sir Gilbert Roberts , Shirley-Smith, H. , 1965.
Forth Road Bridge. Proc. Inst. of Civil Engineers, Vol. 32: 321
Farquharson, F.B. , Smith, F.C. , Vincent, G.S. , 194954. Aerodynamic stability of suspension bridges with
special reference to the Tacoma Narrows Bridge. Univ. of Washington, Engineering Experiment Station Bulletin
No. 116, Parts I to V.
Ferraro, V. , Irwin, P.A. , 1989. Recent experiences with aeroelastic wind tunnel studies of cable-stayed
bridges. Proc. Canada-Japan Workshop on Bridge Aerodynamics, 227238.
Frazer, R.A. , Scruton, C. , 1952. A summarized account of the Severn Bridge aerodynamic investigation.
National Physical Laboratory, England, NPL Aero Report 222.
Fujisawa, N. , 1989. Statistical analysis on aerodynamic devices to reduce vortex excitation. Proc. Canada-
Japan workshop on bridge aerodynamics, 91100.
Hikami, Y. , Shiraishi, N. , 1988. Rain-wind induced vibrations of cables in cable stayed bridges. Jrnl of Wind
Engineering, Vol. 29: 409418.
Inoue, A. , Yoshizaki , Fujita, T. , Tanaka, C. , Kaji, K. , Abiru, H. , Yoshimura, T. , Mutou, K. , 1987. On the
aerodynamic stability of the tower of Aratsu-Ohashi Bridge. Jrnl. Structures and Materials in Civil Engineering,
Vol. 2.
Irwin, H.P.A.H. , Wardlaw, R.L. , 1976. Sectional model experiments on Lions Gate Bridge, Vancouver. National
Research Council of Canada, NAE LTR-LA-205
Irwin, H.P.A.H. , Schuyler, G.D. , 1977. Experiments on a full aeroelastic model of Lions Gate Bridge in smooth
and turbulent flow. National Research Council of Canada, NAE LTR-LA-206
Irwin, H.P.A.H. , 1977. A wind tunnel investigation of the proposed St. Johns River Bridge, Jacksonville, Florida.
National Research Council of Canada, NAE LTR-LA-212.
Irwin, H.P.A.H. , Savage, M.G. , Wardlaw, R.L. , 1978. A wind tunnel investigation of a steel design for the St.
Johns River Bridge, Jacksonville, Florida. National Research Council of Canada, NAE LTR-LA-220.
Irwin, P.A. , 1984. Wind tunnel tests of long span bridges. Proc. 12th Congress IABSE.
Kawahito, T. , Tsuji, M. , Kano, I. , Tsumura, N. , 1984. Pendulum-type tuned mass damper to suppress wind-
induced vibration of the tower of Meiko-Nishi Bridge under construction. Proc. 8th National Symp. on Wind
Engineering.
Masaki, Y. , Sano, S. , Sakai, F. , 1987. Analysis and design of wind- and earthquake-resistance of an S-curved
cable-stayed bridge. Proc. Bridges and Transmission Line Structures, ASCE Structure Congress, 341356.
Matsumoto, M. , Knisely, C.W. , Shiraishi, J. , Kitazawa, M. , Saitoh, T. , 1989. Inclined cable aerodynamics.
ASCE Structural Design, Analysis and Testing Structures Congress 89.
Matsuzaki, M. , Ushio, M. , Nanjo, M. , Kumagai, A. , Nakazaki, R. , Tanaka, H. , 1986. Wind-induced vibration
in suspension bridge towers and its control measures. Hitachi Zosen Technical Report, 8898.
Ogawa, K. , Sakai, Y. , Sakai, F. , 1988. Aerodynamic device for suppressing wind-induced vibration of
rectangular section structures. Jrnl of Wind Engineering, Vol 28: 391400.
70 Ogawa, K. , Matsumoto, M. , Kitazawa, M. , Yamasaki, T. , 1990. Aerodynamic stability of the tower of a
long-spanned cable-stayed bridge (Higashi-Kobe Bridge). Jrnl of Wind Engineering, Vol. 33: 341348.
Ohshima, K. , Nanjo, M. , 1987. Aerodynamic stability of the cables of a cable-stayed bridge subject to rain (a
case history of the Ajigawa Bridge). Proc. 3rd US-Japan Bridge Workshop.
Ostenfeld, C. , Haas, G. , Frandsen, A.G. , 1966. Motorway bridge across Lilleblt. Model tests for the
superstructure of the suspension bridge. Proc. Int. Symp. on Suspension Bridges, 597608.
Saito, T. , Ito, M. , Yamauchi, H. , Eya, S. , 1988. Yokohama Bay Bridge use of a dynamic damper for
aerodynamic stability of its support tower. Proc. 4th US-Japan Workshop on Bridge Engineering.
Takeuchi, T. , 1990. Effects of geometrical shape on vortex-induced oscillations of bridge tower. Jrnl of Wind
Engineering, Vol. 33: 349358.
Vincent, G.S. , 1958. Golden Gate Bridge vibration studies. Jrnl Structural Div., Proc. American Society of Civil
Engineers, paper 1817.
Wallace, A.A.C. , 1985. Wind influence on Kessock Bridge. Engineering Structures, Vol. 7.
Walshe, D.E. , 1967. A resum of the aerodynamic investigations for the Forth Road and the Severn Bridges.
Proc. Inst. of Civil Engineers, Vol. 37: 87108.
Wardlaw, R.L. , 1968. A wind tunnel study of the aerodynamic stability of the proposed Papineau Bridge.
National Research Council of Canada, NAE LTR-LA-6
Wardlaw, R.L. , Goettler, L.L. , 1968. A wind tunnel study of modifications to improve the aerodynamic stability
of the Longs Creek Bridge. National Research Council of Canada, Report NAE LTR-LA-8.
Wardlaw, R.L. , 1969. A preliminary wind tunnel study of the aerodynamic stability of four bridge sections for the
proposed new Burrard Inlet crossing. National Research Council of Canada, NAE LTR-LA-31.
Wardlaw, R.L. , 1970. Further wind tunnel studies of the aerodynamic stability of bridge sections for the
proposed new Burrard Inlet crossing. National Research Council of Canada, NAE LTR-LA-54.
Wardlaw, R.L. , 1974. A wind tunnel study of the Aerodynamic stability of the proposed Pasco-Kennewick
Intercity Bridge. National Research Council of Canada, NAE-LTR-LA-163.
Wardlaw, R.L. , Tanaka, H. , Savage, M.G. , 1984. Wind tunnel investigation of the Mississippi River Bridge
steel alternative, Quincy, Illinois. National Research Council of Canada, NAE LTR-LA-268.
Wardlaw, R.L. , 1990. Wind Effects on Bridges. Jrnl of Wind Engineering, Vol. 33: 301312.
Watson, S.C. , Stafford, D. , 1988. Cables in trouble. Civil Engineering, Vol. 58, 3841.
Wianecki, J. , 1979. Cables wind excited vibrations of cable stayed bridge. Proc. 5th Int. Conf. on Wind
Engineering, Vol. 2, 13811393
Yoshimura, T. , Inoue, A. , Kaji, K. , Savage, M.G. , 1989. A study of the aerodynamic stability of the Aratsu
Bridge. Canada-Japan Workshop on Bridge Aerodynamics.
Wind engineering of large bridges in Japan
Burden, A.R. 1991a. Modern Japanese suspension bridge design: Proc. Inst. Civ. Engrs. Part 1, Vol. 90: Paper
9654.
Burden, A.R. 1991b. Japanese cable-stayed bridge design: Proc. Inst. Civ. Engrs. Part 1, Vol. 90: Paper 9777.
Fujino, Y. & M. Ito 1980. Probability distribution of yearly maximum wind speeds in Japan: Proc. International
Conf. Engg. for Protection from Natural Disasters, Bangkok.
Hikami, Y. & N. Shiraishi 1987. Rain-wind-induced vibrations of cables in cable-stayed bridges: Proc. 7th
International Conf. Wind Engg., Aachen.
Hirai, A. 1942. On the stability of torsional vibration of a suspension bridge (in Japanese): Jour. Japan Soc. Civ.
Engr. Vol. 28, No. 9.
Hirai, A. & T. Okubo 1966. On the design criteria against wind effects for proposed Honshu-Shikoku Bridges:
Proc. International Symp. Suspension Bridges, Lisbon.
Ito, M. 1987. Measures against wind-induced vibrations of bridges: Proc. Structures Cong. 87. ST Div/ASCE.
Ito, M. & T. Iijima 1988. Full-scale dynamic testing of cable-supported bridges: Proc. 1st Oleg Kerensky
Memorial Conf., London/ISE.
79 Ito, M. 1991a. Long span steel bridges in Japan: Symp. Report 64. Bridges-Interaction between
Construction Technology and Design. IABSE.
Ito, M. 1991b. Cable-stayed bridges in Japan: Cable-stayed Bridges-Recent Developments and Their Future.
Elsevier.
Ito, M. & T. Miyata 1991. Recent topics of wind effects on long span bridges: Structures Cong. 91. Compact
Papers. ST Div/ASCE.
Okubo, T. , N. Narita , K. Yokoyama & H. Sato 1979. Field Observation of aerodynamic behaviour of long span
bridges: Proc. 5th International Conf. Wind Engg. Heathrow.
Yokoyama, K. & H. Sato 1990. On the proposed wind resistant design manual for highway bridges in Japa:
Bluff Body Aerodynamics and Its Applications. Elsevier.

Tool
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Cermak, J.E. , Laboratory Simulation of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer, J. AIAA, (9) 9, Sept. 1971,
pp.17461754.
Wardlaw, R.L. et al., Comparative Wind Tunnel Testing of Bridge Road Decks, Proc. 3rd US-Japan Bridge
Workshop, Tsukuba, Japan, May 1987, pp.278288.
Tryggvason, B.V. , Surry, D. and Davenport, A.G. , Predicting Wind Induced Response in Hurricane Zones,
Proc. ASCE, J. Struc. Div., (102) ST12, Dec. 1976, pp.23332349.
Laneville, A. and Yong, L.Z. , Mean Flow Patterns around Two-dimensional Rectangular Cylinders and their
Interpretation, J. Wind Engng and Industrial Aerodynamics, (14) Dec. 1983, pp.387398.
Townsend, A.A. , The Structure of Turbulent Shear Flow, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1976 (2nd ed.), pp.5356.
Isyumov, N. and Tanaka, H. , Wind Tunnel Modelling of Stack Gas Dispersion: Difficulties and Approximations,
Proc. 5th Int. Conf. on Wind Engng, Fort Collins, Colorado, July 1979, Vol.2, pp.9871001.
Kind, R.J. , Aeroelastic Modelling of Membrane Structures, Proc. Int. Workshop on Wind Tunnel Modeling
Criteria and Techniques in Civil Engineering Applications, Gaithersburg, April 1982, pp.429439.
Zdravkovich, M.M. , Scruton Number; A Proposal, J. Wind Engng and Industrial Aerodynamics, (10) 3, Dec.
1982, pp.263265.
Tanaka, H. and Yamada, H. , Mass and Damping Simulation for the Modelling of Aeroelastic Responses, Proc.
Int. Conf. on Flow Induced Vibrations, Bowness-on-Windermere, England, May 1987, pp.l03110.
Novak, M. , Galloping and Vortex Induced Oscillations of Structures, Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. on Wind Effects on
Buildings and Structures, Tokyo, Sept. 1971, pp.799809.
Miyata, T. , Miyazaki, M. and Yamada, H. , Pressure Distribution Measurements for Wind Induced Vibrations of
Box Girder Bridges, J. Wind Engng and Industrial Aerodynamics, (14) Dec. 1983, pp.223234.
Yamada, H. , Identification and Estimation of Vortex Induced Response of Shallow Bluff Bodies, Ph.D. Thesis
present. Univ. of Tokyo, Dec. 1983.
Scanlan, R.H. , Interpreting Aeroelastic Models of Cable-stayed Bridges, Proc. ASCE, J. Eng. Mech., (113)
EM4, April 1987, pp.555575.
Wardlaw, R.L. , The Use of Scale Models for Aerodynamic Investigations into the Effect of Wind on Structures,
Proc. Int. Symp. on Scale Modeling, Tokyo, July 1988, pp.155164.
Scanlan, R.H. , Theory of the Wind Analysis of Long-span Bridges Based on Data Obtainable from Section
Model Tests, Proc. 4th Int. Conf. Wind Effects on Buildings and Structures, Heathrow, England, Sept. 1975,
pp.259269.
Davenport, A.G. et al., Wind Induced Response of Suspension Bridges Wind Tunnel Model and Full Scale
Observations, Proc. 5th Int. Conf. on Wind Engng, Fort Collins, Colorado, July 1979, Vol.2, pp.807824.
Davenport, A.G. and King, J.P.C. , Dynamic Wind Forces on Long Span Bridges, Proc. 12th Congr. IABSE,
Vancouver, Sept. 1984, pp.705712.
93 Zan, S.J. , Yamada, H. and Tanaka, H. , The Influence of Turbulence and Deck Section Geometry on the
Aeroelastic Behaviour of a Cable-stayed Bridge Model, NAE-AN-40, NRCC, 1986.
Tanaka, H. and Yamada, H. , On Predicting the Performance under Wind of Full Bridges from Section Model
Wind Tunnel Results, J. Wind Engng and Industrial Aerodynamics, (26) 3, Dec. 1987, pp.289306.
Davenport, A.G. , The Use of Taut Strip Models in the Prediction of the Response of Long Span Bridges to
Turbulent Wind, Proc. Symp. on Flow-induced Structural Vibrations, IUTAM-IAHR, Karlsruhe, Aug. 1972,
pp.373381.
Tanaka, H. , On Wind Tunnel Testing of Taut Strip Bridge Models, Proc. 3rd US-Japan Bridge Workshop,
Tsukuba, Japan, May 1987, pp.318323.
Davenport, A.G. , On the Statistical Prediction of Structural Performance in the Wind Environment, ASCE Nat.
Struct. Engng Meeting, Baltimore, Maryland, April 1971, Preprint 1420.
Davenport, A.G. , The Prediction of Risk under Wind Loading, Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. on Structural Safety and
Reliability, Munich, Sept. 1977, pp.511538.
Zan, S.J. , The Effect of Mass, Wind Angle and Erection Technique on the Aeroelastic Behaviour of a Cable-
stayed Bridge Model, NAE-AN-46, NRCC, 1987.
Kimura, K. and Tanaka, H. , Bridge Buffeting due to Wind with Yaw Angles, presented at 8th Int. Conf. on Wind
Engng, London, Canada, July 1991.
Xie, J. et al., Buffeting Analysis of Long Span Bridges to Turbulent Wind with Yaw Angle, J. Wind Engng and
Industrial Aerodynamics, (37)1, Feb. 1991, pp.6577.
AGARD (1968): Manual of aeroelasticity, Vol VI
ASCE Aerodynamics Committee (1985): (Draft) Proposed manual of practice for wind tunnel testing of buildings
and structures. (1985-?)
Davenport, A.G. and King, J.P.C. (1982). The incorporation of dynamic wind loads into the design specifications
for long-span bridges. Proceedings, ASCE Fall Convention & Structures Congress, New Orleans, La, Oct 2527,
1982.
Davenport, A.G. (1966) In Proceedings, International Symposium on Suspension Bridges. Laboratrio Nacional
de Engenharia Civil, Lisboa.
Irwin, H.P.A.H. (1977): Wind tunnel and analy tical investigations of the response of Lion Gate Bridge to
turbulent wind. NRC Report LTR-LA-210, Ottawa, Canada.
Persson, A.J. and Siebert, C.M. : (1982) The aerodynamic stability of the proposed Western Scheldt
Suspension Bridge. In Proceedings Int Conf on Flow Induced Vibrations, Reading, England 1982, BHRA Fluid
Engineering.
Scanlan, R.H. (1975): Recent methods in the application of test results to the wind design of long, suspended-
span bridges. Report No FHWA-RD-75-115, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC.
Scruton, C. (1967): Aerodynamics of Structures In Proceedings, Int Res Seminar: Wind Effects on Buildings
and Structures, Ottawa, Canada, University of Toronto Press.
Davenport, A.G. , Isyumov, N. , Fader, D.J. and Bowen, C.F.P. 1969, A Study of Wind Action on a Suspension
Bridge During Erection and Completion, BLWT-3-1969, The University of Western Ontario, London, Canada.
Davenport, A.G. , Isyumov, N. , and Miyata, T. 1971, The Experimental Determination of the Response of
Suspension Bridges to Turbulent Wind, Proc. of the Third Int. Conf. on Wind Effects on Buildings and
Structures, Saicon Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan.
Davenport, A.G. 1972, The use of Taut Strip Models in the Prediction of the Response of Long Span Bridges to
Turbulent Wind, Proc. of the Symp. on Flow Induced Vibrations, Paper A2, Karlsruhe, Springer.
Grillaud, G. , Bietry, J. , Jan, P. 1990, Effets du vent sur le Pont de lElorn: Etude en soufflerie atmosphrique sur
modle arolastique, CSTB Report EN-AS 90.2C, Nantes, France.
Grillaud, G. , Flammand, O. and Barre, C. 1991, Comportment au vent du Pont de Normandie: Etude en
soufflerie sur maquette arolastique chelle du l/200, CSTB Report, Nantes, France.
King, J.P.C. , Vickery, P.J. , and Davenport, A.G. 1985, A Study of the Wind Effects for the Cochrane Bridge
Replacement Steel and Concrete Alternates, BLWT-SS29-1985, The University of Western Ontario, London,
Canada.
King, J.P.C. , Larose, G.L. and Davenport, A.G. 1991, A Study of Wind Effects for the Storeblt Bridge Tender
Design, BLWT-SS31-1991, The University of Western Ontario, London, Canada.
Larose, G.L. , Davenport, A.G. and King, J.P.C. 1991, Wind Effects on Long Span Bridges: Consistency of
Wind Tunnel Results, Proc. 8th Int. Conf. on Wind Engineering, Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Canada,
July.
Scanlan, R.H. , and Tomko, J.J. , Airfoil and Bridge Deck Flutter Derivatives, JEMD, ASCE, 97, No. EM6, Proc.
Paper 8609 (Dec. 1971) 17171737.
Sears, N.R. 1941, Some Aspects of Stationary Airfoil Theory, J. of Aero. Sci., Vol 8.
Tanaka, H. and Davenport A.G. 1982, Response of Taut Strip Models to Turbulent Wind, JEMD, ASCE, Vol
108, No. EM1, pp. 3349.
Davenport, A.G. 1961. Application of statistical concepts to the wind loading of structures. Proc. Inst. Civ.
Engrs, vol 19, pp. 449472.
Davenport, A.G. , Isyumov, I. , and Miyata, T. , 1971. Experimental determination of the response of
suspension bridges to turbulent wind. Third Int. Conf. on Wind Effects on Buildings & Struct., Tokyo.
Davenport, A.G. , and King, J.P.C. 1982. The incorporation of dynamic wind loads into design specifications for
long span bridges.
ESDU 1990. Characteristics of atmospheric turbulence near the ground. Engineering Sciences Data Unit Item
85020, publ. ESDU International, London.
Farquharson, F.B. 1954. Aerodynamic stability of suspension bridges with special reference to Tacoma
Narrows Bridge. University of Washington Eng. Exp. Station Bulletin No.116, Parts I-V.
Ferraro, V.F. , and Irwin, P.A. 1990. Wind tunnel studies of the Skarnsund cable-stayed bridge. Proc. 2nd
Symposium on Strait Crossings, Trondheim, pp. 273280, publ. Balkema.
Ferraro, V.F. , and Irwin, P.A. 1989. Recent experiences with aeroelastic wind tunnel studies of cable-stayed
bridges. Canada-Japan Workshop on Bridge Aerodynamics, 135 Ottawa, publ. Nat. Res. Counc. of Canada
Gamble, S.L. and Irwin, P.A. 1985. The action of wind on a cable-stayed bridge during construction. Proc. of
5th U.S. Nat. Conf. on wind Eng., Lubbock, p.4A33.
Grillaud, G. , Chauvin, A. , and Bietry, J. 1991. Comportement dynamique dun pont a haubans dans une
turbulence de sillage. 8th Int. Conf. on Wind Eng., London, Ont.
Irwin, P.A. , 1977. Wind tunnel and analytical investigations of the response of Lions Gate Bridge to a turbulent
wind. Nat. Res. Council of Canada, NAE Report LTR-LA-210.
Irwin, P.A. , and Schuyler, G.D. 1978. Wind effects on a full aeroelastic bridge model. Spring Convention,
ASCE, Pittsburgh, Paper 3268.
Irwin, P.A. 1984. Wind tunnel tests of long span bridges. 12th IABSE Congress, Vancouver, B.C. pp.689696.
Irwin, P.A. , and Schuyler, G.D. 1986. Wind tunnel investigations of the wind-induced oscillations of haunched
box-girder bridges. Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. on Short & Med. Span Bridges, Ottawa, pp. 415427 publ. Canadian
Soc. for Civ. Eng.
Ito, M. 1985. Long-span bridges in Japan wind resistant design, Asia pacific Symposium on Wind Eng., Univ. of
Roorkee. xviiixxviii.
Jensen, M. 1959. Model-law for phenomena in natural wind. Ingenioren 2(4).
King, J.P.C. and Davenport, A.G. 1989. The influence of topography on the dynamic wind loading of long span
bridges. Canada-Japan Workshop on Bridge Aerodynamics, Ottawa, publ. Nat. Res. Counc. of Canada.
Kolmogorov, A.N. 1941. The local structure of turbulence in incompressible viscous fluid for very large
Reynolds number. Doklady of the Acad. of Sci. of USSR, Vol. 30, No.4, pp.299303.
Kubo, Y. , Watanabe, A. , Kato, K. , Motomura, C. , and Nogami, C. 1989. Comparison between field
observation and wind tunnel tests of PC cable-stayed bridge during erection. Canada-Japan Workshop on
Bridge Aerodynamics, Ottawa, publ. Nat. Res. Counc. of Canada.
Melbourne, W.H. , 1979. Model and full scale response to wind action of the cable-stayed box girder West Gate
Bridge. IAHR/IUTAM Symp. on Flow Induced Vibr., Karlesruhe.
Miyata, T. , Yamada, H. , Yokoyama, K. , Iijima, T. , Tastumi, M. , and Kanazaki, T. 1991. Construction of a
boundary layer wind tunnel for long span bridges. 8th Int. Conf. on Wind Eng., London, Ont.
Olivari, D. and Thiry, F. 1975. Wind tunnel tests of the aeroelastic stability of the Heer-Agimont Bridge. von
Karman Inst. for Fluid Dyn., Belgium, Tech. Note No. 113.
Sakai, Y. and Ogawa, K. 1989. A study of a long span cable-stayed bridge during erection. Canada-Japan
Workshop on Bridge Aerodynamics, Ottawa, publ. Nat. Res. Counc. of Canada.
Scanlan, R.H. 1975. Theory of the wind analysis of long-span bridges based on data obtainable from section
model tests. Proc. 4th Int. Conf. on Wind Effects on Bldgs & Structs, Heathrow, publ. Cambr. Univ. Press,
pp.259269.
Scanlan, R.H. 1978. The action of flexible bridges under wind. I Flutter theory; II -Buffeting Theory, J. Sound
and Vibration, 60 (2) pp. 187211.
Scanlan, R.H. 1992. Analytical methods and their implementation. ISALB 92 Symposium on Aerodynamics of
large bridges. Copenhagen. publ. Balkema.
Scruton., C. , 1952. An experimental investigation of the aerodynamic stability of suspension bridges with
special reference to the proposed Severn Bridge. Proc. Inst. Civ. Engrs. 1, (1), 189.
Wagh, V.P. , and Chi, G.H. 1991. Wind tunnel testing of the steel alternate of the Chesapeake and Delaware
Canal Bridge, 8th Int. Conf. on Wind Eng., London, Ont.
Wardlaw, R.L. , and Zan, S.J. 1989. A wind tunnel investigation of the Theodore Roosevelt Lake steel arch
bridge. Canada-Japan Workshop on Bridge Aerodynamics, Ottawa, publ. Nat. Res. Counc. of Canada.
Xiang, H. , Xie, J. , and Lin, Z. 1987. Aerodynamic study on a proposed cable-stayed bridge in Shanghai,
China. Proc. 7th Int. Conf. on Wind Engineering, Aachen.
Zan, S.J. , Yamada, H. , and Tanaka, H. 1986. The influence of turbulence and deck section geometry on the
behaviour of a cable-stayed bridge model. Nat. Res. Council of Canada, Ottawa, Report NRC No.26190.
Hansen, S.O. , E.G. Srensen . A new boundary-layer wind tunnel at the Danish Maritime Institute. Journal of
Wind Eng. and Industrial Aerodynamics, 18 (1985) p 213224.
Reinhold, T.A. , M. Brinch , Aa. Damsgaard . Wind-tunnel tests for the Great Belt Link. ISALB 92, Copenhagen,
Denmark, 1992.
Similitude and modelling in bridge aerodynamics
Walshe, D.E.J. , Wind Excited Oscillations of Structures, NPL Monogram, HMSO, 1972.
Walshe, D.E.J. , Bridge Aerodynamics, Proc. Conf. held at ICE, London, March 1981, Thomas Telford Ltd.
Aynsley, R.M. , Melbourne, W. and Vickery, B.J. , Architectural Aerodynamics, Applied Science Publishers,
1977.
Davenport, A.G. and Isyumov, N. , The Application of the Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel to the Prediction of
Wind Loading, Proc. Int. Res. Seminar on Wind Effects on Buildings and Structures, Ottawa, Sept. 1967, Vol.1,
pp.201230.
92 Jensen, M. , The Model-law for Phenomena in Natural Wind, Ingenioren, International Edition, (2) 4, 1958.
Reinhold, T.A. (ed.), Wind Tunnel Modelling for Civil Engineering Applications, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1982.
Plate, E.J. (ed.), Engineering Meteorology, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., 1982.
ESDU, Characteristics of Atmospheric Turbulence Near the Ground, ESDU item No.86010, Engineering
Sciences Data Unit, London, 1986 etc.
Cermak, J.E. , Laboratory Simulation of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer, J. AIAA, (9) 9, Sept. 1971,
pp.17461754.
Wardlaw, R.L. et al., Comparative Wind Tunnel Testing of Bridge Road Decks, Proc. 3rd US-Japan Bridge
Workshop, Tsukuba, Japan, May 1987, pp.278288.
Tryggvason, B.V. , Surry, D. and Davenport, A.G. , Predicting Wind Induced Response in Hurricane Zones,
Proc. ASCE, J. Struc. Div., (102) ST12, Dec. 1976, pp.23332349.
Laneville, A. and Yong, L.Z. , Mean Flow Patterns around Two-dimensional Rectangular Cylinders and their
Interpretation, J. Wind Engng and Industrial Aerodynamics, (14) Dec. 1983, pp.387398.
Townsend, A.A. , The Structure of Turbulent Shear Flow, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1976 (2nd ed.), pp.5356.
Isyumov, N. and Tanaka, H. , Wind Tunnel Modelling of Stack Gas Dispersion: Difficulties and Approximations,
Proc. 5th Int. Conf. on Wind Engng, Fort Collins, Colorado, July 1979, Vol.2, pp.9871001.
Kind, R.J. , Aeroelastic Modelling of Membrane Structures, Proc. Int. Workshop on Wind Tunnel Modeling
Criteria and Techniques in Civil Engineering Applications, Gaithersburg, April 1982, pp.429439.
Zdravkovich, M.M. , Scruton Number; A Proposal, J. Wind Engng and Industrial Aerodynamics, (10) 3, Dec.
1982, pp.263265.
Tanaka, H. and Yamada, H. , Mass and Damping Simulation for the Modelling of Aeroelastic Responses, Proc.
Int. Conf. on Flow Induced Vibrations, Bowness-on-Windermere, England, May 1987, pp.l03110.
Novak, M. , Galloping and Vortex Induced Oscillations of Structures, Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. on Wind Effects on
Buildings and Structures, Tokyo, Sept. 1971, pp.799809.
Miyata, T. , Miyazaki, M. and Yamada, H. , Pressure Distribution Measurements for Wind Induced Vibrations of
Box Girder Bridges, J. Wind Engng and Industrial Aerodynamics, (14) Dec. 1983, pp.223234.
Yamada, H. , Identification and Estimation of Vortex Induced Response of Shallow Bluff Bodies, Ph.D. Thesis
present. Univ. of Tokyo, Dec. 1983.
Scanlan, R.H. , Interpreting Aeroelastic Models of Cable-stayed Bridges, Proc. ASCE, J. Eng. Mech., (113)
EM4, April 1987, pp.555575.
Wardlaw, R.L. , The Use of Scale Models for Aerodynamic Investigations into the Effect of Wind on Structures,
Proc. Int. Symp. on Scale Modeling, Tokyo, July 1988, pp.155164.
Scanlan, R.H. , Theory of the Wind Analysis of Long-span Bridges Based on Data Obtainable from Section
Model Tests, Proc. 4th Int. Conf. Wind Effects on Buildings and Structures, Heathrow, England, Sept. 1975,
pp.259269.
Davenport, A.G. et al., Wind Induced Response of Suspension Bridges Wind Tunnel Model and Full Scale
Observations, Proc. 5th Int. Conf. on Wind Engng, Fort Collins, Colorado, July 1979, Vol.2, pp.807824.
Davenport, A.G. and King, J.P.C. , Dynamic Wind Forces on Long Span Bridges, Proc. 12th Congr. IABSE,
Vancouver, Sept. 1984, pp.705712.
93 Zan, S.J. , Yamada, H. and Tanaka, H. , The Influence of Turbulence and Deck Section Geometry on the
Aeroelastic Behaviour of a Cable-stayed Bridge Model, NAE-AN-40, NRCC, 1986.
Tanaka, H. and Yamada, H. , On Predicting the Performance under Wind of Full Bridges from Section Model
Wind Tunnel Results, J. Wind Engng and Industrial Aerodynamics, (26) 3, Dec. 1987, pp.289306.
Davenport, A.G. , The Use of Taut Strip Models in the Prediction of the Response of Long Span Bridges to
Turbulent Wind, Proc. Symp. on Flow-induced Structural Vibrations, IUTAM-IAHR, Karlsruhe, Aug. 1972,
pp.373381.
Tanaka, H. , On Wind Tunnel Testing of Taut Strip Bridge Models, Proc. 3rd US-Japan Bridge Workshop,
Tsukuba, Japan, May 1987, pp.318323.
Davenport, A.G. , On the Statistical Prediction of Structural Performance in the Wind Environment, ASCE Nat.
Struct. Engng Meeting, Baltimore, Maryland, April 1971, Preprint 1420.
Davenport, A.G. , The Prediction of Risk under Wind Loading, Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. on Structural Safety and
Reliability, Munich, Sept. 1977, pp.511538.
Zan, S.J. , The Effect of Mass, Wind Angle and Erection Technique on the Aeroelastic Behaviour of a Cable-
stayed Bridge Model, NAE-AN-46, NRCC, 1987.
Kimura, K. and Tanaka, H. , Bridge Buffeting due to Wind with Yaw Angles, presented at 8th Int. Conf. on Wind
Engng, London, Canada, July 1991.
Xie, J. et al., Buffeting Analysis of Long Span Bridges to Turbulent Wind with Yaw Angle, J. Wind Engng and
Industrial Aerodynamics, (37)1, Feb. 1991, pp.6577.

Section model tests


AGARD (1968): Manual of aeroelasticity, Vol VI
ASCE Aerodynamics Committee (1985): (Draft) Proposed manual of practice for wind tunnel testing of buildings
and structures. (1985-?)
Davenport, A.G. and King, J.P.C. (1982). The incorporation of dynamic wind loads into the design specifications
for long-span bridges. Proceedings, ASCE Fall Convention & Structures Congress, New Orleans, La, Oct 2527,
1982.
Davenport, A.G. (1966) In Proceedings, International Symposium on Suspension Bridges. Laboratrio Nacional
de Engenharia Civil, Lisboa.
Irwin, H.P.A.H. (1977): Wind tunnel and analy tical investigations of the response of Lion Gate Bridge to
turbulent wind. NRC Report LTR-LA-210, Ottawa, Canada.
Persson, A.J. and Siebert, C.M. : (1982) The aerodynamic stability of the proposed Western Scheldt
Suspension Bridge. In Proceedings Int Conf on Flow Induced Vibrations, Reading, England 1982, BHRA Fluid
Engineering.
Scanlan, R.H. (1975): Recent methods in the application of test results to the wind design of long, suspended-
span bridges. Report No FHWA-RD-75-115, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC.
Scruton, C. (1967): Aerodynamics of Structures In Proceedings, Int Res Seminar: Wind Effects on Buildings
and Structures, Ottawa, Canada, University of Toronto Press.

Taut strip model tests


Davenport, A.G. , Isyumov, N. , Fader, D.J. and Bowen, C.F.P. 1969, A Study of Wind Action on a Suspension
Bridge During Erection and Completion, BLWT-3-1969, The University of Western Ontario, London, Canada.
Davenport, A.G. , Isyumov, N. , and Miyata, T. 1971, The Experimental Determination of the Response of
Suspension Bridges to Turbulent Wind, Proc. of the Third Int. Conf. on Wind Effects on Buildings and
Structures, Saicon Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan.
Davenport, A.G. 1972, The use of Taut Strip Models in the Prediction of the Response of Long Span Bridges to
Turbulent Wind, Proc. of the Symp. on Flow Induced Vibrations, Paper A2, Karlsruhe, Springer.
Grillaud, G. , Bietry, J. , Jan, P. 1990, Effets du vent sur le Pont de lElorn: Etude en soufflerie atmosphrique sur
modle arolastique, CSTB Report EN-AS 90.2C, Nantes, France.
Grillaud, G. , Flammand, O. and Barre, C. 1991, Comportment au vent du Pont de Normandie: Etude en
soufflerie sur maquette arolastique chelle du l/200, CSTB Report, Nantes, France.
King, J.P.C. , Vickery, P.J. , and Davenport, A.G. 1985, A Study of the Wind Effects for the Cochrane Bridge
Replacement Steel and Concrete Alternates, BLWT-SS29-1985, The University of Western Ontario, London,
Canada.
King, J.P.C. , Larose, G.L. and Davenport, A.G. 1991, A Study of Wind Effects for the Storeblt Bridge Tender
Design, BLWT-SS31-1991, The University of Western Ontario, London, Canada.
Larose, G.L. , Davenport, A.G. and King, J.P.C. 1991, Wind Effects on Long Span Bridges: Consistency of
Wind Tunnel Results, Proc. 8th Int. Conf. on Wind Engineering, Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Canada,
July.
Scanlan, R.H. , and Tomko, J.J. , Airfoil and Bridge Deck Flutter Derivatives, JEMD, ASCE, 97, No. EM6, Proc.
Paper 8609 (Dec. 1971) 17171737.
Sears, N.R. 1941, Some Aspects of Stationary Airfoil Theory, J. of Aero. Sci., Vol 8.
Tanaka, H. and Davenport A.G. 1982, Response of Taut Strip Models to Turbulent Wind, JEMD, ASCE, Vol
108, No. EM1, pp. 3349.

Full aeroelastic model tests


Davenport, A.G. 1961. Application of statistical concepts to the wind loading of structures. Proc. Inst. Civ.
Engrs, vol 19, pp. 449472.
Davenport, A.G. , Isyumov, I. , and Miyata, T. , 1971. Experimental determination of the response of
suspension bridges to turbulent wind. Third Int. Conf. on Wind Effects on Buildings & Struct., Tokyo.
Davenport, A.G. , and King, J.P.C. 1982. The incorporation of dynamic wind loads into design specifications for
long span bridges.
ESDU 1990. Characteristics of atmospheric turbulence near the ground. Engineering Sciences Data Unit Item
85020, publ. ESDU International, London.
Farquharson, F.B. 1954. Aerodynamic stability of suspension bridges with special reference to Tacoma
Narrows Bridge. University of Washington Eng. Exp. Station Bulletin No.116, Parts I-V.
Ferraro, V.F. , and Irwin, P.A. 1990. Wind tunnel studies of the Skarnsund cable-stayed bridge. Proc. 2nd
Symposium on Strait Crossings, Trondheim, pp. 273280, publ. Balkema.
Ferraro, V.F. , and Irwin, P.A. 1989. Recent experiences with aeroelastic wind tunnel studies of cable-stayed
bridges. Canada-Japan Workshop on Bridge Aerodynamics, 135 Ottawa, publ. Nat. Res. Counc. of Canada
Gamble, S.L. and Irwin, P.A. 1985. The action of wind on a cable-stayed bridge during construction. Proc. of
5th U.S. Nat. Conf. on wind Eng., Lubbock, p.4A33.
Grillaud, G. , Chauvin, A. , and Bietry, J. 1991. Comportement dynamique dun pont a haubans dans une
turbulence de sillage. 8th Int. Conf. on Wind Eng., London, Ont.
Irwin, P.A. , 1977. Wind tunnel and analytical investigations of the response of Lions Gate Bridge to a turbulent
wind. Nat. Res. Council of Canada, NAE Report LTR-LA-210.
Irwin, P.A. , and Schuyler, G.D. 1978. Wind effects on a full aeroelastic bridge model. Spring Convention,
ASCE, Pittsburgh, Paper 3268.
Irwin, P.A. 1984. Wind tunnel tests of long span bridges. 12th IABSE Congress, Vancouver, B.C. pp.689696.
Irwin, P.A. , and Schuyler, G.D. 1986. Wind tunnel investigations of the wind-induced oscillations of haunched
box-girder bridges. Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. on Short & Med. Span Bridges, Ottawa, pp. 415427 publ. Canadian
Soc. for Civ. Eng.
Ito, M. 1985. Long-span bridges in Japan wind resistant design, Asia pacific Symposium on Wind Eng., Univ. of
Roorkee. xviiixxviii.
Jensen, M. 1959. Model-law for phenomena in natural wind. Ingenioren 2(4).
King, J.P.C. and Davenport, A.G. 1989. The influence of topography on the dynamic wind loading of long span
bridges. Canada-Japan Workshop on Bridge Aerodynamics, Ottawa, publ. Nat. Res. Counc. of Canada.
Kolmogorov, A.N. 1941. The local structure of turbulence in incompressible viscous fluid for very large
Reynolds number. Doklady of the Acad. of Sci. of USSR, Vol. 30, No.4, pp.299303.
Kubo, Y. , Watanabe, A. , Kato, K. , Motomura, C. , and Nogami, C. 1989. Comparison between field
observation and wind tunnel tests of PC cable-stayed bridge during erection. Canada-Japan Workshop on
Bridge Aerodynamics, Ottawa, publ. Nat. Res. Counc. of Canada.
Melbourne, W.H. , 1979. Model and full scale response to wind action of the cable-stayed box girder West Gate
Bridge. IAHR/IUTAM Symp. on Flow Induced Vibr., Karlesruhe.
Miyata, T. , Yamada, H. , Yokoyama, K. , Iijima, T. , Tastumi, M. , and Kanazaki, T. 1991. Construction of a
boundary layer wind tunnel for long span bridges. 8th Int. Conf. on Wind Eng., London, Ont.
Olivari, D. and Thiry, F. 1975. Wind tunnel tests of the aeroelastic stability of the Heer-Agimont Bridge. von
Karman Inst. for Fluid Dyn., Belgium, Tech. Note No. 113.
Sakai, Y. and Ogawa, K. 1989. A study of a long span cable-stayed bridge during erection. Canada-Japan
Workshop on Bridge Aerodynamics, Ottawa, publ. Nat. Res. Counc. of Canada.
Scanlan, R.H. 1975. Theory of the wind analysis of long-span bridges based on data obtainable from section
model tests. Proc. 4th Int. Conf. on Wind Effects on Bldgs & Structs, Heathrow, publ. Cambr. Univ. Press,
pp.259269.
Scanlan, R.H. 1978. The action of flexible bridges under wind. I Flutter theory; II -Buffeting Theory, J. Sound
and Vibration, 60 (2) pp. 187211.
Scanlan, R.H. 1992. Analytical methods and their implementation. ISALB 92 Symposium on Aerodynamics of
large bridges. Copenhagen. publ. Balkema.
Scruton., C. , 1952. An experimental investigation of the aerodynamic stability of suspension bridges with
special reference to the proposed Severn Bridge. Proc. Inst. Civ. Engrs. 1, (1), 189.
Wagh, V.P. , and Chi, G.H. 1991. Wind tunnel testing of the steel alternate of the Chesapeake and Delaware
Canal Bridge, 8th Int. Conf. on Wind Eng., London, Ont.
Wardlaw, R.L. , and Zan, S.J. 1989. A wind tunnel investigation of the Theodore Roosevelt Lake steel arch
bridge. Canada-Japan Workshop on Bridge Aerodynamics, Ottawa, publ. Nat. Res. Counc. of Canada.
Xiang, H. , Xie, J. , and Lin, Z. 1987. Aerodynamic study on a proposed cable-stayed bridge in Shanghai,
China. Proc. 7th Int. Conf. on Wind Engineering, Aachen.
Zan, S.J. , Yamada, H. , and Tanaka, H. 1986. The influence of turbulence and deck section geometry on the
behaviour of a cable-stayed bridge model. Nat. Res. Council of Canada, Ottawa, Report NRC No.26190.

A new wide boundary layer wind tunnel at the Danish Maritime Institute
Hansen, S.O. , E.G. Srensen . A new boundary-layer wind tunnel at the Danish Maritime Institute. Journal of
Wind Eng. and Industrial Aerodynamics, 18 (1985) p 213224.
Reinhold, T.A. , M. Brinch , Aa. Damsgaard . Wind-tunnel tests for the Great Belt Link. ISALB 92, Copenhagen,
Denmark, 1992.
Multisensor Data Fusion Showcases Advancements
Abdel-Ghaffar, A.M. , Scanlan, R.H. , Diehl, J. 1984. Full scale ambient vibration measurements of the Golden
Gate Bridge. Proc. 9th WCEE, Vol. 6, San Francisco.
Brancaleoni, F. , Brotton, D.M. 1981. Analysis and prevention of suspension bridge flutter in construction. Earth.
Eng. Struct. Dyn., 9, 489500.
Brancaleoni, F. , Brotton, D.M. 1984. The Rle of time integration in suspension bridge dynamics. Int. J. Num.
Methods in Eng., Vol. 20, 715732.
Brancaleoni, F. , Diana, G. , Cheli, F. 1988. Behaviour of long span suspension bridges in construction. Proc.
XIII IABSE Congress, Helsinki.
Brownjohn, J.M.W. , Chandru, R. , Dumanoglu, A.A. , Taylor, C.A. 1986. Ambient vibration testing of the
Humber Suspension Bridge. Report, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Bristol.
Curami, A. , Falco, M. 1982. The dynamic behaviour of a large suspension bridge Part II: Dynamic response to
turbulent wind. Costr. Metalliche, n. 2.
Davenport, A.G. 1966. The action of the wind on suspension bridges, Proc. of Int. Symp. on Suspension
Bridges. Lab. Nac. de Engenh. Civil, Lisboa.
Davenport, A.G. , Isyumov, N. , Miyata, T. 1971. The experimental determination of the response of suspension
bridges to turbulent wind. Proc. Int. Conf. Wind Effects on Buildings and Structures, Tokyo.
Davenport, A.G. 1976. The experimental determination of the response of bridges to natural wind. Proc. of II
Usa-Japan Research Seminar on Wind effects on Structures, Tokyo.
158 Davenport, A.G. , Larose, G. 1989. The structural damping of long span bridges: an interpretations of
observations. Proc. of the Canada-Japan Workshop on Bridge Aerodynamics, Ottawa.
Diana, G. , Falco, M. , Gasparetto, M. 1977. On the flutter instability of a suspension bridge using the finite
element method. Proc. A.S.M.E. Conf., Paper n.77-DET-140, Chicago.
Diana, G. , Falco, M. , Gasparetto, M. , Curami, A. , Pizzigoni, B. , Cheli, F. 1986. Wind effects on the dynamic
behaviour of a suspension bridge. Report, Dipartimento di Meccanica, Politecnico di Milano.
Diana, G. , Falco, M. 1990. Analytical and experimental investigation on a long span suspension bridge under
wind action (in italian). Proc. 1st Italian Conference on Wind Engineering IN-VENTO-90, Florence.
Gimsing, N.J. 1983. Cable supported bridges. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Irwin, H.P. 1977. Wind tunnel and analytical investigations of the response of Lions Gate Bridge to a turbulent
wind. N.R.C., Canada, LTR-LA 210.
Larsen, A. , 1992. The Great Belt experience: aerodynamic design. In this volume.
NMI, 1977. Reports on the aerodynamic stability of the Humber Bridge in erection conditions, NMI, 89/0353 and
89/0361.
Ohashi, M. , et alii 1988. Considerations for wind effects on a 1990 m main span suspension bridge. Proc. XIII
IABSE Congress, Helsinki.
Scanlan, R.H. , Tomko, J.J. 1971. AirFoil and bridge deck flutter derivatives. ASCE J. of Eng.Mech.Div., V. 97.
Scanlan, R. H. , 1979. On the state of stability considerations for suspended-span bridges under wind. Proc.
Symp. on Practical Experiences with Flow-Induced Vibrations, Karlsruhe.
Smith, I.P. 1964. The aero-elastic stability of the Severn Suspension Bridge, Report, NPL/ Aero/1105.
Stretto di Messina Inc., 1986. Feasibility Report for the Messina Straits Crossing (in italian), Rome.
Theodorsen, T. 1934. General theory of aerodynamic instability and the mechanism of flutter, NACA Tech. Rep.
n. 496.
Walshe, D.E. 1965. A Resum of the aerodynamic investigations for the Forth Road and the Severn Bridges. J.
English Inst. Civil Eng., 7001, 87108.
Walshe, D.E. , Cowdrey, C.F. 1972. A further aerodynamic investigation for the proposed Humber Suspension
Bridge, NPL Mar. Sci. Report, R102.
Yamaguchi, T. et al. 1971. Aerodynamic stability of suspension bridges under erection. Proc. Conf. Wind
Effects on Build. and Struct., Tokyo.
Baker, C.J. 1991. Ground vehicles in high crosswinds (3 parts). J. Fluids and Structures, 5, pp 6990, 91111,
221241.
Baker, C.J. & Reynolds, S. pub.pending 1991. Wind induced accidents of road vehicles, Accident analysis and
prevention.
British Standard BS 5400, 1978. Steel, concrete and composite bridges: Part 2, Specification for Loads. BSI,
London.
British Standard BS 8100, 1986. Lattice towers and masts: Part 1, Loading. BSI, London.
Brown, C.D. , Christensen, O. , Hay, J.S. , Simpson, A.G. , & Wyatt, T.A. 1981 Discussion of Session 2, Bridge
Aerodynamics, TTL, London, 9798.
Coleman, S.A. & Baker, C.J. pub.pending 1991. The reduction of accident risk for high sided road vehicles in
cross winds, 8th Int. Conf. Wind Engineering, JWEIA.
Cowdrey, C.F. 1971,1972. Time average aerodynamic forces on bridges. NPL Reports, Aero 1327 (1971) and
Mar.Sci. 172.
Cowdrey, C.F. & Whitbread, R.E. 1976. Reduction of wind forces on high-sided vehicles on motorway bridges
using barriers of uniform density. NPL Report Mar.Sci.R.149
Department of Transport; 1979. Papers of the Aerodynamics Research Panel (unpublished), letters from Avon
County Police and the Forth Road Bridge Joint Board.
Department of Transport; 1981. Proposed Design Rules, Bridge Aerodynamics, pub. as preface Bridge
Aerodynamics, TTL, 320.
Department of Transport consultants report 1986. Study of Second Severn Crossing: final report. HMSO
London.
Flint, A.R. & Smith, B.W. 1992. The Severn Bridge strengthening; background research and development,
Proc. Inst. Civil Engrs. (Structures & Building) I. 1.
Head, P.R. & Churchman, A.E. 1989. Design specification and manufacture of a pultruded composite flooring
system. Proc. Symp. Mass Production Composites, London, Imperial College.
Head, P.R. 1991 (Sept.) The performance of bridge systems; the next frontier for design and assessment. The
Structural Engineer, 69, 17.
House of Commons, 1987. Special Report of the Select Committee on the Dartford-Thurrock Crossing Bill,
(espec. Vol I p 3740) HMSO London.
Irwin, P.A. & Stone, G.K. 1989. Aerodynamic improvements for plate-girder bridges. Proc. ASCE Structures
Congress (San Francisco).
New Civil Engineer, 1988, Editorial news item, London 18 February.
Pritchard, R. 1985. Wind effects on high-sided vehicles, Highways & Transportation, 32, 4. 2225.
Richardson, J.R. 1981. The development of the concept of the twin suspension bridge. NMI (UK) Report R.125.
Rose, M.J. 1973. The MIRA crosswind generator, Proc. I.Mech.E. Auto. Divn. 187.
Rose, M.J. & Bevan, B.G. 1989. Roadside windshielding to reduce vehicle overturning accidents in crosswinds.
Proc. Autotech 1989, paper C.399/2, Inst.Mech.E.
Simpson, A.C. , Curtis, D.J. & Choi, Y.-C. 1981. Aeroelastic aspects of the Lan Tau fixed crossing. Bridge
Aerodynamics. TTL, London. 109114.
Smith, B.W. & Wyatt, T.A. 1981. Development of the draft rules for aerodynamic stability. Bridge Aerodynamics,
TTL 3348.
Walshe, D.E. , Whitbread, R.E. & Elliott A.M. Aerodynamic stability measurements on sectional models of some
representative box girder bridges. NPL Reports Mar. Sci. R127 (1975), Mar. Sci. R146 (1976), also two further
reports of the National Maritime Institute 1976, unpublished.
Walshe, D.E. 1981. Some effects of turbulence on fluctuating and time-average forces on sectional models of
box girder bridges. Bridge Aerodynamics. TTL, 6172.
Whitbread, R.E. 1968. On the introduction of turbulence into wind-tunnel investigations for the determination of
wind-induced amplitudes of oscillation. Proc. Simp. Wind Effects on Buildings and Structures, Loughborough.
Wyatt, T.A. & Scruton, C. 1981. A brief survey of the aerodynamic stability problems of bridges, Bridge
Aerodynamics TTL, London 2132.
Wyatt, T.A. 1991. The dynamic behaviour of cable-stayed bridges: fundamentals and parametric studies.
Cable-stayed bridges recent developments and their future. Elsevier.
KlPPEL, K. and Thiele, F. : Wind Tunnel Model Tests for the Sizing of Bridges against Wind Excited
Oscillations. Der Stahlbau 36, Volume 12, p. 353 to (in German)
Starossek, U. : On the Load-bearing Behavior of Cable-Stayed Bridges under Dynamic Wind Loads.
Dissertation at University of Stuttgart, 1991. (in German)
Simiu, E. and SCanlan, R.H. : Wind Effects on Structures. John Wiley Sons, New York, 1986.
Leonhardt, Andra und Partner , Kovacs, I. : Structural Dynamics. Stuttgart, 1989.
Leonhardt, F. and Zellner, W. : Past, Present and Future of Cable-Stayed Bridges. ASCE, Journal of Structural
Engineering, 1992.
Davenport, A.G. and King, J.P.C. : Dynamic Wind Forces of Long-Span Bridges. Final Report, 12th Congress,
International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, Vancouver, BC, September 1984,705712.
Irwin, H.P.A.H. : Wind Tunnel and Analytical Investigations of the Response of Lions Gate Bridge to a Trubulent
Wind. National Research Council of Canada, NAE-LTR-LA-210, June 1977.
Zan, S.J. : Analytical Prediction of the Erection Phase Response of the St. Johns River Cable-Stayed Bridge to
a Turbulent Wind. National Research Council of Canada, NAE-LTR-LA-303, September 1987.
Scanlan, R.H. : On Flutter and Buffeting Mechanisms in Longspan Bridges. Probabilistic Engineering
Mechanics, 1988.
Kovacs, I. , Svensson, H.S. and Jordet, E. : Analytical Aerodynamic Investigation of the Cable-Stayed
Helgeland Bridge. ASCE, Journal of Structural Engineering, Jan., 1992.
Engineering Sciences Data Unit (ESDU) No. 74031 (1974). Characteristic of Atmospheric Turbulence near the
Ground. Single Point Data for Strong Winds. London, 1974.
Engineering Sciences Data Unit (ESDU) No. 86010 (1986). Characteristic of Atmospheric Turbulence near the
Ground. Variations in Space and Time for Strong Winds. London, 1986.
Virlogeux, M. , J.-C. Foucriat & B. Deroubaix . Design of the Normandie cable-stayed Bridge near Honfleur.
Proc. of the Int. Conf. on Cable-stayed bridges. Bangkok, November 1987.
Deroubaix, B. , A. Demare & R. Lavou . Le Pont de Normandie.Travaux, April, 1989 & July, 1990.
Virlogeux, M. Design and Construction of the Normandie Bridge. Innovation in cable-stayed bridges. Proc. of
the Int. Conf. Fukuoka, April 1991.
T. Miyata , I. Okauchi , N. Shiraishi , N. Narita and T. Narahira , Preliminary design considerations for wind
effects on a very long-span suspension bridge, Proc. 7th Int. Conf. Wind Eng.(Aachen), 1987.
M. Ohashi , T. Miyata , I. Okauchi , N. Shiraishi and N. Narita , Considerations for wind effects on a l,990m-
main span suspension bridge, Prerept. 13 th Congress IABSE (Helsinki), 1988.
T. Miyata , H. Yamada and H. Akiyama , Codification of wind effects for a long span suspension bridge, Rep.
Structural Design, Analysis & Testing, Proc. Structures Cong. 89, ASCE (San Francisco), 1989.
T. Miyata and H. Yamada , Coupled flutter estimate of a suspension bridge, J. Wind Eng. & Ind. Aero., 33,
1990.
T. Miyata , H. Matsumoto and M. Yasuda , Circumstances of wind resistant design examination for very long
suspension bridge, Proc. 8th Int. Conf. Wind Eng.(London, Ont.), 1991.
T. Miyata , H. Yamada , K. Yokoyama , T. Kanazaki , T. Iijima and M. Tatsumi , Construction of boundary layer
wind tunnel for long-span bridges, Proc. 8th Int. Conf. Wind Eng.(London, Ont.), 1991.
Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority, Wind resistant design code for Honshu-Shikoku bridges(1976).
Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority, Wind tunnel testing manual for Honshu-Shikoku bridges(1980).
Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority, Wind resistant design code for Akashi Kaikyo Bridge(1990).
G. Diana , M. Falco , M. Gasparetto , A. Curami , B. Pizzigoni and F. Cheli , Wind effects on the dynamic
behaviour of a suspension bridge, Politec. of Milan, Dept. of Mechanics, Jan. 1986.
N.J. Gimsing , Extreme span suspension bridges structural systems, Final Rept. 12th Cong.
IABSE(Vancouver), 1984.
J.R. Richardson , Influence of aerodynamic stability on the design of bridges, Final Rept. 12th Cong.
IABSE(Vancouver), 1984; The development of the concept of the twin suspension bridge, NMI Rept.125, 1981.
A.G. Simpson , D.J. Curtis and Y.-L. Choi , Aeroelastic aspects of the Lantau Fixed Crossing / Discussion in
Session 3-Design, Bridge Aerodynamics, TTL London, 1981.
ECCS 1987 (European Conventional for Constructional Steelwork). Recommendations for calculating the
effects of wind on constructions. (Design Code Recommendations)
British Design Rules for Bridge Aerodynamics. (Design Code Recommendations).

The construction phase and its aerodynamic issues


Abdel-Ghaffar, A.M. , Scanlan, R.H. , Diehl, J. 1984. Full scale ambient vibration measurements of the Golden
Gate Bridge. Proc. 9th WCEE, Vol. 6, San Francisco.
Brancaleoni, F. , Brotton, D.M. 1981. Analysis and prevention of suspension bridge flutter in construction. Earth.
Eng. Struct. Dyn., 9, 489500.
Brancaleoni, F. , Brotton, D.M. 1984. The Rle of time integration in suspension bridge dynamics. Int. J. Num.
Methods in Eng., Vol. 20, 715732.
Brancaleoni, F. , Diana, G. , Cheli, F. 1988. Behaviour of long span suspension bridges in construction. Proc.
XIII IABSE Congress, Helsinki.
Brownjohn, J.M.W. , Chandru, R. , Dumanoglu, A.A. , Taylor, C.A. 1986. Ambient vibration testing of the
Humber Suspension Bridge. Report, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Bristol.
Curami, A. , Falco, M. 1982. The dynamic behaviour of a large suspension bridge Part II: Dynamic response to
turbulent wind. Costr. Metalliche, n. 2.
Davenport, A.G. 1966. The action of the wind on suspension bridges, Proc. of Int. Symp. on Suspension
Bridges. Lab. Nac. de Engenh. Civil, Lisboa.
Davenport, A.G. , Isyumov, N. , Miyata, T. 1971. The experimental determination of the response of suspension
bridges to turbulent wind. Proc. Int. Conf. Wind Effects on Buildings and Structures, Tokyo.
Davenport, A.G. 1976. The experimental determination of the response of bridges to natural wind. Proc. of II
Usa-Japan Research Seminar on Wind effects on Structures, Tokyo.
158 Davenport, A.G. , Larose, G. 1989. The structural damping of long span bridges: an interpretations of
observations. Proc. of the Canada-Japan Workshop on Bridge Aerodynamics, Ottawa.
Diana, G. , Falco, M. , Gasparetto, M. 1977. On the flutter instability of a suspension bridge using the finite
element method. Proc. A.S.M.E. Conf., Paper n.77-DET-140, Chicago.
Diana, G. , Falco, M. , Gasparetto, M. , Curami, A. , Pizzigoni, B. , Cheli, F. 1986. Wind effects on the dynamic
behaviour of a suspension bridge. Report, Dipartimento di Meccanica, Politecnico di Milano.
Diana, G. , Falco, M. 1990. Analytical and experimental investigation on a long span suspension bridge under
wind action (in italian). Proc. 1st Italian Conference on Wind Engineering IN-VENTO-90, Florence.
Gimsing, N.J. 1983. Cable supported bridges. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Irwin, H.P. 1977. Wind tunnel and analytical investigations of the response of Lions Gate Bridge to a turbulent
wind. N.R.C., Canada, LTR-LA 210.
Larsen, A. , 1992. The Great Belt experience: aerodynamic design. In this volume.
NMI, 1977. Reports on the aerodynamic stability of the Humber Bridge in erection conditions, NMI, 89/0353 and
89/0361.
Ohashi, M. , et alii 1988. Considerations for wind effects on a 1990 m main span suspension bridge. Proc. XIII
IABSE Congress, Helsinki.
Scanlan, R.H. , Tomko, J.J. 1971. AirFoil and bridge deck flutter derivatives. ASCE J. of Eng.Mech.Div., V. 97.
Scanlan, R. H. , 1979. On the state of stability considerations for suspended-span bridges under wind. Proc.
Symp. on Practical Experiences with Flow-Induced Vibrations, Karlsruhe.
Smith, I.P. 1964. The aero-elastic stability of the Severn Suspension Bridge, Report, NPL/ Aero/1105.
Stretto di Messina Inc., 1986. Feasibility Report for the Messina Straits Crossing (in italian), Rome.
Theodorsen, T. 1934. General theory of aerodynamic instability and the mechanism of flutter, NACA Tech. Rep.
n. 496.
Walshe, D.E. 1965. A Resum of the aerodynamic investigations for the Forth Road and the Severn Bridges. J.
English Inst. Civil Eng., 7001, 87108.
Walshe, D.E. , Cowdrey, C.F. 1972. A further aerodynamic investigation for the proposed Humber Suspension
Bridge, NPL Mar. Sci. Report, R102.
Yamaguchi, T. et al. 1971. Aerodynamic stability of suspension bridges under erection. Proc. Conf. Wind
Effects on Build. and Struct., Tokyo.

Recent British developments: Windshielding of bridges for traffic


Baker, C.J. 1991. Ground vehicles in high crosswinds (3 parts). J. Fluids and Structures, 5, pp 6990, 91111,
221241.
Baker, C.J. & Reynolds, S. pub.pending 1991. Wind induced accidents of road vehicles, Accident analysis and
prevention.
British Standard BS 5400, 1978. Steel, concrete and composite bridges: Part 2, Specification for Loads. BSI,
London.
British Standard BS 8100, 1986. Lattice towers and masts: Part 1, Loading. BSI, London.
Brown, C.D. , Christensen, O. , Hay, J.S. , Simpson, A.G. , & Wyatt, T.A. 1981 Discussion of Session 2, Bridge
Aerodynamics, TTL, London, 9798.
Coleman, S.A. & Baker, C.J. pub.pending 1991. The reduction of accident risk for high sided road vehicles in
cross winds, 8th Int. Conf. Wind Engineering, JWEIA.
Cowdrey, C.F. 1971,1972. Time average aerodynamic forces on bridges. NPL Reports, Aero 1327 (1971) and
Mar.Sci. 172.
Cowdrey, C.F. & Whitbread, R.E. 1976. Reduction of wind forces on high-sided vehicles on motorway bridges
using barriers of uniform density. NPL Report Mar.Sci.R.149
Department of Transport; 1979. Papers of the Aerodynamics Research Panel (unpublished), letters from Avon
County Police and the Forth Road Bridge Joint Board.
Department of Transport; 1981. Proposed Design Rules, Bridge Aerodynamics, pub. as preface Bridge
Aerodynamics, TTL, 320.
Department of Transport consultants report 1986. Study of Second Severn Crossing: final report. HMSO
London.
Flint, A.R. & Smith, B.W. 1992. The Severn Bridge strengthening; background research and development,
Proc. Inst. Civil Engrs. (Structures & Building) I. 1.
Head, P.R. & Churchman, A.E. 1989. Design specification and manufacture of a pultruded composite flooring
system. Proc. Symp. Mass Production Composites, London, Imperial College.
Head, P.R. 1991 (Sept.) The performance of bridge systems; the next frontier for design and assessment. The
Structural Engineer, 69, 17.
House of Commons, 1987. Special Report of the Select Committee on the Dartford-Thurrock Crossing Bill,
(espec. Vol I p 3740) HMSO London.
Irwin, P.A. & Stone, G.K. 1989. Aerodynamic improvements for plate-girder bridges. Proc. ASCE Structures
Congress (San Francisco).
New Civil Engineer, 1988, Editorial news item, London 18 February.
Pritchard, R. 1985. Wind effects on high-sided vehicles, Highways & Transportation, 32, 4. 2225.
Richardson, J.R. 1981. The development of the concept of the twin suspension bridge. NMI (UK) Report R.125.
Rose, M.J. 1973. The MIRA crosswind generator, Proc. I.Mech.E. Auto. Divn. 187.
Rose, M.J. & Bevan, B.G. 1989. Roadside windshielding to reduce vehicle overturning accidents in crosswinds.
Proc. Autotech 1989, paper C.399/2, Inst.Mech.E.
Simpson, A.C. , Curtis, D.J. & Choi, Y.-C. 1981. Aeroelastic aspects of the Lan Tau fixed crossing. Bridge
Aerodynamics. TTL, London. 109114.
Smith, B.W. & Wyatt, T.A. 1981. Development of the draft rules for aerodynamic stability. Bridge Aerodynamics,
TTL 3348.
Walshe, D.E. , Whitbread, R.E. & Elliott A.M. Aerodynamic stability measurements on sectional models of some
representative box girder bridges. NPL Reports Mar. Sci. R127 (1975), Mar. Sci. R146 (1976), also two further
reports of the National Maritime Institute 1976, unpublished.
Walshe, D.E. 1981. Some effects of turbulence on fluctuating and time-average forces on sectional models of
box girder bridges. Bridge Aerodynamics. TTL, 6172.
Whitbread, R.E. 1968. On the introduction of turbulence into wind-tunnel investigations for the determination of
wind-induced amplitudes of oscillation. Proc. Simp. Wind Effects on Buildings and Structures, Loughborough.
Wyatt, T.A. & Scruton, C. 1981. A brief survey of the aerodynamic stability problems of bridges, Bridge
Aerodynamics TTL, London 2132.
Wyatt, T.A. 1991. The dynamic behaviour of cable-stayed bridges: fundamentals and parametric studies.
Cable-stayed bridges recent developments and their future. Elsevier.
Examples of analytical aerodynamic investigations of long-span bridges
KlPPEL, K. and Thiele, F. : Wind Tunnel Model Tests for the Sizing of Bridges against Wind Excited
Oscillations. Der Stahlbau 36, Volume 12, p. 353 to (in German)
Starossek, U. : On the Load-bearing Behavior of Cable-Stayed Bridges under Dynamic Wind Loads.
Dissertation at University of Stuttgart, 1991. (in German)
Simiu, E. and SCanlan, R.H. : Wind Effects on Structures. John Wiley Sons, New York, 1986.
Leonhardt, Andra und Partner , Kovacs, I. : Structural Dynamics. Stuttgart, 1989.
Leonhardt, F. and Zellner, W. : Past, Present and Future of Cable-Stayed Bridges. ASCE, Journal of Structural
Engineering, 1992.
Davenport, A.G. and King, J.P.C. : Dynamic Wind Forces of Long-Span Bridges. Final Report, 12th Congress,
International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, Vancouver, BC, September 1984,705712.
Irwin, H.P.A.H. : Wind Tunnel and Analytical Investigations of the Response of Lions Gate Bridge to a Trubulent
Wind. National Research Council of Canada, NAE-LTR-LA-210, June 1977.
Zan, S.J. : Analytical Prediction of the Erection Phase Response of the St. Johns River Cable-Stayed Bridge to
a Turbulent Wind. National Research Council of Canada, NAE-LTR-LA-303, September 1987.
Scanlan, R.H. : On Flutter and Buffeting Mechanisms in Longspan Bridges. Probabilistic Engineering
Mechanics, 1988.
Kovacs, I. , Svensson, H.S. and Jordet, E. : Analytical Aerodynamic Investigation of the Cable-Stayed
Helgeland Bridge. ASCE, Journal of Structural Engineering, Jan., 1992.
Engineering Sciences Data Unit (ESDU) No. 74031 (1974). Characteristic of Atmospheric Turbulence near the
Ground. Single Point Data for Strong Winds. London, 1974.
Engineering Sciences Data Unit (ESDU) No. 86010 (1986). Characteristic of Atmospheric Turbulence near the
Ground. Variations in Space and Time for Strong Winds. London, 1986.

Wind design and analysis for the Normandy Bridge


Virlogeux, M. , J.-C. Foucriat & B. Deroubaix . Design of the Normandie cable-stayed Bridge near Honfleur.
Proc. of the Int. Conf. on Cable-stayed bridges. Bangkok, November 1987.
Deroubaix, B. , A. Demare & R. Lavou . Le Pont de Normandie.Travaux, April, 1989 & July, 1990.
Virlogeux, M. Design and Construction of the Normandie Bridge. Innovation in cable-stayed bridges. Proc. of
the Int. Conf. Fukuoka, April 1991.

Akashi Kaikyo Bridge: Wind effects and full model wind tunnel tests
T. Miyata , I. Okauchi , N. Shiraishi , N. Narita and T. Narahira , Preliminary design considerations for wind
effects on a very long-span suspension bridge, Proc. 7th Int. Conf. Wind Eng.(Aachen), 1987.
M. Ohashi , T. Miyata , I. Okauchi , N. Shiraishi and N. Narita , Considerations for wind effects on a l,990m-
main span suspension bridge, Prerept. 13 th Congress IABSE (Helsinki), 1988.
T. Miyata , H. Yamada and H. Akiyama , Codification of wind effects for a long span suspension bridge, Rep.
Structural Design, Analysis & Testing, Proc. Structures Cong. 89, ASCE (San Francisco), 1989.
T. Miyata and H. Yamada , Coupled flutter estimate of a suspension bridge, J. Wind Eng. & Ind. Aero., 33,
1990.
T. Miyata , H. Matsumoto and M. Yasuda , Circumstances of wind resistant design examination for very long
suspension bridge, Proc. 8th Int. Conf. Wind Eng.(London, Ont.), 1991.
T. Miyata , H. Yamada , K. Yokoyama , T. Kanazaki , T. Iijima and M. Tatsumi , Construction of boundary layer
wind tunnel for long-span bridges, Proc. 8th Int. Conf. Wind Eng.(London, Ont.), 1991.
Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority, Wind resistant design code for Honshu-Shikoku bridges(1976).
Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority, Wind tunnel testing manual for Honshu-Shikoku bridges(1980).
Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority, Wind resistant design code for Akashi Kaikyo Bridge(1990).
G. Diana , M. Falco , M. Gasparetto , A. Curami , B. Pizzigoni and F. Cheli , Wind effects on the dynamic
behaviour of a suspension bridge, Politec. of Milan, Dept. of Mechanics, Jan. 1986.
N.J. Gimsing , Extreme span suspension bridges structural systems, Final Rept. 12th Cong.
IABSE(Vancouver), 1984.
J.R. Richardson , Influence of aerodynamic stability on the design of bridges, Final Rept. 12th Cong.
IABSE(Vancouver), 1984; The development of the concept of the twin suspension bridge, NMI Rept.125, 1981.
A.G. Simpson , D.J. Curtis and Y.-L. Choi , Aeroelastic aspects of the Lantau Fixed Crossing / Discussion in
Session 3-Design, Bridge Aerodynamics, TTL London, 1981.
The bi-stayed bridge concept: Overview of wind engineering problems
ECCS 1987 (European Conventional for Constructional Steelwork). Recommendations for calculating the
effects of wind on constructions. (Design Code Recommendations)
British Design Rules for Bridge Aerodynamics. (Design Code Recommendations).

Great Belt experience


Larsen, S.E. , M.S. Courtney , F. Aa . Hansen, J. Hjstrup and N.O. Jensen . Power spectra and turbulence
intensity 70 metres above the water surface of the Great Belt. RIS0 National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark,
RIS0-M-2898, January 1991 (draft).
ESDU 86010: Characteristics of atmospheric turbulence near the ground, part III: Variations in space and time
for strong winds (neutral atmosphere). Engineering Sciences Data Unit, London, England, 1986.
Scanlan, R.H. State-of-the-art methods for calculating flutter, vortex-induced and buffeting response of bridge
structures. Federal Highway Administration Report FHWA/RD-80/050, Washington, D.C., April, 1981.
Poulsen, N.K. , Aa. Damsgaard and T.A. Rein-hold . Determination of flutter derivatives for the Great Belt
Bridge. Paper for Int. Conference in London Ontario.
King, J.P.C. , Larose G.L. and A.G. Davenport . A study of wind effects for the Storeblt Bridge Tender Design,
Denmark. The University of Western Ontario, London, Canada, BLWT-IR-S67-1, December 1990 (draft).
Reinhold, T.A. , A. Larsen , Aa. Damsgaard and E. Svensson . Integrated physical and analytical model studies
for predicting the stability and dynamic response of suspension bridges in strong winds. Proceedings of
International Workshop on Technology for Hong Kongs Infrastructure Development, Hong Kong University of
Science and Technology, Hong Kong, December, 1991.
Brancaleoni, F. 1992. The Construction Phase and its Aerodynamic Issues. Proc. Int. Symp. on Aerodynamics
of Large Bridges. Balkena: Rotterdam.
Davenport, A.G. 1967. Gust Loading Factors. Journ. Struct. Div. ASCE, Vol. 93: 1134
Davenport, A.G. & King, J.C. P. 1984. Dynamic Wind Forces on Long Span Bridges Using Equivalent Static
Loads. IABSE Symposium Vancouver B.C., Canada.
Davenport, A.G. , King, J.P.C. & Larose, G.L. 1992. Taut Strip Model Tests. Proc. Int. Symp. on Aerodynamics
of Large Bridges. Balkena: Rotterdam.
Holmes, J.D. 1978. Monte Carlo Simulation of the Wind Induced Response of a Cable-Stayed Bridge. Wind
Engineering Report 2/78. James Cook Univ. North Queensland, Australia.
Jensen, M. & Franck N. 1970. The Climate of Strong Winds in Denmark. Teknisk Forlag, Kbenhavn.
Jensen, N.O. , Mann, J. & Kristensen, L. 1992. Aspects of the Natural Wind of relevance to Large Bridges.
Proc. Int. Symp. on Aerodynamics of Large Bridges. Balkena: Rotterdam.
Madsen, H.O. 1992. Wind Criteria for Long Span Bridges. ibid.
Miyata, T. , Yokoyama, K. , Yasuda, M. & Hikami, Y. 1992. Wind Effects and Full Model Wind Tunnel Tests.
ibid.
Reinhold, T.A. , Brinch, M. & Damsgaard, Aa. 1992. Wind Tunnel tests for the Great Belt Link. ibid.
Scanlan, R. H. , 1992. Wind Dynamics of Long-Span Bridges. ibid.
Selberg, A. Hjort-Hansen, E. 1976. The Fate of Flat Plate Aerodynamics in the World of Bridge Decks. The
Theodorsen Colloquium: 101113. Oslo, Norway.
Svensson, H. & Kovacs, I. 1992. Examples of Analytical Aerodynamic Investigations of Long-Span Bridges.
Proc. Int. Symp. on Aerodynamics of Large Bridges. Balkena: Rotterdam.
Tilly, G.P. 1977. Dynamic Response of Bridges. Symp. on Dynamic Behaviour of Bridges. TRRL Supp. Report
275, Berkshire.
Wagner Smitt, L. & Brinch, M. 1992. The New Wide Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel at DMI. Proc. Int. Symp. on
Aerodynamics of Large Bridges. Balkena: Rotterdam.
J. Bay , S. Spangenberg , N.H. Olsen and P.T. Pedersen (1991). Ship simulations as an integrated part of the
design process for bridges crossing waterways, Proc. Intern. Conf. PIANC, Oslo
Danish Maritime Institute (1991) Manoeuvring simulations, resund KM 4.2 Evaluation report No. 1 (in Danish),
for DSB, Dept. of Transport and Great Belt Link Ltd. (Confidential).

Wind tunnel tests for the Great Belt Link


Larsen, S.E. , M.S. Courtney , F. Aa . Hansen, J. Hjstrup and N.O. Jensen . Power spectra and turbulence
intensity 70 metres above the water surface of the Great Belt. RIS0 National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark,
RIS0-M-2898, January 1991 (draft).
ESDU 86010: Characteristics of atmospheric turbulence near the ground, part III: Variations in space and time
for strong winds (neutral atmosphere). Engineering Sciences Data Unit, London, England, 1986.
Scanlan, R.H. State-of-the-art methods for calculating flutter, vortex-induced and buffeting response of bridge
structures. Federal Highway Administration Report FHWA/RD-80/050, Washington, D.C., April, 1981.
Poulsen, N.K. , Aa. Damsgaard and T.A. Rein-hold . Determination of flutter derivatives for the Great Belt
Bridge. Paper for Int. Conference in London Ontario.
King, J.P.C. , Larose G.L. and A.G. Davenport . A study of wind effects for the Storeblt Bridge Tender Design,
Denmark. The University of Western Ontario, London, Canada, BLWT-IR-S67-1, December 1990 (draft).
Reinhold, T.A. , A. Larsen , Aa. Damsgaard and E. Svensson . Integrated physical and analytical model studies
for predicting the stability and dynamic response of suspension bridges in strong winds. Proceedings of
International Workshop on Technology for Hong Kongs Infrastructure Development, Hong Kong University of
Science and Technology, Hong Kong, December, 1991.

Aerodynamic design of the Great Belt East Bridge


Brancaleoni, F. 1992. The Construction Phase and its Aerodynamic Issues. Proc. Int. Symp. on Aerodynamics
of Large Bridges. Balkena: Rotterdam.
Davenport, A.G. 1967. Gust Loading Factors. Journ. Struct. Div. ASCE, Vol. 93: 1134
Davenport, A.G. & King, J.C. P. 1984. Dynamic Wind Forces on Long Span Bridges Using Equivalent Static
Loads. IABSE Symposium Vancouver B.C., Canada.
Davenport, A.G. , King, J.P.C. & Larose, G.L. 1992. Taut Strip Model Tests. Proc. Int. Symp. on Aerodynamics
of Large Bridges. Balkena: Rotterdam.
Holmes, J.D. 1978. Monte Carlo Simulation of the Wind Induced Response of a Cable-Stayed Bridge. Wind
Engineering Report 2/78. James Cook Univ. North Queensland, Australia.
Jensen, M. & Franck N. 1970. The Climate of Strong Winds in Denmark. Teknisk Forlag, Kbenhavn.
Jensen, N.O. , Mann, J. & Kristensen, L. 1992. Aspects of the Natural Wind of relevance to Large Bridges.
Proc. Int. Symp. on Aerodynamics of Large Bridges. Balkena: Rotterdam.
Madsen, H.O. 1992. Wind Criteria for Long Span Bridges. ibid.
Miyata, T. , Yokoyama, K. , Yasuda, M. & Hikami, Y. 1992. Wind Effects and Full Model Wind Tunnel Tests.
ibid.
Reinhold, T.A. , Brinch, M. & Damsgaard, Aa. 1992. Wind Tunnel tests for the Great Belt Link. ibid.
Scanlan, R. H. , 1992. Wind Dynamics of Long-Span Bridges. ibid.
Selberg, A. Hjort-Hansen, E. 1976. The Fate of Flat Plate Aerodynamics in the World of Bridge Decks. The
Theodorsen Colloquium: 101113. Oslo, Norway.
Svensson, H. & Kovacs, I. 1992. Examples of Analytical Aerodynamic Investigations of Long-Span Bridges.
Proc. Int. Symp. on Aerodynamics of Large Bridges. Balkena: Rotterdam.
Tilly, G.P. 1977. Dynamic Response of Bridges. Symp. on Dynamic Behaviour of Bridges. TRRL Supp. Report
275, Berkshire.
Wagner Smitt, L. & Brinch, M. 1992. The New Wide Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel at DMI. Proc. Int. Symp. on
Aerodynamics of Large Bridges. Balkena: Rotterdam.

Simulation of marine traffic for assessment of bridge span


J. Bay , S. Spangenberg , N.H. Olsen and P.T. Pedersen (1991). Ship simulations as an integrated part of the
design process for bridges crossing waterways, Proc. Intern. Conf. PIANC, Oslo
Danish Maritime Institute (1991) Manoeuvring simulations, resund KM 4.2 Evaluation report No. 1 (in Danish),
for DSB, Dept. of Transport and Great Belt Link Ltd. (Confidential).

The future
Gimsing, N.J. 1966. Anchored and partially anchored stayed bridges, Proceedings of the International
Symposium on Suspension Bridges, Lissabon.
Gimsing, N.J. 1980. Cable systems for bridges, IABSE 11th Congress, Final Report, Wien.
Gimsing, N.J. & J. Gimsing 1980. Analysis of erection procedures for bridges with combined cable systems
cable net bridge concept, ABK Report No. R 128.
Gimsing, N.J. 1983. Cable supported bridges, Concept & Design, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.
Gimsing, N.J. 1987. Parametric Studies of Cable-stayed Bridges with extreme Spans, Proceedings of the
International Conference on Cable-stayed Bridges, Bangkok.
Gimsing, N.J. 1990. Cable-stayed bridges with ultra-long spans, Structural Engineering Review No. 2.
Gimsing, N.J. 1991. Cable-stayed bridges with spatial cable systems, Proceedings of the Symposium on
Innovations in Cable-stayed Bridges, Fukuoka.

Large bridges of the future


Gimsing, N.J. 1966. Anchored and partially anchored stayed bridges, Proceedings of the International
Symposium on Suspension Bridges, Lissabon.
Gimsing, N.J. 1980. Cable systems for bridges, IABSE 11th Congress, Final Report, Wien.
Gimsing, N.J. & J. Gimsing 1980. Analysis of erection procedures for bridges with combined cable systems
cable net bridge concept, ABK Report No. R 128.
Gimsing, N.J. 1983. Cable supported bridges, Concept & Design, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.
Gimsing, N.J. 1987. Parametric Studies of Cable-stayed Bridges with extreme Spans, Proceedings of the
International Conference on Cable-stayed Bridges, Bangkok.
Gimsing, N.J. 1990. Cable-stayed bridges with ultra-long spans, Structural Engineering Review No. 2.
Gimsing, N.J. 1991. Cable-stayed bridges with spatial cable systems, Proceedings of the Symposium on
Innovations in Cable-stayed Bridges, Fukuoka.