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Egyptian Journal of Petroleum (2017) 26, 811–818

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Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute

Egyptian Journal of Petroleum
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FULL LENGTH ARTICLE

A comparison of nano bentonite and some nano
chemical additives to improve drilling fluid using
local clay and commercial bentonites
Nada S. Al-Zubaidi a, Asawer A. Alwasiti b,*, Dena Mahmood b

a
Department of Petroleum Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Iraq
b
Petroleum Technology Department, University of Technology, Iraq

Received 30 August 2016; revised 29 September 2016; accepted 23 October 2016
Available online 18 November 2016

KEYWORDS Abstract The use of nano-additives in improving drilling fluid properties in order to meet the mod-
Nanoparticles; ern drilling process requirement is still being debated till date. In this study, nano bentonite and
Drilling fluid; nano chemical additives are used to improve the rheological and filtration properties of drilling fluid
Rheological properties and using local and commercial bentonite. In the first part of this work, the feasibility of using Iraqi clay
filtration as a source of drilling fluid was investigated at 6, 10, 15 and 20 wt% concentrations and mixed with
nano commercial bentonite and nano Iraqi clay at 1, 2, 3, and 4 wt% concentrations. The results
showed that this addition did not improve the properties of drilling fluid and its quality in order
to meet the API standards.
In the second part, a commercial bentonite was used and mixed with nano commercial bentonite
and nano chemical materials (MgO, TiO2, and graphene) at 0.005, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 wt%
concentrations. The results showed that nano commercial bentonite gives the same filtration behav-
ior of graphene, whereas, the plastic viscosity, yield point and apparent viscosity were the same
when using nano commercial bentonite, TiO2 and graphene. The best results were obtained with
MgO addition, whereby the filter loss decreased to 35% with a higher value of yield point.
Ó 2016 Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. This is an open
access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

1. Introduction fluid type is also important to effectively overcome problems
plaguing drilling processes like wellbore instability, reduction
Drilling fluid plays an important role in drilling process as it torque, and drag.
affects the rate of penetration of bit, caving shale, pipe stick- In order to improve physical properties of drilling fluid and
ing, loss of circulation as well as formation evaluation and to meet its functional requirement of rheology that satisfies the
the subsequent productivity of well. The selection of drilling drilling process and reservoir conditions, different additives
such as chemicals, polymers, and nanoparticles were used.
* Corresponding author. Nanoparticles are defined as a small collide particles with
E-mail address: asaweralwasiti@gmail.com (A.A. Alwasiti). sizes ranging from 1 to 100 nm [1]. The use of these particles
Peer review under responsibility of Egyptian Petroleum Research has gained great attention over the recent years with many
Institute. researchers investigating its effect on drilling fluid. Yee et al.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpe.2016.10.015
1110-0621 Ó 2016 Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.
This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

05.1. Abdou et al. 4. 0. 5. Noah et al. an attempt to improve 2.05.2.75 2. titaniu- temperature conditions [7] and [8]. a compar- ison between using nano bentonite and nano chemical materi. and Amanullah et al. Experimental work (22. 15 and 20 wt%. First part  Iraqi Ore Clay (6. In spite of the above researchers.  Blank solution of commercial bentonite (6 wt%) + NCB. Minor Montmorillonite. whereas.88 1. carbon nanotube and nano silica to improve X-ray (fluorescence. SkySpring Nanomaterials. 4. 0. Another similar 2. studied the importance of nano-additives 2. 0. Katherine et al. A blank solution of 6wt% 2. the nanoparticle solutions were first mixed using Hamilton Beach mixer and were continued to be mixed using Ultrasonic mixer for about 10 min. Materials blank solution was used to mix nanoparticles of commercial bentonite (NCB) at the same concentration levels used for pre- vious mixture.4) wt%. 3 and 4 wt%.2.49 1. 15.6 0. pro- moxide (TiO2) (white powder with an average diameter of posed a solution to one of the most important challenges of 10–30 nm) and magnesium oxide (MgO). in this work. Hence. 6 and7 wt%. Nano chemical materials the effect of carbon nanotube and nano additives on the rheo- The chemical additives that are used in this work are graphene logical properties of drilling fluid at high pressure and high (black powder with an average diameter of 6–8 nm). Mohammad et a. and Maratha and Waleed studied 2.5 g of MIC and 350 ml water) was mixed with NIC at dif- ferent concentrations 0. This 0.S.03 2. (white powder with drilling fluids in high temperature high pressure HTHP wells an average diameter of 20 nm). 0.71 14. local bentonite in drilling fluid and compared it with API ben- tonite [6]. diffraction) and SPM (scanning probe shale stability [5].2 and 0.99 Commercial bentonite 64.5 g of This clay was crushed and grinded to powder with an average commercial bentonite and 350 ml of water and mixed it with particle size of <75 lm micro Iraqi clay (MIC).1 and Iraqi clay (NIC) was prepared using ceramic ball miller. studied the effect of nanoparticles on lost (SOC).59 1. 1. 0. more study should be con- ducted in this field.0. In the first part.01. 10. microscope). The experiments were divided into two parts. Al-Zubaidi et al. 0. Also.1. through taking a blank solution of 22.4) wt% respectively Palygorskite Table 2 The X-ray fluorescence for Iraqi clay and commercial bentonite. investigated the use of nano.01. 0. The nano commercial bentonite (NCB) was prepared circulation [4]. 5. as shown in als at different concentrations to improve the drilling fluid of Table 1.1. tions (0.5.812 N.1. Inc. Calcite 0. 2.05. gelling characterization and drag reduction [2]and Commercial bentonite was equipped from South Oil Company [3].5. 10. Adul Razak et al. Quartz. In order to improve its per- logical survey and mining from the Bshera valley/Fallujah.3. Constituent SiO2 Al2O3 CaO Na2O MgO K2O Iraqi clay 46. 6 and 7) wt% Major Gypsum.04 3. Additionally.1. Lastly. The prepared drilling fluid was mixed using Hamilton Beach mixer for 30 min. using micro particle size of Iraqi clay (MIC) at the concentra- tions of 6. 1. 0.34 8. Calcite Montmorillonite. 20) wt%  Blank solution of Iraqi Ore clay (6 wt%) + Nano Iraqi clay Table 3 The X-ray diffraction analysis of Iraqi clay and and NCB at different concentrations (0. Gypsum. an evaluation of Iraqi clay was made local clay and commercial bentonite will be made. centrations of 3. the same blank solution was mixed with nano clay was analyzed using X-ray (fluorescence and diffraction) chemical materials of Graphene.97 12.1.005. The nano NCB at different concentrations (0. They were supplied by the using Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) [9]. Iraqi clay The second part evaluates commercial bentonite at the con- The Iraqi clay was supplied from the state company for geo.01.12 .005.2) wt%. formance. Constituents Iraqi clay Commercial bentonite Second part  Commercial bentonite at (3. Experiments local clay properties (which is used as a base for drilling fluid) using nanotechnology will be made. Quartz Gr. 0.05. 2.1. MgO and TiO2 at concentra- and SPM (scanning probe microscope). Table 1 The flow scheme of the experiments work. 3 and 4) wt% respectively commercial bentonite. 2. Commercial bentonite on lubricity. TiO2 and MgO at different concentrations (0. showed the feasibility of using using ceramic ball miller.2 and 0. The clay was characterized using nano graphene.

X-ray fluorescence analysis The filtration test was conducted using a filtration device The X-ray fluorescence for Iraqi clay and commercial ben- (API Filter press OFITE apparatus). Comparatively.09% for calculated. . 3.1. Bentonite characterization cosity (PV). commercial bentonite indicating that Iraqi clay is of calcium type whereas commercial bentonite is of sodium type. the apparent viscosities (AV). the ratios of To obtain results with better accuracy. tonite is shown in Table 2.1.1.A comparison of nano bentonite and some nano chemical additives to improve drilling fluid 813 Figure 1 AFM analysis of nano Iraqi bentonite. Figure 2 AFM analysis of nano commercial bentonite. 3. yield point (YP) and gel strength were measured. 3. Results and discussion nosed using viscometer (Model 900) and according to API specifications [10]. The rheological properties of each experiment were diag.16% for Iraqi clay and 1. each experiment was {(Na2O + K2O)/(CaO + MgO)} for these two types of ben- repeated three times and the average results were then tonite were found to be 0. plastic vis.

64 1. dimensional surface profiles of nanoparticle bentonites are this clay was used at four different concentrations.S.3 2.7 2.9 7. Table 4 Rheological properties of Iraqi clay.2 3.45 1.4 1. cp 7 3 6 5 4 2 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Nano Particle Concentration.9 5.5 2.64 1.27 Table 5 Rheological properties of Iraqi clay with NIC and NCB.88 10% 40 6.35 3. The rheo- shown in Figs. g la cP PV cP YP lb/100 ft2 YP/PV Gel strength lb/100 ft2 10 s 10 min (Blank) 22.6 5.6 4.36 8.88 IC + NIC 0. lb/100ft2 10 s 10 min 6% (Blank) 22.3 9.45 1.9 3.3 2.1.1.4 1.7 10. 3.2 8.9 3.31 8.8 6 6.6 3 12 7.1 2.64 5.3 2. logical properties at these concentrations are shown in Table 4.9 3 12 7. Al-Zubaidi et al. X-ray diffraction analysis The X-ray diffraction analysis of the Iraqi clay and commer.3 1. The results of particle size distribution showed that the cial bentonite is shown in Table 3.2 3.4 3.814 N.31 6.68 2. .1 1.04 15% 62 15.71 12.8 5. S% Wt.3 1.2.4 1.and three.3. The two.92 20% 90 38.6 3 9.6 8.1 nm respectively.6 3 9. To study the behavior of Iraqi clay as a source of drilling fluid.5 2 4.96 4.2 5.4 2.9 2 8 7.31 72.9 3.2.45-pixel density.1 4. concentrations of NIC and NCB.47 nm the main constituent of Iraqi ore bentonite and commercial and 77. Rheological properties 3.4 2.9 IC + NCB 0.64 12. 3.1 4.1 1 4 6.3 6.38 5.5 2.7 2. 1 and 2.1 16.3 9.2.5 2.6 6.4 8.5 2 5.54 6.35 17. wt% Figure 3 The apparent viscosity of IC with different nano Figure 4 The plastic viscosity of IC with different nano particles particles concentrations of NIC and NCB. S% Wt.9 3.96 4.7 4 15.1 19. g la cP PV cP YP lb/100 ft2 YP/PV Gel strength. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) analysis The morphology of bentonite was studied using Atomic Force 3.4 4 15.8 8. wt% Nano Particle Concentration. This table indicates that average particle diameter for NIC and NCB were 78. Rheological properties of Iraqi clay Microscopy at 444.4 2. ore are gypsum and montmorillonite respectively.7 6.2 9.4 10.2 1 4 5.78 3.1 1.3 8.3 2. cp 8 Plastic Viscosity.7 2 8 6.6 6.1.6 12 5 11 NIC NCB NIC 10 NCB 9 4 Apparent Viscosity.25 12.2 2.94 73.

8 44 15.2 41.6 lb/100 ft2 and 16.26 37.9 52.2 24. S% Wt.1 38.4 17.7 3.3 0. 10 Furthermore.2 44.71 41.7 0.4 cP to 12.5 2.6 49.88 86.01 0. a blank solution was taken and mixed with NIC and NCB at dif- 4 ferent concentrations.1 5% 19 12.4 0.4 17. wt% 6.1 CB + TiO2 0.1 52.05 23.71 38. they did not meet the API Table 6 Rheological properties of commercial bentonite.2 15.7 58.02 24.6 16.7 41. which is high concentration 12 Yield Point.1 21.4 15.1 0.1 0.75 4.6 19.3 lb/100 ft2 to 51.4 45.8 2.4 cP to 38.7 2.1 16.08 41.26 37.1 0.2 44.3 6.9 lb/100 ft2.7 46.8 48.7 52.02 26.15 2.7 cP and 10. the plastic viscosity increased from 1.6 16.5 19.5 45.81 38.45 1.1 0.8 0.22 6% (Blank) 22.2 29 1. g la cP PV cP YP lb/100 ft2 YP/PV Gel strength lb/100ft2 10 s 10 min (Blank) 22.75 2.2 0.8 24.3 0.7 41.08 43.2 43.2 0. 3–5.5 45.8 2.5 24.9 2.75 4.9 29.1 CB + GR 0.02 23.7 52.84 36.05 23.75 4.6 43.3 0.22 7% 27 33.5 3.05 55. 6 In order to improve the performance of this type of clay.4 3.75 2.8 44 15.1 3.5 48.005 0.2 15.81 38.1 38.1 16.3 0.2 24.2 54.8 49.3 2.6 0. The results of their rheological proper- 2 ties are shown in Table 5 and Figs.7 6. plastic vis- cosity to 2.9 52.8 86.2 cP and 3.45 2. lb/100 ft2 10 s 10 min 3% 10.3 0.05 0.6 lb/100 ft2 for NIC and concentrations of NIC and NCB. However.6 0.1 0. From the figures above.01 0.A comparison of nano bentonite and some nano chemical additives to improve drilling fluid 815 18 The apparent viscosity increased from 2.1 27.8 27.5 28.55 50.1 52. g la cP PV cP YP lb/100 ft2 YP/PV Gel strength.47 61. It is evident NCB that good dry clay results in drilling fluid (mud) that has 15 cP 14 apparent viscosity at low concentration.81 41.69 Table 7 Rheological properties of CB with NCB and nano chemical materials.8 69.8 8.3 cP to meet the API requirements while the yield value 8 increased from 2.2 0.7 0. it is evident that adding nano ben- 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 tonite particles up to 4wt% increases the apparent viscosity to Nano Particle Concentration.1 cP for NIC and NCB respectively and Figure 5 The yield point of IC with different nano particles yield point to 9.6 .6 43.15 3.05 24 1.2 2.6 44.005 0.95 1.9 cP for NIC and NCB respectively.9 CB + MgO 0.5 16.7 59.7 16.6 44.7 56 0.5 25.2 cP 16 NIC after increasing the clay concentration to 20 wt%.01 0.5 9.7 6.2 36.1 0.3 3.2 16 46.05 23.75 3. This means that we have to add 15 wt% of bentonite.6 54.65 2.26 39.2 0.8 2.25 2.44 41.01 0.8 17. to get the API apparent viscosity.08 41.71 41.05 0.8 30.33 42.47 45.33 39.02 25.005 0.9 29.2 117.7 134 49.8 4% 15 8.7 16. NCB respectively. Ib/100ft 2 value.05 0.8 0.005 0.55 50.1 66.32 51.2 43.5 19.1 12.5 62.6 36.33 39.2 15.05 0.7 0.7 44.7 44.21 4.2 0.4 47.5 1.22 CB + NCB 0. S% Wt.63 89 96.25 3.8 4.

S. Rheological properties of commercial bentonite addition. NCB and nano chemical materials: The higher interaction or attractive forces is through the graphene.5 10 1. This Figs. leading to the formation of a new tic viscosity increased slightly with increasing commercial ben.5 20 3.0 2 0. tonite up to 6 wt%. this increase shows the same trend for NCB.5 4 0. 6–8. Ib/100ft2 100 50 40 80 30 60 20 40 10 0. graphene and TiO2 3. 6–8 show that apparent viscosity and yield point ence in rheological values between NIC and NCB addition. Al-Zubaidi et al. wt% Figure 6 The apparent viscosity of Commercial bentonite (22. Furthermore. cp Yield Point.5 g commercial bentonite + 350 ml water) with different nano addi.090 0. increase as nanoparticle concentrations increase. .060 0. ml 18 2. Figure 9 The filtration test for Iraqi clay and commercial tive concentrations. wt% 0. Also there is a noticeable increase in gel the interaction between nanoparticles and the surface of ben- strength at 5wt% with high thixotrobic behavior. The results are illustrated in Table 7 and nanoparticle is very porous [12] that makes it very active.5 30 5.060 0. Five concentrations of commercial bentonite were used as dril.006 0.300 0 Nano Particle Concentration. the nanoparticles move toward The table shows that the apparent viscosity increased up to the surface of clay wall due to the Vander Walls and Foulom- 33.090 0. Figure 8 The yield point of Commercial bentonite (22. requirements [10]. type which is layer shaped.009 0.0 NCB Graphene 28 4. wt% 10wt% 15wt% 20wt% 3wt% 4wt% 5wt% 6wt% 7wt% IC CB Figure 7 The plastic viscosity of Commercial bentonite (22. This surface area plays an important role in increasing tration up to 7%. However.2 The nanoparticles have a high surface area with small vol- Ib/100 ft3) was obtained after increasing nanoparticle concen. ume. 80 140 NCB 70 Graphene NCB TiO 2 Graphene 120 TiO2 M gO 60 M gO Apperant Viscosity. The structure of MgO concentrations.816 N.0 Filter losses.030 0. 5. greater porous structure embedded on the clay surface enhances linkage and increases apparent viscosity.300 Nano Particle Concentration. bic forces between them [11].3 cP after adding 7 wt% of commercial bentonite. According to the structure of montmorillonite bentonite ling fluid and their rheological properties are shown in Table 6. bentonite.0 8 6 0.006 0. Figs.2. surface that changes the properties of fluid.060 0. there is no significant differ. A high increase in yield point value (59.009 0.5 g tive concentrations. tonite that linked physically or through chemical bonds causes In order to study the effect of nanoparticles on these an increase in viscosity.030 0. commercial bentonite + 350 ml water) with different nano addi- tive concentrations. The plas. cp 3.2.009 0.300 20 Nano Particle Concentration. TiO2 and MgO were added at different use of MgO at high concentrations.0 24 22 Plastic Viscosity.5 16 14 2.0 12 1.090 0. rheological properties.5 g commercial bentonite + 350 ml water) with different nano addi.006 0.5 TiO2 26 M gO 4.030 0.

[13] showed that small nanoparticles yield filter losses decrease with increasing clay concentration until higher values of viscosity and yield stress than larger nanopar.2wt% 7 Blank 6.A comparison of nano bentonite and some nano chemical additives to improve drilling fluid 817 On the other hand. this concentration value (20 wt%) is very high.3. increase. 9 0.005 wt%). The greatest decrease was observed when phene (average diameter 6–8 nm). may be due to the increasing solid particles.5wt% 1wt% 2wt% 3wt% 4wt% 0.1 nm). it is observed that in the first three concentra- tions the filtration volume is unaffected by NIC addition after 25 it decreases at (3 and 4) wt%. 6. The figures also illustrate The gel strength values are high and the highest values are that the increase of nanoparticle concentrations has no effect in the addition of MgO at 0. . Filtration test of commercial bentonite At first. ity value was not affected very much when using NCB (average depending on the API recommendations [10]. This indicates that an the Filter losses.2 wt%. the addition of nanoparticles decreases diameter 77. 9.5wt% 1wt% 2wt% 3wt% 4wt% decrease in filtration volume and this means decreasing perme- IC+NIC IC+NCB ability of filter cake as a result of increasing solids. The effect of nano additives on the filtration property of commercial bentonite is shown in Fig.005wt% 0. 10 below.01wt% 8 0. Filtration test of Iraqi clay with MgO addition. it is compatible with bentonite physical specification at 20 wt ticles. However.2. it is very high and unacceptable The behavior of Iraqi clay in filtration was tested with three value.05wt% 0. different concentrations. This value increases with the addition of nanoparticles and the higher value of yield point was observed 3.1. TiO2 (average diameter 10–30 nm) and gra- plastic viscosity.3. The results are shown in Fig. this disagrees with our results in which viscos. a very on plastic viscosity except for NCB which shows proportional high thixotropic tendency. In drilling. ml increase in the amount of the nanoscale size leads to decreased 20 permeability of filter cake due to viscosity increasing as shown 15 in Fig.3. It 0 is clearly observed that increasing the weight of solids leads to 0. yield point represents the ability of fluid to sus. 30 From Fig.3ml 6 Friction losses. % concentration. Figure 10 Filtration test of Iraqi clay with NIC and NCB. In order to get better filtration performance of this type of 40 clay. 10 3. The results of filtration test are shown in Fig. 3.6 cP at 0. the filtration test on commercial bentonite was done at 5 different concentrations and the results are shown in Fig.e.1 wt% and 0. at which the filter losses becomes 15 ml. 10. However.1wt% 0. 10. 11. ml 5 4 3 2 1 0 CB+NCB CB+GR CB+TiO2 CB+MgO Figure 11 Filtration test of commercial bentonite. the Youngsoo et al. a blank solution was taken and mixed with NIC and 35 NCB at different concentrations. using NCB (0. however. i. Filtration test pend the cutting.

12–14 June. Egypt. Laboratory Testing of Drilling Fluids. – Mixing Iraqi clay with nanoparticles of clay and commer. – The Iraqi clay extracted from the Bshera valley/Fallujah is Nano Res. Phuoc. We can deduce from this figure that NCB and graphene References addition shows a decrease in filter loss value from the blank solution (6. M. it cannot be consid. in: SPE International Oilfield Nanotechnology increases. Seventh ed. Indonesia.2wt% 4 Filter Cake. Netherland. the bentonite particles and arranged them in a way that closes [7] Adul Razak Ismail. 2011. Exhibition. Meghan Riley. ing solid concentrations (Fig. SPE – The use of NCB gives the same rheological property results 156995. Matthew Barry. Youssef. Nor Aziah Buang. ered as a viscosifier in drilling fluid [10] API 13A.05wt% 5 0. ELSemary. El-Safty.005wt% 0. Maen Husein. Amsterdam. Appl. Innovative Res. [13] Youngsoo Jung.I. and MgO and TiO2 can [6] M. International Oilfield Nanothechnology Conference. Geir Hareland. Yee Soong. Ferdi Schth. Lyons. Wan Rosli Wan Sulaiman. Al-sabagh. 12). Mater.S. 2010. while the filter cake thickness increases with increas.M. The lowest value of filter losses was Abdullatif. Dev. in: AADE – MgO nano additives give the best rheological and filtration National Technical Conference and Exhibitional. Palembang. results. 2012.M. in: SPE International Oilfield Nanothechnology Conference.3 ml) but at the same time it shows irregular behav. in: The 5th Sriwijaya International Seminar on Energy and Environmental 4. concentration which is acceptable and reasonable results as [3] Md. of Montmorillonite is small. Zakaria. Conclusions Science & Technology. behavior between graphene and NCB.2%) MgO. when the cake is compacted on filter paper. A. Therefore. MgO addition give regular decrease with increasing nano solid in: Technique Annual Meeting of AIChE. Phuoc Tran. Mohammad K.A. [11] Jianyang Wu. 10–11 September. Al-Zubaidi et al. not suitable to be a source of drilling fluids because the ratio [9] A. mum amount of filter losses. 12–14 Jun. .A. J. in: SPE In most cases. 12–14 small channels are formed inside the cake. [8] Mortatha Saadoon Al-Yasiri. pass through and the best way of compacting ensures mini. 2009. Minking K. Mohd Zaidi the channels in mud cake and reducing filter losses. [5] Katherine Price Hoelscher Guido De Stefano. SPE 157032. 6 0. SPE International Oilfield Nanotechnology Conference and tion properties in order to meet the API standards. 2011. AL-Arfaj.Z. 2012. GuidoDe Stefano. Netherlands. This indicates that NCB Chem. allowing the filter to June.818 N. Hence. Claudia Weidenthaler. The Netherlands. obtained with adding (0. J. Pet. 2014. 5 (2016) 350–355. Zhiliang Zhang. Noordwijk. Dardir. Steve Young. The Netherlands. mm 3 2 1 0 CB+NCB CB+GR CB+TiO2 CB+MgO Figure 12 The mud cake of filtration test of commercial bentonite. behavior of graphene additive. Abdou. Houston. Noordwijk. can replace nano chemical additives. in: SPE/IADC Drilling Conference and Exhibition. Noah. David K. Chyu. Int. 22 be attributed to both MgO and TiO2 nanoparticles that attract (2013) 53–59. Minking Chyu.92%. M. Norhana Mohamed Rashid. 2012. April 12–14. Jaafar. 16 (2004) 5676–5681. the TiO2 and [2] Yee Soong. However. Tran X. Jianying He. 2012. John Lee. Waleed Tareq Al-Sallami. [4] Mohammad F.1wt% 0. the difference in filtration Steve Young. Am. A. as those of using graphene and TiO2 and same filtration [12] Wen-Cui Li. Netherland. at which the filter losses 1–3 March. J. Texas. 3 (2015) 41–45. Ole Torsæter. M. reduced by 34. Noordwijk. Donald Martello.. Lu An-Hui. Conference. Zaid AL- viscosity value increases. Jung-Kun Lee.M. Amanullah. 12–14 June Noordwijk. in: cial bentonites failed to improve its rheological and filtra.01wt% 0. [1] Jim Friendheim. ior in filter losses of increasing and decreasing as concentration Quan Guo.