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# APPENDIX D

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ANSWERS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS
CHAPTER 2
2.1 (a) Re = 834, laminar; (b) Re = 3.94x106, e/D = 0.00173, wholly rough, turbulent.
2.2 (a) f = 0.0174, transitional; (b) e = 1.05x10-4m; (c) 18.6 kW.
2.3 p = 744 kPa.
2.4 Q = 0.607 m3/s, P = 397 kW.
2.5 Q = 0.559 m3 /s.
2.6 D = 143.9 mm.
2.7 (a) K = 22.907, n = 1.852; (b) K = 2868.7, n = 1.852, (c) K = 14.410, n = 1.852.
2.9 Darcy-Weisbach hf = 4.986 ft; Hazen-Williams hf = 4.803 ft; difference = 0.092 ft;
Manning hf = 5.101 ft; difference = - 0.205 ft.
2.13 Q = 0.00698 m3 /s.
2.14 h f = 3.47 m.
2.15 113.5 m vs. 34.6 m (about 3 times as large).
2.16 f = 0.0195, h f = 26.6 m.
2.17 P = 109.7 kW.
2.18 P = 5608 kW.
2.19 h f = 28.95 m.
2.20 Use 10% of z for h f, D = 2.58 m.
2.21 f = 0.0279, D = 0.513 m.
2.22 hp = 109.2 ft, HP = 99.1, N s = 1775 (centrifugal).
2.23 f = 0.0127, D = 326 mm.
2.24 f = 0.0148, D = 0.181 m.
2.26 h L = 0.162 m saved.
2.27 h L = 3.59 m, 2.94 m, 1.96 m.
2.28 h L = 4.077 m, 0.155 m, 8.155 m.
2.29 Q = 0.0082 m3 /s.
2.30 Q = 0.55 m3/s (net return for pumping = 40.45/16.18 = 2.5).
CHAPTER 4
4.2 Q 1 = 3.1 ft3 /s, f = 0.0181.
4.3 (a) K = 0.8318, n = 1.960.
4.4 (d) hf5 = 20.37 m, H 3 = 300.4 m; (e) Q 6 = 0.112 m3/s, H 2 = 306 m.
4.7 Q 1 = 1.75 ft3 /s, h f1 = 16.82 ft.
4.8 Q 1 = 0.849 ft3 /s, Q 2 = 2.151 ft3 /s.
4.9 Q 1 = 1.97 ft3/s, Q 2 = 2.47 ft3/s, H 1 = 96.9 ft, H 2 = 116.6 ft.
4.10 Q 1 = 0.496 ft3/s, Q 2 = 2.504 ft3/s, Q 3 = 3.504 ft3/s, h p = 154.4 ft.
4.11 HGL = 69.93 ft, PRV dissipates 7.37 ft.
4.12 Q 1 = 0.143, Q 2 = 0.622, Q 3 = 0.265, Q 4 = 0.735, Q 5 = 1.857, all in ft3/s.
4.15 Q 1 = 0.202, Q 2 = 0.109, Q 3 = 0.029, Q 4 = 0.033, Q 5 = 0.012, all in ft3/s.
4.19 Q 3 = 0.0446, Q 4 = 0.0196, Q 5 = 0.0554, Q 6 = 0.0254, all in m3/s.

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4.23 (a) Q 1 = 0.606, Q 2 = 0.560, Q 3 = 0.106, Q 4 = 0.0462, Q 5 = 0.0602, Q 6 =
0.394, Q 7 = 0.190, all in ft3/s; (b) Q 1 = 0.0061, Q 2 = 0.0323, Q 3 = 0.0228,
Q 4 = 0.1572, Q 5 = 0.1177, Q 6 = 0.1412, Q 7 = 0.5239, all in m3/s.
4.25 Q 1 = 4.146, Q 2 = 1.783, Q 3 = 0.783, Q 4 = 1.258, Q 5 = 0.606, Q 6 = 0.718,
Q 7 = 0.658, Q 8 = 0.058, Q 9 = 0.554, all in ft3/s.

CHAPTER 5
5.1 (1) f = 0.0156, D = 6.055 in, D = 6.090 in; (2) 0.0265, 6.677 in, 7.034 in;
(3) 0.0179, 9.925 in, 9.811 in.
5.2 (1) f = 0.0125, D = 0.344 m, D = 0.346 m; (2) 0.0232, 0.428 m, 0.445 m;
(3) 0.0132, 0.709 m, 0.669 m.
5.5 D 1 = 5.65 in, . . . . D 10 = 14.48 in.
5.10 Partial results:
Pipe Diameter Discharge Velocity Head loss Re
1 0.0846 0.000965 1.718 0.200 1345
5 0.0446 0.000149 0.674 0.200 196
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
45 0.0446 0.000156 0.476 0.200 196
5.11 D = 7.52 in, f = 0.0192.
5.12 D = 7.25 in.
5.13 QJ = 0.327 ft3 /s, f1 = 0.0144, f2 = 0.0145.
5.14 hp = 177.24 ft, P = 114.47 kW, cost/day = \$274.72.
5.17 Darcy-Weisbach: Q 1 = 1.438 ft3 /s, Q 2 = 0.938 ft3 /s;
Hazen-Williams: Q1 = 1.527 ft3/s, Q 2 = 1.027 ft3/s.
5.18 D 2 = 4.73 in, f2 = 0.0207.
5.19 h f1 = 12.11 ft, D 2 = 4.71 in.
5.22 Pump 1: Q = 15.829 ft3 /s; Pump 2: Q = 11.123 ft3 /s.
5.23 Q 1 = 22.786 (f = 0.0143); Q 1 + Q 2 = 22.786 + 11.123 = 33.909 ft3/s into the
reservoir.
5.27 Pump 2 must supply 13.0 ft3/s, producing a negative flow in pipe 4; a solution
is not possible because H2 > H3.
5.28 WS elevation = 605 - 39.66 = 565.34 ft; H 14 = 572.4 ft.
5.29 Cases 1, 2 and 4 fail.
5.30 h p = 51 ft.
5.32 A pump with Qnew = 3.1 ft3/s and hp = 50.4 ft should be selected.
5.35 For 2 ft3/s demands the deficit pressures are 17.8 lb/in2 at node 4, 34.9 lb/in2 at
node 6, and 17.8 lb/in2 at node 9; increase the diameters of pipe 4 to 18 in, pipe 7
to 6 in, pipes 9 and 10 to 10 in, and pipes 11 and 12 to 8 in.
5.36 (2) Q 1 = 7.104 ft3/s, Q 3 = 1.053 ft3/s, and Q 6 = 2.406 ft3/s; also Q 1 = 7.104
ft3/s, f1 = 0.0128 and hp = 63.72 ft.
5.37 QJ2 = 0.976 ft3 /s, h t = 403.4 ft.
5.38 N ra = 1.124, N rb = 1.132.
5.45 Energy = 81.5x106 ft-lb = 110,600 kWh.
CHAPTER 6
6.9 Partial results: 45.1 kWh, \$767/day, energy cost present worth = \$2,700,000.
6.12 1 in smaller, difference = \$12.98/day; 1 in larger, difference = \$14.38/day.

## © 2000 by CRC Press LLC

6 . 1 3 PVC pipe increases discharge to reservoir by 192 gal/min and reduces total power
from 266 kW to 261 kW.
6.14 \$712.80/day, reduced by \$53.80/day; flow to reservoir is reduced by 15.5 acre feet.
6.15 Energy cost/year = \$2027; present worth = \$228,200.

CHAPTER 7
7.1 ∆ t = 85.2 min; ∆ t = 76.9 min.
7.2 tf = 10.5 min.
7.3 t = 117 sec.
7 . 4 A(h) = (− Ca 2g / K )h1/2 , with K = dh/dt = negative constant.
7.5 η = 3.19 ft and t = 146 sec when the upper tank is closed; when η = 1.0 ft,
t = 711 sec.
7.6 V 0 = 9.51 ft/s; t50 = 15.6 sec; t99 = 75 sec.
7.7 t 99 = 75 sec.
7.8 t99 = 9.8 sec.
7.9 t 99 = 9.6 sec.
7.10 t99 = 38.1 sec.
7.11 t99 = 54.5 sec.
7.12 Minimum pressure head = 113.9 ft at 10 sec on downstream side of valve; maxi-
mum pressure head = 200 ft at 0 sec at the valve; final valve loss coefficient =
95.8.
7.13 Minimum pressure head = 32.2 ft at 9.2 sec at the valve.
7.14 Pressure head at valve needs to reach 209 ft but cannot exceed 200 ft; proposed
scheme will not work.
7.17 Maximum pressure head = 32.2 ft at t = 7.75 sec.
7.18 V0 = 7.23 ft/s, maximum pressure head = 74.2 ft at t = 26.4 sec.
7.19 p max = 68 lb/in2 at 28 sec.

CHAPTER 8
8.1 (a) Case (a) a = 4190 ft/s, Case (b) a = 4210 ft/s, Case (c) a = 4170 ft/s; (b)
pmax = 1316 lb/in2 with stress of 18,600 lb/in2 in steel pipe; stress too high.
8.2 (a) Choose Case (c) restraint with a = 860 ft/s; (b) 1.12%; (c) 0.068 in.
8.3 (a) Case (a) a = 2830 ft/s, Case (b) a = 2870 ft/s, Case (c) a = 2790 ft/s;
(b) though the pipe is connected with ring gaskets, soil friction may not permit the
pipe to slip at the joints, so select Case (b) as a conservative approach.
8.4 Liquid compression, 37%; pipe expansion, 63%.
8.5 (a) a = 3450 ft/s; (b) a = 3970 ft/s; (c) a = 3320 ft/s; (d) a = 3580 ft/s;
(e) a = 1070 ft/s.
8.6 Percent change = 0.89%.
8.7 (a) Volume inflow = 369 ft3; (b) liquid compression, 156 ft3; longitudinal
stretching, 22 ft3; radial stretching, 191 ft3.
8.8 a = 4210 ft/s.
8.9 Case (a) a = 3870 ft/s, Case (b) a = 3900 ft/s, Case (c) a = 3850 ft/s.
8.10 Pipe volume change = 0.82%; liquid density change = 0.18%.
8.11 (a) a = 1050 ft/s; (b) pmax = 241 lb/in2; (c) σ 1 = 0 lb/in2.
8.12 a = 2710 ft/s.
8.13 (a) Case (a) a = 960 ft/s, Case (b) a = 960 ft/s, Case (c) a = 860 ft/s;
(b) percent area change = 0.80%.
8.14 a = 930 ft/s.
8.15 (a) Case (a) a = 4160 ft/s, 0.65% error; Case (b) a = 4180 ft/s, 0.69% error;
Case (c) a = 4140 ft/s, 0.68% error; (b) Case (a) - 0.62%; Case (b) - 0.69%;

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Case (c) - 0.70%; (c) no, the thin-wall formulas give more conservative results for
8.16 (a) Case (a) a = 2760 ft/s, - 2.5%; Case (b) a = 2790 ft/s, - 2.7%; Case (c) a =
2720 ft/s, - 2.6%; (c) in all cases the thin-wall formulas are more conservative.
8.17 a = 930 ft/s.
8.18 a = 4560 ft/s.
8.19 a = 4300 ft/s.
8.20 a = 4600 ft/s.
8.21 a = 4530 ft/s.
8.22 a = 3260 ft/s.
8.23 With stress-free concrete, a = 1780 ft/s; otherwise a = 3720 ft/s.
8.24 a = 3850 ft/s.
8.25 a = 3480 ft/s.
CHAPTER 9
Answers in this chapter may vary, owing to slightly differing input parameters.
9.1 tc = 0 sec, (p/γ)max = 1010 ft at x = 0.1, (p/γ)min = - 38 ft at x = 1.0 (impossible);
tc = 4 sec, (p/γ)max = 925 ft at x = 1.0, (p/γ)min = - 38 ft at x = 1.0 (impossible);
tc = 8 sec, (p/γ)max = 668 ft at x = 1.0, (p/γ)min = 408 ft at x = 1.0;
tc = 12 sec, (p/γ)max = 589 ft at x = 1.0, (p/γ)min = 283 ft at x = 1.0.
9.2 Minimum tc = 7.7 sec.
9.3 (a) Yes, (p/γ)min = 2 ft; (b) (p/γ)max = 703 ft, (p/γ)min = 462 ft.
9.6 (a) hp = - 2.86x10-5Q 2 + 0.0085Q + 55; (c) a = 3980 ft/s;
(d) tc = 3 sec:
At valve pmax = 377 lb/in2 at 2.92 sec, pmin = 3.5 lb/in2 at 6.36 sec;
At check valve pmax = 250 lb/in2 at 4.24 sec, pmin = 140 lb/in2 at 0 sec;
tc = 6 sec:
At valve pmax = 214 lb/in2 at 4.24 sec, pmin = 3.9 lb/in2 at 0 sec;
At check valve pmax = 188 lb/in2 at 6.89 sec, pmin = 140 lb/in2 at 0 sec;
tc = 9 sec:
At valve pmax = 206 lb/in2 at 9.01 sec, pmin = 3.9 lb/in2 at 0 sec;
At check valve pmax = 188 lb/in2 at 9.81 sec, pmin = 140 lb/in2 at 0 sec;
tc = 12 sec:
At valve pmax = 186 lb/in2 at 11.93 sec, pmin = 3.9 lb/in2 at 0 sec;
At check valve pmax = 188 lb/in2 at 13.26 sec, pmin = 140 lb/in2 at 0 sec.
9.7 (a) hp = - 1.048x10-6Q2 - 0.00938Q + 254; (c) a = 2790 ft/s;
(d) At valve pmax = 233 lb/in2 at 14.4 sec, pmin = 13.0 lb/in2 at 0 sec;
At check valve pmax = 152 lb/in2 at 19.7 sec, pmin = 80 lb/in2 at 0 sec.
9.8 (a) Q = 3600 gal/min and V0 = 10.21 ft/s;
(b) hp = - 1.59x10-6Q2 - 0.00730Q + 175; (c) a = 3720 ft/s;
(g) At valve pmax = 277 lb/in2 at 28.1 sec, pmin = 17 lb/in2 at 0 sec;
At pump pmax = 124 lb/in2 at 34.1 sec, pmin = 77 lb/in2 at 0 sec.
9.9 (a) hp = - 2.07x10-6Q 2 - 0.00310Q + 180;
At valve pmax = 185 lb/in2 at 2.00 sec, pmin = 100 lb/in2 at 0 sec;
At check valve pmax = 155 lb/in2 at 2.57 sec, pmin = 101 lb/in2 at 0 sec.
9.10 (a) hp = - 1.14x10-4Q 2 + 0.0343Q + 220;

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(c) tc = 3 sec:
At valve pmax = 286 lb/in2 at 1.71 sec, pmin = 2.6 lb/in2 at 0 sec;
At check valve pmax = 211 lb/in2 at 3.75 sec, pmin = 70 lb/in2 at 0 sec;
tc = 5 sec:
At valve pmax = 194 lb/in2 at 5.11 sec, pmin = 2.6 lb/in2 at 0 sec;
At check valve pmax = 193 lb/in2 at 5.97 sec, pmin = 70 lb/in2 at 0 sec;
tc = 7 sec:
At valve pmax = 162 lb/in2 at 5.11 sec, pmin = 2.6 lb/in2 at 0 sec;
At check valve pmax = 134 lb/in2 at 7.84 sec, pmin = 70 lb/in2 at 0 sec;
9.11 (a) hp = - 1.43x10-4Q 2 + 0.029Q + 275;
(c) At valve pmax = 144 lb/in2 at 2.26 sec, pmin = 13.9 lb/in2 at 0 sec;
At check valve pmax = 111 lb/in2 at 4.87 sec, pmin = 81 lb/in2 at 0 sec.
9.12 At valve pmax = 129 lb/in2 at 4.00 sec, pmin = 13.9 lb/in2 at 0 sec;
At check valve pmax = 109 lb/in2 at 4.80 sec, pmin = 81 lb/in2 at 0 sec.
9.13 (a) hp = - 1.176x10-5Q 2 + 0.00647Q + 72; (c) (c) 3670 ft/s;
(d) tc = 3 sec:
At valve pmax = 357 lb/in2 at 3.00 sec, pmin = 75 lb/in2 at 0 sec;
At check valve pmax = 303 lb/in2 at 4.36 sec, pmin = 109 lb/in2 at 0 sec;
tc = 6 sec:
At valve pmax = 223 lb/in2 at 3.82 sec, pmin = 75 lb/in2 at 0 sec;
At check valve pmax = 153 lb/in2 at 5.18 sec, pmin = 109 lb/in2 at 0 sec.
9.14 (a) (p/γ)max = 800 ft (b) (p/γ)min ≈ - 28 ft (d) (p/γ)max = 800 ft.

CHAPTER 10
Answers in this chapter may vary, owing to slightly differing input parameters.
10.1 pmax = 828 lb/in2 at 30.1 sec at the valve; pmin = column separation at 34.6 sec at
a point 1670 ft downstream from the upper reservoir.
10.2 (a) pmax = 374 lb/in2; (b) it occurs 600 ft downstream of low point at 20.7 sec;
(c) column separation does occur; (d) it occurs at the valve at 24.3 sec.
10.3 tc = 20 sec: p max = 390 lb/in2 at 21 sec at low point; p min = column separation
at 26 sec at valve;
tc = 40 sec: pmax = 263 lb/in2 at 41 sec at low point; pmin = column separation
at 48 sec at valve;
tc = 60 sec, pmax = 221 lb/in2 at 55 sec at low point; pmin = column separation
at 69 sec at valve.
10.4 Minimum valve closure time is 13 sec; phase 1 closes to 8% open in 1 sec, and
phase 2 completes closure in 12 sec more; pmax = 193 lb/in2, pmin = - 11 lb/in2.
10.5 Minimum valve closure time is 14 sec; phase 1 closes to 1.5% open in 1 sec, and
phase 2 completes closure in 13 sec more; pmax = 198 lb/in2, pmin = - 12 lb/in2.
10.6 Minimum valve closure time is 5 sec; phase 1 closes to 20% open in 1 sec, and
phase 2 completes closure in 4 sec more; pmax = 191 lb/in2, pmin = 3 lb/in2.
10.7 Valve A: pmax = 90 lb/in2 at low point; pmin = 22 lb/in2 at upper reservoir;
Valve B: pmax = 124 lb/in2 at low point; pmin = column separation at 39 sec at
valve; valve A is the better choice.
10.8 (a) pmax = 374 lb/in2 at 16 sec at the low point;
pmin = column separation at 18 sec near midpoint of 2000 ft line;

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(b) pmax = 312 lb/in2 at 16 sec at the low point;
pmin = column separation at 18 sec near midpoint of 2000 ft line;
(c) pmax = 373 lb/in2 at 21 sec at the low point;
pmin = column separation at 23 sec near midpoint of 2000 ft line;
(d) pmax = 276 lb/in2 at 21 sec at the low point;
pmin = column separation at 23 sec near midpoint of 2000 ft line
(e) pmax = 312 lb/in2 at 21 sec at the low point;
pmin = column separation at 23 sec near midpoint of 2000 ft line.
10.9 (a) pmax = 197 lb/in2 at 5 sec at the low point;
pmin = - 11 lb/in2 at 19 sec at the valve;
(b) pmax = 231 lb/in2 at 5 sec at the low point;
pmin = 5 lb/in2 at 19 sec at the valve;
(c) pmax = 274 lb/in2 at 5 sec at the low point;
pmin = - 8 lb/in2 at 8 sec at the upstream end of the 2000 ft pipe;
(d) pmax = 202 lb/in2 at 3.5 sec at the low point;
pmin = 1 lb/in2at 24 sec at the valve;
(e) pmax = 283 lb/in2 at 3.5 sec at the low point;
pmin = - 8 lb/in2 at 6 sec at the upstream end of the 2000 ft pipe.
With a working pressure of 200 lb/in2, the only clear-cut option is schedule (a),
but schedule (d) is close enough to consider.
CHAPTER 11
Answers in this chapter may vary, owing to slightly differing input parameters.
11.1 Column separation occurs at the midpoint of the first pipe segment at 4 sec. At
that time the pump is still turning at 525 rev/min, producing 129 gal/min at a
head increase of 77.5 ft.
11.2 Column separation occurs at the midpoint of the first pipe segment at 2.7 sec. At
that time the pump is turning at 600 rev/min, producing 263 gal/min at a head
increase of 100 ft.
11.3 Column separation occurs at the downstream end of the 2600 ft pipe at 2.19 sec.
At that time the pumps were turning at 352 rev/min, producing 994 gal/min at a
head increase of 6 ft.
11.4 Column separation occurs at the upstream end of the last pipe at 0.9 sec. At that
time the pumps were turning at 1194 rev/min, producing 1300 gal/min at a head
increase of 329 ft.
11.5 Column separation occurs 2700 ft downstream in the 4000 ft pipe at 1.6 sec. At
that time the pumps were turning at 760 rev/min, producing 564 gal/min at a
head increase of 117 ft.
11.6 p max = 162 lb/in2 at 12.6 sec at the pump discharge; p min = 8.5 lb/in2 at 2.2
sec near the downstream reservoir.
11.7 pmax = 55 lb/in2 occurs under steady flow conditions at the pump discharge; p min
= 10 lb/in2 at 7 sec 3700 ft downstream of the pumps.
1 1 . 8 Vapor pressure is reached throughout most of the pipeline, but the largest cavity
appears at the “knee” at elevation 1350 ft. Cavity volume reaches 34 ft3 at 17
sec but has collapsed by 29 sec. The maximum pressure of 415 lb/in2 occurs at
the pump discharge at 44 sec.
1 1 . 9 Vapor pressure is reached throughout most of the pipeline, except at the “knee”
where an air-vacuum valve causes a 151 ft3 air cavity to form. The air cavity
begins to form at 3 sec, reaches its maximum size at 59 sec, and finally is

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exhausted at 135 sec. The maximum pressure of 435 lb/in2 occurs at the pump
discharge at 11 sec.
11.10 Vapor pressure is reached throughout most of the pipeline, but the largest cavities
are at the “knees” at elevations 4440 ft and 4470 ft. Maximum cavity volumes
reach 111 ft3 and 34 ft3 at 34 sec and 22 sec, respectively. By 45 sec, major
cavity formation has ceased. The maximum pressure of 364 lb/in2 occurs at the
pump discharge at 66 sec.
11.11 Vapor pressure is reached throughout the 2000 ft pipe but is not extensive owing
to the air-vacuum valve at the “knee”. At that point a 58 ft3 air cavity forms,
reaching maximum size at 5 sec. The air cavity continues to form and exhaust
periodically until its size is down to 10 ft3 at 60 sec. The maximum pressure of
492 lb/in2 occurs at the pump discharge at 10 sec.
1 1 . 1 2 Vapor pressure is reached throughout the downstream half of the pipeline;
however, the presence of the air-vacuum valve at the “knee” prevents the formation
of large vapor cavities. The air cavity reaches a maximum volume of 66 ft3 at 6
sec, reforming several more times until dying out completely by 50 sec. The
maximum pressure of 478 lb/in2 is at the pump discharge at 15 sec.
CHAPTER 12
Answers in this chapter may vary, owing to slightly differing input parameters.
12.2 (b) Q 3 = 0.74 ft3 /s, H 2 = 72.11 ft.
12.4 (a) One real loop equation, Q2 = 2.13 ft3/s, H2 = 98.81 ft; (b) 5 continuity
equations + 6 ODE's = 11 equations; (d) at t = 5 sec Q2 = 2.98 ft3/s, H2 = 97.94
ft.
12.5 (a) Q5 = 0.17 ft3/s, H4 = 194.98 ft; (b) 6 ODE's and a total of 11 equations;
(c) at t = 6 sec Q5 = 0.49 ft3/s, H4 = 154.48 ft.
12.6 (a) Q2 = 3.29 ft3/s, H2 = 452.74 ft; (b) 6 ODE's and a total of 10 equations;
(c) at t = 5 sec Q2 = 3.21 ft3/s, H2 = 448.49 ft.
12.7 (a) Four equations, plus 3 Colebrook-White equations; (b) one continuity equation
and 3 ODE's; H1(0) = 64.3 ft, H1(4) = 156.3 ft, H1(15) = 89.0 ft.
12.12 At t = 0 Q 1 = Q 3 = 0.248 ft3 /s, Q 2 = 0; H 1 = 34.55 ft; at t = 3.5 sec Q 1 =
0.160 ft3/s, Q 2 = 0.127 ft3 /s, Q 3 = 0.033 ft3 /s, H 1 = 51.54 ft, z = 62.33 ft,
H2 = 61.32 ft.
12.13 (a) Q 1 = 2.62, Q 2 = 1.22, Q 3 = 3.66, Q 4 = 7.50, all in ft3/s; H 1 = 68.81 ft,
H 2 = 38.30 ft; (b) at t = 5 sec Q 1 = 2.26, Q 2 = 1.04, Q 3 = 1.90, Q 4 = 3.49,
all in ft3/s, H 1 = 85.11 ft; (c) at t = 5 sec V 1 = 0.243 ft/s, V 2 = - 1.047 ft/s,
V 3 = 0.222 ft/s, V 4 = 0, H 1 = 201.4 ft, H 2 = 698.1 ft; at t = 30 sec V 1 =
1.763 ft/s, V 2 = 0.589 ft/s, V 3 = - 1.340 ft/s, V 4 = 0, H 1 = H 2 = 85.1 ft.
12.15 (a) Q 1 = 2.78 ft3 /s, Q 5 = 1.38 ft3 /s, H 3 = 479.1 ft; (e) at t = 30 sec Q 1 =
1.34, Q 2 = 0.73, Q 3 = - 0.88, Q 4 = - 0.97, Q 5 = 3.66, all in ft3/s; H 1 =
493.7 ft, H 2 = 488.1 ft, H 3 = 498.7 ft; at t = 100 sec Q 1 = 1.42, Q 2 = 0.75,
Q3 = - 0.83, Q 4 = - 0.95, Q 5 = 3.58, all in ft3/s; H 1 = 497.3 ft, H 2 =
494.2 ft, H 3 = 502.2 ft.
12.16 (a) H 1 = 3.85 ft; (b) p air = 240 lb/ft2, ρ = 0.0144 slugs/ft3; (d) at t = 3 sec
Q 1 = 1.16 ft3/s, Q 2 = 0.61 ft3/s, Q 3 = 0.54 ft3/s, H 1 = 86.5 ft, H 2 = 86.4 ft,
H3 = 38.7 ft, Volume = 50.83 ft3 , x = 0.042 ft; at t = 37.5 sec Q 1 = Q 3 =
0.045 ft3 /s, Q 2 = 0, H 1 = 58.2 ft, H 2 = 58.2 ft, H 3 = 60.7 ft, Volume =
64.09 ft3, x = 0.704 ft.

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12.18 At t = 10 sec Q 1 = 3.44, Q 2 = 0.68, Q 3 = 0.55, Q 4 = 1.83, Q 5 = 1.44, Q 6 =
3.48, Q 7 = 3.26, Q 8 = 0.22, all in ft3/s; z = 124.1, H 1 = 111.7, H 2 = 111.2,
H 3 = 111.3, H 4 = 126.9, H 5 = 139.1, all in ft.
12.19 At t = 12.5 sec Q 1 = 2.52, Q 2 = - 0.71, Q 3 = 1.02, Q 4 = 0.71, Q 5 = 0.98,
Q 6 = 3.69, Q 7 = 3.48, Q 8 = 0.21, all in ft3/s; z = 124.1, H 1 = 135.1, H 2 =
143.5, H 3 = 131.5, H 4 = 132.0, H 5 = 137.4, all in ft.
12.25 (a) Q 1 = 823, Q 8 = 170, Q 14 = 110, Q 18 = 99, all in gal/min; p 12 = 81.7
lb/in2; (b) column separation occurs in pipe 4 one third of the distance from the
upstream end at 14 sec.
12.26 Column separation occurs instantaneously at node 1.
12.27 Max. pressure head = 298 ft in pipe 7 at upstream side of closed valve at 2.0 sec;
Min. pressure head = 47 ft at the same location at 10.7 sec.
12.28 (a) Q 7 = 3910, Q 24 = 1535, Q 77 = 80, Q 555 = 1040, all in gal/min; pressure
at node 500 = 76.3 lb/in2; (b) Max. pressure head = steady state value of 190 ft
at node 99, Min. pressure head = steady state value of 20 ft at the reservoir at the
upstream end of pipe 7.
12.29 Max. pressure = 388 lb/in2 at the upstream side of the closed valve at the instant
of closure; Min. pressure causes column separation at the downstream side of the
valve at the same time.
12.30 (a) Q 7 = 3620, Q 24 = 1390, Q 77 = 390, Q 555 = 970, all in gal/min; pressure
at node 500 = 77.8 lb/in2; (b) Max. pressure head = 194 ft near midpoint of pipe
88 at 11 sec; Min. pressure head = the steady state value of 20 ft at the reservoir
at the upstream end of pipe 7.
12.31 Column separation occurs at the downstream end of pipe 88 at 3.3 sec. The max.
pressure head before this time is 493 ft at the same location at 1.1 sec.
12.32 (a) Q 1 = 940, Q 4 = 1033, Q 8 = 890, Q 14 = 407, all in gal/min; pressure at
node 5 = 43.2 lb/in2; (b) column separation occurs at the upstream end of pipe 1
at 2.0 sec. The max. pressure head before this is the steady state value of 110 ft at
the pump discharge.
12.33 Max. pressure head = 197 ft at the downstream end of pipe 14 at 0.37 sec; Min.
pressure head = - 19 ft near the downstream end of pipe 6 at 2.7 sec.

CHAPTER 13
Answers in this chapter may vary, owing to slightly differing input parameters.
13.1 Approximately 310 ft3, including a safety factor.
13.2 (a) About 935 ft3 , including a safety factor; (b) an air chamber of approximately
450 ft3 and a one-way surge tank 8 ft in diameter and 25 ft tall.
1 3 . 3 (a) Approximately 630 ft3 , including a safety factor; (b) there is no practical
means of accomplishing this design objective; (c) an air chamber of approximately
210 ft3 and a one-way surge tank 6 ft in diameter and 15 ft tall.
13.4 Approximately 950 ft3, including a safety factor.
13.5 The air chamber size is approximately 1036 ft3 ; a one-way surge tank 12 ft in
diameter and 35 ft tall is needed at the first summit, with another 10 ft in diameter
and 20 ft tall at the second summit.
13.6 Approximately 52 ft3, including safety factor.
13.7 Wr2 = 460 lb-ft2 to prevent column separation; Wr2 = 795 lb-ft2 to prevent
negative pressures.