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WFP actions at the border with Venezuela

WFP Colombia
March, 2018
CONTEXT

Main destinations in
Venezuelans entering Colombia Colombia
Legal points of entry
Number of • Bogotá
1,000,000 Puente Internacional Simón
people entering Ipiales 53%
• Bolívar en Villa del Rosario
Staying in
660,000 • Barranquilla Puesto de Control Migratorio de
Colombia Paraguachón en la Guajira
19%
• Cúcuta
El Dorado International Airport 17%
Main reasons of entry • Maicao
• Medellín
• Purchase of food
• Informal jobs • Pasto
• Purchase of medicines medical • Bucaramanga
attention
• Cartagena
• Cali

Source: Migración Colombia. 2018


MIGRANTS WITH HUMANITARIAN NEEDS IN COLOMBIA

Source: OCHA, Migración Colombia 2018


HUMANITARIAN NEEDS

Humanitarian
priorities per
cluster

Humanitarian indicators Humanitarian


“Caseload” Needs
per cluster

Migración Colombia (2017): Venezuelan PIN 822,611


DTM-IOM
550 K Colombian returnees PIN
Profiling – UNHCR, WFP Estimated migration(2018): 161,700
500 K Host Communities:
Colombian returnees 428,000 Population in
(2017): 230 K need
PIN
1,412,311

Source: OCHA and UMAIC 2018


HUMANITARIAN NEED PER CLUSTER

76.5% 51.4% 51.1% 35.7% 23.9% 16.6%

Source: OCHA and UMAIC 2018


FOOD SECURITY AND NUTRITION ANALYSIS OF
MIGRANT POPULATION FROM VENEZUELA

Carry out profiles of migrant population from DEPARTMENTS


OBJECTIVE Venezuela, with a special focus on food security and
nutrition in the informal human settlements located
at urban and periurban areas of targeted
departments.

• Migrant families (Venezuelans, Colombian returnees


SAMPLE and mixed);
• Living in informal human settlements;
• Homeless families.
METHODOLOGY

DATA COLLECTION
INSTRUMENTS
Household interviews Focus groups

PERIOD: November 20th – December 15th 2017

INTERVIEWED POPULATION
Household Focus
Department Targeted municipalities
interviews groups
Norte de Santander Cúcuta, Villa del Rosario, Los Patios 539 2
Arauca Arauca, Arauquita, Saravena, Tame 258 1
Riohacha, Maicao, Uribia, San Juan
La Guajira 309 1
1,106 2,846 del Cesar
Total 1,106 4
SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS
Population pyramid by sex and age- Migrant population Age Men Women Total
from Venezuela 2017
80+
75-79 0-4 5% 5% 10%
70-74
65-69 5-9 5% 4% 9%
60-64 Women
Mujeres Men
Hombres
55-59 10-14 4% 4% 8%
50-54 E
45-49 15-19 5% 5% 10%
40-44 d
35-39
a 20-29 16% 13% 29%
30-34
25-29
20-24
d 30-49 14% 13% 27%
15-19
10-14 50-64 3% 2% 5%
5-9
0- 4 65+ 1% 1% 2%
percentage
10% 5% 0% 5% 10%

Ethnic groups % Household nationality %


Other 86 %
Venezuelan 70%
Indigenous 11 %
Colombian 8%
Afro descendant 2%
Palenque 1% Colombian-Venezuelan 22%
HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION
Head of household %
Men 65%
Women 35%

Household %
One person household 46%
Multi-person household 54%

Head of one person


%
household
Men 75%
Women 25%
ACCESS TO BASIC SERVICES

Shelter % Access to potable water %


Rent a room 31% Yes 61%
Relatives and friends 26% No 39%

Informal human settlements 26%


Homeless families 13%
Number of health cases
Headache 3

Hernia 4

Disability 5

80% have no access to health Kidney stones 5

services Heart disease 6

Respiratory illness 7

Arthritis 10

Spine disease 13

Diabetes 14

Diarrhea 14

Asthma 16

Hypertension 21
MIGRATION STATUS
POINT OF ENTRY
Main factors to leave Venezuela* %
OTROS 2%
LA GUAJIRA
LA RAYA, URIBIA 1%
Lack of food 90 %
MAICAO, CRUCE FRONTERIZO 1%
Lack of job 88 % TROCHA DE LA SABANA,… 2%
Lack of medicines 53 % URIBIA, TROCHA DE WINPECHI 4%

Violence- insecurity 49% MAICAO, TROCHA MONTE… 5%

MAICAO, TROCHA DE GUANA 8%


*Respondents could select all the options that apply
CRUCE FRONTERIZO DE… 17%

TROCHA DE PARAGUACHON,… 61%


OTROS 3% ARAUCA
CRUCE FRONTERIZO LEGAL 3%
NORTE DE SANTANDER
PUERTO CONTRERAS PASO… 7% OTROS 1%

SARAVENA PUERTO… 14% TROCHA EN SAN ANTONIO 1%

ARAUCA PUENTE… 19% ESCOBAL, PUENTE… 1%

ARAUQUITA LA VICTORIA PASO… 20% PUENTE FRONTERIZO… 2%

ARAUCA PASO DE LA CANOA 31% PUERTO SANTANDER,… 4%

PUENTE SIMON BOLIVAR… 90%


MIGRATION STATUS

Is it your intention to stay in Colombia? %


Yes 78%
No 19%
Not answer 3%

If no, where do you want to go? %


Venezuela 81%
Peru 7%
Chile 4%
Ecuador 4%
Panama 2%
Spain 2%
SOURCE OF INCOME

Household monthly income (on


%
average)
USD $105 63 %
USD $105- USD176 24 %
Food expenditure share
Not answer 13 %
mas de
17,9
75%
Main source of income %
Street vendors (informal market) 84 % 65 a 75% 22,6

Other 9% 50 a 65% 18,5


Shoemaker, carpentry 4%
0 a 50%
Building sector 3% 40,9
FOOD ACCESS

Livelihood coping strategies*

Search for food in garbage 1%


Sell house 2%
Sell house or land 2%
Take children out of school 4%
Begging 5%
Send household members to eat in other place 10%
Risky jobs 14%
Main sources of food % Sell domestic assets (radio, tv, furniture) 16%
Other 18%
Buy food 83 % Borrow money for food 22%
Rely on help 15 % Borrow money 38%
Use personal saving 41%
Own production 2% Rely on help from relatives and friends 48%
Low paid job in informal market 72%

*Respondents could select all the options that apply


FOOD CONSUMPTION

6 5,45
FSN coping strategy* %
4,82 4,81
5 4,22 Rely on less preferred and less expensive food 56 %
Days per week

4
3,08 Limit portion size at meal 48 %
3

2
1,81 1,79 1,62 1,61 1,44 1,42
Reduce number of meal eaten in a day 41 %
1,32 1,30
1,06
1 ,35
*Respondents could select all the options that apply
0
INFANT AND CHILDREN
• 3% of infants are breastfed • 1,7% of breastfeeding women
take supplements
• 7% of children under 2 are breastfed

• 7% of children under 2 are breastfed and take


supplementary feeding

School attendance

NO YES

55% 45%
FOOD SECURITY AND NUTRITION

4,30%
20,20%
8-ARAUCA

8,50%
27,30%
54-NORTE SANTANDER

8,40%
23,30%
44-LA GUAJIRA

0,00% 10,00% 20,00% 30,00% 40,00% 50,00% 60,00% 70,00% 80,00%

Severe food insecurity Moderate food insecurity Food security at risk Food secure
SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS AND MAPPING WITH DRONES
Carry out situational analysis and mapping of migrant population with drones in
OBJECTIVE the municipalities of Cucuta, Maicao and Riohacha and its impact on territorial
planning and environment.

WFP GIS DATABASE


Database Ecosystem indicators Territorial planning Migration analysis

- WFP areas of interest - Vegetation - Pipeline - Human

CAPAS GEOGRÁFICAS
- Neighborhoods - Watersheds - Drainage system settlements
- Hydrography - Deforestation - Waste management - Impact of human
- Road network - Erosion - Crecimiento áreas de settlements
- Blocks - Slope población - Migration
- Rural perimeter - Water management - Blocks 2010
- Urban perimeter - Soil use - Blocks 2017
- Toponymy - Urban risks
- Territorial extension - Vegetation 2010
- Vegetation 2017

COOPERATING PARTNER
POPULATION INCREASE- CUCUTA 2017
CLIMATE THREATS- CUCUTA 2017
PROFILING CONCLUSIONS
• Migrant population is highly vulnerable, with low access to basic services and exposed to
protection threats;

• 80% of migrants want to stay in Colombia, so it is urgent to find solutions in the country;

• Migrant population is concentrated in public spaces and in already existing informal


human settlements, in areas exposed to climate threats;

• 30% of migrants are food insecure, with 7.5 % in severe food insecurity;

• Household income averages USD 105 and 2 out of 5 households spend more than 65%
of income on food expenditure;

• Migrant population consumes an inadequate diet, mainly based on cereals, tubers,


sugar, oils and fats;

• Breastfeeding women, infants and children under 2 are the most vulnerable, as they do
not take supplements or supplementary feeding.
WFP ACTIONS
• Food assistance to migrants in temporary shelters or other shelter options;

• Food assistance to vulnerable migrants identified through registration system;

• Food assistance to host indigenous communities in la Guajira and Arauca;

• Prevent and reduce malnutrition among pregnant and breastfeeding women and
children under 5 through high-energy products (cookies, emergency bar)

• Emergency school feeding program.

• Targeted population: 349,900


MAIN CHALLENGES

• Lack of funds;

• Coordination with government;

• Security in border departments (presence of armed groups).


THANK YOU !