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Disposable Diaper and Toilet Paper as Alternative Mulch

for Eggplant (Solanum melangena):

A Comparative Study

In Partial Fulfillment of the Course

Research II 2017-2018

Talamban National High School

Talamban, Cebu City

Marie Amanda C. Pernito

Lara Marie B. Codoy

Ela Lois B. Tuhoy

March 2, 2018
Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE

Background of the Study

Gardeners and farmers use different methods of soil conservation—one of which

is mulching. Mulching is the process of covering the soil with a protective layer of a

material. Mulch is any type of material that is spread or laid over the surface of the soil as

a covering. Organic, or natural mulches, include such things as hardwood chips, pine

straw, grass clippings and crushed leaves. Inorganic, or synthetic mulches, include

pebbles, crushed rock, plastic or rubber mats or chips. Furthermore, one of the best

benefits of any mulch is its ability to retain moisture in the soil. Other garden mulch

benefits include protection from erosion and protection from mechanical injury from

weed eaters and lawnmowers (Iannotti, 2017).

Mulching can be used in many different plants like tomato and banana. Mulching

can also be utilized in conserving the soil of eggplant. Eggplant, or aubergine as it is

called in France, is a vegetable long prized for its beauty as well as its unique taste and

texture. Eggplants belong to the plant family of Solanaceae, also commonly known as

nightshades, and are kin to the tomato, bell pepper and potato. Eggplants grow in a

manner much like tomatoes, hanging from the vines of a plant that grows several feet in

height (Eggplant, 2017). Eggplant seeds germinate in 7 to 14 days, depending on the

heat, moisture provided, and moisture content and age of the seed (Ashworth, 2017).

According to an article of TechnicalTextile.net, a diaper or nappy is an absorbent

garment worn by individuals including infants and young children, some elderly people,

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some with a physical or mental disability, people working in extreme conditions (e.g.

astronauts) and also for pet animals (Overview of Disposable Diaper Parts and Their

Purpose, 2017). Most people use the disposal diaper compared to the cloth diaper

because of its cheaper price. Disposable diapers are mostly made of Polyethylene film,

Super Absorbent Polymer, Elastics Lycra/Spandex, etc. Its absorbent center is made up of

Sodium Polyacrylate or SAP. Because it is disposable, people threw them out once used

(Overview of Disposable Diaper Parts and Their Purpose, 2017).

In an article entitled Toilet Paper (vol. 6, 2017), it said that toilet paper is a

sanitary paper, personal product that needs to be clean and hygienic. It is usually found in

bathrooms wherein people make use of it when washing their anus after bowel

movement. Toilet paper can be one-or two-ply, meaning that it's either a single sheet or

two sheets placed back-to-back to make it builder and more absorbent. Toilet paper is

generally made from new or "virgin" paper, using a combination of softwood and

hardwood trees.

Other materials used in manufacture include water, chemicals for breaking down the trees

into usable fiber, and bleaches (Toilet Paper, vol. 6, 2017).

Mulch has been confirmed as a great alternative for fertilizers and pesticides since

not only is it organic, but it also comes at a very low price. May it be permanent or

temporary mulches, it is really a great advantage for people who want to grow their plants

and crops organically and avoid chemical-filled harvests.

This study, entitled “Disposable Diaper and Toilet Paper as an Alternative Mulch

for Eggplant (Solanum melangena): A Comparative Study” is chosen by the researchers,

because the researchers want to try other convenient, accessible and cheap materials as a

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mulch for plants, specifically eggplants. Since plastic sheeting, bark chips and the likes

have already been discovered as effective mulch for plants, the researchers conduct this

study to find out if disposable diapers, which has a component of sodium polyacrylate,

and toilet paper, which is composed of softwood and hardwood, can be effective mulch.

This way, not only can the researchers contribute to the list of materials that can be

possibly used as mulches, but also provide another easy-to-reach and buy materials, and

materials that are easy to apply or put on the soil for people who prefer organic growing

of plants.

Statement of the Problem

This study aims to determine which of the two—disposable diaper or toilet

paper—is a more effective mulch for eggplant. It is the purpose of this team research to

compare the effectiveness of disposable diaper and toilet paper as mulch to the eggplant.

This study seeks to answer the following questions:

1.) Which of the disposable diaper or toilet paper is a more effective mulch for

eggplant in terms of:

a. height

b. leaf count

c. number of weeds

2.) Which mulch can make the eggplant grow faster on:

a. 1 week

b. 2 weeks

c. 3 weeks

d. 4 weeks

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3.) Which set up has the most number of leaves on:

a. 1 week

b. 2 weeks

c. 3 weeks

d. 4 weeks

4.) Which set up has the least number of weeds on:

a. 1 week

b. 2 weeks

c. 3 weeks

d. 4 weeks

Significance of the Study

This research is entitled “Comparison of Disposable Diaper and Toilet Paper as

a Mulch for Eggplant”. This study will benefit the following entities:

Farmers. This study can be useful for farmers for they can utilize a new

alternative mulch for growing eggplants and prevents weeds form growing.

Citizens. This study can be beneficial to citizens because they can use another

way to grow plants, specifically eggplants, if ever they want to grow one in their

backyard.

Future researchers. This study can be helpful in such a way that it can contribute

another piece of vast knowledge of science that may help future researchers in their

future studies related to mulching.

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Statement of the Hypotheses

HA: There is a significant difference between the disposable diaper and toilet paper as

mulch in terms of height, leaf count and number of weeds of the eggplant in each

week.

HO: There is no significant difference between the disposable diaper and toilet paper as

mulch in terms of height, leaf count and number of weeds of the eggplant in each

week.

Scope and Delimitation

This study only focuses on using the disposable diaper and toilet paper as

alternative mulch for eggplant. This research is limited to four weeks in gathering the

data in each trial. Furthermore, the alternative mulches will be applied on the soil of

eggplant (Solanum melangena) and not any other plant.

Definition of Terms

For better understanding of the study, the following terms are being defined

operationally:

Disposable Diaper. in this study, this refers to the alternative mulch for eggplant which

has synthetic materials such as super absorbent polymer and sodium polyacrylate

Toilet Paper. in this study, this refers to the alternative mulch for eggplant which is

composed of softwood and hardwood

Height. refers to the growth of the eggplant in centimeters with the alternative mulches

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Leaf count. refers to the number of leaves grown on the eggplant with the alternative

mulches

Weed. refers to the undesirable plant grown on the soil of the eggplant with the

alternative mulches; this is also what the alternative mulches are preventing to grow

Sodium polyacrylate. refers to the content in the disposable diaper which the researchers

will utilize in mulching

Conceptual Framework

Disposable Diaper and Toilet Paper as Alternative Mulch

for Eggplant (Solanum melangena):

A Comparative Study

Independent Variables Dependent Variables

Disposable Diaper as a. height

Mulch for Eggplant b. leaf count

c. number of weeds

Toilet Paper as Mulch a. height

for Eggplant b. leaf count

c. number of weeds

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Chapter 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter states the related literature and related studies of the comparison of

disposable diaper and toilet paper as alternative mulch for eggplant done by the

researchers.

Related Literature

Mulch has been considered as one of the best and cheapest alternative for

fertilizers, pesticides and also stops weeds from growing on plants, which is why many

people who are in the field of planting, from ordinary citizens to paid farmers, have

diverted from using fertilizers to different kinds of mulch in order for their plants to grow

faster and save money.

During the mid and late 90’s, many problems related to agriculture has grown,

including the widespread use of chemical fertilizers and other agricultural materials that

affected the environment and some other plants. Not long after, a protest about the said

problem was raised, which was called Organic Movement. There was a call for returning

to traditional farming practices, involving reduced inputs and an emphasis on use of

“natural” fertilizers, such as manures and legumes (http://horttech.ashspublications.org/c

ontent/3/2/137.full.pdf).

Robert Sweet, a researcher at Cornell University, in 1979 researched another way

to grow plants in a faster pace without the use of chemicals. After a thorough study, he

finally found a new and effective alternative- living mulches. According to many

horticulturists, the living mulches that Sweet has discovered was only most effective in

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vegetable production and other small-scale, intensively managed cropping systems. On

the other hand, Ray William and his colleagues at Oregon State Univ. began another,

complementary research program on living mulch systems, focusing mainly on wind

erosion control and on woody crops-tree fruits, Christmas trees, and nursery stock (http

://horttech.ashspublications.org/content/3/2/137.full.pdf).

After the 2 researches have been proven successful, in Apr. 1982, a group of

living mulch researchers gathered at Oregon State Univ. for a workshop entitled “Crop

Production using Cover Crops and Sods as Living Mulches”, wherein the two

researchers, along with their colleagues, was invited to share their discoveries. These

characteristics are summarized in William’s 1987 Oregon State Univ. Extension Circular

on living mulches and include: 1) Rapid establishment to suppress weeds and provide

early trafficability and erosion control. 2) Adequate wear tolerance and persistence. 3)

Tolerance of drought and low fertility. 4) Reduction of costs associated with mowing

intervals, fertilizer needs, thatch removal or chemical mowing. 5) Enhancement of crop

yield and quality (William, 1987). After the workshop, many researchers, agronomists

and horticulturists consequently started their own further research about living mulches

and sought to find other materials that could be used as mulches. Since then, lists of

possible and effective mulches have been discovered and used my many people, even

until now.

Most of us can't imagine living without toilet paper. The average American uses

over 100 single rolls—about 21,000 sheets—each year. It's used not only for bathroom

hygiene, but for nose care, wiping up spills, removing makeup, and small bathroom

cleaning chores. Manufacturers estimate that an average single roll lasts five days (Made-

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How, 2016).

Toilet paper is one of the most basic necessities that people use in their

households. Toilet paper is generally made from new or "virgin" paper, using a

combination of softwood and hardwood trees. Softwood trees such as Southern pines and

Douglas firs have long fibers that wrap around each other; this gives paper strength.

Hardwood trees like gum, maple and oak have shorter fibers that make a softer paper.

Toilet paper is generally a combination of approximately 70% hardwood and 30%

softwood.

According to “Chemistry: Foundations and Applications” by The Gale Group,

Inc., during the past forty years, have become an important part in the economy.

Disposable diapers are underwear used mostly by infants and the elderlies which is made

of synthetic disposable materials, thus its name. The cloth diapers parents used several

years ago to prevent infants, babies and the aged from bedwetting are now replaced with

the modern disposable diapers to lessen the burden of changing the diapers very often.

Diapers are mostly made of cellulosed mixed with crystals of polyacrylate The

cellulose is processed from pine trees and milled into fluff pulp. The pulp consists of long

cellulose fibers that provide a strong thread-like effect, which helps to draw in the liquid.

The surface tension binds the water once it has been absorbed. The polyacrylate, also

known as a superabsorbent polymer or SAP by the diaper industry, is distributed

throughout the fluff pulp. The polyacrylate under pressure can hold an amount of liquid

that is as much as thirty times its weight. It is also used for plants to help retain water in

the soil (Spangler, 2015).

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Review of Related Studies

According to the study of Atolijao, M., Labadia, J., Paras, J., and Villena, J.

(2014), entitled “The Effectiveness of Old Newspaper and Mango (Magnifera Tree Barks

as Alternative Mulch on the Indica) Growth of Okra (Abelmoschus Escurentus) Plants”, it

aimed to determine the significant difference on the all change in height number of leaves

and the number of weeds that grow on the plants without much, old newspaper, much

only mango tree, the bark mulch only and with both old newspaper and mango tree bark

mulch. The researchers used the parallel group design. The result showed that the

presence and the type of mulch had no significant difference on the change of height and

leaf count. However, the type and presence of much has a significant difference from the

number of weeds.

Tan, Z., Wang, H., Wang, C., Yang, Y.,Yi, Y., and Zhou, W. (2016), conducted a

study entitled “Physical and Degradable Properties of Mulching Films Prepared form

Natural Fibers and Biodegradable Polymers”, the advantage of plastic film in agriculture

has the serious inconvenience of generating vast quantities of waste. Films were adapted

in this study from natural fibers and biodegradable polymers as possible substitutes for

the accustomed non-biodegradable plastic film used as mulching material in agricultural

production. The experimental results marked that these fiber/polymer films presented

about the agreeable physical properties that were sufficient for use in mulching film

applications. Furthermore, the treatment of biodegradable films in agriculture can reduce

soil contamination, increase the use of renewable raw materials obtained from agro-

industrial waste.

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Based on the study of Read, N. (2013), entitled “Plant Residues and Newspaper

Mulch Effects on Weed Emergence and Collard Performance,” a variety of mulches has

been discovered successful in reducing soil temperature, for covering up weeds and in

conserving the moisture of the soil using black plastics, but black plastics has advantages

that includes the difficulty in removing and disposing it. The researchers proposed the

idea of having newspaper sheet since the plots containing the newspaper sheet had lower

soil temperature and higher soil moisture than black plastic. Moreover, plots having the

newspaper sheet had generated as well as plots with black plastic.

As stated on the study of Haapala, T. (2015), entitled “Effects of Different Paper

Mulches on Soil Temperature and Yield Cucumber (cucumis sativus L.) in the Temperate

Zone”, the Finland’s cucumber production have decreased due to the low soil

temperature and since the minimum root-zone temperature for cucumber growth is 10-

12o, the researchers proposed the using of mulches to enhance the soil temperature as the

absorb solar radiation and thereby heat of the soil. After the different mulches were

tested it was found out that the soil temperature was the highest under clear polyethylene

intermediate under black polyethylene and lowest when the ground was not mulched.

Additionally, Eledge, N. (2013), conducted a study entitled “A Comparison of

Mulch Systems in an Educational Garden.” The objective of this study was to evaluate

selected garden mulching systems to decrease the time burden of school gardens on the

garden supervisor and to increase garden productivity. Tomatoes (Lycopersicon

esculentum, ‘Mountain Fresh’) were planted into bare ground, black plastic, wheat straw,

and cowpeas at the Lawrence County High School Garden in Lawrenceburg, TN, during

the summer of 2012. Mulch systems were evaluated by measuring their effects on labor,

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plant health, fruit quantity, and fruit weight in an educational garden setting. The results

were that black plastic had higher rates of cull fruit than other treatments. Plants grown in

black plastic and bare ground were less healthy and had a greater percentage of dead

plants than plants grown in wheat straw or cowpeas. Among all treatments, wheat straw

displayed the most promising results for school gardens by being equal to or significantly

(p  0.05) better than all other mulch treatments for every variable.

Furthermore, according to the study of Moreno, M., Moreno, C., and Tarquis , A.

(2013), entitled “ Mulch Material in Processing a Tomato: A Multivariate Approach”, in

this study two biodegradable (BD1,BD2), one oxo-biodegradable material (OB), two

types of paper (PP1,PP2), and one barley straw cover (BS) were compared using two

control treatments (standard black polyethylene (PE)) and manual weed controlled

variables related to weed control were an important source of discrimination, and they

can be summarized in a single one (the first principal component, PC1, in each year). As

a result, the researchers found out that OB (oxo-biodegradable) and BD2 (biodegradable)

films were comparable to black polyethylene. The PE, OB and BD2 group was clearly

differentiated from the other clusters that contained PP1 paper, BS, and MW.OB and

BD2 could be considered as an effective, more environmentally friendly alternative to

polyethylene mulches.

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Chapter 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter states the design of the study, the environment, the subject,

instruments, data gathering procedure and statistical treatment of the experiment.

Research Design

This study, entitled “Disposable Diaper and Toilet Paper as Alternative Mulch

for Eggplant (Solanum melangena): A Comparative Study,” is an experimental research.

This study made use of the parallel group design in which there were two experimental

variables tested and one controlled variable. The disposable diaper, specifically sodium

polyacrylate or gel, and toilet paper were the experimental variables in this study. The

commercial mulch was the controlled variable. There were 3 trials, in which each

contained 3 set ups. And each set up had 3 replicates. The first set up was the eggplant

applied with commercial mulch; this represented the positive control of the study. Set up

B had disposable diaper as mulch to the eggplant. Set up C was the eggplant with toilet

paper as mulch.

Research Environment

The study was conducted in Villa Del Rio 2 at Pit-os, Cebu City which is located

about 4.5 km away from the homes of the researchers. The researchers chose this

environment for it has a convenient source of sunlight, water and soil which was

necessarily required for the growth of the eggplants or Solanum melangena with the

alternative mulches. Also, the plant beds to be used were already provided in the said

location.

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Research Subject

For this study, the researchers made use of eggplants (Solanum melangena) as

their subject because the study to be conducted required a plant or variety of plants in

order to observe the effectiveness of the alternative mulches, which was based on the

growth of the plants. The researchers decided to use eggplants as their subject for the

study to be conducted because this plant is tropical, which means that it was safe from the

caution of too much heat in the environment and would still grow bountifully amidst the

warm weather and because this plant is fast-growing, which means that the researchers

can achieve and finish the conducting of the study and observation at an allotted amount

of time.

Research Instrument

This life-research experiment utilized a clerical tool and a mechanical tool in

gathering the data. The clerical tool that the researchers used was an observation table in

which the researchers jotted down their observations and measurements of the set ups. On

the other hand, the mechanical tool used was a tape measure for measuring the height of

the eggplants.

Data Gathering Procedure

This study made use of observation and measurement method in retrieving the

data of the experiment. In measuring, the researchers used tape measure to measure the

accurate height of the eggplants in centimeters. Moreover, the researchers wrote down the

number of leaves and weeds grown based on their observation.

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Furthermore, the data collected with the use of observation tables was statistically treated.

A. Height of the eggplant (in cm)

Set up A Set up B Set up C

T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3

R1 X X X X X X X X X

R2 X X X X X X X X X

R3 X X X X X X X X X

B. Leaf count

Set up A Set up B Set up C

T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3

R1 X X X X X X X X X

R2 X X X X X X X X X

R3 X X X X X X X X X

C. Number of weeds

Set up A Set up B Set up C

T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3

R1 X X X X X X X X X

R2 X X X X X X X X X

R3 X X X X X X X X X

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Statistical Treatment Used

The data gathered by the researchers was statistically treated with the use of One-

Way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance), in which the significant difference of the means of

2 or more dependent samples was tested. In this experiment, the means of the dependent

samples – height, leaf count and number of weeds – were treated statistically.

Research Procedure

A. Preparing the materials

1. The materials needed for the experiment were as follows:

 Eggplant seeds

 Loam soil

 Egg tray (alternative seed tray)

 Gardener’s tools (small shovel, gloves, etc.)

 Heater

 Commercial Mulch

 Unused disposable diapers

 Unused toilet papers

 Tape measure

B. Sterilizing the soil

1. Place soil on a plastic sheeting under the heat of the sun.

2. Next, boil water using a heater until it reaches its boiling point.

3. After, pour boiled water on the soil. Make sure the soil is totally soaked.

4. Let the soil be completely sterilized under the heat of the sun for 1 day.

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C. Making the plant nursery

1. Prepare 3 egg trays as seed trays. Put 4 small holes at the bottom of each bag

for drainage holes.

2. Put ½ sterilized soils on each space.

3. Poke ½ inch (1 ¼ cm) holes in the center of the soil in each.

4. Put 2 eggplant seeds on the holes of each space occupied by the soil.

5. Add sterilized soil to fully cover the seeds.

6. Label 3 bags as SA:T1:R1, SA:T1:R2, SA:T1:R3; 3 bags as SA:T2:R1,

SA:T2:R2, SA:T2:R3; 3 bags as SA:T3:R1, SA:T3:R2, SA:T3:R3. Label

another 3 bags as SB:T1:R1, SB:T1:R2, SB:T1:R3; 3 bags as SB:T2:R1,

SB:T2:R2, SB:T2:R3; 3 bags as SB:T3:R1, SB:T3:R2, SB:T3:R3. Label the

last bags, 3 of them as SC:T1:R1, SC:T1:R2, SC:T1:R3; 3 bags as SC:T2:R1,

SC:T2:R2, SC:T2:R3; the last 3 bags as SC:T3:R1, SC:T3:R2, and SC:T3:R3.

7. Set the seed trays indoor, specifically at the window panes.

8. Group plastic bags according to its set up and line them up according to its

trial.

9. Water the seeds every day and wait for 2 weeks for it to germinate before

transplanting.

D. Making the planting bed

1. Using a measuring tape, measure 1 ½ meters (59 inches) in length and 1

meter (40 inches) in width on planting bed with sterilized or potting soil.

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E. Transplanting the seedlings

1. After 2 weeks, measure the initial height of each plant in centimeters using a

tape measure, count the number of leaves and if possible, weeds as well.

2. Transplant the seedlings using gloves and fork to the planting bed. Transplant

them according to its set up and trial.

3. Plant the seedlings on the planting bed 8 inches apart.

F. Applying the mulches

For the commercial mulch:

1. Place the commercial mulch on top of the soils of the plants of Set up A.

Make sure the soils are totally covered.

For the disposable diaper:

2. Get about 5 large unusable disposable diapers and pour about 5-7 cups of tap

water on the inside. Make sure they are completely drenched.

3. Wait for the diapers to absorb all the liquid.

4. Use scissors to cut the cotton part of the diaper.

5. Place the gel from the diaper to a bowl.

6. Apply the gel on top of the soils of the plants on Set up B. Make sure the soils

are wholly covered.

For the toilet paper:

7. Get about 3 rolls of unused toilet paper and tear them to pieces.

8. Completely cover the soils of the plants on Set up C with the torn toilet

papers.

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G. Gathering the data

1. Measure the height of each plant using a tape measure after the first week of

its transplant (week 1). Record the findings on the observation table.

2. Count the number of leaves of each plant from each set up and record them on

the observation table.

3. Record on the observation table the number of weeds grown on each plant on

the different mulches.

4. Repeat this process for the next three weeks.

H. Treating the data statistically

1. Treat all the data collected with the statistically tool, One-way ANOVA

(Analysis of Variance).

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Chapter 4

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter contains the presentation, analysis and interpretation of the data

gathered by the researchers. This part of the study shows tables comprising of the results

from the conduction of the study.

Initial Measurements (2 weeks after planting)

Table 1.1 Height of the eggplant (in cm)

Set up A Set up B Set up C

T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3

R1 6 5 6 5 6 6 6 6 6

R2 6 5 6 5 5 6 6 6 5

R3 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 6

Ave. 5.78 5.44 5.67

Table 1.2 Leaf count

Set up A Set up B Set up C

T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3

R1 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2

R2 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2

R3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Ave. 2 1.78 1.89

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Table 1.3 Number of weeds

Set up A Set up B Set up C

T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3

R1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

R2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

R3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Ave. 0 0 0

In Table 1.1, the height of the eggplants in set up A, B and C are almost the same

with each other, measuring at either 5 or 6 cm. In Table 1.2, the eggplants’ leaf count are

also almost the same, mostly having 2 leaves. In Table 1.3, it is seen that all of the

eggplants have grown no weeds on their 2nd week of growth.

1st Week (After applying the mulches)

Table 2.1 Height of the eggplant (in cm)

Set up A Set up B Set up C

T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3

R1 10 9 11 9 9 8 10 10 10

R2 10 9 11 9 9 9 10 10 9

R3 10 10 10 10 9 8 9 9 10

Ave. 10 8.89 9.67

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Table 2.2 Leaf count

Set up A Set up B Set up C

T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3

R1 4 4 3 3 4 4 4 4 3

R2 4 4 4 3 3 4 4 3 4

R3 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 4 4

Ave. 3.78 3.44 3.78

Table 2.3 Number of weeds

Set up A Set up B Set up C

T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3

R1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

R2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

R3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Ave. 0 0 0

As shown in Table 2.1 above, the height of the eggplants after 1 week of applying

the mulches have been variegated. In the table shows that set up A or the eggplants with

commercial mulch have shown much more increase in height rather than set up B and C,

set up C closely following set up A. In Table 2.2, set up A, B and C’s leaf count is seen to

still be almost the same. As for the set ups’ number of weeds splayed in Table 2.3, the set

ups still have shown no growth of weeds.

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2nd Week (After applying the mulches)

Table 3.1 Height of the eggplant (in cm)


Set up A Set up B Set up C

T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3

R1 16 16 16 12 14 14 15 16 15

R2 15 15 15 11 13 12 15 15 14

R3 16 17 16 12 15 13 14 15 14

Ave. 15.78 12.89 14.78

Table 3.2 Leaf count

Set up A Set up B Set up C

T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3

R1 6 5 6 4 5 5 6 6 6

R2 6 6 6 4 4 5 5 6 6

R3 5 6 6 5 4 5 5 6 5

Ave. 5.78 4.56 5.67

Table 3.3 Number of weeds

Set up A Set up B Set up C

T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3

R1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

R2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

R3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Ave. 0 0 0

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In Table 3.1, set up A shows the greatest increase in height, set up C still coming

close to set up A and set up B having the least progress in terms of height. As for the leaf

count shown in Table 3.2, set up A and C have almost the same number of leaves while

set up B has the least number of leaves among the set ups. In Table 3.3, it is shown that

all of the set ups’ trials and replicates have still shown no growth of weeds.

3rd Week (After applying the mulches)

Table 4.1 Height of the eggplant (in cm)

Set up A Set up B Set up C

T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3

R1 20 21 21 16 18 18 21 20 21

R2 21 20 20 15 17 16 21 19 18

R3 22 20 20 16 19 17 19 21 19

Ave. 20.56 16.56 19.89

Table 4.2 Leaf count

Set up A Set up B Set up C

T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3

R1 9 8 9 7 8 8 9 10 9

R2 9 9 9 7 7 8 8 9 8

R3 10 8 9 8 7 8 10 9 8

Ave. 8.89 7.56 8.78

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Table 4.3 Number of weeds

Set up A Set up B Set up C

T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3

R1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

R2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

R3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Ave. 0 0 0

In Table 4.1, set up A’s trials and replicates have been seen to be the tallest, set up

C and B following respectively. In Table 4.2 which shows the leaf count of each set up’s

trials and replicates, set up A and C grew the most number of leaves. Table 4.3 shows

that all of the set ups have still shown no growth of weeds.

4th Week (After applying the mulches)

Table 5.1 Height of the eggplant (in cm)

Set up A Set up B Set up C

T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3

R1 25 26 24 20 22 22 25 24 24

R2 25 26 23 19 21 20 25 23 22

R3 25 25 23 20 23 21 22 24 22

Ave. 24.56 20.89 23.44

25
Table 5.2 Leaf count

Set up A Set up B Set up C

T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3

R1 13 11 12 10 10 10 12 12 12

R2 12 12 12 11 10 10 11 12 13

R3 13 11 12 11 11 10 11 12 11

Ave. 12 10.33 11.78

Table 5.3 Number of weeds

Set up A Set up B Set up C

T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3

R1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

R2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

R3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Ave. 0 0 0

On the 4th week of observing the plants after having applied the mulches, the

following data was gathered- as seen in Table 5.1 which contains the measurements of

the plants’ height in cm, set up A and C have almost the same height, set up B still having

the least height. In table 5.2, it is seen that set up A and C have almost the same number

of leaves in each trials and replicates, set up B having the least number of leaves. In

Table 5.3, which comprises the set ups’ number of weeds, all of the set ups have still

shown no growth of weeds on the 4th week after applying the mulches.

26
Based on the data gathered, the commercial mulch, which is used in the eggplants

in Set up A, is the most effective in terms of height and leaf count due to commercial

mulch being widely used and proven to be effective in growing plants. The alternative

mulches (diaper and toilet paper), which the researchers intended to study, have shown

different results. The toilet paper mulch applied to the eggplants in Set up B has shown

almost the same results as the commercial mulch than the diaper mulch. Based on the

researchers’ understanding, the toilet paper mulch is more effective in terms of height and

leaf count compared to diaper mulch because toilet paper has properties that are also

found in newspaper, which has been proven to be an effective mulch, while the diaper

mulch is not yet commonly used as a mulch.

27
Chapter 5

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

This chapter presents the summary of the problem, the findings of the study, the

conclusions drawn and the recommendations made by the researchers to improve or to

enhance the study.

Summary

This life-research experiment entitled, “Disposable Diaper and Toilet Paper as

Alternative Mulch for Eggplant (Solanum melangena): A Comparative Study,” aimed to

differentiate the efficiency of disposable diaper and toilet paper as an alternative mulch

for eggplant in terms of its height, leaf count and number of weeds grown for 4 weeks.

The researchers utilized the parallel-group experimental design in conducting. The goal

of this study is to identify which of the alternative mulches is more effective when it

comes to the height, leaf count and lesser number of weeds of the eggplants, and to know

which of the set ups can make the eggplants grow faster, has the most number of leaves,

and has the least number of weeds in each week.

Findings of the Study

Based on the data retrieved from the experiment, the researchers first calculated

the means of the data in each set up from each week, then compared the following

results:

1. A. In terms of height, the toilet paper mulch is more effective than the diaper

mulch with a mean of 9.67 cm from week 1, 14.78 cm from week 2, 19.89 cm

from week 3, and 23.44 cm from week 4. The disposable diaper mulch only had

28
the mean of 8.89 cm from week 1, 12.89 cm from week 2, 16.56 cm from week 3,

and 20.89 cm from week 4.

B. When it comes to the leaf count, the toilet paper mulch is still more effective than

diaper mulch, having an average of 3.78 from week 1, 5.67 from week 2, 8.78

from week 3, and 11.78 form week 4. The diaper mulch only had an average of

3.44 form week 1, 4.56 from week 2, 7.56 from week 3, and 10.33 from week 4.

C. The alternative mulch which is more effective in terms of having the least number

of weeds on the eggplants cannot be determined since there were no weeds

present during the time of conduction.

2. A. During the first week of experimentation, Set up A made the eggplants grow

faster than Set up B and C with a mean of 10 cm. Following, Set up C had a mean

of 9.67 cm in week 1 while Set up B came last with a mean of 8.89 cm.

B. In week 2, Set up A came first again in making the eggplants grow faster with an

average of 15.78 cm. Set up C followed with a 14.78 cm mean. Lastly, Set up B

had a 12.89 cm average.

C. During the third week of conducting the research, Set up B made the eggplants

grow the slowest with a mean of 16.56 cm, while Set up A made the eggplants

grow the fastest with a 20.56 cm average. Following closely was Set up C with a

mean height of 19.89 cm.

D. In week 4, Set up A still made the eggplants grow the fastest among the set ups

with an average height of 24.56 cm. Set up C closely tailed with a 23.44 cm mean.

Lastly, Set up B had a mean height of 20.89 cm.

29
3. A. Among the set ups, Set up A and Set up C had the most number of leaves

during the first week of experimentation, with the same average count of 3.78. Set

up B only had an average count of 3.44.

B. During the second week, Set up A had a higher leaf count with a mean count of

5.78. Set up C came closely with a mean count of 5.67 and Set up B came last

with 4.56 mean count.

C. In week 3, Set up B had the least number of leaves with an average count of 7.56.

Set up A had the most number of leaves with an average count of 8.89, following

closely was Set up C with an 8.78 mean count.

D. In the last week of experimentation, Set up A had the most number of leaves,

followed by Set up C and lastly Set up B, with the respective mean count of 12,

11.78, and 10.33.

4. It cannot be determined among the set ups which had the least number of weeds

in each week since there were no weeds present on the eggplants during the 4

weeks of observation.

Conclusion

Based on the findings of the study and the calculations made by the researchers

using the One-Way ANOVA, the following conclusions are drawn:

1. Therefore, there is a significant difference between the disposable diaper and

toilet paper as mulch in terms of the height of the eggplants in all weeks of

observation because the F computed values from each week, 7.89, 23.36, 34.43

and 21.66, are greater than the critical value, 3.4028.

30
2. Therefore, during the first week of observation, there is no significant difference

between the disposable diaper and toilet paper as mulch in terms of the leaf count

of the eggplants because the F computed value, 1.59, is less than the critical value,

3.4028. However, for the rest of the weeks, there is a significant difference

between the two alternative mulches in terms of number of leaves grown because

the F computed values, 17.08, 13.61 and 18.53, are greater than the critical value.

3. Therefore, there is no significant difference between the disposable diaper and

toilet paper as mulch in terms of number of weeds due to the absence of weeds

during the 4 weeks of experimentation.

Recommendations

To obtain a more desirable result on the alternative mulches, the researchers

recommended the following:

1. Include the number of fruits that have grown during the observation.

2. Extend the number of weeks in conducting the study.

3. Use another plant to be used as a subject in the study (e.g. Solanum

lycopersicum).

31
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Internet Sources

Iannotti, M. (2017). Mulch Is It and Mulch Should You Use Where?. Retrieved

from https ://www.thespruce.com/what-is-mulch-1402413

Patterson, S. (2016). Mulch For The Garden – Learn About The Benefits of Using

Mulch. Retrieved from https://www.gardeningknowhow.com/garden-how-

to/mulch/benefits-of-using-mulch.htm

Overview of Disposable Diaper Parts and Their Purpose. (2017). Retrieved from

https://www.technicaltextile.net/articles/medical-textiles.detail.aspx?article_id

=3372

Eggplant. (2017). Retrieved from https://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?dbid=2

2&tname=foodspice

Ashworth, S. (2017). Growing Eggplants Successfully. Retrieved from http://ww

w.finegardening.com/growing-eggplants-successfully

Toilet Paper. (2017). Retrieved from www.madehow.com/Volume-6/Toilet-

Paper.html

Spangler, S. (2015). The Baby Diaper Secret. Englewood, Colorado. Retrieved

from https://www.stevespanglerscience.com/lab/experiments/baby-diaper-

secret-vanishing-water/

Published Materials

Atolijao, M., Labadia, J., Paras, J., & Villena, J. (2014). The Effectiveness of Old

Newspaper and Mango (Magnifera Tree Barks as Alternative Mulch on the

32
Indica) Growth of Okra (Abelmoschus Escurentus) Plants. Talamban, Cebu

City: Talamban National High School.

Chemistry: Foundations and Applications. (2008). United States: The Gale Group

Inc..

Unpublished Materials

Tan, Z., Wang, H., Wang, C., Yang, Y.,Yi, Y., & Zhou, W. (May 12, 2016).

Physical and Degradable Properties of Mulching Films Prepared from

Natural Fibers and Biodegradable Polymers. Changsha, China: Institute of

Bast Fiber Crops, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.

Read, N. A. (2013). Plant Residues and Newspaper Mulch Effects on Weed

Emergence and Collard Performance. Columbus, Ohio: The Ohio State

University.

Haapala, T. (2015). Effects of Different Paper Mulches on Soil Temperature and

Yield Cucumber (cucumis sativus L.) in the Temperate Zone. Finland:

University of Helsinki.

Eledge, N. (2013). A Comparison of Mulch Systems in an Educational Garden.

Tennessee, United States: University of Tennessee.

Moreno, M., Moreno, C., & Tarquis , A. (2013). Mulch Material in Processing a

Tomato: A Multivariate Approach. Spain: Universidad de Castilla-La

Mancha.

33
APPENDICES

34
APPENDIX A

Documentation

Fig. 1. Heating of water for sterilization Fig. 2. Sterilizing the soil

Fig. 3. Planting the seeds in egg trays Fig. 4. Pouring water to the diaper

Fig. 5. Removing the gel from the diaper Fig. 6. Set up A (1st week)

Fig. 7. Set up B (1st week) Fig. 8. Set up C (1st week)

35
Fig. 9. Set up A (2nd week) Fig. 10. Set up B (2nd week) Fig. 11. Set up C (2nd week)

Fig. 12. Set up A (3rd week) Fig. 13. Set up B (3rd week) Fig. 14. Set up C (3rd week)

Fig. 15. Set up A (4th week) Fig. 16. Set up B (4th week) Fig. 17. Set up C (4th week)

36
APPENDIX B

Calculations

Formulas used:
𝑀𝑆𝑆
𝐹 = 𝑀𝑆𝑆 𝐵 𝑑𝑓𝐵 = 𝑘 − 1 𝑑𝑓𝑊 = 𝑛 − 𝑘
𝑊

1. Height (1st week)

Table 1. Finding the means and the value of SSW

Set up A Set up B Set up C (x1-𝑥̅ 1)2 (x2-𝑥̅ 2)2 (x3-𝑥̅ 3)2


10 9 10 0 0.01 0.12
10 9 10 0 0.01 .0.12
10 10 9 0 1.23 0.45
9 9 10 1 0.01 0.12
9 9 10 1 0.01 0.12
10 9 9 0 0.01 0.45
11 8 10 1 0.79 0.12
11 9 9 1 0.01 0.45
10 8 10 0 0.79 0.12
ng = 9 ng = 9 ng = 9 ∑=4 ∑ = 2.87 ∑ = 2.07
nG = 27 SSW = 8.94
𝑥̅ g = 10 𝑥̅ g = 8.89 𝑥̅ g = 9.67
𝑥̅ G = 9.52
k=3

Table 2. Finding the value of SSB

Ng (𝑥̅ 1 − 𝑥̅ 𝐺 )2 9 (10 – 9.52)2 2.07


Ng (𝑥̅ 2 − 𝑥̅ 𝐺 )2 9 (8.89 – 9.52)2 3.57
Ng (𝑥̅ 3 − 𝑥̅ 𝐺 )2 9 (9.67 – 9.52)2 0.20
∑ = 5.84

37
Table 3. Results of the computation

Source Sum of Squares Degrees of Mean Square F


(SS) Freedom (df) (MS)

Between (B) 5.84 2 2.92 MSB/MSW =


7.89

Within (W) 8.94 24 0.37 dfF = 3.4028

Total (T) 14.78 26

2. Leaf count (1st week)

Table 4. Finding the means and the value of SSW

Set up A Set up B Set up C (x1-𝑥̅ 1)2 (x2-𝑥̅ 2)2 (x3-𝑥̅ 3)2


4 3 4 0.05 0.19 0.05
4 3 4 0.05 0.19 0.05
4 4 4 0.05 0.31 0.05
4 4 4 0.05 0.31 0.05
4 3 3 0.05 0.19 0.61
4 3 4 0.05 0.19 0.05
3 4 3 0.61 0.31 0.61
4 4 4 0.05 0.31 0.05
3 3 4 0.61 0.19 0.05
ng = 9 ng = 9 ng = 9 ∑ = 1.57 ∑ = 2.19 ∑ = 1.57
nG = 27 SSW = 5.33
𝑥̅ g = 3.78 𝑥̅ g = 3.44 𝑥̅ g = 3.78
𝑥̅ G = 3.67
k=3

Table 5. Finding the value of SSB

Ng (𝑥̅ 1 − 𝑥̅ 𝐺 )2 9 (3.78 – 3.67)2 0.11


Ng (𝑥̅ 2 − 𝑥̅ 𝐺 )2 9 (3.44 – 3.67)2 0.48
Ng (𝑥̅ 3 − 𝑥̅ 𝐺 )2 9 (3.78 – 3.67)2 0.11
∑ = 0.7

38
Table 6. Results of the computation

Source Sum of Squares Degrees of Mean Square F


(SS) Freedom (df) (MS)

Between (B) 0.7 2 0.35 MSB/MSW =


1.59

Within (W) 5.33 24 0.22 dfF = 3.4028

Total (T) 6.03 26

3. Height (2nd week)

Table 7. Finding the means and the value of SSW

Set up A Set up B Set up C (x1-𝑥̅ 1)2 (x2-𝑥̅ 2)2 (x3-𝑥̅ 3)2


16 12 15 0.05 0.79 0.05
15 11 15 0.61 3.57 0.05
16 12 14 0.05 0.79 0.61
16 14 16 0.05 1.23 1.49
15 13 15 0.61 0.01 0.05
17 15 15 1.49 4.45 0.05
16 14 15 0.05 1.23 0.05
15 12 14 0.61 0.79 0.61
16 13 14 0.05 0.01 0.61
ng = 9 ng = 9 ng = 9 ∑ = 3.57 ∑ = 12.87 ∑ = 3.57
nG = 27 SSW = 20.01
𝑥̅ g = 15.78 𝑥̅ g = 12.89 𝑥̅ g = 14.78
𝑥̅ G = 14.48
k=3

Table 8. Finding the value of SSB

Ng (𝑥̅ 1 − 𝑥̅ 𝐺 )2 9 (15.78 – 14.48)2 15.21


Ng (𝑥̅ 2 − 𝑥̅ 𝐺 )2 9 (12.89 – 14.48)2 22.75
Ng (𝑥̅ 3 − 𝑥̅ 𝐺 )2 9 (14.78 – 14.48)2 0.81
∑ = 38.77

39
Table 9. Results of the computation

Source Sum of Squares Degrees of Mean Square F


(SS) Freedom (df) (MS)

Between (B) 38.77 2 19.39 MSB/MSW =


23.36

Within (W) 20.01 24 0.83 dfF = 3.4208

Total (T) 58.78 26

4. Leaf count (2nd week)

Table 10. Finding the means and the value of SSW


Set up A Set up B Set up C (x1-𝑥̅ 1)2 (x2-𝑥̅ 2)2 (x3-𝑥̅ 3)2
6 4 6 0.05 0.31 0.11
6 4 5 0.05 0.31 0.45
5 5 5 0.61 0.19 0.45
5 5 6 0.61 0.19 0.11
6 4 6 0.05 0.31 0.11
6 4 6 0.05 0.31 0.11
6 5 6 0.05 0.19 0.11
6 5 6 0.05 0.19 0.11
6 5 5 0.05 0.19 0.45
ng = 9 ng = 9 ng = 9 ∑ = 1.57 ∑ = 2.19 ∑ = 2.01
nG = 27 SSW = 5.77
𝑥̅ g = 5.78 𝑥̅ g = 4.56 𝑥̅ g = 5.67
𝑥̅ G = 5.33
k=3

Table 11. Finding the value of SSB

Ng (𝑥̅ 1 − 𝑥̅ 𝐺 )2 9 (5.78 – 5.33)2 1.82


Ng (𝑥̅ 2 − 𝑥̅ 𝐺 )2 9 (4.56 – 5.33)2 5.34
Ng (𝑥̅ 3 − 𝑥̅ 𝐺 )2 9 (5.67 – 5.33)2 1.04
∑ = 8.2

Table 12. Results of the computation

40
Source Sum of Squares Degrees of Mean Square F
(SS) Freedom (df) (MS)

Between (B) 8.2 2 4.1 MSB/MSW =


17.08

Within (W) 5.77 24 0.24 dfF = 3.4208

Total (T) 13.97 26

5. Height (3rd week)

Table 13. Finding the means and the value of SSW


Set up A Set up B Set up C (x1-𝑥̅ 1)2 (x2-𝑥̅ 2)2 (x3-𝑥̅ 3)2
20 16 21 0.31 0.31 1.23
21 15 21 0.19 2.43 1.23
22 16 19 2.07 0.31 0.79
21 18 20 0.19 2.07 0.01
20 17 19 0.31 0.19 0.79
20 19 21 0.31 5.95 1.23
21 18 21 0.19 2.07 1.23
20 16 18 0.31 0.31 3.57
20 17 19 0.31 0.19 0.79
ng = 9 ng = 9 ng = 9 ∑ = 4.19 ∑ = 13.83 ∑ = 10.87
nG = 27 SSW = 28.89
𝑥̅ g = 20.56 𝑥̅ g = 16.56 𝑥̅ g = 19.89
𝑥̅ G = 19
k=3

Table 14. Finding the value of SSB

Ng (𝑥̅ 1 − 𝑥̅ 𝐺 )2 9 (20.56 -19)2 21.90


Ng (𝑥̅ 2 − 𝑥̅ 𝐺 )2 9 (16.56 – 19)2 53.58
Ng (𝑥̅ 3 − 𝑥̅ 𝐺 )2 9 (19.89 – 19)2 7.13
∑ = 82.61

Table 15. Results of the computation


Source Sum of Squares Degrees of Mean Square F
(SS) Freedom (df) (MS)

41
Between (B) 82.61 2 41.31 MSB/MSW =
34.43

Within (W) 28.89 24 1.20 dfF = 3.4208

Total (T) 111.5 26

6. Leaf count (3rd week)

Table 16. Finding the means and the value of SSW

Set up A Set up B Set up C (x1-𝑥̅ 1)2 (x2-𝑥̅ 2)2 (x3-𝑥̅ 3)2


9 7 9 0.01 0.31 0.05
9 7 8 0.01 0.31 0.61
10 8 9 1.23 0.19 0.05
8 8 10 0.79 0.19 1.49
9 7 9 0.01 0.31 0.05
8 7 9 0.79 0.31 0.05
9 8 9 0.01 0.19 0.05
9 8 8 0.01 0.19 0.61
9 8 8 0.01 0.19 0.61
ng = 9 ng = 9 ng = 9 ∑ = 2.87 ∑ = 2.19 ∑ = 3.57
nG = 27 SSW = 8.63
𝑥̅ g = 8.89 𝑥̅ g = 7.56 𝑥̅ g = 8.78
𝑥̅ G = 8.41
k=3

Table 17. Finding the value of SSB

Ng (𝑥̅ 1 − 𝑥̅ 𝐺 )2 9 (8.89 – 8.41)2 2.07


Ng (𝑥̅ 2 − 𝑥̅ 𝐺 )2 9 (7.56 – 8.41)2 6.50
Ng (𝑥̅ 3 − 𝑥̅ 𝐺 )2 9 (8.78 – 8.41)2 1.23
∑ = 9.8

Table 18. Results of the computation


Source Sum of Squares Degrees of Mean Square F
(SS) Freedom (df) (MS)

Between (B) 9.8 2 4.9 MSB/MSW =


13.61

42
Within (W) 8.63 24 0.36 dfF = 3.4208

Total (T) 18.43 26

7. Height (4th week)

Table 19. Finding the means and the value of SSW

Set up A Set up B Set up C (x1-𝑥̅ 1)2 (x2-𝑥̅ 2)2 (x3-𝑥̅ 3)2


25 20 25 0.19 0.79 2.43
25 19 25 0.19 3.57 2.43
24 20 22 0.31 0.79 2.07
26 22 24 2.07 1.23 0.31
26 21 23 2.07 0.01 0.19
25 23 24 0.19 4.45 0.31
24 22 24 0.31 1.23 0.31
23 20 22 2.43 0.79 2.07
23 21 22 2.43 0.01 2.07
ng = 9 ng = 9 ng = 9 ∑ =10.19 ∑ = 12.87 ∑ = 12.19
nG = 27 SSW = 35.25
𝑥̅ g = 24.56 𝑥̅ g = 20.89 𝑥̅ g = 23.44
𝑥̅ G = 22.96
k=3

Table 20. Finding the value of SSB

Ng (𝑥̅ 1 − 𝑥̅ 𝐺 )2 9 (24.56 – 22.96)2 23.04


Ng (𝑥̅ 2 − 𝑥̅ 𝐺 )2 9 (20.89 – 22.96)2 38.56
Ng (𝑥̅ 3 − 𝑥̅ 𝐺 )2 9 (23.44 – 22.96)2 2.07
∑ = 63.67

Table 21. Results of the computation


Source Sum of Squares Degrees of Mean Square F
(SS) Freedom (df) (MS)

Between (B) 63.67 2 31.84 MSB/MSW =


21.66

Within (W) 35.25 24 1.47 dfF = 3.4208

43
Total (T) 98.92 26

8. Leaf count (4th week)

Table 22. Finding the means and the value of SSW


Set up A Set up B Set up C (x1-𝑥̅ 1)2 (x2-𝑥̅ 2)2 (x3-𝑥̅ 3)2
13 10 12 1 0.11 0.05
12 11 11 0 0.45 0.61
13 11 11 1 0.45 0.61
11 10 12 1 0.11 0.05
12 10 12 0 0.11 0.05
11 11 12 1 0.45 0.05
12 10 12 0 0.11 0.05
12 10 13 0 0.11 1.49
12 10 11 0 0.11 0.61
ng = 9 ng = 9 ng = 9 ∑=4 ∑ = 2.01 ∑ = 3.57
nG = 27 SSW = 9.58
𝑥̅ g = 12 𝑥̅ g = 10.33 𝑥̅ g = 11.78
𝑥̅ G = 11.37
k=3

Table 23. Finding the value of SSB

Ng (𝑥̅ 1 − 𝑥̅ 𝐺 )2 9 (12 -11.37)2 3.57


Ng (𝑥̅ 2 − 𝑥̅ 𝐺 )2 9 (10.33 – 10.37)2 9.73
Ng (𝑥̅ 3 − 𝑥̅ 𝐺 )2 9 (11.78 – 10.37)2 1.51
∑ = 14.81

Table 24. Results of the computation


Source Sum of Squares Degrees of Mean Square F
(SS) Freedom (df) (MS)

Between (B) 14.81 2 7.41 MSB/MSW =


18.53

Within (W) 9.58 24 0.40 dfF = 3.4208

Total (T) 24.39 26

44
APPENDIX C

Expenses

Product Price (Php) Quantity Total (Php)

Soil 80 6 480

Commercial Mulch 50 1 50

Disposable Diaper 12 9 108

Toilet Paper 12 2 24

Transportation - - 177

Total = 839

45
CURRICULUM VITAE

Personal Data

Name : Marie Amanda C. Pernito

Home Address : Villa Del Rio 2, Pit-os, Cebu City

Age : 15 years old

Date of Birth : August 10, 2002

Place of Birth : Cebu City, Cebu

Parents

Father : Jessie A. Pernito

Mother : Marites C. Pernito

Educational Background

Elementary : Guadalupe Elementary School

Vicente Rama Ave., Guadalupe, Cebu City

S.Y. 2009-2011

: Talamban Elementary School

Borbajo St., Talamban, Cebu City

S.Y. 2011-2015

3rd Honorable Mention

Secondary : Talamban National High School

Borbajo St., Talamban, Cebu City

S.Y. 2015-Present

46
CURRICULUM VITAE

Personal Data

Name : Ela Lois B. Tuhoy

Home Address : 5-004 Pagsabungan, Mandaue City

Age : 15 years old

Date of Birth : April 27, 2002

Place of Birth : Cebu City, Cebu

Parents

Father : Arcelito M. Tuhoy

Mother : Elena B. Tuhoy

Educational Background

Elementary : Talamban Elementary School

Borbajo St., Talamban, Cebu City

S.Y. 2009-2015

Secondary : Talamban National High School

Borbajo St., Talamban, Cebu City

S.Y. 2015-Present

47
CURRICULUM VITAE

Personal Data

Name : Lara Marie B. Codoy

Home Address : Kalubihan, Talamban, Cebu City

Age : 15 years old

Date of Birth : January 21, 2003

Place of Birth : Cebu City, Cebu

Parents

Father : Larry A. Codoy

Mother : Maria Teresa B. Codoy

Educational Background

Elementary : BCPS – Special Class in the Arts

Bais City, Negros Oriental

S.Y. 2009-2014

: Talamban Elementary School

Borbajo St., Talamban, Cebu City

S.Y. 2014-2015

Secondary : Talamban National High School

Borbajo St., Talamban, Cebu City

S.Y. 2015-Present

48