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Class 8

GEOMETRY

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Copyright © Zambak Yayýncýlýk ve

Eðitim Gereçleri A.Þ.

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No part of this book may be reproduced,

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Digital Assembly

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Publisher

Zambak Yayýncýlýk ve

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Printed by

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ISBN: 978-605-112-467-4

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DISTRIBUTION

Zambak Yayýncýlýk ve

Eðitim Gereçleri A.Þ.

Mahmutbey Merkez Mah.

Souksu Cad. No. 31 Tek-er Merkezi

Baclar / ÝSTANBUL

_______________________

Tel.: +90-212 604 21 00

Fax: +90-212 604 21 12

http://book.zambak.com

To the Teacher,

Analytic Analysis of Lines and Circles is designed to provide students with the

analytic geometry background needed for further college-level geometry

courses. Analytic geometry can be defined as algebraic analysis applied to

geometrical concepts and figures, or the use of geometrical

concepts and figures to illustrate algebraic forms.

Analytic geometry has many applications in different

branches of science and makes it easier to solve a wide

variety of problems. The goal of this text is to help students

develop the skills necessary for solving analytic geometry

problems, and then help students apply these skills. By the

end of the book, students will have a good understanding

of the analytic approach to solving problems. In addition,

we have provided many systematic explanations throughout

the text that will help instructors to reach the goals that

they have set for their students. As always, we have taken

particular care to create a book that students can read,

understand, and enjoy, and that will help students gain

confidence in their ability to use analytic geometry.

To the Student,

This book consists of two chapters, which cover analytical analysis of lines and

circles respectively. Each chapter begins with basic definitions, theorems, and

explanations which are necessary for understanding the subsequent chapter

material. In addition, each chapter is divided into subsections so that students

can follow the material easily.

Every subsection includes self-test Check Yourself problem sections followed by basic

examples illustrating the relevant definition, theorem, rule, or property. Teachers

should encourage their students to solve Check Yourself problems themselves

because these problems are fundemental to understanding and learning the related

subjects or sections. The answers to most Check Yourself problems are given directly

after the problems, so that students have immediate feedback on their progress.

Answers to some Check Yourself problems are not included in the answer key, as they

are basic problems which are covered in detail in the preceding text or examples.

Giving answers to such problems would effectively make the problems redundant,

so we have chosen to omit them, and leave students to find the basic answers

themselves.

At the end of every section there are exercises categorized according to the

structure and subject matter of the section. Exercises are graded in order,

from easy (at the beginning) to difficult (at the end).

Exercises which involve more ability and effort are

denoted by one or two stars. In addition, exercises which

deal with more than one subject are included in a

separate bank of mixed problems at the end of the

section. This organization allows the instructor to deal

with only part of a section if necessary and to easily determine which exercises

are appropriate to assign.

formulas covered in the chapter that students can use

easily to get direct information whenever needed.

main concepts of the subjects

covered, especially about the definitions, theorems or

derived formulas.

Finally, a Chapter Review Test section consists of three tests, each with sixteen

carefully-selected problems. The first test covers

primitive and basic problems. The second and third tests

include more complex problems. These tests help

students assess their ability in understanding the

coverage of the chapter.

The answers to the exercises and the tests are given at the end of the book so

that students can compare their solution with the correct answer.

Each chapter also includes some subjects which are denoted as optional. These

subjects complement the topic and give some additional

information. However, completion of optional sections is

left to the discretion of the teacher, who can take into

account regional curriculum requirements.

CHAPTER 1 I. FURTHER APPLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . .89

1. Menelaus’ Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89

SECTION : QUADRILATERALS

2. Auxiliary Elements of a Triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93

PROPERTIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10

1. Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10

2. Basic Properties of a Quadrilateral . . . . . . . . . . .11 CHAPTER 2

3. Inscribed and Circumscribed Quadrilaterals . . . .17

SECTION : PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM

B. PARALLELOGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22

1. Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 A. TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS OF

2. Properties of a Parallelogram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23

3. Proving that a Quadrilateral Is a Parallelogram . .33 ACUTE ANGLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136

1. Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38

2. Properties of a Rectangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 RATIOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138

1. Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46

COMPLEMENTARY ANGLES . . . . . . . .139

2. Properties of a Rhombus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46

1. Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52

E. FINDING A TRIGONOMETRIC RATIO

2. Properties of a Square . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52

F. TRAPEZOID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57

1. Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57

G. RATIOS IN A 45°-45°-90° TRIANGLE . .150

2. Properties of a Trapezoid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57

3. Isosceles Trapezoids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67 F. RATIOS IN A 30°-60°-90° TRIANGLE . .150

4. Right Trapezoids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74 1. Distance Between Two Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . .154

2. Midpoint of a Line Segment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .156

G. KITE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78

1. Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78 H. EUCLIDEAN RELATIONS . . . . . . . . . . .161

2. Properties of a Kite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78

1. The Triangle Proportionality Theorem . . . . . . . . .84

2. Thales’ Theorem of Parallel Lines . . . . . . . . . . . .87

CHAPTER 3

1. Basic Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .172

2. Area of a Rectangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173

If you look around you, you will see many things

which have four lines for sides. A book, a door, the

spaces between the bars at a window, a slice of

bread and the floor of a square room are all examples

of a closed figure bounded by four line segments.

A figure like this is called a quadrilateral. In other

words, a quadrilateral is a geometrical figure which

has four sides. In this section we will study

quadrilaterals and their properties.

1. Definitions

Definition quadrilateral

A quadrilateral is a polygon which has four sides.

C

D

opposite, points A, B, C and D are the vertices

and the line segments AB, BC, CD and DA are b

d

the sides of the quadrilateral. ABC, BCD,

CDA and DAB are the interior angles of A B

a

the quadrilateral. {A, C} and {B, D} are two a convex quadrilateral

examples of pairs of opposite vertices. The

D

pairs of sides {AB, CD} and {BC, DA} are

opposite sides. {A, C} and {B, D} are

d c

two pairs of opposite angles.

B

Since a quadrilateral is a polygon, it also has a b

consecutive vertices, sides and angles.

A C

In both figures, AC and BD are the diagonals a concave quadrilateral

of the quadrilateral. Notice that in a concave

quadrilateral, one of the diagonals lies in its exterior region. In a convex quadrilateral, the

diagonals always lie in its interior region.

The perimeter of a quadrilateral is the sum of the lengths of all of its sides. In other words,

How many quadrilaterals

can you see?

the perimeter of a quadrilateral ABCD is AB + BC + CD + DA.

8 Geometry 8

EXAMPLE 1 State the opposite sides, opposite angles and the diagonals in each quadrilateral.

a. P b. L

c.

T Z

K

N S

K Y

M X

T

opposite angles: {M, P} and {K, N}

diagonals: KN and MP

a. Angles of a quadrilateral

We have already seen that the sum of the ÐD¢

D

measures of the interior angles of an n-sided

ÐD

polygon is (n – 2) · 180°. Since a quadrilateral C

ÐC

has four sides we have n = 4, and ÐC¢

of the measures of the interior angles of a B

A ÐB¢

quadrilateral is 360°.

The sum of the measures of the exterior

angles of a quadrilateral is also 360° (since this is true for all polygons).

In conclusion, for any quadrilateral ABCD we have m(A) + m(B) + m(C) + m(D) = 360°

and m(A) + m(B) + m(C) + m(D) = 360°.

Quadrilaterals 9

EXAMPLE 2 In the figure,

F

m(EAD) = 50°, 75° C

?

m(DCF) = 75°.

Find the measure of ADC.

50° 60°

E A B

m(DAB) = 180° – m(DAE) = 180° – 50° = 130°

m(BCD) + m(DCF) = 180° (supplementary angles)

m(BCD) = 180° – m(DCF) = 180° – 75° = 105°

In quadrilateral ABCD,

m(ADC) + m(DAB) + m(ABC) + m(BCD) = 360° (sum of the interior angles)

m(ADC) + 130° + 60° + 105° = 360°

m(ADC) = 360° – 295°

= 65°.

F

m(BAE) = x,

D y

m(ABF) = m, C

n

m(FCD) = y,

m(CDE) = n and

m

A

x + y = 105°. x

B

Calculate m + n. E

m(BCD) + y = 180°; m(BCD) = 180° – y (supplementary angles)

In quadrilateral ABCD,

m(CDA) + m(DAB) +m(ABC) + m(BCD) = 360° (sum of interior angles)

n + (180° – x) + m + (180° – y) = 360° (substitution)

m + n = 360° – 360° + x + y; m + n = x + y = 105°. (x + y = 105° is given)

10 Geometry 8

Property

In a quadrilateral, the measure of the angle

D

formed by the bisectors of two consecutive

interior angles equals the half the sum of the

K C

measures of the other two angles.

and BK are the bisectors of A and B

A B

respectively. So by Property 2,

m( C )+ m( D)

m( AKB) = .

2

and C respectively. Given that

D

m(A) = 85° and m(B) = 75°, find the

measure of CEF.

?

E

85° F 75°

A B

Solution 1 D and C are consecutive interior angles.

By Property 2,

m( A )+ m( B) 85° +75°

m( DEC ) = = = 80°.

2 2

m(CEF) + m(DEC) = 180° (supplementary angles)

m(CEF) = 180° – m(DEC)

= 180° – 80°

= 100°

Solution 2 In quadrilateral ABCD,

m(A) + m(B) + m(C) + m(D) = 360° (sum of interior angles)

m(C) + m(D) = 360° – 85° – 75° = 200°.

In CDE,

m( CDA ) m( DCB)

m( CDE) = and m( DCE) = (DE and CE are bisectors)

2 2

m(CEF) = m(CDE) + m(DCE) (exterior angle property of a triangle)

m( CDA ) m( DCB)

= +

2 2

m( DCB)+ m( CDA ) 200°

= = =100°.

2 2

Quadrilaterals 11

Property

In a quadrilateral, the measure of the acute

C

angle formed by the bisectors of opposite

angles is half the absolute value of the

D

difference between the measures of the other

K

two angles. For example, in the figure,

| m( D ) – m( B)| P

m( AKP ) = .

2 A B

B, respectively. Given that D

m(DKE) = 5°, find m(A).

5°

E

Solution 1 By Property 3, K

?

| m( C ) – m( A)|

m( DKE) = A B

2

90 – m( A)

5 = . (m(C) > m(A))

2

So m(A) = 80°.

Solution 2 m(DKE) + m(DKB) = 180° (supplementary angles)

m(DKB) = 180° – m(DKE)

= 180° – 5° = 175°

In quadrilateral BCDK,

m(C) + m(CDK) + m(CBK) + m(BKD) = 360° (sum of interior angles)

m(CDK) + m(CBK) = 360° – 90° – 175° = 95°

m( D ) m( B)

= +

2 2

m( D )+ m( B)

=

2

m( D )+ m( B)

95°

2

m( D )+ m( B) =190°.

In quadrilateral ABCD,

m(A) + m(B) + m(C) + m(D) = 360° (sum of interior angles)

m(A) = 360° – 90° – 190° = 80°.

12 Geometry 8

EXAMPLE 6 In the figure, ABCD is a concave quadrilateral A

with m(BAD) = a,

a

m(ABC) = b,

C

m(BCD) = c and b

c

m(CDA) = d. B d

Show that c = a + b + d. D

intersects side AD at point K. a

BKD is an exterior angle of ABK. K

C

So m(BKD) = a + b. b a+b

c

B d

Also, BCD is an exterior angle of CKD.

So m(BCD) = m(BKD) + d = a + b + d. D

So c = a + b + d.

BCF respectively.

50°

If m(B) = 160° and m(D) = 50°,

C

find m(AKC). A 160°

E B F

m(A) + m(B) + m(C) + m(D) = 360° (sum of interior angles)

m(A) + m(C) = 360° – 50° – 160° = 150°

m(BAE) = 180° – m(BAD)

m(BCF) = 180° – m(BCD).

Quadrilaterals 13

b. Sides of a quadrilateral

Property

If the diagonals of a quadrilateral are

D

perpendicular to each other, the sums of the

squares of the lengths of opposite sides of the d c

quadrilateral are equal.

E

the diagonals AC and BD are perpendicular

a b

to each other. So by Property 4,

B

AB2 + DC2 = AD2 + BC2.

whose diagonals are perpendicular. 5 6

E

AB = 8 cm, A C

AD = 5 cm and

8

DC = 6 cm are given.

Find the length of side BC.

B

Substituting the given values into this equation gives

82 + 62 = 52 + BC2

BC 2 = 64 + 36 – 25

BC 2 = 75

BC = 5ñ3 cm.

EXAMPLE 9 In a quadrilateral ABCD, m(A) = m(C) = 90°. Show that AB2 + AD2 = BC2 + CD2.

D

Solution Look at the figure. Drawing the diagonal BD C

creates two right triangles DAB and DCB.

By the Pythagorean Theorem,

A

AB2 + AD2 = BD2 and BC2 + CD2 = BD2.

B

So AB2 + AD2 = BC2 + CD2, as required.

14 Geometry 8

EXAMPLE 10 The diagonals of a quadrilateral ABCD are perpendicular, with AB = 4 cm, AD = 6 cm and

DC = 10 cm. Point E is the intersection point of the diagonals, and point K is on side BC such

that that BK = KC. What is the length of EK?

2 2 2 2 E

AB + DC = AD + BC (by Property 4) A C

42 + 102 = 62 + BC2 4 K

2

BC = 116 – 36 B

BC2 = ò80

In a right triangle, the BC = 4ñ5 cm.

length of the median

drawn to the hypotenuse EK is a median of the right triangle BEC, and since the length of the median drawn to the

is half the length of

hypotenuse. BC 4 5

hypotenuse is half the length of the hypotenuse, EK = = = 2 5 cm.

2 2

Check Yourself C

5

1. In the figure, m(C) = m(A) = 90°. Given AD = 3 cm,

D 12

DC = 5 cm and CB = 12 cm, find the length of AB.

3

A ? B

2. The diagonals of a quadrilateral are perpendicular to each other. The lengths of two

opposite sides are 8 cm and 4 cm, and the ratio of the lengths of the other two opposite

sides is 1:2. Find the lengths of the unknown sides.

Answers

1. 4ò10 cm 2. 4 cm and 8 cm

Definition inscribed quadrilateral, cyclic quadrilateral

A quadrilateral is called an inscribed quadrilateral (or cyclic quadrilateral) if all of its vertices

lie on the same circle. This circle is called the circumscribed circle (or circumcircle) of the

quadrilateral. D

C

In the figure, ABCD is an inscribed quadrilateral.

Quadrilaterals 15

Property

The sum of the measures of either pair of D

opposite angles of an inscribed quadrilateral C

is 180°.

In the figure, ABCD is an inscribed

quadrilateral. So by Property 5, A

m(B) + m(D) = 180º.

B

In fact, if the sum of any pair of opposite angles

in a quadrilateral is equal to 180° then the quadrilateral is always an inscribed quadrilateral.

quadrilateral with A

5x+10°

m(A) = 4x – 5°, 4x5°

Find m(C).

D

Solution Since ABCD is an inscribed quadrilateral, by Property 5 its opposite angles are supplementary. So

m(B) + m(D) = 180°

5x + 10°+ 3x + 10° = 180°

8x = 160°

x = 20°, and

m(A) + m(C) = 180°

(4 20°) – 5° + m(C) = 180°

75° + m(C) = 180°

m(C) = 105°.

A quadrilateral is called a circumscribed quadrilateral if all of its sides are tangent to the

same circle. This circle is called the inscribed circle of the quadrilateral.

A T D

In the figure, ABCD is a circumscribed

S

quadrilateral.

P

B E C

16 Geometry 8

Property

The sums of the lengths of the opposite sides

C

of a circumscribed quadrilateral are equal.

N

D

In the figure, ABCD is a circumscribed

M

quadrilateral. So by Property 6, K

AB + CD = BC + AD.

In fact, if the sums of the lengths of the

opposite sides of a quadrilateral are equal then A L B

the quadrilateral is always a circumscribed

quadrilateral.

respectively. Find the length of the fourth side.

and CD = 13 cm. 9 12

A

Since ABCD is a circumscribed quadrilateral,

C

by Property 6 we have ?

13

AB + CD = BC + AD D

9 + 13 = 12 + AD

AD = 10 cm.

Check Yourself C

D B

2x+5° 3x25°

m(D) = 2x + 5° and m(C) = 3y.

Find the values of x and y. 2y40°

respectively. Find the length of the fourth side.

Answers

1. x = 40°, y = 44° 2. 7 cm

Quadrilaterals 17

EXERCISES 1 .1

A. Quadrilaterals and Their Basic 4. Each figure shows the bisectors of opposite angles

Properties of a quatrilateral. Find the measure of angle x in

each case.

1. State the pairs of opposite and N M

consecutive sides and angles a. D b. D C

C

and the diagonals in the 110° x

polygon opposite. K

165°

K

x 130°

T A B A B

S

c. D

70°

K

A

160° C

2. Find the measure of angle x in each figure. B x

a. C b. C

60° 40° x

D D

x 60° 70°

70° 105°

A B

A B 5. In the figure, C

P

D

c. D 130°

m(C) = 90°, AP and BP ?

x C

A

are respectively bisectors 30°

100°

70° of DAB and CBE, A B E

B

and m(P) = 30°. Find

m(ADC).

a. C b. C 6. Find the length x in each figure.

D

115° D x a. 5 x b.

K x 8

75° K 2x

50°

A B A B 6 4 x

c. D

4

80° c.

9

A x 7

75° C

x

B 4

18 Geometry 8

7. Find the value of x in each figure. 12. In the figure, AC and BD are D

C

a. b. diagonals of the quadrilateral P F

5 x ABCD. Points P and K are A

10 E K

8

respectively the midpoints of

B

4 sides AD and BC, and points F

6 x

2x and E are respectively the midpoints of diagonals

AC and BD. Show that P(EKFP) = AB + DC.

D

13. In the figure, AF, BF, CE

and DE are respectively the

8. In the figure, AC BD and D M F

6 bisectors of A, B, C C

AD AB, m(ADB) = 60°, 60° A

E K

A C and D. Prove that the

AB = 4ñ3 cm and DC = 6 cm. E

quadrilateral EKFM is an B

Find the length of BC.

inscribed quadrilateral.

4ñ3 ?

D

convex quadrilateral and

O

points E and F are respectively E F

the midpoints of diagonals AC

9. In the figure, m(A) = 90°, D and BD. A B

Prove that

m(B) = 150°, m(C) = 60°, ?

AD = 8 cm and BC = 5 cm. 8 AB2 + BC2 + CD2 + DA2 = AC2 + BD2 + (4 EF2).

Find the length of DC. 60° C

150° (Hint: Use the property of the length of a median

5

A B in BDA, BCD and AFC.)

opposite,

10. ABCD is an inscribed quadrilateral with m(A) = 70° AE = EC = 10 cm, 20 20

and m(B) = 100°. Find m(C) and m(D).

BF = FD = 10 7 cm, F

2 10 10 C

A

BC = 10 cm, E

DC = AD = 20 cm and 10ñ3 10

AB = 10ñ3 cm. B

11. A quadrilateral ABCD is a circumscribed

Find the length of EF.

quadrilateral with AB = 9 cm, BC = 7 cm and

CD = 10 cm. Find the length of side AD. (Hint: Use the formula given in question 14.)

Quadrilaterals

19

There are many different types of quadrilateral, but they all have several things in common:

all of them have four sides and two diagonals, and the sum of the measures of their interior

angles is 360°. This how they are alike, but what makes them different?

The figure shows some special types of quadrilateral and the relationships between them. In

this section we will look at the properties of each of these special quadrilaterals in turn.

no pairs of

parallel sides

Quadrilateral

parallel sides one pair of

Parallelogram parallel sides

Trapezoid

Rectangle Rhombus

Isosceles Right

Square Trapezoid

Trapezoid

B. PARALLELOGRAM

1. Definition

Definition parallelogram

A parallelogram is a quadrilateral which has two pairs of opposite parallel sides.

D C

In the figure, AB DC and BC AD.

So quadrilateral ABCD is a parallelogram by

definition.

A B

20 Geometry 8

2. Properties of a Parallelogram

Theorem 5

D C

parallelogram, we need to show AB CD and 2

1

BC DA. b b

Let us use a flow chart proof. 3

4

A a B

AB CD 2 4

ASA means the Angle AB CD

Side Angle postulate: If ABCD is a parallelogram. BC AD 1 3 ABD CDB

BC DA

two angles and their

common side in a triangle Given By definition Alternate angles ASA

are congruent to two

angles and their common

BD BD

side in another triangle,

then the triangles are Common side

congruent.

So opposite sides of a parallelogram are congruent, as required.

Notice that as a result of Theorem 5, the perimeter of a parallelogram is twice the sum of any

two consecutive sides:

P(ABCD) = 2 (AB + BC).

AB = y + 1,

BC = 5x – 8,

y+1 3y 7

CD = 3y – 7 and AD = 2x + 1.

Find the lengths of the sides of the parallelogram.

B 5x 8 C

Solution Since the lengths of opposite sides of a parallelogram are equal, AB = CD and BC = AD.

So y + 1 = 3y – 7, and 2x + 1 = 5x – 8

2y = 8 3x = 9

y = 4 cm x = 3 cm.

So AB = CD = 5 cm and BC = AD = 7 cm.

Quadrilaterals 21

EXAMPLE 14 In the figure, ABCD is a parallelogram with

D C

m(A) = 2m + 10° and m(C) = 3m – 15°.

3m 15°

Find the measures of the interior angles of

the parallelogram.

2m + 10°

A B

m(A) = m(C)

2m + 10° = 3m – 15°

m = 25°.

So m(A) = m(C) = 60°.

Since consecutive angles in a parallelogram are supplementary, we have

m(A) + m(D) = 180°

60° + m(D) = 180°

m(D) = 120°

EXAMPLE 15 Show that the measure of the angle formed by the bisectors of any two consecutive angles in

a parallelogram is 90°.

D C

Solution In the figure, point E is the intersection point

of the bisectors of A and B. We need to E

m(A) + m(B) = 180°, (supplementary angles)

A B

m( A )

m( EAB) = and,

2

m( B)

m( EBA ) = . Adding these last two equations side by side gives us

2

m( A ) m( B) m( A )+ m( B) 180°

m( EAB)+ m( EBA ) = + = = = 90°.

2 2 2 2

In AEB,

m(EAB) + m(EBA) + m(E) = 180° (sum of interior angles)

90° + m( ) = 180°

m(E) = 90°.

22 Geometry 8

EXAMPLE 16 ABCD is a parallelogram with AB > AD. Point E is on the side DC such that BE = BC, AE = AB

and m(DAE) = 15°. Find the measures of the interior angles of the parallelogram.

D E C

x x

Solution We begin by drawing the figure. Let m(C) = x. x

Then 15°

m(A) = m(C) = x (opposite angles) x 15° x

m(EAB) = m(C) – m(DAE) = x – 15° A B

m(ABE) = m(CEB) = x (alternate interior angles, DC AB)

m(BEA) = m(ABE) = x. (base angles in isosceles triangle ABE)

In ABE,

m(EAB) + m(ABE) + m(BEA) = 180° (sum of interior angles)

x – 15° + x + x = 180°

3x = 195°

x = 65°.

So m(A) = m(C) = 65°.

Since consecutive angles in a parallelogram are supplementary, we have

m(A) + m(B) = 180°

65° + m(B) = 180°

m(B) = 115°.

Since B and D are opposite angles, m(D) = m(B) = 115°.

Check Yourself

1. In the figure, ABCD is a parallelogram with AD = 2y – 1, D x+5 C

AB = 2x – 3, BC = y + 1 and CD = x + 5. Find the

perimeter of the parallelogram. 2y1 y+1

A 2x3 B

2. The measure of the angle between one side of a parallelogram and the altitude drawn

from one of its obtuse angles is 35°. Find the measures of the interior angles of the

parallelogram.

Answers

1. 32 2. 55° and 125°

Quadrilaterals 23

Theorem 8

Proof D a C

Look at the figure.

Given that ABCD is a parallelogram, we need O

to show AO OC and BO OD. b b

A a B

Statements Reasons

1. ABCD is a parallelogram. Given

2. AB DC Definition of a parallelogram

3. OBA ODC and OAB OCD Alternate interior angles

4. AB DC Opposite sides are congruent.

5. OBA ODC ASA by 3 and 4

6. AO OC and BO OD Corresponding sides of congruent triangles

D C

point O is the intersection of diagonals AC and 2x

1

+

3y

DB. AO = 3x + 5, OC = 3y – 1, BO = y + 2 1

y+

3x

2

Find the lengths of the diagonals AC and BD.

A B

AO = OC and BO = OD.

This gives the system

3x+5 = 3y – 1 3x – 3y = –6

;

y + 2 = 2 x +1 y = 2 x – 1.

Substitute y = 2x – 1 in the first equation:

3x – 3(2x – 1) = –6

3x – 6x + 3 = –6

–3x = –9

x = 3.

For x = 3, y = 2x – 1

y=23–1

y = 5.

So x = 3 and y = 5, and

AC = 2 AO = 2(3x + 5) = 2(3 3 + 5) = 28,

BD = 2 BO = 2(y + 2) = 2(5 + 2) = 14.

24 Geometry 8

EXAMPLE 18 In the figure, ABCD is a parallelogram and AE D E 2 C

is the bisector of A. Given that BC = 5 cm

and EC = 2 cm, find the perimeter of ABCD.

5

A B

D 5 E 2 C

Solution The lengths of opposite sides of a parallelogram

are equal, so BC = AD = 5 cm.

5 5

Opposite sides of a parallelogram are

parallel, so DC AB. Now we can write

A 7 B

ADE is isosceles (two congruent angles in ADE)

AD = DE = 5 cm (legs of isosceles ADE)

DC = DE + EC

DC = 5 + 2

DC = 7 cm

AB = DC = 7 cm. (opposite sides)

P(ABCD) = 2 (7 + 5) = 24 cm.

EXAMPLE 19 In a parallelogram ABCD, DC = 12 cm and point O is the intersection point of the diagonals

AC and DB. The perimeter of COB is 24 cm and the perimeter of AOB is 28 cm. Find the

perimeter of ABCD.

The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other, so let AO = OC = x and DO = OB = y. Then

P(AOB) = AO + OB + AB

28 = x + y + 12 D C

x + y = 16 cm, and y

x

P(COB) = CO + OB + BC O y

24 = x + y + BC x

24 = 16 + BC A B

BC = 8 cm.

So the perimeter of ABCD is 2(AB + BC) = 2(12 + 8) = 40 cm.

Quadrilaterals 25

EXAMPLE 20 In the figure, ABCD is a parallelogram. Point

D C

E is the midpoint of side AB and point F is the

intersection of line segments EC and DB. 6

Given FB = 2 cm and FC = 6 cm, find the

lengths of DF and EF. F 2

A E B

C

Let us write AE = EB = x, so AB = 2x.

6

The lengths of opposite sides of a parallelogram

are equal, so CD = AB = 2x. F 2

x x

so DC AB. Also,

m(DFC) = m(BFE) (vertical angles)

m(FBE) = m(FDC). (alternate interior angles)

Angle Angle (AA) So FEB FCD by the Angle Angle similarity postulate.

similarity postulate:

If two angles of one If the triangles are similar, then the lengths of their corresponding sides are proportional, so

triangle are congruent

to two angles of another FE EB FB FE x 2

triangle, then the

= = , = = .

FC CD FD 6 2x FD

triangles are similar.

FE x

Since , by simplification and cross multiplication we get EF = FE = 3 cm.

6 2x

x 2

Similarly, gives us DF = FD = 4 cm.

2 x FD

D E

C

is the midpoint of side DC and point K is on

2 F

side BC such that KC = 3 KB. Point F is the

3x

intersection of line segments AE and DK.

6

DF = 2 cm and AF = 6 cm are given. Find K

x

the lengths of FK and EF. A B

26 Geometry 8

Solution Let KB = x. So KC = 3x. D E

C

The lengths of opposite sides of a parallelogram 2 F 3x

2

are equal, so CB = AD = 4x. 4x P 3x

6

Let P be a point on the line segment DK and K

x

let us draw the line segment EP such that A B

EP AD.

Triangle proportionality

theorem: A line parallel

Since point E is the midpoint of DC and EP BC, by the triangle proportionality theorem we

to one side of a triangle can say that point P is the midpoint of DK and so EP is a midsegment of CDK.

which intersects the

other two sides divides the KC 3x

So EP = = . Also,

two sides proportionally. 2 2

A

m(FAD) = m(FEP) (alternate interior angles)

D E

So FEP FAD by the Angle Angle similarity postulate.

B C If the triangles are similar then the lengths of their corresponding sides are proportional, i.e.

AD AE 3x

DE BC = FE EP FP FE FP

DB EC

= = ; = 2 = .

FA AD FD 6 4x 2

3x

FE

So 2 , which gives us FE = 9 cm .

6 4x 4

3x

2 FP 3

Similarly, which gives us FP cm. Now

4x 2 4

DP = DF + FP

4 1

DP = 2+ = 3 cm

3 3

1

PK = DP = 3 cm, and so finally (point P is the midpoint of DK)

3

FK = PK + FP

1 4 2

=3 4 cm.

3 3 3

Quadrilaterals 27

EXAMPLE 22 In the figure, ABCD is a parallelogram. Points D C

E and F are the midpoints of sides AD and AB

respectively, and point K is the intersection of E

EF and AC. Point N is the intersection of EB N

A F B

D C

Solution Let point O be the intersection of the

diagonals AC and DB. Since the diagonals of E O

N

a parallelogram bisect each other, AO = OC

1

and DO = OB. Also, EF BD since EF is a K

midsegment of ADB. A F B

OD BO

So EK is the midsegment of ADO, which

means EK , i.e. EK (since OD = BO).

2 2

Now

m(ENK) = m(BNO). (vertical angles)

So ENK BNO by the Angle Angle similarity postulate.

If two triangles are similar then their corresponding sides are proportional:

OB

EN EK KN NK 1

= = , = 2 = .

BN BO NO BN BO NO

OB

1

So 2 , which gives us NO = 2 cm. Also,

BO NO

KO = KN + NO = 1 + 2 = 3 cm,

AO = AK + KO = 2KO = 6 cm. (point K is the midpoint of AO)

So AC = 2AO = 12 cm.

EXAMPLE 23 ABCD is a parallelogram and BH and BE are altitudes from vertex B to the sides DC and AD

respectively. The measure of the angle between BH and BE is 60°, DE = 2 cm and DH = 6 cm.

Find the lengths of sides AB and AD.

28 Geometry 8

Solution We begin by drawing a figure with the D 6 H x C

information in the question: 2 60°

E

m(EBH) = 60° and 30° 2x

60°

BE AD and BH DC (since AB DC and 60° 30°

BH is an altitude). From the figure, A B

= 90° – 60°

= 30°.

In the right triangle ABE,

m(A) + m(ABE) + m(BEA) = 180° (sum of interior angles)

m(A) + 30° + 90° = 180°

m(A) = 60°

m(A) = m(C) = 60°. (opposite angles of a parallelogram)

In the right triangle CHB,

m(C) + m(CHB) + m(HBC) = 180° (sum of interior angles)

60° + 90° + m(HBC) = 180°

m(HBC) = 30°.

Now let HC = x. Then

BC = 2x (side opposite 30° is half of the hypotenuse)

AB = DC = 6 + x (opposite sides of a parallelogram)

Remember:

AB 6+ x

In a 30° - 60° - 90° AE = = (side opposite 30° is half of the hypotenuse)

triangle, the length of 2 2

the side opposite 30° is AD = BC (opposite sides of a parallelogram)

half the length of the

hypotenuse. 6+ x

2+ = 2x

2

4+6+ x = 4 x

3x =10

10

x= cm.

3

28 20

So AB = 6+ x = cm and BC = 2 x = cm.

3 3

Quadrilaterals 29

Theorem 9

In a parallelogram, the sum of the squares of the lengths of the diagonals is equal to twice

the sum of the squares of the lengths of two consecutive sides.

diagonals of a parallelogram, respectively. f

e

Then we need to prove that 2 2

b O b

e2 + f 2 = 2(a2 + b2). f e

2 2

Remember the theorem which relates the

C median of a triangle and its sides: if a, b and A a B

a

b K c are sides of a triangle and Va is the median

Va

a2

A c B to side a, then 2Va2 + = b2 + c2 .

2

In ABC,

In the figure above, ABCD is a parallelogram.

a2

2Va 2 + = b2 + c2 .

2 Let us apply the median theorem to DAC:

AC 2

2 DO2 + = AD 2 + DC 2

2

2 2

e f

2 + = b 2 + a2

2

2

e2 f 2

2 + = b 2 + a2

4 2

e2 + f 2 = 2( b2 + a2 ). This is the required result.

EXAMPLE 24 The diagonals of a parallelogram measure 8 cm and 4ñ6 cm, and the shorter side of the

parallelogram measures half the length of its longer side. Find the perimeter of this parallelogram.

Solution Let x be the length of the shorter side and y be the length of the longer side of the

parallelogram. Then from the question, y = 2x.

Let e and f be the lengths of the diagonals. Then

e2 + f 2 = 2(a2 + b2) (by Theorem 9)

82 + (4ñ6)2 = 2 (x2 + (2x)2)

64 + 16 6 = 10x2

10x2 = 160

x2 = 16

x = 4 cm.

So the sides of the parallelogram measure 4 cm and 8 cm, and the perimeter of the

parallelogram is 2 (4 + 8) = 24 cm.

30 Geometry 8

Check Yourself

1. In the figure, ABCD is a parallelogram. Point O is the intersection D 9 C

O

Given that P(AOD) = 17 cm, find P(AOB). 6

A B

120°

Find the length of the altitude BH if DC = 6 cm. H

A B

3. In the figure, ABC is a triangle and quadrilaterals AFHE and A

DBHE are parallelograms. If DG = 2GE and AB = 12 cm,

F

find the length of EH.

G

D E

Answers

1. 20 cm 2. 3ñ3 cm 3. 3 cm B H C

As we have seen, if both pairs of opposite sides of a quadrilateral are parallel then by definition

the quadrilateral is a parallelogram. Here are some more theorems which help us to prove

that a quadrilateral is a parallelogram:

Theorem 10

If the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other then the quadrilateral is a parallelogram.

Theorem 11

If both pairs of opposite sides of a quadrilateral are congruent then the quadrilateral is a

parallelogram.

Theorem 12

If any two opposite sides of a quadrilateral are parallel and congruent then the

quadrilateral is a parallelogram.

Theorem 13

If both pairs of opposite angles of a quadrilateral are congruent then the quadrilateral is a

parallelogram.

We now have five ways to prove that a quadrilateral is a parallelogram: we can use the

definition or one of the four theorems above.

Quadrilaterals 31

EXAMPLE 25 Write a two-column proof of Theorem 10: if the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other

then the quadrilateral is a parallelogram.

of quadrilateral ABCD bisect each other, we

need to prove that ABCD is a parallelogram. In

O

other words, we need to show that both pairs

of opposite sides of quadrilateral ABCD are

A B

parallel.

Statements Reasons

1. AO = OC and BO = OD Given

2. BOC DOA Vertical angles

Side Angle Side (SAS) 3. BOC DOA SAS postulate by 1 and 2

postulate: If two sides

and their interior angle 4. DOC BOA Vertical angles

in a triangle are congruent

5. OAD OCB and OBC ODA Corresponding angles of congruent triangles

to two sides and their

interior angle in another 6. AD BC By 5

triangle, then the

triangles are congruent. 7. BOA DOC SAS postulate by 1 and 4

8. OAB OCD and OBA ODC Corresponding angles of congruent triangles

9. AB DC By 8

10. ABCD is a parallelogram. By 6 and 9

EXAMPLE 26 In a parallelogram ABCD, point O is the intersection of diagonals AC and BD, and points M and

N are midpoints of DO and BO respectively. Show that the quadrilateral ANCM is a parallelogram.

The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each M

other, so BO = OD and AO = OC. O

DO

M is the midpoint of DO, so DM = MO = . N

2

A B

BO

N is the midpoint of BO, so BN = NO = .

2

Since DO = BO we have MO = NO.

MN and AC are diagonals of the quadrilateral ANCM and they bisect each other. So by

Theorem 10, ANCM is a parallelogram.

EXAMPLE 27 Show that the quadrilateral which is formed by joining the midpoints of the sides of any

quadrilateral is a parallelogram.

32 Geometry 8

Solution Look at the figure. ABCD is a quadrilateral, C

S

and points K, P, T and S are midpoints of the D

sides DA, AB, BC and CD respectively. We

T

have to show that KPTS is a parallelogram. In K

other words, we have to prove that both pairs

of opposite sides of the quadrilateral KPTS A P B

are parallel.

In BDA, KP BD. (KP is a midsegment)

In BCD, ST BD. (ST is a midsegment)

So KP ST. (lines parallel to the same line are parallel)

In DAC, KS AC. (KS is a midsegment)

In ABC, PT AC. (PT is a midsegment)

So KS PT. (lines parallel to the same line are parallel)

So KPTS is a parallelogram, since both pairs of its opposite sides are parallel.

Theorem 14

line in the same plane. Then the following

statements are true:

d

B

a. If line d is perpendicular to each of AA1, A C1

BB1, CC1 and DD1 as in the figure, then B1

D1

AA1+ CC1 = DD1 + BB1.

A1

D C

b. If line d cuts the parallelogram ABCD such d

B1

BB1, CC1 and DD1 as in the figure, then A B

D1

AA1 + CC1 = DD1 – BB1.

A1

diagonals of the parallelogram ABCD and

O

line d does not cut the parallelogram, and

d

if line d is perpendicular to each of AA1, B

A C1

BB1, CC1, DD1 and OO1 as in the figure,

O B1

then D1 1

AA1 + BB1 + CC1 + DD1 = 4 OO1. A1

Quadrilaterals 33

EXAMPLE 28 The figure shows a parallelogram ABCD.

K

d

Line d does not intersect ABCD and d is

P x+4

perpendicular to each of AS, BP, CK and DM. M

Given AS = 4x – 1, BP = 3x + 3, CK = x + 4 2

D

S C

3x+3

and MD = 2 cm, find the value of x.

4x1

AS + CK = BP + MD.

Substituting the given values into this equation gives us

4x – 1 + x + 4 = 3x + 3 + 2

2x = 2

x = 1 cm.

Theorem 15

If points A, K, T, S and B, C, S are

respectively collinear and if BD is a diagonal

D T

of the parallelogram, then C

K

AK2 = KT KS.

A B

Statements Reasons

1. KAB KTD Alternate interior angles

2. BKA DKT Vertical angles

3. KAB KTD AA similarity postulate

KA KB

4. = Corresponding sides of similar triangles are proportional.

KT KD

5. DAK BSK Alternate interior angles

6. AKD SKB Vertical angles

7. KBS KDA AA similarity postulate

KS KB

8. = Corresponding sides of similar triangles are proportional.

KA KD

KA KS

9. = By 4 and 8

KT KA

10. KA2 = KS KT By 9

34 Geometry 8

EXAMPLE 29 In the figure, ABCD is a parallelogram, AC is

N

5

its diagonal and points B, T, K, N and A, D, N

D K C

are respectively collinear. If BT = 6 cm and

T

KN = 5 cm, find the length of TK.

6

A B

Solution By Theorem 15, BT 2 = TK TN.

Substituting the given values gives us the equality

62 = TK (TK + 5).

Let TK = x.

Then 62 = x (x + 5)

36 = x2 + 5x

x2 + 5x – 36 = 0

(x – 4)(x + 9) = 0 (by factoring)

x = 4 or x = –9.

Since x = –9 is not a posssible length, TK = 4 cm.

Note

Since opposite angles of a parallelogram do not need to be D C

supplementary and the sums of the lengths of opposite sides are

not necessarily equal, a parallelogram cannot usually be inscribed A B

or circumscribed.

ABCD cannot be inscribed

or circumscribed

Check Yourself

1. In the figure opposite, line d does not intersect parallelogram A1 D

1

ABCD and d is perpendicular to each of AA1, BB1, CC1 and B1 C

1 d

5

DD1. If AA1 = 13 cm, DD1 = 5 cm and BB1 = 11 cm, find the 13 D

C

length of CC1. 11

A B

and G are collinear, and point E is the intersection of DG and E

the diagonal AC. If FG = 5 cm and EF = 4 cm, find the length 4 F

5

of DE.

A B G

Answers

1. 3 cm 2. 6 cm

Quadrilaterals 35

C. RECTANGLE

1. Definition

Definition rectangle

A rectangle is a parallelogram which has four right angles.

We can also define a rectangle as a D a C

parallelogram with one right angle, since if

one of the angles of a parallelogram is a

b b

right angle then the other three angles will

also be right angles.

A a B

In the figure, ABCD is a

parallelogram with right angles

m(A) = m(B) = m(C) = m(D) = 90°.

A banknote is a common So ABCD is a rectangle.

example of a rectangle.

2. Properties of a Rectangle

Since a rectangle is a type of parallelogram, it has all the properties of a parallelogram. It also

has some additional properties.

Theorem 16

D a C

rectangle, we need to prove AC BD.

O

b b

AB is a common side of DAB and CBA.

DAB CBA (both right angles by definition of a rectangle)

DAB CBA (by SAS congruence postulate)

AC BD (corresponding sides of congruent triangles)

Moreover, since the rectangle is a parallelogram, its diagonals bisect each other:

AO OC BO OD.

So the diagonals of a rectangle are congruent and bisect each other. It can also be proven that

if the diagonals of a parallelogram are the same length then this parallelogram is a rectangle.

36 Geometry 8

EXAMPLE 30 The bisector of angle A of a rectangle ABCD intersects side DC at a point K such that

DK : KC = 4 : 3. Given that DK =16 cm, find the lengths of all sides of ABCD and its perimeter.

and KC = 3x. Also, DK = 16 cm so 4x = 16;

x = 4 cm.

A B

m(BAK) = m(DKA) (alternate interior angles)

DAK is isosceles (two congruent angles in DAK)

AD = DK = 16 cm (congruent legs of an isosceles triangle)

DC = DK + KC = 7x = 28 cm

AD = BC = 16 cm (opposite sides)

DC = AB = 28 cm (opposite sides)

So the perimeter of ABCD is 2 (16 + 28) = 88 cm.

24°

C

O is the intersection of diagonals AC and BD.

Point E is on the side DC and DO = DE. O

Given m(EOC) = 24°, calculate m(ODE).

A B

x x+24° x

equal and bisect each other. So DO = OC. 24°

A B

Let m(OCD) = x, then

m(ODE) = m(OCD) = x (base angles in isosceles triangle DOC)

m(DEO) = x + 24° (exterior angle of triangle OCE)

m(DEO) = m(DOE) = x + 24° (base angles in isosceles triangle DOE)

In triangle DOE,

m(ODE) + m(DEO) + (DOE) = 180° (sum of interior angles)

x + x + 24° + x + 24° = 180°

3x = 132°

x = 44°.

So m(ODE) = 44°.

Quadrilaterals 37

EXAMPLE 32 A rectangle ABCD has side lengths 8 cm and 16 cm, and point O is the intersection point of

diagonals AC and BD. Find the distances from O to two consecutive sides of the rectangle.

asks us to find the lengths OH and ON. O

8 N

A H B

Since ON BC, it follows that ON AB. (lines perpendicular to the same line BC)

The diagonals bisect each other, so AO = OC. It follows that BN = NC.

AB

So ON is a midsegment of ACB and ON = ; ON = 8 cm.

2

BC

In a similar way we can show that OH is also a midsegment of ABC and OH = ; OH = 4 cm.

2

So ON = 8 cm and OH = 4 cm.

C

E is on the side DC. Line segments AE and

BE are perpendicular to each other. Given 6

DE = 4 cm and BC = 6 cm, find the length

of line segment EC. A B

Solution Let us draw a line EH which is perpendicular to side AB. Then AHED and HBCE are also

rectangles. D 4 E x

C

Let EC = x, then HB = x. Also,

DE = AH = 4 cm (given), and 6 6

BC = EH = 6 cm (also given).

First Euclidean theorem: By the first Euclidean theorem, A 4 H x B

C EH = AH HB

2

62 = 4 x

36 = 4x

A H B x = 9 cm.

In ABC, if m(C) = 90° So EC = 9 cm.

and CH AB then The Parthenon in Athens is an

example of the architectural use of a

CH = AH HB.

2

shape known as the golden rectangle.

The golden rectangle is thought to be

the geometric form that is most

pleasing to the human eye.

38 Geometry 8

Check Yourself

1. In the figure, ABCD is a rectangle and point E is the D C

intersection of diagonals AC and BD. If EH AB,

EH = 3 cm and HB = 4 cm, find the length of AC. E

3

2. The bisector of angle C of a rectangle ABCD intersects

side AD at point F such that DF : FA = 3 : 2. Find the A H 4 B

3. In the figure, ABCD is a rectangle and points A, B and D C

E are collinear. If AC = BE and m(CAE) = 36°, find

m(AED).

36°

Answers A B E

1. 10 cm 2. 48 cm 3. 18°

Theorem 17

D C

point in or on the rectangle then P

A B

perpendicular to both sides AB and DC as in

the figure. P

2 2 2 2

So PA – KA = PB – KB . (1)

In right triangles PNC and PND,

PN2 = PC2 – NC2 and PN2 = PD2 – ND2. (Pythagorean Theorem)

So PC2 – NC2 = PD2 – ND2. (2)

Adding equalities (1) and (2) side by side gives

PA2 – KA2 + PC2 – NC2 = PB2 – KB2 + PD2 – ND2, (KA = ND, KB = NC)

which means PA2 + PC2 = PB2 + PD2 as required.

Quadrilaterals 39

Note P

D C

Theorem 17 also holds if point P lies outside the rectangle: in the

figure opposite,

PA2 + PC2 = PB2 + PD2.

A B

PN = 5 cm and PK = 6 cm, find the length P

of line segment PT. 4 5

M N

Let us substitute the given values in the equality:

PT 2 + 52 = 42 + 62

PT 2 + 25 = 16 + 36

PT 2 = 16 + 36 – 25

PT 2 = 27

PT = 3ñ3 cm.

8

2

P

ABCD and points A, C and P are collinear. If D C

PC = 2 cm, AC = 8 cm and PD = 8 cm, find

8 ?

the length of line segment PB.

Let us substitute the given values:

PB2 + 82 = 102 + 22

PB2 + 64 = 100 + 4

PB2 = 104 – 64

PB2 = 40

PB = 2ò10 cm.

40 Geometry 8

EXAMPLE 36 ABCD is a rectangle and point E is on side DC with DE < EC. Point F is the midpoint of side

DA. Given FE BE, FE = 12 cm and m(EBA) = 30°, find the perimeter of the rectangle.

m(ABE) = m(BEC) = 30° (DC AB, alternate interior angles)

m(CED) = 180° (straight angle)

m(FED) = m(CED) – m(FEB) – m(BEC)

= 180° – 90° – 30° D 60° E C

30°

= 60°. 12

F

In the right triangle EDF,

30°

DF A B

sin60° (sine ratio)

FE

DF sin60° FE

Drivers’ licenses, credit

3

cards and membership DF 12 6 3 cm,

cards are all rectangular. 2

DE

cos60° (cosine ratio)

FE

DE cos60° FE

1

DE 12 6 cm.

2

So BC = DA = 2 DF = 12ñ3 cm.

In the right triangle BCE,

BC BC 12 3

tan 30 = ; EC = ; EC ; EC = 12ñ3 ñ3 = 36 cm, so

EC tan 30 1

3

DC = EC + DE = 36 + 6 = 42 cm.

So the perimeter of ABCD is 2(12ñ3 + 42) = (84 + 24ñ3) cm.

E is the midpoint of side AB. AC is a diagonal

11

of the rectangle, AC = 11 cm and EC = ò46 cm. ò46

Find the lengths of the sides of the rectangle.

A E B

Quadrilaterals 41

Solution Let EB = x and BC = y. D C

So AB = 2x. 11 y

ò46

Also, B is a right angle.

A x E x B

In the right triangle BEC,

y2 + x2 = (ò46)2; y2 = 46 – x2. (1) (Pythagorean Theorem)

In the right triangle ABC,

y2 + (2x)2 = 112; y2 + 4x2 = 121. (2) (Pythagorean Theorem)

Substituting (1) in (2) gives

46 – x2 + 4x2 = 121

3x2 = 75

x2 = 25

x = 5, and

y2 = 46 – x2

y2 = 21

y = ò21.

So AD = BC = ò21 cm and DC = AB = 10 cm.

on the diagonal AC and DH is perpendicular

to AC with AD = 15 cm and DC = 20 cm.

15 H

Find the length of line segment HB.

?

A B

9

AC2 = 152 + 202 (Pythagorean Theorem) 12

E

AC = 25 cm 15 7 15

Second Euclidean 12

theorem: AD2 = AH AC (second Euclidean theorem) 9 H

C

15 = AH 25

2

A 20 B

AH = 9 cm.

A H B In the right triangle AHD,

In ABC, if m(C) = 90° DH2 = 152 – 92 (Pythagorean Theorem)

and CH AB then

AC2 = AH AB. DH = 12.

42 Geometry 8

Now let us construct BE such that BE AC. Then we have

DAH BCE (alternate angles)

ADH CBE (third angles in right triangles)

BC AD. (opposite sides of a rectangle)

So AHD CEB, by the SAS congruence postulate.

So AH = EC = 9 cm and DH = BE = 12 cm, and

HE = AC – AH – EC

HE = 25 – 2 9 = 7 cm.

Finally, in the right triangle HEB,

HB2 = EB2 + EH2 (Pythagorean Theorem)

HB2 = 122 + 72

HB = ó193 cm.

Note D C

Since opposite angles of a rectangle are supplementary, we can always

draw the circumscribed circle of a rectangle. However, it is not

generally possible to construct its inscribed circle. A B

but not circumscribed.

Check Yourself

D C

1. In the figure, ABCD is a rectangle and P is a point in 10 8

its interior. If PA = 9 cm, PC = 8 cm and PD = 10 cm, P

find the length of segment PB. 9 ?

A B

midpoint of side AB and EC is the bisector of angle C.

If EC = 6ñ2 cm, find P(ABCD). 6ñ2

A E B

on the sides AB and DA respectively. Given CE FE, ?

4

m(CEB) = 45°, AE = 2 cm and DF = 4 cm, find the

F

length of segment CF.

45°

Answers A 2 E B

1. 3ñ5 cm 2. 36 cm 3. 4ñ5 cm

Quadrilaterals 43

D. RHOMBUS

1. Definition

Definition rhombus

A rhombus is a parallelogram whose sides are all congruent.

D a

C

AB BC CD DA. a a

So ABCD is a rhombus.

A a B

Many objects that need to change in shape are built in the shape

of a rhombus. The most useful property of a rhombus is that since

the lengths of the sides are the same, opposite sides remain parallel

as you change the measures of the angles. In addition, as you

change the measures of the angles, the vertices slide along the

lines of the diagonals and the diagonals remain perpendicular.

2. Properties of a Rhombus

The plural form of Since a rhombus is a parallelogram, it has all the properties of a parallelogram. It also has

rhombus is rhombi. some additional properties that are not true for all parallelograms.

Theorem 18

52°

C

m(CDB) = 52°. Find m(DAB).

?

Solution We know that ABCD is a rhombus and that its A B

diagonal bisects two angles (by Theorem 18).

So m(ADB) = m(CDB) = 52°

m(CDA) = 104°

m(CDA) + m(BAD) = 180° (consecutive angles in a parallelogram are supplementary)

m(DAB) = 180° – 104°

= 76°.

44 Geometry 8

EXAMPLE 40 In the figure, ABCD is a rhombus, D C

AB = BE and points D, B and E are collinear.

If m(A) = 64°, find m(BCE). ?

64°

A B

So BEC is isosceles. E

Let m(BCE) = x. Then

m(BEC) = m(BCE) = x (base angles in isosceles triangle BCE).

m(CBD) = 2x (exterior angle of BEC)

m(DAB) + m(ABC) = 180° (supplementary angles in a parallelogram)

m(ABC) = 180° – 64° = 116°

m( ABC )

m( CBD ) = (diagonal BD is the bisector of ABC)

2

116°

2x = ; 2 x = 58°; x = 29°.

2

So m(BCE) = 29°.

Rhombi protect us.

C

diagonal, DH is perpendicular to AB and

AK = KD. Find m(AKH).

K

?

A H B

Solution ABCD is a rhombus so its diagonal bisects its vertex angles. So m(HAK) = m(DAK) = x

and m(DAK) = m(ADK) = x (base angles in isosceles triangle AKD)

m(AKH) = 2x. (exterior angle of AKH)

In AKH,

m(HAK) + m(AKH) + m(AHK) = 180° (sum of interior angles)

x + 2x + 90° = 180°

3x = 90°

x = 30°.

So m(AKH) = 2x = 60°.

Quadrilaterals 45

Theorem 19

Proof Look at the figure. Since ABCD is a rhombus, D

the diagonals bisect each other. So AO = OC

and BO = OD.

Triangles ABD, ABC, BCD and DAC are A

O

C

isosceles because the sides of a rhombus are

congruent by definition. In an isosceles

B

triangle, the median to the base is perpendicular

to the base and also bisects the vertex angle. So

AO BD and m(BAO) = m(OAD)

BO AC and m(ABO) = m(OBC)

CO BD and m(BCO) = m(OCD)

DO AC and m(ADO) = m(ODC).

So AC and DB are the bisectors of each pair of vertex angles, and also the diagonals are

perpendicular to each other.

It can also be shown that if either the diagonals of a parallelogram are perpendicular to each other, or

if one of the diagonals bisects two angles of the parallelogram, then the parallelogram is a rhombus.

Theorem 20

In a rhombus, the sum of the squares of the lengths of the diagonals is equal to four times

the square of the length of one side.

D

BD are the diagonals and point O is the

intersection of the diagonals.

We need to prove that DB2 + AC2 = 4 AD2. A C

O

Since the diagonals bisect each other, DO = OB

and AO = OC.

DB AC

So DO = and AO = .

2 2 B

2 2 2

So AO + DO = AD (Pythagorean Theorem)

2 2

DB AC 2

+ = AD

2 2

DB2 AC 2

+ = AD2 . Multiplying both sides by 4 gives us

4 4

DB2 + AC2 = 4 AD2, which is the desired result.

46 Geometry 8

EXAMPLE 42 Find the perimeter of a rhombus whose diagonals measure 10 cm and 24 cm.

the diagonals, AC = 10 cm and BD = 24 cm.

By Theorem 20, we have

BD2 + AC2 = 4AB2 5

A C

2 2

10 + 24 = 4AB 2 O

12

4AB2 = 676

AB2 = 169

B

AB = 13 cm.

So the perimeter of the rhombus is 4 AB = 4 13 = 52 cm.

AC BD

Solution 2 AO = and BO = (diagonals bisect each other)

2 2

So AO = 5 cm and BO = 12 cm.

Also, m(AOB) = 90°. (diagonals are perpendicular)

In the right triangle AOB,

AB2 = AO2 + OB2 (Pythagorean Theorem)

2 2 2

AB = 5 + 12

AB2 = 169

AB = 13 cm.

So the perimeter of the rhombus is 4 AB = 4 13 = 52 cm.

perpendicular to AB and AH = 3 cm,

HB = 2 cm. Find the lengths of the

diagonals of this rhombus.

A 3 H 2 B

congruent:

5

AD = AB = AH + HB 4 5

AD = 3 + 2 = 5 cm.

A 3 H 2 B

In the right triangle AHD,

DH2 = AD2 – AH2 (Pythagorean Theorem)

DH2 = 52 – 32

DH2 = 16

DH = 4 cm.

Quadrilaterals 47

Let us construct the diagonal BD. Then The arms of the lifting platform

shown in the picture make

in the right triangle DHB, rhombus shapes. When the

DB2 = DH2 + HB2 lift is operating, the lengths

of the diagonals change but

DB2 = 42 + 22 the lengths of the sides do not

change. Can you imagine

DB2 = 20 how this lift would look and

DB = 2ñ5 cm. work if its arms formed

parallelograms that were not

By Theorem 20, DB2 + AC2 = 4AD2 rhombi?

20 + AC2 = 4 52

AC2 = 80

AC = 4ñ5 cm.

So the diagonals measure 2ñ5 cm and 4ñ5 cm.

44

C

EXAMPLE In the figure, ABC is a right triangle and

DFBE is a rhombus. Given that AB = 8 cm

and AC = 6 cm, find the length of one side 6 D E

of the rhombus.

A F B

8

C

BC2 = AB2 + AC2 (Pythagorean Theorem)

10 x 10

BC2 = 82 + 62

6 D E

BC2 = 100

x

BC = 10.

A F B

Let the length of one side of the rhombus be

8

x, so EB = x and CE = 10 – x. Then

DE FB (opposite sides of the rhombus)

m(CDE) = m(A). (corresponding angles)

m(C) is also a common angle of BCA and ECD, so CDE CAB by the AA similarity

postulate. Therefore,

CD DE CE x 10 x

= = ; = (lengths of corresponding sides are proportional)

CA AB CB 8 10

10x = 80 – 8x

40

18 x = 80; x = cm.

9

40

So one side of the rhombus measures cm.

9

48 Geometry 8

Note

D C

Since opposite angles of a rhombus are not supplementary it is not

possible to construct the circumscribed circle of a rhombus, but it is

possible to construct the inscribed circle of a rhombus. In the figure,

ABCD is a rhombus. A B

Activity but not inscribed.

There are many simple things you can do to improve your creative thinking ability. Everyone knows that solving

puzzles is a good way to develop your creative thinking and problem solving skills. These skills are not just useful

for math: they can help you understand the world around you, too.

Here are two puzzles that you can try to solve using matchsticks or toothpicks. Good luck, and enjoy!

1. Move two matchsticks in the pattern to make 2. Move six of the matchsticks below to make a new

one rhombus and one equilateral triangle. figure made up of six congruent rhombi.

Check Yourself

1. ABCD is a rhombus and point E is on side DC such that m(BEC) = 55°. If m(A) = 100°,

find m(DBE). D

is perpendicular to side AB. If m(A) = 120° and EC = 2ò21, find

the perimeter of the rhombus. A 120° C

2ò21

E

F

3. In the figure, ABCD is a rhombus and points C, E, F 3

and B, A, F are respectively collinear. BA = 6 cm and A

E

segment ED. ?

This lamp stays perpendicular to the

wall as it moves into the room. Can you B D

explain why, using your knowledge of

rhombi?

Quadrilaterals 49

4. In the figure, ABCD is a rhombus and point E is on the D C

diagonal AC. EC = 8 cm, AE = 28 cm and AB = 30 cm are 8

?

given. Find the length of DE. E

28

Answers

1. 15° 2. 16ñ7 cm 3. 4 cm 4. 26 cm A 30 B

E. SQUARE

1. Definition

Definition square

A square is a rectangle whose sides are all congruent.

In the figure, ABCD is a square since it is a D a C

rectangle and all the sides are congruent:

AB = BC = CD = DA = a.

a a

We can also define a square as a rhombus

with four right angles. In ABCD,

A chessboard is a square

board which is divided m(A) = m(B) = m(C) = m(D) = 90°. A a B

into smaller squares of

two contrasting colors.

Do you know how many 2. Properties of a Square

squares there are on a

chessboard? We can say that a square is both a rectangle and a rhombus. So it has all the properties of a

square and a rhombus, i.e.: D a C

1. Its diagonals have the same length. e

2 e

2. Its diagonals are perpendicular. 2

a a

3. Its diagonals bisect each other. e

2 e

4. Each diagonal bisects two interior angles. 2

A a B

and F are on the sides BC and AB respectively. 70°

FB is congruent to BE and m(ADE) = 70°.

Find m(DEF). ? E

A F B

50 Geometry 8

Solution m(ADE) = m(CED) = 70° (AD BC, alternate interior angles)

Also, m(BFE) = m(BEF) and (base angles in isosceles triangle BEF)

90° D C

m( BEF ) = ; m( BEF ) = 45

2 70°

m(BEC) = 180° (straight angle) 70°

E

m(DEF) = 180° – m(CED) – m(BEF)

45°

= 180° – 70° – 45°

= 65°. A F B

E

?

A B

BC = BE (BEC is equilateral)

So AB = BE and ABE is isosceles.

D C

Also, m(EBC) = 60° (equilateral triangle)

m(ABE) = m(B) – m(EBC) E

= 90° – 60° x

x 60°

= 30°. 30°

A B

In ABE,

m(BAE) = m(BEA) = x (base angles in ABE)

m(BAE) + m(AEB) + m(ABE) = 180° (sum of interior angles)

x + x + 30° = 180°

2x = 150°

x = 75°.

So m(AEB) = 75°.

Quadrilaterals 51

EXAMPLE 47 In the figure, ABCD is a square and point E is C B

on the diagonal DB such that CE = x + 5 and

EA = 3x – 13. What is the value of x? x+5

3x

E 13

D A

2. DE DE (common side of CDE and ADE)

3. CDE ADE (diagonal DB is the bisector of D)

4. CDE ADE (by SAS congruence postulate)

5. CE AE (corresponding sides of congruent triangles)

6. CE = AE (congruent sides have equal lengths)

7. x + 5 = 3x – 13

2x = 18

x = 9 cm

a rectangle. Point E is on the diagonal AC. If

DC = 6 cm and the length of EK is half of E x

K

the length of EP, find the length of EK.

2x

A P B

In APE, m(APE) = 90° and

m(PEA) = 180° – (90° + 45°) (sum of interior angles)

m(PEA) = 45°.

So AP = PE.

Also, EK = PB (opposite sides of a rectangle) D 6 C

and AP = 2 EK. (given)

AB = AP + PB; AB = 3 EK E K

AB = DC; 3 EK = 6 cm 45°

So EK = 2 cm. 45°

A P B

52 Geometry 8

Property 7

If the length of one side of a square is b then length of its diagonal is bñ2.

15°

C

Find the perimeter of the square if

DE = 2ñ3 cm.

A B

DB AC. D C

15° 2ñ3

30°

Point O is the intersection of diagonals, and 60° E

3 ñ3

m(EDO) = m(CDO) – m(CDE) 3ñ2

O

= 45° – 15°

3

= 30°.

A B

In the right triangle DOE, 3ñ2

DO 3

cos 30 = ; DO = DE cos 30 = 2 3 = 3 cm.

DE 2

Also, DO = OB (diagonals bisect each other)

DB = DO + OB = 6 cm.

In a square, since the length of the diagonal is ñ2 times the length of one side, we get

DB = ñ2 AB

DB 6

AB = = = 3 2 cm.

2 2

and P are collinear, AC = BP and the length D C

of one side of the square is 4 cm. Find the

length of line segment CP.

A 4 B

Quadrilaterals 53

Solution Let us draw the diagonal DB, so DB AC. Point O is the intersection of the diagonals. So

BD = AC = BP = 4ñ2

OB = OD = OC = OA = 2ñ2 (diagonals bisect each other)

POB is a right triangle. (diagonals are perpendicular)

In POB,

PO2 + OB2 = PB2 (Pythagorean Theorem)

2 2 2

PO + (2ñ2) = (4ñ2) P

2

PO + 8 = 32

6

D 4 C

2ñ

2

PO = 24; PO = 2ñ6 cm.

2ñ

2

2ñ

2

4ñ2

Finally, PC = PO – CO 4

O

2ñ

2

= 2ñ6 – 2ñ2

A 4 B

= 2(ñ6 – ñ2) cm.

Note D C

the sum of lengths of opposite sides is equal to the sum of

the lengths of the other two opposite sides, a square is both

A B

an inscribed and circumscribed quadrilateral. In the figure,

ABCD is inscribed and

ABCD is a square. circumscribed.

How many squares?

How many circles?

Check Yourself 14

How many triangles?

1. In the figure, ABCD is a square and BD is a diagonal of the B A

20°

square. Point E is on BD and m(BAE) = 20°. Find E

m(AEC).

C D

2. AC is a diagonal of a square ABCD. Points E and F are on the sides AC and AB respectively,

and FE is perpendicular to AC. Find the length of EC if AF = 4ñ2 cm and FB = 2ñ2 cm.

1

collinear. If PD = 1 cm and BD = 6 cm, find the length of D C

the line segment PC.

Answers 6

1. 130° 2. 8 cm 3. 5 cm

A B

54 Geometry 8

Activity

Copy the shapes opposite onto a piece of paper and cut

them out. Cut along the dotted lines to make four pieces

from each shape. Then try to make a quadrilateral from

each set of four pieces.

F. TRAPEZOID

1. Definition

Definition trapezoid, base, leg, base angles, altitude, height

A trazepoid is a quadrilateral which has exactly one pair of parallel sides.

The parallel sides of the trapezoid are called base

D C

the bases of the trapezoid. The other sides

base

are the legs. leg angles leg

Two angles that share a base of the trapezoid base angles

are called base angles.

A base B

In the top figure at the right, ABCD is a

quadrilateral, DC AB and AD is not parallel

D base P C

to BC. So by the definition, ABCD is a trapezoid.

Sides DC and AB are the bases, and sides AD

altitude

and BC are the legs.

A perpendicular line segment drawn from

A H K B

any point on one of the bases to any point on

base

the other base is called an altitude of the

trapezoid. The length of any altitude is called the height of the trapezoid.

In the figure opposite, DH and PK are two altitudes of the trapezoid.

2. Properties of a Trapezoid

Theorem 21

In a trapezoid, two interior angles that share the same leg are supplementary.

We need to prove that C

D

m(A) + m(D) = 180° and

m(B) + m(C) = 180°.

If we extend AD so that points A, D and E are

A B

collinear, we get

Quadrilaterals 55

m(A) = m(EDC) (corresponding angles)

m(D) + m(EDC) = 180°. (supplementary angles)

So m(D) + m(A) = 180°, as required.

In a similar way, we can prove that m(B) + m(C) = 180°.

D and E are collinear, and DC AB.

E D C

70°

m(ABC) = 50° and m(ADE) = 70° are given.

Find the measures of all the interior angles of 50°

the trapezoid. A B

50° + m(BCD) = 180°

m(BCD) = 180° – 50°

m(BCD) = 130°

m(DAB) = m(ADE) = 70° (alternate interior angles)

m(ADC) + m(ADE) = 180° (supplementary angles)

m(ADC) = 180° – 70°

m(ADC) = 110°

So m(B) = 50°, m(C) = 130°, m(A) = 70° and m(D) = 110°.

D C

lies inside the trapezoid and DC AB. Given y

2y

m(EBC) = 2 m(EBA) = 2x and ?

E

m(ECB) = 2 m(ECD) = 2y, find 2x

m(CEB). x

A B

Solution m(B) + m(C) = 180° (two angles that share the same leg are supplementary)

3x + 3y = 180°

x + y = 60°

In CEB,

m(CEB) + 2x + 2y = 180° (sum of the measures of interior angles)

m(CEB) + 2(x + y) = 180°

m(CEB) = 180° – 2 60°

m(CEB) = 60°.

56 Geometry 8

Definition median of a trapezoid

The median of a trapezoid is the line segment that joins the midpoints of the legs.

D base C

the legs AD and BC respectively. So line

segment EF is the median of trapezoid ABCD. median

E F

base

A B

Theorem 22

The median of a trapezoid is parallel to the bases and its length is half of the sum of the

lengths of the bases.

Proof In the figure, ABCD is a trapezoid, DC AB D C

and EF is the median of the trapezoid.

E F

We have to prove that EF AB DC and median

AB + CD

EF = . A B G

2

Let us begin by drawing DF to intersect line

AB at point G, and continue with a two-column proof:

Statements Reasons

1. DFC GFB Vertical angles

2. DCB GBF Alternate interior angles

3. CF = FB Definition of median

4. DFC GFB ASA congruence postulate by 1, 2 and 3

5. DF = GF Corresponding sides of equal triangles

6. DC = BG Corresponding sides of equal triangles

7. AG = AB + BG Addition of line segments

8. AG = AB + DC By 6 and 7

9. AE = ED Definition of median

10. EF is the midline of ADG By 5 and 9

AG

11. EF AG and EF = By 10

2

AB + CD

12. EF AB DC and EF = Bases are parallel, and combining 8 and 11

2

Quadrilaterals 57

EXAMPLE 53 In trapezoid ABCD in the figure, DC AB and D x+3 C

8

E F

EF = 8 cm, AB = x + 1 and DC = x + 3 are

given. Find the lengths of AB and DC.

A x+1 B

AB + CD

Solution EF = since EF is the median. So

2

x +1+ x + 3

8=

2

2x + 4 = 16; 2x = 12; x = 6 cm.

So AB = 7 cm and DC = 10 cm.

c

EXAMPLE D C

and BP = PF = FC. E 6 F

Given AB = a, DC = c, KP = 9 cm and 9

K P

EF = 6 cm, find a and c.

A a B

So quadrilaterals ABFE and KPCD are trapezoids.

In trapezoid ABFE,

AB + EF a +6

KP = ; 9= (KP is the median of the trapezoid)

Thales’ theorem of 2 2

parallel lines: If three or

a + 6 = 18

more parallel lines

intersect two a = 12 cm.

transversals, then they In trapezoid KPCD,

divide the transversals

proportionally. KP + DC c +9

EF = ; 6= (EF is the median of the trapezoid)

2 2

c + 9 = 12

c = 3 cm.

So a = 12 cm and c = 3 cm.

AE and BE are the bisectors of angles A and E

B respectively. 10

D ?

Given AD = 6 cm and BC = 10 cm,

6

a. find m(AEB). A ? B

b. show that DE = EC.

c. find the length of AB.

58 Geometry 8

Solution a. m(A) + m(B) = 180° C

(supplementary angles) E

m( A ) m( B) 10

D

m( EAB) = , m( EBA ) =

2 2

6

m( A )+ m( B)

m( EAB)+ m( EBA ) = A F B

2

180

= = 90

2

In AEB,

m(EAB) + m(EBA) + m(AEB) = 180° (sum of the measures of interior angles)

90° + m(AEB) = 180°

m(AEB) = 90°.

b. Let us draw line segment EF parallel to the bases: EF DA CB. Then

m(CBE) = m(FEB) (alternate interior angles)

EF = FB (congruent angles in EFB)

m(DAE) = m(AEF) (alternate interior angles)

AF = EF. (congruent angles in AFE)

So EF = AF = FB.

Since EF AD BC and EF bisects AB, by Thales’ theorem of parallel lines we can

conclude that EF bisects side DC.

So DE = EC, and EF is the median of the trapezoid.

AD + BC

c. Since EF is the median, EF =

2

6+10

= = 8 cm.

2

AEB is a right triangle and EF is the median to the hypotenuse of the triangle. In a right

triangle, the length of the median to the hypotenuse is half of the length of hypotenuse.

So AB = 16 cm.

and AE and DE are the bisectors of A and 6

D respectively. E

8

If CH AB, AE = 8 cm and DE = 6 cm, find

A B

the height CH. H

Quadrilaterals 59

Solution Since AB DC, we know from Example 83 that D P C

m(AED) = 90°. 6

N

In AED, 10

E

2 2 2

AD = DE + AE (Pythagorean Theorem) 8

2 2 2 A B

AD = 6 + 8 F H

Let us draw the perpendiculars EP, EF and EN so

NE = EF (AE is a bisector)

Remember:

NE = EP. (DE is a bisector)

Any point on the bisector

of an angle is equidistant So PE = EF and points P, E and F are collinear.

from the two sides of the Also, CH = PF = PE + EF; CH = 2 PE.

angle.

In AED,

AD NE = DE AE (Euclidean theorem)

10 NE = 6 8

24

NE =

5

48

So CH = 2 EP = 2 NE = cm. (NE = EP = EF)

5

Theorem 23

The length of the segment of the median of a trapezoid which lies between the diagonals of

the trapezoid is half the difference of the lengths of the bases.

D c C

In the figure, EF is the median of trapezoid

ABCD. AC and BD are diagonals of the

K L

trapezoid and they intersect median EF at E

ac

F

points K and L. So by Theorem 23, 2

ac

KL . A a B

2

that EK = 2 cm and AB = 10 cm, find the E 2 F

K L

lengths of DC and KL.

A 10 B

60 Geometry 8

Solution 1 EF AB DC (EF is the median of the trapezoid)

Since EF AB and point E is the midpoint of AD, then by the triangle proportionality theorem,

point K is the midpoint of AC.

So EK is the midsegment of ACD, and

DC

EK =

2

DC = 2 EK

DC = 2 2 = 4 cm

AB – DC

KL = (by Theorem 23)

2

10 – 4

KL =

2

KL = 3 cm.

So DC = 4 cm and KL = 3 cm.

AB

Solution 2 EL is the midline of ABD. So EL = = 5 cm.

2

Also, KL = EL – EK, so KL = 5 – 2 = 3 cm.

Since EK is the midsegment of ACD, DC = 2 EK. So DC = 4 cm and KL = 3 cm.

EXAMPLE 58 ABCD is a trapezoid with AB CD, m(D) = 130°, m(B) = 65°, AD = 10 cm and DC = 5 cm.

Find the length of AB.

Solution We begin by drawing the figure, then draw CK parallel to AD, intersecting side AB at point K

as shown below. Then quadrilateral ADCK is a parallelogram, since DC AK and AD CK. Also,

DC = AK = 5 cm and AD = KC = 10 cm (opposite sides of a parallelogram)

m(D) = m(CKA) = 130° (opposite angles of a parallelogram)

m(CKA) = m(B) + m(BCK) (exterior angle property of a triangle)

m(BCK) = 130° – 65°

= 65°.

KBC is isosceles, so KC = KB = 10 cm. (m(BCK) = m(B))

AB = AK + KB = 5 + 10

D 5 C

= 15 cm.

130° 65°

10 10

130° 65°

A 5 K 10 B

Quadrilaterals 61

EXAMPLE 59 In the figure, ABCD is a trapezoid with AB DC and point E is the midpoint of AD.

Given AB = 20 cm, DC = 6 cm and EC = 12 cm, find the length of BC.

intersecting side BC at point F, so EF AB DC. 12

AB + DC

CF = FB and EF = A

2 20 B

20+6

= =13 cm.

2

In the right triangle ECF,

CF2 = EF2 – EC2 (Pythagorean Theorem)

2 2

= 13 – 12

= 169 – 144

= 25

CF = 5 cm.

So CB = 2 CF = 10 cm.

AD = 10ñ3 cm, DC = 12 cm, m(A) = 30° 60°

10ñ3

and m(C) = 60° are given. Find the length

of AB. 30°

A ? B

D 7 5 C

and BE DC, as shown in the figure. Then 60°

10ñ3 60°

DH = BE. (altitudes of a trapezoid) 5ñ3 5ñ3

30°

In the right triangle AHD, 30°

A 15 H 7 B

AH

cos 30 = ; AH AD cos 30 22

AD

3

10 3 =15 cm, and

2

DH

sin 30 = ; DH = AD sin 30

AD

1

=10 3 = 5 3 cm.

2

62 Geometry 8

So EB = DH = 5ñ3 cm.

In the right triangle CEB,

EB EB

tan60 ; EC =

EC tan60

5 3

= = 5 cm.

3

Finally,

DE = DC – EC = 12 – 5 = 7 cm and HB = DE = 7 cm. (opposite sides of rectangle HBED)

Also, AB = AH + HB = 15 + 7 = 22 cm, so AB = 22 cm.

Point O is the intersection point of the

K N

diagonals AC and BD, and AB = a and DC = c. O

If KN is parallel to the bases then prove that

2ac

a. KO = ON. b. KN = .

a+ c A a B

Corresponding sides of similar triangles are proportional, so

AK KO

= . (1)

AD DC

Similarly, DKO DAB by the AA similarity postulate, so

DK KO

= . (2)

AD AB

Adding equations (1) and (2) side by side gives

AK + DK KO KO

= +

AD DC AB

1 1

1= KO( + ) (since AK + DK = AD)

DC AB

1 1 1

= + . (3)

KO DC AB

In a similar way, by using the similarities BON BDC and CON CAB we obtain the

equation

1 1 1

= + . (4)

ON DC AB

Quadrilaterals 63

Since the right sides of equations (3) and (4) are equal, the left sides are equal, too.

So KO = ON, as required.

b. From equation (3) in part a we have

1 1 1 1 1 1

= + ; = + (finding the common denominator)

KO DC AB KO c a

1 a+ c

=

KO ac

ac

KO = .

a+ c

Since KN = KO + ON we have KN 2 KO (from part a).

2ac

So KN = , as required.

a+c

Check Yourself 15

1. In the figure, ABCD is a trapezoid with DC AB. D C

35°

Given m(DCA) = 35° and AC = AB, find m(B).

?

A B

D C

AB DC. AE and DE are bisectors of angles A and D

respectively, AB = 20 cm and DC = 8 cm. Find the length

? E

of AD.

A 20 B

and DA = 8 cm, find the height of the trapezoid.

the midpoint of AD, AB = 14 cm, DC = 6 cm and EC = 8 cm.

Find the length of BC. E

8 ?

Answers A 14 B

24

1. 72.5° 2. 28 cm 3. cm 4. 12 cm

5

64 Geometry 8

3. Isosceles Trapezoids

a. Definition

An isosceles trapezoid is a trapezoid whose legs are congruent.

D base C

So ABCD is an isosceles trapezoid.

b b

A base B

An isosceles trapezoid has all the properties of a regular trapezoid. It also has some additional

properties. Let us look at them in turn.

Theorem 24

We have to prove A B and C D.

Let us draw CE so that CE DA and point E

A E B

is on AB. Then

1. ADCE is a parallelogram (AB DC and CE AD)

2. AD = CE. (opposite sides of a parallelogram)

3. Since AD = BC, we have AD = BC = CE and

4. CEB B (BC = CE)

5. A CEB (corresponding angles)

6. A B.

7. Since two interior angles that share the same leg are

supplementary, it follows that

m(A) + m(D) = 180° and

m(B) + m(C) = 180°, i.e.

m(D) = m(C) (m(A) = m(B))

8. D C, which completes the proof.

It can also be shown that if the base angles in a trapezoid are congruent then the trapezoid

is an isosceles trapezoid.

Quadrilaterals 65

EXAMPLE 62 In the figure, ABCD is an isosceles trapezoid D C

with AB DC and AH BC. ? H

If AH is the bisector of A, find m(C).

A B

In the right triangle ABH,

m( A )

+ m(B) + 90° = 180° (sum of interior angles of a triangle)

2

m( A )

+ m(A) + 90° = 180°

2

m(A) = 60°.

So m(A) = m(B) = 60°

m(B) + m(C) = 180°

m(C) = 180° – 60°

= 120°.

Theorem 25

The perpendicular projections of the legs of an isosceles trapezoid are congruent and the

length of each leg equals half the difference of the lengths of the bases.

Proof In the figure, ABCD is an isosceles trapezoid D C

with AB DC and AB > DC. DH and CE are

two altitudes and AH and EB are projections

of the legs AD and BC respectively.

AB – DC A H E B

We need to show that AH = EB = .

2

1. ADH BCE (SAS congruence postulate)

2. AH EB (corresponding sides of congruent triangles)

3. DC = HE (opposite sides of a rectangle)

4. AH + EB = AB – HE

2 AH = AB – DC

AB – DC

AH =

2

AB – DC

So AH = EB = .

2

66 Geometry 8

EXAMPLE 63 ABCD is an isosceles trapezoid with AB DC. Given AB = 22 cm, DC = 12 cm and BC = 13 cm,

find the height of the trapezoid.

in the figure.

13

AB – CD

Then HB = by Theorem 25, i.e.

2

A H5 B

22 – 12

HB = = 5 cm. 22

2

CH2 = 132 – 52

= 169 – 25

= 144

CH = 12 cm.

Theorem 26

with AB DC and AD = BC.

A B

Statements Reasons

1. A B Base angles of an isosceles trapezoid

2. AD = BC Legs of an isosceles trapezoid

3. AB = AB Common side of ABC and BAD

4. ABC BAD SAS congruence postulate

Corresponding sides of congruent triangles

5. AC BD

are congruent.

We can also conclude that if the diagonals of a trapezoid are congruent then this trapezoid

is an isosceles trapezoid.

Quadrilaterals 67

EXAMPLE 64 ABCD is an isosceles trapezoid with AB DC. D C

If m(BAC) = 45°, m(CAD) = 15° and

2

6ñ

AC = 6ñ2 cm, find the lengths of the sides of

°

15

the trapezoid.

45°

A B

30°

2

6ñ

and AH = HC. Also,

6

°

15

CH2 + AH2 = AC2 (Pythagorean Theorem) 45° 60°

A 6 H B

2 CH = (6ñ2)

2 2

2 CH2 = 72

CH2 = 36, CH = 6 cm. So AH = 6 cm.

We also know m(A) = m(B) = 60°, since these are base angles of an isosceles trapezoid.

So in CHB,

HB

cot 60 = ; HB = CH cot 60

CH

3

HB = 6 = 2 3 cm, and

3

HB HB

cos60 = ; CB =

CB cos60

2 3

CB = = 4 3 cm.

0,5

Finally, AB = AH + HB = (6 + 2ñ3) cm, and

AB – CD

HB = ; CD = AB – 2 HB

2

= 6 + 2ñ3 – 4ñ3

= (6 – 2ñ3) cm. So the sides measure (6 + 2ñ3) cm and (6 – 2ñ3) cm.

Note

In an isoceles trapezoid, the perpendicular drawn from the midpoint c c

2 P 2

of one base bisects the other base and passes through the intersection D C

point of the diagonals. This line is called the axis of symmetry of the

O

trapezoid. In the figure, ABCD is an isosceles trapezoid with AB DC,

and PH is its axis of symmetry.

A a H a B

2 2

68 Geometry 8

Theorem 27

If the diagonals of an isosceles trapezoid are perpendicular to each other then the height of

the trapezoid is equal to half the sum of the lengths of the bases.

In the isosceles trapezoid ABCD in the figure, D C

AB DC, AD = BC and AC DB. O

AB + DC

So by Theorem 27, CH = .

2

A H B

EXAMPLE 65 An isosceles trapezoid has diagonals which are perpendicular to each other. Given that the

bases measure 8 cm and 16 cm, find the height of this trapezoid.

8

Solution The figure shows an isosceles trapezoid ABCD D C

with AB DC. O

Since AC DB, by Theorem 27 we can write

A B

AB + DC H

CH =

2 16

16+8

= =12 cm.

2

This is the height of the trapezoid.

Theorem 28

D C

perpendicular to the legs then the height of

the trapezoid is half the square root of the

difference of the squares of the bases.

A E H B

In the figure, ABCD is an isosceles trapezoid

with AB DC and AC BC.

AB2 – DC 2

So by Theorem 28, CH = .

2

EXAMPLE 66 ABCD is an isosceles trapezoid with AB DC. Given AC BC, AB = 10 cm and DC = 6 cm,

find the height of this trapezoid.

Quadrilaterals 69

Solution 1 Let us draw the altitude CH, so CH AB. 6

D C

Since the diagonal AC is perpendicular to BC,

by Theorem 28 we can write

AB2 – DC 2

CH = A 8 H 2 B

2

10

10 2 – 6 2 64

= = = 4 cm.

2 2

AB – DC 10 – 6

Solution 2 HB = = = 2 cm

2 2

AH = AB – HB

= 10 – 2 = 8 cm

In the right triangle ACB,

CH2 = AH BH (first Euclidean theorem)

=82

= 16; CH = 4 cm.

Theorem 29

In an isosceles trapezoid, the difference of the squares of the lengths of a diagonal and a leg

is equal to the product of the lengths of bases.

In the figure, ABCD is an isosceles trapezoid

c

with AB DC, AB = a, DC = c, BC = b and D C

AC = e. b e b

So by Theorem 29, e – b = a c.

2 2

A B

a

c

the figure. D C

a–c b e b

By Theorem 25, HB = . h

2

a–c

Also, AH = AB – HB so AH = a – . A H B

2

a+ c a

So AH = .

2

Applying the Pythagorean Theorem to AHC and CHB gives us

2 2

a+c a– c

e2 = h2 + and b2 = h2 + .

2 2

70 Geometry 8

Subtracting the second equation from the first, we get

2 2

a+ c a – c

e 2 – b2 = –

2 2

a+ c a – c a+c a – c

= + –

2 2 2 2

a+ c+ a – c a+c – a+c

=

2 2

e2 – b2 = a c, as required.

EXAMPLE 67 The bases of an isosceles trapezoid measure 8 cm and 12 cm respectively. If the diagonal of

the trapezoid measures 14 cm, find the length of its legs.

D C

AC2 – CB2 = AB CD

14

CB2 = 142 – 12 8

= 196 – 96 A H B

= 100; CB = 10 cm. 12

AB – DC 12 – 8

HB = = = 2 cm.

2 2

Also, AH = AB – HB

= 12 – 2 = 10 cm.

In the right triangle ACH,

CH2 = AC2 – AH2 (Pythagorean Theorem)

2 2

= 14 – 10

= 96; CH = ò96 cm.

In the right triangle BCH,

BC 2 = CH 2 + BH 2 (Pythagorean Theorem)

2

= 96 + 2

= 100; BC = 10 cm. This is the length of the leg. Expensive trapezoids

Check Yourself 16 D C

?

1. In the figure, ABCD is an isosceles trapezoid with DC AB, 72°

and the diagonal AC bisects A. If m(BCA) = 72°, find

m(DCA).

A B

Quadrilaterals 71

D ? C

2. In the figure, ABCD is an isosceles trapezoid with AB DC,

CH AB, AH = 7 cm and HB = 3 cm. Find the length of DC.

Answers

1. 36° 2. 4 cm 3. 2ò65 cm

4. Right Trapezoids

a. Definition

A right trapezoid is trapezoid which contains a right angle.

D c C

So by the definition, ABCD is a right trapezoid.

d b

A a B

A right trapezoid has all the properties of an ordinary trapezoid, and also some additional

properties. Let us look at one important property.

Theorem 30

If the diagonals of a right trapezoid are perpendicular to each other then the height is equal

to the square root of the product of the lengths of the bases.

D C

AB DC, AD AB and AC DB.

We need to prove that AD = AB DC .

AC DH and H is a point on the extension of H A B

AB.

72 Geometry 8

Then, since DH AC and AC DB we have DH DB.

If one of two parallel lines Also, DC = HA since ACDH is a parallelogram.

is perpendicular to a line

l then the other parallel In the right triangle HDB,

line is also perpendicular

to l. DA2 = HA AB (second Euclidean theorem)

So DA = DC AB as required.

EXAMPLE 68 A right trapezoid has perpendicular diagonals and base lengths 4 cm and 9 cm. Find the

height of this trapezoid.

By Theorem 30, DA = DC AB ?

= 49

= 6 cm.

A 9 B

D 4 C

AB DC and AC BC. Given AB = 13 cm and

DC = 4 cm, find the height of the trapezoid.

?

A 13 B

HB = AB – AH 4 9

A H B

= 13 – 4 = 9 cm.

In the right triangle BCA, 13

=49

= 36

CH = 6 cm. This is the height of the trapezoid.

Quadrilaterals 73

70

D 10 C

EXAMPLE In the figure, ABCD is a right trapezoid with

AB DC. AC is the bisector of A, BC = 8 cm 8

and DC = 10 cm.

Find the length of AB. A B

D 10 C

alternate interior angles. So ADC is isosceles 8

and AD = DC = 10 cm.

A x 10 H 10 B

Let us draw the altitude DH. Then x

HB = DC = 10 cm (opposite sides of rectangle HBCD)

AH = AB – HB.

Let AB = x with x > 10. So AH = x – 10.

In the right triangle AHD,

AD2 = DH2 + AH2 (Pythagorean Theorem)

2 2 2

10 = (x – 10) + 8

100 = x2 – 20x + 100 + 64

x2 – 20x + 64 = 0

(x – 4)(x – 16) = 0 (factorize)

x = 4 or x = 16.

x = 4 cannot be a solution because x > 10. So AB = x = 16 cm.

are given. Additionally, point H is the midpoint of side DC and point P is on the side AB such

that PH DC. Find the length of PB.

median to the base is also the altitude to the H

base. D

15

Let us draw DP and PC as in the figure. Then 8

DPC is an isosceles triangle, because PH DC

A 23 x P x B

and DH = HC.

So DP = PC.

Also, AP = AB – PB.

Let PB = x, then AP = 23 – x.

74 Geometry 8

In the right triangles PAD and PBC,

PD2 = AD2 + AP2 and PC2 = PB2 + BC2 (Pythagorean Theorem)

AD2 + AP2 = PB2 + BC2 (PD = PC)

82 + (23 – x)2 = x2 + 152

64 + 529 – 46x + x2 = x2 + 225

46x = 593 – 225

46x = 368

x = 8 cm.

So PB = 8 cm.

Note

A trapezoid can be both an inscribed and circumscribed quadrilateral. An isosceles trapezoid is

always an inscribed quadrilateral but not always a circumscribed quadrilateral. A right trapezoid

is never an inscribed quadrilateral, but it may be a circumscribed quadrilateral.

In each figure, ABCD is a trapezoid.

D C D C

D C

A B

A B

A B

circumscribed not circumscribed not inscribed

Check Yourself 17

1. The bases of a right trapezoid measure 5 cm and 8 cm respectively. If the height of the

trapezoid is 4 cm, find the lengths of its legs.

2. In the figure, ABCD is a right trapezoid, H is a point on the D 9 C

diagonal DB and AH DB. AB = 20 cm, BC = 12 cm and

H

DC = 9 cm are given. Find the length of AH.

12

?

A 20 B

3. In the figure, ABCD is a right trapezoid with AB = BC, 3

D C

CD = 3 cm and AD = 3ñ3 cm. Find m(ABC).

3ñ3

Answers

?

1. 4 cm and 5 cm 2. 16 cm 3. 60° A B

Quadrilaterals 75

G. KITE

1. Definition

Definition kite

A kite is a quadrilateral with two pairs of consecutive congruent sides and two non-congruent

opposite sides.

AB CD. So the quadrilateral ABCD is a kite.

triangles with a common base BD.

A square and a rhombus can also be divided

Not all flying kites are in B D

E

the shape of a kite! into two isosceles triangles with a common

base. Therefore, the properties of a kite are

C

similar to some of the properties of a rhombus

and a square.

2. Properties of a Kite

Theorem 31

The two angles formed by the non-congruent sides of a kite are congruent angles.

A

CB = CD.

We need to show that B D.

SSS (Side Side Side) B D

postulate: If the three Let us draw the diagonal AC. Since

sides of one triangle can AB = AD, (given)

be paired with the three

sides of another triangle CB = CD (given)

such that the sides in

and AC = AC, C

each pair are congruent,

then the triangles are then by the SSS postulate, ABC ADC.

congruent.

So B D, as required.

76 Geometry 8

Theorem 32

Proof In the figure, ABCD is a kite, AB = AD and

D

CB = CD.

We need to show that AC BD.

A O C

Let us draw the diagonals AC and BD. Then

ABC ADC by the SSS postulate.

Therefore, B

CDB CBD (base angles of the isosceles triangle DCB)

m(CDB) + m(CBD) + m(BCD) = 180° (sum of interior angles)

2 m(CDB) + 2 m(OCD) = 180°

m(CDB) + m(OCD) = 90°.

In DOC,

m(CDB) + m(OCD) + m(DOC) = 180° (sum of interior angles)

90° + m(DOC) = 180°

m(DOC) = 90°.

So AC BD, which is the required result.

Notice also that since DCB is isosceles and DB AC, DO = OB.

E

AB = AD and CB = CD. D 55°

If m(A) = 4 m(C) – 10° and m(EDC) = 55°,

find the measure of each interior angle of the A C

kite.

B

Quadrilaterals 77

Solution m(ADC) + m(EDC) = 180° (supplementary angles)

m(ADC) = 180° – 55°

= 125°

m(ADC) = m(B) = 125°

In quadrilateral ABCD,

m(ADC) + m(B) + m(A) + m(C) = 360° (sum of interior angles)

2 125° + 4 m(C) – 10° + m(C) = 360°

5 m(C) = 120°

m(C) = 24°.

Finally, m(A) = 4 m(C) – 10° (given)

= 4 24° – 10°

= 86°.

EXAMPLE 73 In a kite ABCD, AB = AD, CB = CD and E is the intersection point of the diagonals. If

m(EAD) = 30° and BE = 3 cm, find the length of AD.

30°

So ED = 3 cm.

?

In the right triangle AED, side ED is

opposite the 30° angle and we know from 3

B D

trigonometry that the length of the side E

opposite 30° is half the length of hypotenuse.

So AD = 2ED = 6 cm. C

CB = CD. Points E and F are the midpoints of

E

sides AD and CB respectively. Find the perimeter 5

A O C

of the kite if EO = 5 cm and OF = 3 cm. 3

F

Solution The diagonals of a kite are perpendicular to B

each other, so BD AC.

Also, OE and OF are medians of the right triangles AOD and COB. In a right triangle, the

length of the median to the hypotenuse is equal to half the length of the hypotenuse.

So AE = ED = EO = 5 cm, and AD = 10 cm.

Similarly, BF = FC = OF = 3 cm and so BC = 6 cm.

So P(ABCD) = AB + AD + CB + CD

= 2AB + 2BC (AB = AD and BC = CD)

= 2(10 + 6)

= 32 cm.

78 Geometry 8

EXAMPLE 75 In the figure, ABCD is a kite, AB = AD,

CB = CD and BEC is an equilateral triangle.

D

?

If m(A) = 70° and m(ABE) = 40°, find E

A 70° C

m(ADE).

40°

m(EBC) = m(BCE) = 60° (interior angles of an equilateral triangle)

m(ABC) = m(ABE) + m(CBE) D

30°

= 100° A 70° E C

60°

m(B) = m(D) = 100° 40° 60°

In quadrilateral ABCD, B

2 100° + m(C) + 70° = 360°

m(C) = 90°

m(DCE) = m(DCB) – m(ECB)

= 90° – 60°

= 30°.

DCE is isosceles because EC = CD, and so

m(DEC) + m(EDC) + m(ECD) = 180° (sum of interior angles)

2 m(EDC) + 30° = 180°

m(EDC) = 75°.

Finally, m(ADE) = m(ADC) – m(EDC)

= 100° – 75°

= 25°.

6

Given AE = 6 cm, ED = 9 cm, CD = 5 cm E

x

and AB = x, find the value of x. 9

B C 5 D

Quadrilaterals 79

Solution We know AB = BC = x since ABCE is a kite. A

6

Let us draw the diagonal BE. x

E

9

Then BE bisects ABC and CEA.

Angle bisector theorem:

have

If a line segment bisects

an angle of a triangle AB AE

then it divides the

=

BD ED

opposite side into segments

proportional to the other x 6

two sides of the triangle. =

x +5 9

A 9x = 6x + 30

3x = 30

x = 10 cm.

Rome includes many kite shapes.

BN AB

=

NC AC

Note

D

A kite is always a circumscribed

D

quadrilateral, but it is not always an

inscribed quadrilateral because

A C A C

opposite angles of a kite may not be

supplementary. In the figures, ABCD B

is a kite.

B

circumscribed but inscribed and

not inscribed circumscribed

Activity

Cut four congruent right triangles from a piece of paper. Show how the four

triangles can be put together to make each quadrilateral.

1. a rhombus

2. a rectangle

3. a parallelogram that is neither a rhombus nor a rectangle

4. a trapezoid

5. a kite

80 Geometry 8

Check Yourself 18

1. In a kite ABCD, AB = AD and CB = CD. If m(B) = 40° and m(C) = 110°, find m(D).

2. In the figure, ABCD is a kite, AB = AD and m(BDC) = 60°. A

If CD = 12 cm and DA = 3ñ7 cm, find the length of AC.

3ñ7

E

B D

60°

12

C

3. In the figure, ABCD is a trapezoid with AB DC, and ABCE D 17 C

is a kite with EA = AB. If CD = 17 cm and DE = 7 cm, find

7

the length of AB. E

A ? B

Points F, E and D are on the sides AB, BC and CA respectively, 7 8

and FB = 4 cm, BE = 6 cm, EC = 8 cm and CD = 7 cm are D

E

given. Find the length of AF.

6

Answers A ? F 4 B

1. 40° 2. 9ñ3 cm 3. 10 cm 4. 5 cm

Quadrilaterals 81

3. In the figure, A

BC = 10 cm and DC = 4 cm. D

A( DEC )

Find the value of the ratio . 4

A( ABC )

B E C

10

4. What is the area of quadrilateral FGED in the figure? A

3

D E

2

F G

1

B C

A( ABC ) 8

5. Prove Property 9.3: if ABC DEF then = k2 .

A( DEF )

Answers

4 32

1. 9 2. 18 cm 3. 4.

25 3

THALES’ THEOREM

1. The Triangle Proportionality Theorem

Theorem Triangle Proportionality Theorem

A line parallel to one side of a triangle which intersects the other two sides of the triangle at

different points divides these two sides proportionally. In other words, in the figure below,

m x

= .

n y

A

Proof Look at the figure.

Given: DE BC

m x

AD AE

Prove: =

DB EC D E

ABC ADE (AA Similarity Postulate)

n y

AB AC

So = .

AD AE

B C

Let AD = m, DB = n, AE = x and EC = y.

m + n x+ y

Then =

m x

n y

1+ =1+

m x

n y DB EC AD AE

= . So = , and so = , as required.

m x AD AE DB EC

82 Geometry 8

Conclusion

Using the properties of ratio in the previous figure, we can conclude that if DE is parallel to

AD AE AB AC AB AC

BC then = , = and = .

DB EC DB EC AD AE

If a line divides two sides of a triangle proportionally then it is parallel to the third side of the

triangle.

A

Proof Look at the figure.

AD AE

Given: =

DB EC

D E

Prove: DE BC

B C

AD AE DB AD EC AE AB AC

= + = + =

DB EC AD AD AE AE AD AE

Given Properties of Simplification

proportion (using the figure) D B

ABC ADE DE BC

E C

Theorem similarity Corresponding

BAC DAE Angles Theorem

Common angle

T

A

BS = 9 cm, AB = 2x + 4 and

BC = 5x. Find SC. 6

B

Solution Since TS AC, by the Triangle Proportionality 9

Theorem we can write S

C

BT BS

=

BA BC

6 9

=

2 x + 4 5x

10 x = 6 x +12; 4 x =12; x = 3 cm.

So BC = 5x = 5 3 = 15 cm and

SC = BC – BS = 15 – 9 = 6 cm.

Quadrilaterals 83

EXAMPLE 78 In the figure, AK = 12 cm, KB = 4 cm, A

AC = 20 cm, NC = 5 cm, BC = 24 cm

and MC = 6 cm. Show that KN BC and 12

MN AB. 20

K N

Solution To show that the lines are parallel, it is

4 5

sufficient by the Converse of the Triangle

Proportionality Theroem to show that B M 6 C

AK AN BM AN 24

= and = .

KB NC MC NC

Since AN = AC – NC,

AN = 20 – 5 = 15 cm.

Similarly, BM = 18 cm.

AK 12 AN 15 AK AN

So = = 3 and = = 3. So = , and so by the Converse of the Triangle

KB 4 NC 5 KB NC

Proportionality Theorem, KN BC.

BM 18 AN 15 BM AN

Also, = = 3 and = = 3, so = and so by the same theorem, MN AB.

MC 6 NC 5 MC NC

3

A

K

B D F C

DK DF

Solution In ADC, = =1. (Triangle Proportionality Theorem and AK = KD)

AK FC

So DF = FC.

AE FC

So in ABC we have = (Triangle Proportionality Theorem)

EB BF

3 y

=

EB 5y

EB =15 cm.

84 Geometry 8

EXAMPLE 80 In ABC at the right, AF = FE, DB = 5 cm, A

BE = 4 cm and EC = 6 cm. Find the length

?

of AD.

D

F

Solution First we find a point K on AB such that 5

DC KE. Then in DBC,

B 4 E 6 C

BE BK

= . (Triangle Proportionality Theorem)

EC KD

4 BK

So = A

6 5 – BK

6 BK = 20 – 4 BK

10 BK = 20 D

F

BK = 2 cm.

K

Hence KD = BD – BK = 5 – 2 = 3 cm.

B 4 E 6 C

On the other hand, in AKE we have

AF AD

= =1. (Triangle Proportionality Theorem and AF = FE)

FE DK

So AD = 3 cm.

Theorem Thales’ Theorem

If two transversals intersect three or more parallel lines then the parallel lines divide the

transversals proportionally. This theorem is known as Thales’ Theorem.

A D

Proof Look at the figure.

Given: AD BE CF B K E

AB DE

Can you see the

Prove: =

BC EF C L F

proportional lengths?

First we draw a line which is parallel to AC and

passes through D. Let us label the intersection

A D points K and L of this new line with BE and CF.

Then BKDA and CLKB are parallelograms, since if the opposite sides of a quadrilateral are

parallel then the quadrilateral is a parallelogram. So DK = AB and KL = BC. (1)

B E DK DE

Since KE LF, by the Triangle Proportionality Theorem in DLF we have = . (2)

KL EF

AB DE

C F Substituting (1) into (2) gives us = , as required.

BC EF

Quadrilaterals 85

EXAMPLE 81 In the figure, AS BR CM DN.

4

A

m

S

information in the figure. x 3 4

C P M

Solution Since AS BR CM DN and AD, AN and y n

5

NS are tranversals, we can apply Thales’ D N

Theorem:

AK SR m 3 9 KP RM 3 4 15

= ; = ; m = and = ; = ; n= .

KP RM 3 4 4 PN MN n 5 4

AB SR 4 3 16 AB SR 4 3 20

; = ; x= and ; = ; y= .

BC RM x 4 3 CD MN y 5 3

Check Yourself 7

1. Find the value of m n in the figure. A

m 6

D E

7 n

B C

2. In the figure, DE AB. A

x+1

Find the value of x.

D

x2

B x+5 E x C

AD = 12, DB = 4 and

AF = 6. Find the lengths x and y.

6

12

F

x

D E

4 y

B C

3

5 K

x

E D

F

4

C

B

86 Geometry 8

5. In the figure, DC EF AB.

DE = 50 cm, EA = 70 cm, CF = x and D C

and FB = x + 20 cm are given. Find

the value of x.

E

F

A

B

Answers

8 12

1. 42 2. 5 3. x = 2, y = 4. 5. 50 cm

3 5

I. FURTHER APPLICATIONS

1. Menelaus’ Theorem

Theorem Menelaus’ Theorem

Let ABC be a triangle. If a line d intersects

A

the two sides AB and AC and the extension d

S

of the third side BC of ABC at points R, S R

PB CS AR

and P respectively, then =1. P

PC SA RB B C

A

Proof Let us draw the line k through point B and

d

parallel to side AC (Parallel Postulate), and let S

T

Then PBT PCS by the AA Similarity P

Postulate. B C

k

Menelaus of Alexandria

(c. 40-140 AD) was a

So PB = BT . (1)

PC CS

Greek mathematician

and astronomer. He was Moreover, BRT ARS by the AA Similarity Postulate.

the first mathematician

to describe a spherical So BR = BT . (2)

triangle, and proved the AR AS PB BT

theorem described here

Dividing (1) by (2) side by side gives PC = CS ; PB AR = AS ; PB AR CS =1.

in his book Sphaerica, BR BT PC BR CS PC BR AS

which is the only book he PB CS AR

wrote that has survived. So =1, as required. AR AS

PC SA RB

Quadrilaterals 87

3. Look at the figure.

A D

Given: ABC DEF, and AH and DP

are the altitudes to sides BC and EF

respectively.

Prove: AH = DP

B H C E P F

BAH EDP (B E and

BHA EPD = 90°)

AB DE (CPCTC)

B E (CPCTC)

ABC DEF (ASA Congruence Theorem)

So AH = DP because CPCTC.

Theorem

If a line parallel to one side of a triangle bisects another side of the triangle, it also bisects the

third side.

A

Proof Let us draw an appropriate figure.

Given: Line d bisects AB and d BC.

Prove: Line d bisects AC. N

d

If a line intersects one BC, by Pasch’s Postulate it cuts side AC of

side of a triangle, then it B C

must also intersect one the triangle. Let K be the point of

of the other two sides. intersection with AC.

Now we have to show that AK = KC.

Let us draw a line through K which is parallel to AB and cuts BC at the point T, as shown

in the figure below.

Since parallel line segments between two A

parallel lines are congruent, KT = NB.

KT = AN because AN = NB. N K

d

KTC ABC because they are

corresponding angles.

CKT KAN because they are also B T C

corresponding angles.

So by the ASA Congruence Theorem, KCT AKN.

AK KC because CPCTC. So AK = KC.

88 Geometry 8

Activity Paper Folding - Midsegments in a Triangle

Cut out a triangle and label its vertices K, M and N. K

A B

Fold M onto K to find the midpoint A of KM.

Similarly, fold N to K to find the midpoint B of KN.

M N

A B

M K N

Fold K to MN on AB. Then fold M to K and fold N

a b

to K. A B

compare? Repeat the activity with a different

a b

triangle. Are the same things true? A B

K

M N

a b

The line segment which joins the midpoints of two sides of a triangle is called a midsegment

of the triangle. It is parallel to the third side and its length is equal to half the length of the

third side.

Given: AE = EB and AF = FC

E F

BC

Prove: EF BC and EF =

2

Let us begin by drawing a line through E

B C

parallel to the line BC.

Quadrilaterals 89

By the previous theorem, this line will pass A

E F

So EF BC.

Now let us draw a line parallel to AB which

passes through F.

B T C

By the previous theorem, it passes through

the midpoint T of the side BC. Now,

BAC TFC (Corresponding angles)

AF FC (Given)

AFE FCT. (Corresponding angles)

So by the ASA Congruence Theorem, EAF TFC, and so EF = TC because CPCTC.

BC

Also, since T is the midpoint of BC, TC = .

2

BC

So EF = TC = , which completes the proof.

2

EXAMPLE 82 In a triangle ABC, P and R are the midpoints of AB and BC, respectively. AC = 3x – 1 and

PR = x + 2 are given. Find PR.

A

1

Solution PR = AC (Triangle

2 Midsegment

P

Theorem) 3x 1

1

x + 2 = (3x – 1) (Substitute) x+2

2

x=5 (Simplify) B R C

So PR = 5 + 2 = 7.

The distances from a point lying on the bisector of an angle to each side of the angle are

congruent.

H

Given: BOC AOC,

C

PH OB and P

The distance from a PN OA

point A to a line m is

the length of the line Prove: PH PN

segment AB such that O N A

B m and AB m.

90 Geometry 8

EXAMPLE 83 Write whether each statement is true or false

according to the figure opposite. D B

A

a. Point T is in the interior of DFE. K

M

b. M ext BDE F E

T

c. ADF BED = P C

d. ext FDE int FCE = FCE

e. Points T and K are in the exterior of DFE.

Check Yourself 2

Answer according to the figure. A

b. Name three points which are not on the triangle. J

N S

c. Name two points which are in the exterior of the triangle.

d. What is the intersection of the line ST and the triangle

B T C

ABC?

e. What is the intersection of the segment NS and the exterior of the triangle ABC?

Answers

A physical model of a a. points A, B, C, T and S b. points J, L and N c. points J and L d. points S and T

triangle with its interior

region e.

Auxiliary elements are Three special line segments in a triangle can often help us to solve triangle problems. These

extra or additional

segments are the median, the altitude and the bisector of a triangle.

elements.

a. Median

Definition median

In a triangle, a line segment whose endpoints are a vertex and the midpoint of the side

opposite the vertex is called a median of the triangle.

In the figure, the median to side BC is the A

line segment AD. It includes the vertex A and

the midpoint of BC.

Va

B D C

Quadrilaterals 91

We usually use the capital letter V to indicate A

the length of a median. Accordingly, the

lengths of the medians from the vertices of a Va

triangle ABC to each side a, b and c are Vb Vc

written as Va, Vb and Vc, respectively. As we

can see, every triangle has three medians. B D C

EXAMPLE 84 Name the median indicated in each triangle and indicate its length.

a. b. c.

K S P

D E

L M T V

R F N

b. median TE, length Vt

c. median PF, length Vp

1. Follow the steps to construct the median of a triangle by paper folding.

Take a triangular piece of paper Fold the paper again from the DM is the median of EF.

and fold one vertex to another midpoint to the opposite vertex.

vertex. This locates the

midpoint of a side.

2. Cut out three different triangles. Fold the triangles carefully to construct the three

medians of each triangle. Do you notice anything about how the medians of a triangle

intersect each other?

92 Geometry 8

Definition centroid of a triangle

The medians of a triangle are concurrent. Their common point is called the centroid of the

triangle.

The centroid of a triangle is the center of gravity of the triangle. In other words, a triangular

model of uniform thickness and density will balance on a support placed at the centroid of

Concurrent lines are lines

which all pass through a

the triangle. The two figures below show a triangular model which balances on the tip of a

common point. pencil placed at its centroid.

b. Angle bisector

Definition triangle angle bisector

An angle bisector of a triangle is a line segment which bisects an angle of the triangle and

which has an endpoint on the side opposite the angle.

divides BAC into two congruent parts.

a a

We call this the bisector of angle A

because it extends from the vertex A. nA

Since AN is an angle bisector, we can write

m(BAN) = m(NAC).

B N C

length of an angle bisector in a triangle.

Hence the lengths of the angle bisectors of a nA

triangle ABC from vertices A, B and C are

written nA, nB and nC, respectively. As we can nB nC

see, every triangle has three angle bisectors.

B N C

Quadrilaterals 93

Activity Paper Folding - Angle Bisectors

Follow the steps to explore angle bisectors in a triangle.

1. Cut out three different triangles.

2. Fold the three angle bisectors of each triangle as shown below.

3. What can you say about the intersection of the angle bisectors in a triangle?

Folding the angle bisector of A. AN is the angle bisector of A. BM is the angle bisector of B.

The angle bisectors in a triangle are concurrent A

and their intersection point is called the

incenter of the triangle. The incenter of a tri- L K

O

angle is the center of the inscribed circle of

The inscribed circle of a

triangle is a circle which the triangle.

is tangent to all sides of

the triangle. B N C

O is the incenter of DABC

As an exercise, try drawing a circle centered at the incenter of each of your triangles from

the previous activity. Are your circles inscribed circles?

We have seen that nA, nB and nC are the bisectors of the interior angles of a triangle ABC. We

can call these bisectors interior angle bisectors. Additionally, the lengths of the bisectors of

the exterior angles A, B and C are

written as nA, nB and nC respectively. These

K

bisectors are called the exterior angle

bisectors of the triangle. nK¢

In the figure at the right, segment KN is the

exterior angle bisector of the angle K in

N M T

KMT and its length is nK.

94 Geometry 8

Definition excenter of a triangle

The bisectors of any two exterior angles of a

B

triangle are concurrent. Their intersection is

called an excenter of the triangle.

T S

the point O. So O is an excenter of ABC. In O

addition, O is the center of a circle which is

tangent to side AC of the triangle and the

extensions of sides AB and BC of the triangle.

An escribed circle of a This circle is called an escribed circle of

triangle is a circle which is

tangent to one side of the ABC.

triangle and the extensions

of the other two sides. As we can see, a triangle has three excenters and three corresponding escribed circles.

by construction.

N

M

bisector of each exterior angle using the

E2

method we learned in Chapter 1. Then we

K

use a straightedge to extend the bisectors

until they intersect each other. E1

N

excenters of KMN. M

E3

Quadrilaterals 95

c. Altitude

Definition altitude of a triangle

An altitude of a triangle is a perpendicular line segment from a vertex of the triangle to the

line containing the opposite side of the triangle.

BC because AH is perpendicular to BC.

ha

B H C

A

ABC are usually written as ha, hb and hc,

respectively. As we can see, every triangle has

three altitudes. ha

hb hc

B H C

triangles in the figure.

A C

K

Solution There are eight triangles in the figure. Let us look at them one by one and name the drawn

altitudes in each.

96 Geometry 8

B B

B B

C A K

C A K K

A

K

D altitudes

altitude BK altitude AK altitudes BK and CK AK and BK

B

K

K

K C A

A C K C

D D

D D altitudes

altitude DK altitude CK altitudes CK and DK AK and DK

To fold an altitude, we fold a triangle so that a side matches up with itself and the fold

contains the vertex opposite the side.

Cut out three different triangles. Fold them carefully to construct the three altitudes of

each triangle. What can you say about how the altitudes intersect?

Quadrilaterals 97

Definition orthocenter of a triangle

The altitudes of a triangle are concurrent. Their common point is called orthocenter of the

triangle.

Since the position of the altitudes of a A

triangle depends on the type of triangle, the

position of the orthocenter relative to the

K

triangle changes. In the figure opposite, the ha

hb hc

orthocenter K is in the interior region of the

triangle. Later in this chapter we will look

B H C

at two other possible positions for the K is the orthocenter of DABC

orthocenter.

Once we know how to draw an altitude of a triangle, we can use it to find the area of the

triangle.

The area of a triangle is half the product of the length of a side (called the base of the

triangle) and the height of the altitude drawn to that base. We write A(ABC) to mean the

area of ABC.

BC AH a h

is A( ABC ) = = . Area is usually

2 2

h

expressed in terms of a square unit.

B H C

a

a. b. 2 cm

D c. K

A T

12 cm

6 cm

4 cm 5 cm

B 3 cm H 7 cm C E F M 8 cm N

BC AH

Solution a. A( ABC ) = (Definition of the area of a triangle)

2

10 4

= (Substitute)

2

= 20 cm2 (Simplify)

98 Geometry 8

FT DE

b. A( DEF ) = (Definition of the area of a triangle)

2

5 14

= (Substitute)

2

= 35 cm2 (Simplify)

KM MN

c. A( KMN ) = (Definition of the area of a triangle)

2

6 8

= (Substitute)

2

= 24 cm2 (Simplify)

In a triangle, a line that is perpendicular to a side of the triangle at its midpoint is called a

perpendicular bisector of the triangle.

A

In the figure, HN, DN and EN are the

The picture below hangs perpendicular bisectors of triangle ABC. E D

straight when the hook

lies on the perpendicular

Perpendicular bisectors in a triangle are N

top edge. H

The intersection point of the perpendicular bisectors of a triangle is called the circumcenter

of the triangle. The circumcenter of a triangle is the center of the circumscribed circle of the

triangle.

of a triangle is a circle

which passes through all

the vertices of the triangle.

a. b. c.

Quadrilaterals 99

Solution First we construct the perpendicular bisector of each side of the triangle. Their intersection

point is the circumcenter of the triangle.

a. b. c.

There are three main faculties on

a university campus. The university

wants to build a library on the

campus so that it is the same

distance from each faculty.

1. Make a geometric model of the

problem.

2. Find the location of the library in

the picture opposite.

As an exercise, draw three more triangles on a piece of paper and construct their

circumcenters. Check that each circumcenter is the center of the inscribed circle.

Check Yourself 3

1. Name the auxiliary element shown in each triangle using a letter (n, h or V) and a vertex

or side.

a. b. c. d. e. f.

A M X K N M P J

N S H M

B C N P Y W Z L M N K L

100 Geometry 8

2. In a triangle MNP, the altitude NT of side MP and the median MK of side NP intersect at

the point R.

a. Name all the triangles in the figure formed. b. Name two altitudes of MTN.

3. In a triangle DEF, EM is the median of side DF. If DE = 11.4, MF = 4.6 and the perimeter

of DEF is 27, find the length of side EF.

4. In a triangle KLM, LN is the altitude of the side KM. We draw the angle bisectors LE and

LF of angles KLN and MLN respectively. If the angles between the angle bisectors and the

altitude are 22° and 16° respectively, find m(KLM).

A

5. In the figure, A(ABH) = A(AHC). Find x.

10

8

x

4

B H C

make true statements about the figures. R

a. Point O is a(n) __________ . O

c. Point _______ is an excenter. Y

d. Segment ________ is an altitude. N

G

e. Point B is a(n) _____________. V

X Z M

f. Segment ER is a(n) __________ J

___________. S T L

__________.

i. Point ________ is a centroid.

Answers

1. a. nB b. hp c. Vx d. Vl e. hn f. nL

2. a. MNK, MKP, MNT, NTP, MRT, MNR, RNK, MNP b. NT, TM

3. 6.4 4. 76° 5. 5

6. a. incenter b. ET c. K d. AB (or BC) e. orthocenter (or vertex) f. angle bisector

g. M h. perpendicular bisector i. G

Quadrilaterals 101

EXERCISES 1 .1

A. Parallelogram 3. Complete the flow chart to prove that a diagonal

of a parallelogram divides the paralellogram into

1. Find the measures of the interior angles of each

two congruent triangles. A B

parallelogram, using the information given.

3 1

Given: parallelogram 4

a. D C b. D C

ABCD with diagonal BD

4x + 10° 2

32° Prove: ABD CDB 5 6

D C

3x 5° Proof:

A B E A H B AB P CD Ð1 @ Ð5

c. D C a. b.

c. e. DABC @ DCDB

36°

d. f. h.

g.

A B H

Reflexive property

of congruence

parallelogram, DE = BF

2. Each figure below shows a parallelogram with one E

and points B, F, E and D

or more angle bisectors. Find the perimeter of F

are collinear. Prove that

each parallelogram, using the information given.

quadrilateral ABCD is a A B

a. C D b. A E 6 C parallelogram.

A2 E B D 8 B

5. In the figure below, quadrilaterals KLMA and

c. D 9 C d. D C

ABCD are parallelograms. Points K, A and B are

6 collinear, and points M, A and D are also collinear.

Prove each statement by using either a paragraph

B

A E 3 B A E 2 proof, a flow chart proof, or a two-column proof.

F

a. L C D C

e. D E C f. D C

b. LM DC

c. K and C are K A

B

supplementary

A 12 B A 3 E 2 F B L M

102 Geometry 8

6. In the figure, AC and BD C 11. ABCD is a parallelogram with AB > BC. Point E is

are diagonals of the D on side BC such that CE : EB = 3 : 1, and point F

L

quadrilateral ABCD. Points N is the intersection of DE and AC. If AF = 8 cm

P

P and N are the midpoints K and FE = 4 cm, find the sum of the lengths of DF

of sides AD and BC A B and FC.

respectively, and points L and K are the midpoints

of diagonals AC and BD respectively. Prove that

quadrilateral PKNL is a parallelogram. 12. ABCD is a parallelogram and points E and F are

the midpoints of sides BC and CD respectively. AF

and AE intersect the diagonal BD at points M and

7. In the figure, ABCD is a D

N respectively. Prove that DM = MN = NB.

C

20°

parallelogram with BH AD

and BH = AD. H

? 13. In the figure, ABCD is a D C

If m(HCD) = 20°, find A B

parallelogram, point E is

m(ABH). O

midpoint of side AB and

F

point O is the intersection of

the diagonals AC and BD. If A E B

8. In the figure, line d and C¢

B¢ d OF = 3 cm, find

parallelogram ABCD D¢

A¢

have no common points D C FC

a. the ratio . b. the length of BD.

and d is perpendicular FE

O

to each of AA1, BB1, CC1

and DD1. If AA1 = 7 cm, A B

14. In the figure, ABCD is a D C

BB1 = 9 cm and DD1 = 3 cm, find the length of

parallelogram and points

CC1. 4

A, B and E are collinear. 7 F

Point F is the intersection

of DE and BC.

9. In the figure, ABCD is a E D C A B 6 E

F 6

K, F, E and C, D, E are K P(ABCD).

4ñ3

respectively collinear, and

A B

AC is the diagonal of the

15. In the figure, ABCD is a D 18 C

parallelogram. Given BK = 4ñ3 cm and FK = 6 cm,

parallelogram and CF

find the length of EF.

bisects C. FE EC, 10

AF = FE, AD = 10 cm

and DC = 18 cm are A F B

10. A parallelogram ABCD has side lengths a and b and

diagonals with lengths e and f. If a + b = 13 cm given. Find the perimeter E

and a b = 36 cm, find the value of e2 + f 2. of the right triangle EBF.

Quadrilaterals

103

16. In the figure, ABCD is a D C 21. Calculate the length x in each figure.

parallelogram and DE and 4 E a. b.

D C D C

AE bisect D and A H 2

2 x

respectively. If EH AD, A F B p 9 10

8 3

AH = 2 cm and DH = 4 cm, find the length of CF.

A B A B

2 x

p

c. D C |DP| = x

17. In the figure, ABCD is a D E C 3

P

parallelogram such that

12

4

2 DE = 3 EC, EF BC K N

A B

and AC = 40 cm. Find the

A F B

length of KN.

parallelogram and AF and

K b

BE are the bisectors of

22. Complete the paragraph to prove that if the

A and B respectively.

A a B diagonals of a parallelogram are congruent then

If AB = a and BC = b, show

the parallelogram is a rectangle.

that EF = 2b – a.

Given: ABCD is parallelogram D C

and DB = CA.

B. Rectangle

Proof: A B

19. One side of a rectangle measures 12 cm and its

Opposite sides of a parallelogram are congruent,

diagonal measures 13 cm. Find the perimeter of

so DA a. . Also, AB BA by the reflexive

this rectangle.

property of congruence. Since DB = CA (given),

DAB CBA by b. . DAB CBA

because c. , and DAB and CBA

are supplementary because they are

20. The length of the longer side of a rectangle is

d. angles.

twice the length of its shorter side. If the perimeter

DAB and CBA are right angles because

of the rectangle is 36 cm, find

e. . Hence CDA and DCB are also

a. the lengths of the sides of the rectangle. right angles because f. . So ABCD is

b. the length of the diagonal. a rectangle by g. .

Geometry 8

104

23. In the figure, ABCD is a D C 28. In a rectangle ABCD, D ? E 1 C

rectangle. If CD = EC and 15° point E is on side DC,

m(ADE) = 15°, find the AB = AE, AD = 5 cm and 5

measure of CEB. EC = 1 cm. Find the

? A B

A E B length of DE.

24. In the figure, ABCD is a D C

30° points E and F are on

rectangle and point O is 5

O sides DC and AB

the intersection of the

? respectively.

diagonals AC and BD. A ? F 2 B

A E B If FB = 2 cm and

If AE = OB and

BC = 5 cm, find the lengths of AF and EC.

m(BDC) = 30°, find m(EOB).

25. ABCD is a rectangle with AB > BC. H is a point on

is on side DC and point F is

diagonal AC, and BH is perpendicular to AC. BH 6 F

the intersection of BE and

also divides AC into two line segments with the diagonal AC. If AC BE,

A ? B

lengths 9 cm and 16 cm. Find the perimeter of DE = 5 cm and AD = 6 cm,

ABCD. find the length of AB.

D E C

intersection of the diagonals E and F are on the diagonal E

?

4 F

DB. Given AE DB, CF DB, 3

of the rectangle ABCD. If F

DE = EC, DF = 4 cm and

O

60° AB = 4 cm and AD = 3 cm,

A 4 B

m(OBC) = 60°, find find the length of EF.

A B

b. the lengths of sides.

C. Rhombus

32. In the figure, ABCD is a D

D C E

figure, CE is the bisector of and m(BEC) = 55°. Find

C and point E is the m(DBE). A 100° 55° C

6ñ2

midpoint of side AB. If ?

CE = 6ñ2 cm, find the A E B

perimeter of the rectangle. B

Quadrilaterals

105

33. In the figure, ABCD is a 110° 38. In the figure, ABCD is a A

D

rhombus and ABE is an C rhombus and point E is on

E ?

equilateral triangle. If the diagonal AC. 9

7

m(D) = 110°, find If AE = 7 cm, EC = 3 cm

B D

m(BCE). and AD = 9 cm, find the ?

length of DE. E

A B

3

39. In the figure, ABCD is a D

rhombus, point E is on

rhombus. Given FE AD, E

side DC and AE is the

30°

m(DAB) = 120°, EA = 5 cm F

bisector of DEB. If 5 2ñ3

?

and EF = 2ñ3 cm, find

m(DAE) = 30°, find ?

the length of FC. A 120° C

m(ABE). A B

B

35. Find the perimeter of a rhombus whose diagonals

measure 24 cm and 32 cm.

D. Square

40. In the figure, ABCD is a D C

square with AE = BC and 25°

36. Quadrilateral ABCD in the D C m(CDE) = 25°.

4 E

figure is a rhombus and BE E

Find m(EAB).

is perpendicular to AD. If 6

AE = 6 cm and ED = 4 cm, ?

A B

find the lengths of A B

and ADE is equilateral. Find

?

m(BFD) and m(BED). F

37. In the figure, ABC is a right A D

A

?

triangle and the quadrilateral D F

BEFD is a rhombus.

If AB = 5 cm and AC = 12 cm, B E C

find the length of one side of the rhombus. B C

Geometry 8

106

42. In the figure, ABCD is a E

45. In the figure, ABCD is a B A 6 E

? square, AE = 6 cm and

square, points B, D and E D C

are collinear, and BD = EC. ? BD = 8ñ2 cm. Find the

8ñ2 ?

Find m(DEC) and length of DE.

m(DCE).

C D

A B

square, any point taken on a diagonal is equidistant

from the vertices on either side of the diagonal.

46. In the figure, ABCD is a D C

square and DE bisects ADB.

Given: ABCD is a square and D C

If AE = 2 cm, find the

point P is on diagonal DB.

perimeter of the square.

Prove: AP = CP K

A 2 E B

P

A B

Proof:

Statements Reasons

AB @ CB a.

ÐABP @ b. c.

BP @ BP reflexive property of congruence 47. In a square ABCD, point E is D C

d. @ e. SAS congruence postulate on side BC and DH is 1

AP @ CP f. perpendicular to AE. ? E

AP = CP g. ?

If BE = 3 cm and CE = 1 cm, 3

H

find the lengths of DH and

HE.

A B

44. In the following squares, P is any point. Calculate

x in each figure, using the given lengths.

a. b.

12 x

9 8

P P

x 3 10

2 48. In a square ABCD, point E is D C

c. x P d. P on the diagonal AC.

2 x 4 If AE = 2 cm and BE = 10 cm,

x ?

10

8 6

find the length of one side

of the square. 2

E 10

A B

Quadrilaterals

107

49. In the figure, ABCD is a D C E. Trapezoid

square and and point E is on

2x2 E ? 53. In the following trapezoids, the bases are shown

the diagonal AC.

by parallel lines. Calculate x in each figure.

If DE = 2x – 2, EB = x + 4 x+4 a. D C b. C

and AB = 8ñ2 cm, find the D

A 8ñ2 B

A 2x

3x+5°

A B 70°

B

c. D

figure, points C, F, E and

2ò13 x+35° 3x5°

B, A, E are respectively

A B

F

collinear. Given that

?

DF = 2FA and FC = 2ò13,

E A B

find the lengths of EF and

square and EF AB.

5

If AE = DE = EF = 5 cm, 5

F

find the perimeter of the E

square. 5

54. Each figure shows the lengths of the bases and

A B the median of a trapezoid. Calculate x in each

case.

a. 6 b. x

x 5

3

52. In the figure, ABCD is a D C 9

square and points E, A 3

c. d.

and B are collinear. F 4

Given m(EDF) = 90°, 7

x 6x

6

CF = 3 cm and BF = 6 cm, 4

2x

find the length of EF. E A B

Geometry 8

108

55. Each figure shows the median and diagonals of a 59. In the quadrilateral D 4 C

trapezoid. Find the unknown lengths in each ABCD in the figure, 6

case, using the information given. AB PN DC, and AP ? P N

a. 4 b. c

and DP are the bisectors

A 14 B

of A and D respectively.

x y z 4 x If DC = 4 cm, PN = 6 cm and AB = 14 cm, find

2

the length of AD.

10 a

c.

60. In each trapezoid below, point O is the intersection

x

of the diagonals and KP is the line segment passing

a

3 through this point which is parallel to the bases.

5 Find x in each figure.

y

a. 8 b. P

5

O

56. The median of a trapezoid divides the trapezoid O 3 x

K P K

into two new trapezoids. If the lengths of the

medians of the new trapezoids are 8 cm and 4

KP = x

12 cm, find the lengths of the bases of the

original trapezoid. c. 3

K P

O 2

Given that AD = 12 cm, P

BC = 4 cm, AN = 2 cm and

12 C

NB = 6 cm, find the length of ?

4 61. In the trapezoid opposite, D P C

PN.

B

A 2 N

6 AB DC, DH AB,

O

PT AB and points P, O

and T are collinear.

If AB = 12 cm, DC = 4 cm A H T B

58. In a trapezoid ABCD, D C

and DH = 6 cm, find the lengths of OP and OT.

AB DC and DF and CE

bisect D and C K

?

respectively. If AD CE ?

130°

?

and m(DFB) = 130°, A E F B 62. ABCD is a trapezoid with AB DC.

find the measures of A, B and CKF. Prove that AC2 + DB2 = BC2 + AD2 + 2 AB DC.

Quadrilaterals

109

63. In a trapezoid ABCD, D 6 C 67. The figure shows a trapezoid D C

are diagonals. AB = 12 cm, 8 9 AD = BC. Decide whether O

f

e

BC = 9 cm, AD = 8 cm each statement is true or

and DC = 6 cm are given. false. A H B

A 12 B

If AC = e and BD = f,

a. ABCD is an isosceles trapezoid.

find the value of e2 + f 2.

b. A B and D C

(Hint: Use the formula from question 62.)

c. m(A) + m(D) = 180° and

m(A) + m(C) = 180°

d. AC = DB

e. DO = OC and AO = BO

64. In a trapezoid ABCD, D 3C f. OAB OBA and DAO CBO

AB DC. 16 30

g. ADB BCA, AOD BOC and ACD BCD

Given AB = 37 cm,

AB DC

BC = 30 cm, A B h. HB =

2

AD = 16 cm and 37

68. In the figure, ABCD is an D C

AB DC. If BH is the

bisector of angle B and

65. Prove that in a trapezoid, the angle formed by the BH AD, find the A B

bisectors of any two interior angles that share the measures of the interior

same leg is a right angle, and the intersection of angles of the trapezoid.

these bisectors lies on the median of the trapezoid.

trapezoid are perpendicular to each other, then

the height of the trapezoid is equal to half the

66. In the figure, ABCD is a trapezoid D 4 C sum of the lengths of the bases.

with AB DC. AN, BK, CK and

DN are the bisectors of A, B, 70. In the figure, ABCD is an D C

E F

C and D respectively. K N

isosceles trapezoid with 3 E

Given AB = 12 cm, DC = 4 cm, AB DC and AC BD. 5

BC = 10 cm and AD = 8 cm, A 12 B If DE = 3 cm and AE = 5 cm,

A H B

find the length of KN. find the length of CH.

(Hint: Use the theorem from question 65.)

Geometry 8

110

71. In an isosceles trapezoid with base lengths 13 cm 75. The diagonals of a right trapezoid are perpendicular

and 5 cm, each diagonal is perpendicular to a leg. to each other. Given that the bases measure 6 cm

Find the height of this trapezoid. and 24 cm, find the height of the trapezoid.

D C

76. In the figure, ABCD is a

right trapezoid with 8 ?

A 16 B

trapezoid whose base lengths are 6 cm and 18 cm, bisector of B.

given that one leg measures 10 cm. If AD = 8 cm and AB = 16 cm, find the length of

BC.

73. In the figure, ABCD is D 8 C ?

AD BC and DE EC. If

an isosceles trapezoid ?

E AD = 2 cm, AE = 6 cm D

with AB DC, and AF 3 ? and BE = 3 cm, find the 2

F

and DF are bisectors of lengths of BC and DC. A 6 E 3 B

A and D respectively.

A 12 B

Given EF AD,

EF = 3 cm, DC = 8 cm and AB = 12 cm, find the 78. In the figure, ABCD is a right D

13

length of BC. trapezoid with AD BC, and CE

C

bisects BCD.

If AE = 2 cm, DC = 13 cm and E 10

2

BC = 10 cm, find the length of AB. A B

?

a. 3 b.

x

79. In the right trapezoid ABCD D 4 C

4

x 9 in the figure, AB DC.

3 Given AP = PD, PC BC, P

6 8

DC = 4 cm and AB = 12 cm, ?

c. 10 d. find A 12 B

x

x

a. the length of AD.

x 13

4 b. the length of BC.

2

5

Quadrilaterals

111

80. In the right trapezoid ABCD, D 2 C 84. In the figure, ABCD is a D

kite with AB = AD = x

AB DC and AE BC. x y

and CB = CD = y.

Given AB = BC, DC = 2 cm A C

60° 120°

and AE = 4 cm, find the E m(A) = 60° and

length of AB.

4 m(C) = 120° are given. x y

Find the ratio of x to y.

B

A ? B

F. Kite

85. In the figure, ABED is a A

81. In the figure, ABCD is a D kite with AB = BE and D

kite with AB = AD and DE = 4 cm.

115° ?

CB = CD. A ? ? C

4

If 3 BE = 2 EC, find

If m(A) = 3 m(C) B E C

? the length of DC.

and m(D) = 115°, find

B

the measures of A, B

and C.

82. In the figure, ABCD is a kite A with AB = AD and CB = CD. ?

Given m(BAD) = 90°, E

with AB = AD and CB = CD. 48° B D

?

D CD = ò10 cm and AC = 4 cm,

?

find the length of AB. ò10

m(ACD) = 26°, find

m(DBC) and m(BDA). C

26°

C

83. In the figure, ABCD is a kite A F

a kite with AB = AD and

with AB = AD and CB = CD. 4

CB = CD. A, E, B and A ? C

Given m(B) = 105° and B 105° D D, F, C are respectively

E

AD = 4 cm, find the length of collinear, and the B

DC. ? diagonals of the kite measure 9 cm and 6 cm. If

FC = 2 DF and AE = 2 EB, find the length of

C EF.

Geometry 8

112

Mixed Problems 92. In the figure, ABCD is a F

E

kite, AHD is an equilateral

88. In the figure, ABCD is a F

D C triangle and CEFD is a

rhombus and BEFC is a

square. D

square. 108°

45°

If m(BCD) = 40° and

If m(DCB) = 108°, find E A H 40° C

m(CDH) = 45°, find

m(AEF). A B

m( HBE).

B

89. D 4 C

6ñ3

93. In the figure, ABCD is a D C

60° 5

30°

?

rectangle. Given EH BD, H

A B 8

AE = EH, DH = 5 cm and

In the figure, ABCD is a trapezoid with AB DC, HB = 8 cm, find P(AEHD). A E B

m(B) = 30°. Find the length of AB.

parallelogram and DE and trapezoid and ADCE is a

E E

AE are the bisectors of the 5

? kite. Given AB DC,

4 DC = CE = 5 cm and ?

D and A respectively.

A B H AB = 12 cm, find the

Points A, B and H are

length of EB. A 12 B

collinear. If CH AH, AE = 4 cm and BC = 5 cm,

find the length of CH.

91. Beyza and Rana are designing

parallelogram and AK, K

a kite to look like the one at

BK, CP and DP bisect T S b

the right. Its diagonals will

A, B, C and D P

measure 44 cm and 60 cm,

respectively. AB = a A a B

and the students will use ribbon

and BC = b are given.

to connect the midpoints of

the sides. How much ribbon a. Prove that TPSK is a rectangle.

will Beyza and Rana need? b. Prove that TS = PK = a – b

Quadrilaterals

113

C. The Triangle Proportionality 16. In the figure, MNP is M

?

Theorem and Thales’ Theorem a triangle and K

2

J MN KS, T

13. In the figure, MN KL, JM = 5

and MK = 2. Find each ratio. KN TS,

5

JN JN NS = 3 cm,

a. b. N 3 S 6 P

NL JL M N SP = 6 cm and

NL NL 2 KT = 2 cm.

c. d.

JN JL K L

What is the length of MK?

14. Find the value of x in each figure by using the

not MN PS in the M

information given.

figure, given each set

a. A b.

K of extra information.

3 x x

E P

D R N S

8 8

6 a. PR = 18 MR = 6

SR = 24 NR = 8

B C M 12 R 3 N

b. PR = 12 MP = 8

c. X d. M

SR = 16 NR = 12

6 8 6

P Z T c. MR = 5 MP = 4

x

8 K 24

6 T RN = 6 NS =

P

x

6 5

B d. PR = 15 MR = 12

N

RN = 16 NS = 4

DB = 6 cm, D E

parallelogram with 2

?

EF AB and DE BC. 6

CE = 2 cm, E

Find each ratio. B F C EB = 4 cm and

H 4

AC AC BF FC FH AD.

a. b. c. d.

AE EC FC BC What is the length of FH? A B

Geometry 8

114

19. In the figure, DC EF AB. D C D. Further Applications

Find the value of x. 10 x

23. Find the length x in each figure by using

E F

Menelaus’ Therom.

12 9

A M

A B 3 3

4

4 K

E S

F 2

5 6

x T

x

6

B 6 D 4 C N P

A A

20. Write a proof of the Converse of the Triangle x

3

3 E

Proportionality Theorem in two-column form. E 18

1

K D 2

4 x

B D C B T C

(Hint: Draw a line parallel

to DE through B.)

divides the hypotenuse into two segments of

lengths 12 and 16. Given that the point is

equidistant to the legs of the triangle, find the

lengths of the legs of the triangle.

24. Find the length x in each figure by using Ceva’s

Theorem.

a. A b. M

2

5 2

3 T

F K

5

E

x

22. In the triangle C 2 6 P

x

S

ABC at the right, D E 6 4 4

B D C N

m(A) = 90°, 1

CD DE, c. x

S

3 N

DE = 1, 9

10

AD = 3 and T M

AB = BE. A B

12

Find the length of CE. 10

P

8

(Hint: Draw the perpendicular EH AB.)

K

Quadrilaterals

115

CHAPTER REVIEW TEST 1A

1. What is the sum of the measures of the interior 5. In the quadrilateral ABCD D

F

angles of a polygon which has 20 diagonals? in the figure, diagonals AC 6

E

A) 720° B) 900° C) 1080° D) 1800° E) 2160°

to each other, AB = 7 cm, 7 9

BC = 9 cm, AD = 6 cm

and DF = FC. Find the B

length of EF.

polygon is equal to four times the measure of an D) ò23 cm E) 2ò17 cm

exterior angle. How many sides does this polygon

have?

6. The diagonals of a quadrilateral ABCD are

A) 17 B) 15 C) 12 D) 10 E) 8 perpendicular to each other. Which shape is

formed by joining the midpoints of the sides of

this quadrilateral?

D) a parallelogram E) a rectangle

3. In the figure, ABCDE is a D F

H

regular polygon, points B, C ?

D C

FE AE. What is the BEFH are parallelograms

measure of HFC? and points A, B and E are ?

A B E

collinear. A B

A) 60° B) 54° C) 48° D) 40° E) 8

If m(DCB) = 110° and m(CBH) = 30°, what is

m(BEF)?

6 H

AD = 6, CD = 9, AB = x 9 HB AD, m(D) = 120°

and BC = y. A and DC = 6 cm. Find the

If x + y = 9, what is the

C length of BH. A B

x

y

value of x – y? B A) 3 cm B) 4 cm C) 3ñ3 cm

A) 5 B) 6 C) 7 D) 8 E) 9 D) 4ñ3 cm E) 6 cm

116 Geometry 8

9. In the polygon ABCDE C 13. In the figure, ABCD is a D C

at the right, A, B trapezoid with AB DC. ?

45° E

10

and E are right angles 6 EF BC, EF = 4 cm,

E D 6 4

and m(C) = 45°. BC = 10 cm and EA = 6 cm

2 A F B

If AE = 2, 10

are given. What is the

A B

length of ED?

AB = 10 and

BC = 6, what is the perimeter of ABCDE? A) 9 cm B) 12 cm C) 15 cm

D) 16 cm E) 18 cm

A) 24 + 4ñ2 B) 28 + 4ñ2 C) 28ñ2

D) 30 + 2ñ2 E) 4ñ2 + 32

14. In the figure, ABCD is a D x+1 C

right trapezoid with

4x 2

AB DC. 3x 1

10. In the figure, ABCD is a D C AB = 3x + 1,

rectangle. Given AD = CE, 66° BC = 4x – 2, A 3x + 1 B

DE = DC and m(ADE) = 66°,

AD = 3x – 1 and DC = x + 1 are given. What is the

find m(EBA). E

perimeter of this trapezoid?

A B

A) 5° B) 6° C) 9° D) 10° E) 12° A) 16 B) 20 C) 27 D) 30 E) 32

isosceles trapezoid with

11. In the figure, ABCD is a D C 15 15

isosceles right triangle. AB = 25 cm and A 25 B

E

If AB = 4 cm, what is AD = BC = 15 cm. What is the length of DC?

the length of EC?

A 4 B A) 3 cm B) 5 cm C) 6 cm D) 7 cm E) 10 cm

A) 5ò15 cm B) 12 cm C) 10 cm

kite and AB = AD. 30

A C

AE = EB, AK = 16 and

12. The diagonals of a rhombus measure 20 cm and E

AD = 30, find the length

48 cm respectively. What is its perimeter?

of KC. B

A) 52 cm B) 78 cm C) 104 cm 27 43

A) B) C) 18 D) 21 E) 32

D) 125 cm E) 208 cm 2 2

CHAPTER REVIEW TEST 1B

1. Three interior angles of a polygon measure 80°, 5. In the figure, ABCD is a D C

115° and 135°, and all the other interior angles square with m(CEA) = 120° 3

4ñ

measure 165°. How many sides does this polygon and CE = 4ñ3 cm. Find the

have? perimeter of the square. E

120°

A) 9 B) 10 C) 12 D) 13 E) 15

A B

A) 18 cm B) 24 cm C) 30 cm

D) 36 cm E) 48 cm

2. In the figure, ABCDE is a F

D 85°

pentagon.

Given that m(A) = 110°, E

130° ? C 6. The ratio of the lengths of two consecutive sides

m(E) = 130°, of a rectangle is 3 : 4. If the perimeter of the

110° 65°

rectangle is 42 cm, how long is its diagonal?

m(CBH) = 65° and A B H

m(FDC) = 85°, find m(BCD). A) 9 cm B) 12 cm C) 13 cm

D) 14 cm E) 15 cm

A) 70° B) 75° C) 80° D) 85° E) 90°

A 5 5

regular polygon. C AB DC, and diagonal AC

If m(CEF) = 135°, what is is the bisector of A.

D A 11 B

the measure of one interior If AB = 11 cm and

angle of the polygon? 135°

AD = BC = 5 cm, what is the length of AC?

E

F

A) 6 cm B) 8 cm C) 3ñ5 cm

A) 150° B) 145° C) 140° D) 135° E) 130° D) 4ñ5 cm E) 6ñ5 cm

4. In the figure, ABCD is a D C

right trapezoid with

parallelogram and DE and 125° H

AB DC, DH AC, 8

CF are the bisectors of E

F AB = 15, BC = 8 and

D and C respectively.

A B DC = 6. How long is DH? A 15 B

If m(DEF) = 125°, what

is m(EFC)? 48 36 32 24 20

A) B) C) D) E)

17 17 17 17 17

A) 135° B) 140° C) 145° D) 150° E) 155°

118 Geometry 8

9. In the figure, ABCD is a E 13. In the figure, ABCD is a E

bisect C and A respectively. F and AB = 6 cm, how long is

D C

If DF = FC and BC = 6 cm, ED?

6

what is the length of ED? A 6 B

A B A) 12 cm B) 10 cm C) 6ñ5 cm

A) 14 cm B) 12 cm C) 8 cm

D) 4ñ3 cm E) 6 cm D) 4ñ5 cm E) 5ñ2 cm

square and AE is the bisector with AB = AD and DC = CB. C

2

?

of CAB. If EB = 2 cm,

If HB AD, AD DC, H

what is the length of CE? E ?

AH = 3 and HD = 2, how 3

2 A B

long is BC?

A B 5 7

A) 5 B) C) 32 D) 12 E)

A) ñ2 – 1 cm B) ñ2 cm C) ñ2 + 1 cm 2 2

D) 2ñ2 cm E) 2ñ2 – 1 cm

12

midpoint of the diagonal BD 4

Given that DE EB, O

A F B and OH BC. If AB = 10 cm H

DF = FB, AD = 12 cm and 9

and OH = 4 cm, what is the A 10 B

FE = 9 cm, find the length E

length of BD?

of DC.

A) 2ñ5 cm B) 5 cm C) 6 cm

A) 15 cm B) 22 cm C) 24 cm

D) 8 cm E) 4ñ5 cm

D) 25 cm E) 28 cm

parallelogram. trapezoid with AB DC.

12 8 ?

Given that EF AD, Given that AE = ED, E

E EC CB, DC = 6 cm,

BH DC, AE = 5, 5

?

A 14 B

DE = 12 and HC = 8, A F B EC = 8 cm and

find the length of EF. AB = 14 cm, find the length of BC.

75 25 56 A) 9 cm B) 12 cm C) 15 cm

A) B) C) 16 D) E) 28

8 3 5 D) 16 cm E) 18 cm

CHAPTER REVIEW TEST 1C

1. The difference between the measures of an 5. In the figure, ABCD is a D C

polygon is 132°. What is the measure of one CE are the bisectors of D 10 12

A E B

If AD = 10 and DE = 12,

A) 108° B) 120° C) 140° D) 144° E) 156°

how long is EC?

A) 9 B) 12 C) 16 D) 18 E) 20

2. In the figure, ABCDE is a E

D

regular pentagon, DB is a

diagonal and AF is the

?

F 6. In the figure, ABCD is a right D 5 C

bisector of A. What is A

trapezoid with AB DC.

m(AFB)? C

If AE = DC = 5, AB = DE and

B 13ñ2

BC = 13ñ2, what is the length

E

A) 54° B) 56° C) 60° D) 72° E) 76° of AB?

5

A B

A) 18 B) 15 C) 13 D) 12 E) 9

3. In polygon ABCDE, EK D

and BK are the bisectors 70°

of E and B respectively.

If m(A) = 130°, E

K 120° C 7. In the figure, ABCD is a D C

? ?

m(C) = 120° and square. CE = BF, AF = FE

130°

m(D) = 70°, what is and m(EAB) = 20° are

A B E

the measure of EKB? given.

F

What is the measure of

A) 125° B) 120° C) 110° D) 105° E) 100° 20°

DCF?

A B

4. In the figure, ABCD is a D E C

rhombus, AC is its diagonal ?

124°

DAC. is 5. What is the radius of the inscribed circle of

A B

If m(B) = 124°, what is this square?

m(AEC)?

5 2

A) 2ñ5 B) C) 5ñ2 D) 10 E) 12

A) 124° B) 130° C) 138° D) 143° E) 146° 2

120 Geometry 8

9. In the figure, ABCD is a D E C 13. In the figure, ABCD is a D F 2 C

rectangle and EB bisects rectangle.

AEC. 6 ? Given DE EF,

A B

If DC = 10 and AD = 6, DE = 2 EF, AE = 8 cm 8 E

A B

what is the length of BE? and FC = 2 cm, find the length of BC.

3 10

A) ò10 B) 2ò10 C) 3ò10 D) E) 7 A) 4 cm B) 5 cm C) 6 cm D) 8 cm E) 10 cm

2

D C 10

trapezoid and ADCE is a m(C) = m(D) = 60°. 8

kite. Given that AB DC, E If AD = 8 cm and 60° C

DC = CE, EB = 7 and ?

7

DC = 10 cm, what is the A B

AB = 11, find the length length of BC?

of CD. A 11 B

A) 2ñ3 cm B) 3ñ2 cm C) 6 cm

A) 5 B) ñ5 C) 4 D) 3 E) ñ2 D) 5 cm E) 3ñ3 cm

square and DEFG is a isosceles trapezoid with

?

rectangle. If DE = 2 EF and AB DC.

AC =12ñ2, what is the If AD = DC = CB, A 10 B

E F

perimeter of the rectangle

m(ACB) = 90° and

DEFG?

A B AB = 10, what is the length of AC?

A) 12 B) 18 C) 20 D) 24 E) 32

A) 2ñ3 B) 3ñ2 C) 4ñ2 D) 5ñ3 E) 6ñ2

16. In the figure, ABCD is a D C

trapezoid with AB DC. 60°

parallelogram. F

?

If m(C) = 60°, 4

If AE = 2 EB, AF = 3 FD K

AB = 5, BC = 4 A B and KB = 4, what is the

5

A E B

and DC = 3, what is the length of AD? length of FK?

A) 5 B) 2ñ7 C) 6 D) 2ò10 E) 7 A) 9 B) 11 C) 15 D) 16 E) 18

a. The Pythagorean Theorem

The Pythagorean Theorem is one of the most famous theorems in Euclidean geometry, and

almost everyone with a high school education can remember it.

A

the square of the length of the hypotenuse

is equal to the sum of the squares of the

lengths of the legs, i.e. b c

c2 = b2 + a2.

C a B

A

Theorem. The proof we will give here uses

the dissection of a square. It proves the

Pythagorean Theorem for the right triangle c

b

ABC shown opposite.

C a B

a + b is dissected into four congruent right

a

triangles and a smaller square, as shown in c c b

the figure. The legs of the triangles are a and

b, and their hypotenuse is c. So the smaller b c c

a

square has side length c.

a b

124 Geometry 8

We can now write two expressions for the area S of the larger square:

ab 2 2

S= 4 + c and S = (a + b) .

2

Since these expressions are equal, we can write

ab

4 2

+ c = ( a + b)

2

2

2ab + c2 = a2 + 2ab + b 2

c2 = a2 + b 2 .

This concludes the proof of the Pythagorean Theorem.

13

6

x

Solution First we will use the Pythagorean Theorem

in SKT to find x, then we can use it in y

T 12 K Q

SKQ to find y.

2 2 2

x + 12 = 13 (Substitute)

2

x + 144 = 169

x2 = 25 (Simplify)

x = –5 is not an answer x=5 (Positive length)

because the length of a

segment cannot be negative. SK2 + KQ2 = SQ2 (Pythagorean Theorem in SKQ)

So the answer is x = 5. 2 2 2

From now on we will 5 +y =6 (Substitute)

always consider only

y2 =36 – 25 (Simplify)

positive values for lengths.

y = ò11

EXAMPLE 2 In the figure,

K

PT = TS = KS,

PM = 4 cm and KM = 3 cm. Find ST. S

P T M

Solution Let PT = TS = KS = x.

So SM = KM – KS = 3 – x and TM = PM – PT = 4 – x.

In TMS, TS2 = TM2+ MS2 (Pythagorean Theorem)

Quadratic formula 2 2 2

The roots x1 and x2 of

x = (4 – x) + (3 – x) (Substitute)

the quadratic equation 2 2 2

x = 16 – 8x + x + 9 – 6x + x (Simplify)

ax2 + bx + c = 0 are

2

x – 14x + 25 = 0

–b b2 – 4ac

x1,2 = .

2a x1, 2 = (7 ò24) cm (Quadratic formula)

Since 7 + ò24 is greater than 3 and 4 which are the lengths of the sides, the answer is

x = |ST| = 7 – ò24 cm.

m + k = 3 n.

Given A(KMN) = 30 cm2, n

m

find the value of n.

M k N

A(KMN) = 30 cm 2

(Given)

km

= 30 (Definition of the area of a triangle)

2

k m = 60 (2)

In KMN, n2 = k2 + m2 (Pythagorean Theorem)

2 2

n = (k + m) – 2km (Binomial expansion: (k+ m)2 = k2 + 2km + m2)

n2 = (3n)2 – 2 60 (Substitute (1) and (2))

2

8n = 120 (Simplify)

2

n = 15

n = ò15 cm.

If the square of one side of a triangle equals the sum of the squares of the other two sides,

then the angle opposite this side is a right angle.

126 Geometry 8

Proof We will give a proof by contradiction. A A

and label the vertices A, B and C. Then there c

b c b

are two possibilities for the measure of angle

C: either it is less than 90° (figure 1), or it is

C a B C a B

greater than 90° (figure 2). figure G figure ?

Let us draw a segment DC CB such that

DC = AC.

D D

By the Pythagorean Theorem in BCD, A

A

BD2 = a2 + b2 = c2, and so BD = c. c c

c b

So ACD is isosceles (since DC = AC) and b b c

b

ABD is also isosceles (AB = BD = c). As a

result, CDA CAD and BDA DAB. C a B C B

figure k figure J

However, in figure 3 we have

m(BDA) < m(CDA) and m(CAD) < m(DAB), which gives m(BDA) < m(DAB) if

CDA and CAD are congruent. This is a contradiction of BDA DAB. Also,

in figure 4 we have m(DAB) < m(CAD) and m(CDA) < m(BDA), which gives

m(DAB) < m(BDA) if CAD and CDA are congruent. This is also a contradiction.

So our original assumption must be wrong, and so ABC is a right triangle.

H

B

AN is the interior angle bisector of A.

AB = 16 cm, AN = 13 cm, AK = 12 cm and 16

N

NK = 5 cm are given. Find the area of

ABN. 13 5

A K C

Solution Let us draw an altitude NH from the vertex 12

N to the side AB.

NH AB

To find the area of ABN we need to find NH, because A( ABN ) = and AB is given

2

as 16 cm.

132 = 122 + 52, so m(NKA) = 90°. (Converse of the Pythagorean Theorem)

Also, NH = NK = 5 cm. (Angle Bisector Theorem)

NH AB 5 16

So A( ABN ) = = = 40 cm 2 . (Substitution)

2 2

5

A

EXAMPLE Find the length x in the figure. 2

x N

T

P 2x

4

B 4 K 6 C

x2 + 42 + (2x)2 = 22 + 42 + 62 (Substitute)

5x2 = 40 (Simplify)

x2 = 8

x = 2ñ2

Check Yourself

1. Find the length x in each figure.

a. D b. A c. P

A Pythagorean triple is a

set of three integers a, b x x 17

and c which satisfy the 8 7 10

Pythagorean Theorem.

The smallest and E 17 F B 24 C M S x N

6

best-known Pythagorean

triple is (a, b, c) = (3, 4, 5). C

K

d. e. f. M

8

7

6 N x

E 15

15 x

L 5

9

x

M A B N ò19 K 12 J

12

ò69

T N K

Answers

1. a. 15 b. 25 c. 9 d. 5ñ3 e. 20 f. 10 2. 10 cm 3. 5 cm

128 Geometry 8

Properties 7

1. The length of the median to the hypotenuse of a right triangle is equal to half of the length

of the hypotenuse.

2. a. In any isosceles right triangle, the length of the hypotenuse is ñ2 times the length of

a leg. (This property is also called the 45°-45°-90° Triangle Theorem.)

b. In any right triangle, if the hypotenuse is ñ2 times any of the legs then the triangle is

a 45°-45°-90° triangle. (This property is also called the Converse of the 45°-45°-90°

Triangle Theorem).

3. In any 30°-60°-90° right triangle,

a. the length of the hypotenuse is twice the length of the leg opposite the 30° angle.

b. the length of the leg opposite the 60° angle is ñ3 times the length of the leg opposite

the 30° angle. (These properties are also called the 30°-60°-90° Triangle Theorem.)

4. In any right triangle,

a. if one of the legs is half the length of the hypotenuse then the angle opposite this leg

is 30°.

b. if one of the legs is ñ3 times the length of the other leg then the angle opposite this

first leg is 60°. (These properties are also called the Converse of the 30°-60°-90°

Triangle Theorem.) A

5. The center of the circumscribed circle of

r

any right triangle is the midpoint of the

B C

hypotenuse of the triangle. r O r

m(BAC) = 90°, 60°

m(C) = 60° and D

6x 1

BD = DC. 2x + 3

Find BC if AD = 2x + 3 and AC = 6x – 1.

A B

Solution Since AD is a median and the length of the median to the hypotenuse of a right triangle

1

is equal to half the length of the hypotenuse, AD = BC.

2

By the Triangle Angle-Sum Theorem in ABC, m(B) = 30°.

1

By the 30°-60°-90° Triangle Theorem, AC = BC because m(B) = 30° and BC is the

2

hypotenuse.

So by the transitive property of equality, AC = AD, i.e. 6x – 1 = 2x + 3 and so x = 1.

Finally, BC = 2 AC = 2 AD = 2 (2x + 3) = 10.

m(BAC) = 90°,

m(BAD) = 2x, 2x

m(ACB) = 3x and

3x

BD = DC.

B D C

1

Solution BC.

Since AD is a median, by Property 7.1 we have AD =

2

So AD = BD = DC. Hence DCA and BDA are isosceles triangles.

Since DCA is isosceles, m(DAC) = m(ACD) = 3x.

Additionally, m(BAC) = m(BAD) + m(DAC) by the Angle Addition Postulate.

So 2x + 3x = 90° and x = 18°.

By the Triangle Angle-Sum Theorem in DCA, m(ADC) + 3x + 3x = 180°.

So m(ADC) = 180° – (6 18)°, i.e. m(ADC) = 72°.

EXAMPLE 8 One of the acute angles in a right triangle measures 16°. Find the angle between the

bisector of the right angle and the median drawn from the same vertex.

130 Geometry 8

Solution Let us draw an appropriate figure. We need A

to find m(NAT).

45°

According to the figure,

AN is the angle bisector, AT is the 16°

B N T C

median, and m(BAC) = 90°.

m(ACB) = 16° by Property 5.3.

Since AT is median to hypotenuse, AT = CT = BT.

Property 5.3:

In any triangle ABC, if So ATC is isosceles.

m(B) > m(C) or

m(B) < m(C) then Therefore, by the Isosceles Triangle Theorem, m(TAC) = m(ACT) = 16°.

ha < na < Va.

Since AN is an angle bisector and m(BAC) = 90°, m(NAC) = 45°.

So m(NAT) = m(NAC) – m(TAC)= 45° – 16° = 29°.

Given m(C) = 30° and BH = 2 cm, find the

length of HC.

30°

B 2 H ? C

A

m(B) = 60°.

In ABH, since m(B) = 60°, 60°

4 30°

m(BAH) = 30°.

60° 30°

In ABH, by Property 7.3,

B 2 H C

AB = 2 BH = 2 2 = 4 cm.

8

This set square is in the

form of a 30°-60°-90° In ABC, again by Property 7.3,

triangle.

BC = 2 AB = 2 4 = 8 cm.

So HC = BC – BH = 8 – 2 = 6 cm.

EXAMPLE 10 Find the value of x in the figure. A

60°

10

x

In BHC, B 6ñ2 C

BC = ñ2 BH (45°-45°-90° Triangle

Theorem)

A

6ñ2 = ñ2 BH (Substitute)

BH = 6. (Simplify) H 60°

This set square is in the

form of 45°-45°-90° right

AB = AH + HB (Segment Addition

triangle.

Postulate) 45°

10 = AH + 6 (Substitute) B 6ñ2 C

AH = 4. (Simplify)

In AHC,

AC = 2 AH (30°-60°-90° Triangle Theorem)

AC = 2 4 (Substitute)

AC = x = 8. (Simplify)

Objectives

1. In an isosceles right triangle, the sum of the lengths of the hypotenuse and the altitude

drawn to the hypotenuse is 27.3. Find the length of the hypotenuse.

m(ABC) = 90° and CF = FE, and CE is the

D

angle bisector of C. If m(ADB) = 102°, find

102° F

the measure of CAB.

A E B

3. One of the acute angles in a right triangle measures 48°. Find the angle between the

median and the altitude which are drawn from the vertex at the right angle.

4. In a triangle ABC, m(B) = 135°, AC = 17 cm and BC = 8ñ2 cm. Find the length of AB.

5. In a right triangle, the sum of the lengths of the hypotenuse and the shorter leg is 2.4.

Find the length of the hypotenuse if the biggest acute angle measures 60°.

132 Geometry 8

6. In the figure, A

m(C) = 60°,

D

HC = 4 cm and x

DH = 2ñ3 cm. Find the length AC = x. 2ñ3

60°

B H 4 C

x

DH BC, D

BH = 5 cm and

HC = 3 cm.

Find the length AD = x.

B 5 H 3 C

8. The distance from a point to a line k is 10 cm. Two segments non-perpendicular to k are

drawn from this point. Their lengths have the ratio 2 : 3. Find the length of the longer

segment if the shorter segment makes a 30° angle with k.

9. CAB is a right triangle with m(A) = 90° and m(C) = 60°, and D is the midpoint of

hypotenuse. Find the length of the hypotenuse if AD = 3x + 1 and AC = 5x – 3.

10.The hypotenuse of an isosceles right triangle measures 18 cm. Find the distance from the

vertex at the right angle to the hypotenuse.

Answers

1. 18.2 2. 22° 3. 6° 4. 7 cm 5. 1.6 6. 5 cm 7. 2 cm 8. 30 cm 9. 14 10. 9 cm

The word trigonometry is derived from the Greek words trigon (which means ‘triangle’) and

metry (which means ‘measurement’). So trigonometry is the study of triangle measurement.

In this chapter we will study trigonometry for right triangles.

Remember that a right triangle is a triangle with one 90° angle and two acute angles. Let us

begin by looking at the basics of trigonometry in a right triangle.

A trigonometric ratio is the ratio of the lengths of any two sides of a right

triangle. We will learn three basic trigonometric ratios: sine, cosine, and tangent. We abbre-

viate them as sin, cos, and tan respectively.

Let DABC be a right triangle. Then the basic trigonometric ratios are defined as

follows:

A

length of the side opposite A

sinA = (hypotenuse)

length of hypotenuse

c

b (side opposite ÐB)

length of the side adjacent to A

cos A = (side adjacent to ÐA)

length of hypotenuse B

a C

length of the side opposite A

tanA = (side opposite ÐA)

length of the side adjacent to A

a b a b a b

sinA= , cos A= , tan A= , and sin B= , cos B= , tanB= .

c c b c c a

Note

We sometimes use tg

as the abbreviation of 1. Draw at least four non-congruent right triangles containing an angle of 30°.

tangent. 2. Make a table with six columns and as many rows as the number of triangles.

3. Measure the length of each side of each triangle in millimeters. Write the lengths in the

first three columns of the table.

4. Use a calculator to find the following values for each triangle:

length of the side opposite 30°

a.

length of hypotenuse .

134 Geometry 8

length of the side adjacent to 30°

b.

length of hypotenuse

.

c.

length of the side adjacent to 30°

.

Write the results in the last three columns of your table.

5. What can you say about the numbers in the last three columns of your table?

6. Repeat steps 1-5 for triangles containing an angle of 53°.

angle.

a

5

a. sin a 3

b. cos a b

B C

4

c. tan a

a

Solution opposite side 4 5

3

a. sin = =

hypotenuse 5 b

B C

4

a

adjacent side 3 5

b. cos = = 3

hypotenuse 5

b

B C

4

a

opposite side 4 5

c. tan = = 3

adjacent side 3

b

B C

4

EXAMPLE 12 Find the trigonometric ratios in the triangle. A

5

3

b

B C

4

13

5

|AC|2 + |BC|2 = |AB|2

a

52 + |BC|2 = 132 B

12 C

|BC| = 169 – 25

2

a. 5

So |BC| = 12 and sin = .

13

|BC|2 = 144

b. 12

|BC| = 12 cos = .

13

c. 5

tan = .

12

Note We have looked at the basic trigonometric ratios sine, cosine, and tangent. Now we can

We sometimes use define three new trigonometric ratios. They are cosecant, secant, and cotangent, which we

ctg as the abbrevia- abbreviate as cosec, sec, and cotan respectively. They are defined as follows:

tion of cotangent.

length of hypotenuse c 1 A

cosec A = = =

length of side opposit e A a sinA

c

b

length of hypotenuse c 1

sec A = = =

length of side adjacent t o A b cos A B C

a

length of side adjacent to A b 1

cot A = = =

length of side opposi te A a tanA

136 Geometry 8

EXAMPLE 13 Write the ratios for the triangle in the figure.

A

a. cot a b. sec a c. cosec a

10

6

a

B C

8

Solution a. 1 1 8 8

cot = = = 1 =

tan 6 6 6

8

b. 1 1 10 10

sec = = = 1 =

cos 8 8 8

10

c. 1 1 10 10

cosec = = = 1 =

sin 6 6 6

10

ANGLES

Since the sum of the acute angles in a right triangle is 90°, these angles are

complementary.

a+ + 90° = 180° (sum of the angles in a triangle)

A a+ = 180° – 90°

a

a+ = 90°

c

b

So a = 90° – or

b

B C = 90° – a.

a

In the right triangle opposite,

a b a

sin = = cos , cos = = sin , tan = = cot , and

c c b

b c c

cot = = tan , sec = = cosec , cosec = = sec

a b a

Therefore,

sin a = cos b = cos (90° – a),

cos a = sin b = sin (90° – a),

tan a = cot b = cot (90° – a),

cot a = tan b = tan (90° – a),

For example,

sin 53° = cos (90° – 53°) tan 17° = cot (90° – 17°) cos 29° = sin (90° – 29°)

= cos 37° = cot 73° = cot 61°.

A

4

cos a = and a + b = 90°. 10

5 6

a

B C

8

4

We can write sin = sin (90° – a) = cos a =

5

Look at the right triangle in the figure.

A

a c a

b

In the triangle, sinA = and sin C = . So tan A = .

c b b c

1. If we divide the top and bottom of the fraction for the tangent by b we get

B a C

a

b sinA a c

tanA = (since sin A and

cos A ).

c cos A b b

b

138 Geometry 8

Property

sin

tan = ( cos 0 )

cos

1 1 cos A

cot A = .

tanA sin A sin A

cos A

Property

cos

cot = ( sin 0 )

sin

cot

3. tan a × cot a = tan a × 1 =1

tan or

tan a × cot a = sin cos = 1.

cos sin

tan cot

Property

tan a × cot a = 1

We can write a b

sin and

cos .

c c

A

a a b a 2 b2 a 2 b 2 .

c Now sin2 a + cos2 a = ( )2 ( )2 2 2 2

b c c cc c

c2

b By the Pythagorean Theorem, we know that a2 + b2 = c2.

B a C

(a 2 b2 ) c2

Therefore we have sin2 a + cos2 a = 1.

c2 c2

Conclusion

sin2 + cos2 = 1, cos2 = 1 – sin2 , and sin2 = 1 – cos2 .

We can use the identities we have found to simplify trigonometric

expressions.

Solution sin x

We know tan x .

cos x

1

2

sin x 2 1 sin x cos x + sin 2 x

2

1 1 2

So 1+( ) = + = = =( ) = sec 2 x.

cos x 1 cos x

2

cos x2 2

cos x cos x

(cos2x)

Solution cos x

sin x cos x

sin x

cot x

Solution 1

sin x cos x sin x cos x sin x cos x sin 2 x

2 2 2 2

cos x sin x

cos x

1 cos x cos x cos x cos x

(cosx)

tan x 1

sec x

cos x

140 Geometry 8

EXAMPLE 18 Simplify

(cot x – tan x) × (sin x × cos x).

( – ) sin

x cos x x cos x cos 2 x – sin 2 x

sin

sin x cos x sin x cos x

cot x tan x

= (1 – sin2 x) – sin2 x

= 1 – 2sin2 x

or

= cos2 x – (1 – cos2 x)

sin2 x

= cos x – 1 + cos2 x

2

= 2cos2 x – 1

.

cosec sec

Solution 1

tan cot

2 2

sin cos sin cos sin cos 1

+ sin cos sin cos

cos sin cos sin

= = = =1

1 1 1 1 1

sin cos sin cos sin cos sin cos

cosec sec

EXAMPLE 20 Simplify tan cot

.

cosec sec

Solution 1

tan cot

2 2

sin cos sin cos sin cos 1

+ sin cos sin cos

cos sin cos sin

= = = =1

1 1 1 1 1

sin cos sin cos sin cos sin cos

cosec sec

sin3 x 1

EXAMPLE 22 Simplify

cot x 1 .

cos x tan x

sec x 1– sin2 x

Solution cot x

cos x

sin x 1 sin x cos x 1 sin x

cos x cos x cos x 1

1 1– sin 2

x cos x sin x cos 2

x cos x

cos x cos 2 x tan x

sec x

142 Geometry 8

EXAMPLE 23 Simplify tan x + cot x.

Solution 1

2 2

sin x cos x sin x cos x sin x cos x sin x cos 2 x

2

cos x sin x cos x sin x sin x cos x sin x cos x sin x cos x

(sin x ) (cos x )

tan x cot x

1 1 1

cosec x sec x

sin x cos x

sin x

cos x

cosec x sec x

sec x

Solution tan x

sin x

cos x sin x cos x

sin x

1 cos x 1

cos x

sec x

.

sec 2 x

Solution 1 1

(1 – sin x)(1 + sin x) = 12 – sin2 x = 1 – sin2 x = cos2 x = =

1 1 2

( )

1 1 cos2 x cosx

(a

, a 0)

2

sec x 1

a

EXAMPLE 26 Simplify

(1 – sin2 18°)× tan 35 sec 12° .

sin 78°

sin 72° cot 55°

2

Solution 1

cos12

2 tan 35° sec 12° tan 35° 1 1

(1 sin 18° ) 2 sin 78° cos 2 18° cos 12°

sin 72° cot 55 cos 2 18° cos 12° tan35°

cos 2 18 °

cos12°

cos2 18 ° tan 35°

1

RATIO

Sometimes we are given one trigonometric ratio and we need to find another trigonometric

ratio in the same triangle. Look at the steps we can use for

problems like this.

Property

1. Draw a right triangle and assign the angle in question to any one of the acute angles.

2. Use the given trigonometric ratio to write the lengths of the sides of the

triangle.

3. Use the Pythagorean Theorem to find the length of the missing side.

4. Write the desired ratio by using the side lengths of the triangle.

EXAMPLE 27 3

Find sin given tan .

4

144 Geometry 8

Solution Follow the steps.

1. Draw the triangle opposite. Let us say assign mB = a. A

2. 3 | AC| 3

tan = , 5

3

4 |BC| 4

a

So |AC| = 3 and |BC| = 4. B C

4

2 2 2

3. AB| = |AC| + |BC|

|AB|2 = 32 + 42

|AB|2 = 9 + 16

|AB|2 = 25. So |AB| = 5.

4. | AC| 3

sin =

| AB| 5

.

13

|AC|2 + 52 = 132

|AC|2 = 169 – 25

|AC|2 = 144

|AC| = 12

5

So tan x 12 and cot x .

5 12

12 5 144 + 25 169

Therefore, tan x + cot x = + = = .

5 12 5 12 60

( 12 ) (5)

EXAMPLE 29 4 sin x 3 cos x

2 sin x – cos x

5 is given.

a. tan x b. cot x

c. sin x d. cos x

4 sin x 3 cos x 5

=

2 sin x – cos x 1

1 × (4 sin x + 3 cos x) = 5 × (2 sin x – cos x)

4 sin x + 3 cos x = 10 sin x – 5cos x

3 cos x + 5 cos x = 10 sin x – 4sin x

8 cos x = 6 sin x

8

6

cos x cos x cos x 6 cos x

8 4

So tan x .

6 3

b. 1 1 3

cot x

tan x 4 4

3

c. Let us draw the triangle and find |AB|. A

2 2 2

|AB| = 3 + 4

|AB|2 = 25 5 4

|AB| = 5

x

B C

So sin x 4 .

3

5

d. 3

cos x

5

146 Geometry 8

EXAMPLE 30 Find sin x if sin 2x =

3

5

Solution The question gives us a ratio for a right triangle with an angle 2x. We need to make a right

triangle with an angle x. Look at the first figure.

Let us apply the Pythagorean Theorem to DADC:

|AD|2 = |AC|2 + |DC|2

A

52 = 32 + |DC|

|DC| = 4. 3

5

Now let us draw [BD] which is congruent to [AD] as

2x

shown in the second figure (points B, D, and C are D 4 C

collinear).

If we draw [AB], then ABD = mBAD = x.

Apply the Pythagorean Theorem again to ABC:

|AB|2 = |BC|2 + |AC|2

A

|AB|2 = 92 + 32

x

|AB|2 = 90 3ò10

5 3

|AB| = ò90

x 2x

|AB| = 3ò10. B 5 D 4 C

3 1 10

So sin x = = .

3 10 10 10

( 10 )

F. RATIOS IN A 30°-60°-90° TRIANGLE

We can write, sin 30° = cos 60° = a 1

2a 2

sin 60° = cos 30° = a 3 3

2a 2

tan 30° = cot 60° = a 1 3

a 3 3 3

cot 30° = tan 60° =

a 3

3.

a

A Objectives

60°

After studying this section you will be able to give the trigonometric ratios of some common

2a

a angles, and use them to solve problems.

30°

B añ3 C

A Similarly, by using the triangle on the left we can write,

45°

sin 45° = cos 45° = a 1 2

a 2 2 2

añ2

a

tan 45° = cot 45° = a

1.

45° a

B a C This gives us the values of the trigonometric ratios of some common angles.

sin 1 ñ2 ñ3

2 2 2

cos ñ3 ñ2 1

2 2 2

tan ñ3

1 ñ3

3

cot ñ3 1 ñ3

3

148 Geometry 8

EXAMPLE 31 Evaluate

4 sin 30 tan 60 .

tan 30 cos 45

1/ 2 3

4 sin 30 tan 60 4 3 2 12 12 2

3 6 2

tan 30 cos 45 2 3 2 2 2

( 2)

3 2

3 2

EXAMPLE 32 Simplify

4 + 2 sin 30°

.

cot 30°

1/

2 4+ 2 1

4 + 2 sin 30° 2 5 5 3

=

cot

30

3 3 3

( 3)

3

EXAMPLE 33 Simplify

3 – 4sin 60°cos 60°.

cot 47°cos 38°

– 4 3– 3

cot

47°

cos

38°

2 2

tan43° sin 52°

EXAMPLE 34 Evaluate

tan 1°×tan 2°×...×tan 88°×tan 89°.

By using complementary angles we have

tan 89° = cot 1°, tan 88° = cot 2°, ... , tan 46° = cot 44°.

So we have

tan 1° × tan 2° × ... × tan 88° × tan 89

= tan 1° × tan 2° × ... × tan 44° × tan 45° × cot 44° × ... × cot 2° × cot 1°

= (tan 1° × cot 1°) × (tan 2° × cot 3°) × ... × (tan 44° × cot 44°) × tan 45°

1 1 1

= tan 45°

= 1.

Activity

1. Simplify the ratios.

a. b.

sin 30° 1 3 tan60°

2. sin 30° sin 60°+cos 30° cos 60°

Evaluate .

tan 30° tan 60° + tan 45°

150 Geometry 8

EXERCISES 2 .1

1. Write the ratios for the triangle in the figure. A

tan 27° (sin 2 13° cos 2 13° )

5. Simplify .

a. sin b. cos (sec 2 5° – tan 2 5° ) cot 63°

9

c. tan d. cot

a sin 5° sin 10° sin 15° sin 20°

e. sec f. cosec B C 6. Simplify .

12 cos 70° cos 75° cos 80° cos 85°

g. sin (90° – ) h. cot (90° – )

7. Simplify cot 5° cot 10° cot 15° ... cot 85°.

2. Simplify the ratios.

5 5 cos 2 x

8. Simplify .

a. sin x cot x

2 2

tan2 x cos 2 x

b. cot2 x sec2 x sin x

9. Find the values.

c. (sin x + cos x cot x) tan x

a. sin 45° cos 30° tan 60° cot 45°

d. cot x (tan x + cot x)

b. tan 60° cot 60° + sin2 60° + cos2 60°

2

e. 1 tan x c. sec 30° + cot 45° + cos 30°

tan2 x

10. Find sin , cos , tan if cot = 24 .

2

f. 1– cosec x

1– sin2 x 7

g. 1 sec cos 4

– cot x 11. Find given sin = .

sin x cos x tan cosec 5

a. tan x = cot 73° 13. Find the ratios using a trigonometric table.

b. sin 2x = cos 66° a. cos 17° b. tan 46° c. sin 78°

c. cos (x – 10°) = sin 70° 14. Use a table of trigonometric ratios to find the

d. cot (5x + 5°) = tan 15° approximate measure of A.

a. sin A = 0.743 b. cot A = 1.304

b. sin tan + cos = sec right?

2 42°

d. 1+ cot x cot 2 x 103 m

1 tan2 x

sin x cos x 16. A plane makes an angle of depression of 33° with

e. 1

cosecx sec x a runway. Its altitude is 5200 m. Find the horizon-

tal distance from the plane to the runway.

1. Distance Between Two Points

Let us use x0, x1, x2, ... and y0, y1, y2, ... to denote the abscissas and the ordinates of

respective points in the coordinate plane.

The distance between two points A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2) is

AB = ( x2 x1 )2 +( y2 y1 )2 .

AC = x2 – x1

BC = y2 – y1

By the Pythagorean theorem,

AB2 = AC2 + BC2

AB2 = (x2 – x1)2 + (y2 – y1)2

and so AB = ( x2 x1 )2 +( y2 y1 )2 or

AB = ( x1 x2 )2 +( y1 y2 )2 .

Solution AB = ( x2 – x1 )2 +( y2 – y1 ) 2 = (–2 – 3) 2 +(–3 – 0) 2 = (–5)2 +(–3) 2 = ò34 units.

EXAMPLE 36 Show that ABC with the vertices A(–2, 2), B(1, 5), and C(4, –1) is an isosceles triangle.

Solution Let us find the length of the sides of ABC. y

B

AB = (1 2)2 (5 2)2 = 9 9

3 2 W

A 2

2 2

BC = (4 1) +( 1 5) = 9+ 36 = 3 5 4

x

2

AC = BC, so two sides of the triangle have the same length. 1

C

Therefore, ABC is isosceles.

152 Geometry 8

EXAMPLE 37 A(a, 2), B(3, 4), and C(–2, 1) are given. If A is at the same distance from the points B and C, find a.

Solution We are given AB = AC. By the theorem for the distance between two points,

9 6a + a2 + 4 = a2 + 4a + 4+1

10 a = 8

4

a= .

5

EXAMPLE 38 Find the ordinate of the point on the y-axis which is equidistant to the points A(– 4, 0) and

B(9, 5).

Let us call the point P(0, k). Now, from the diagram, P(0( k)

PA = PB

( 4)2 + k2 = 92 +( k 5)2 W B(9( 5)

2 2 2 2

(– 4) + k = 9 + (k – 5)

16 + k2 = 81 + k2 – 10k + 25 x

A(4( 0) O 9

10k = 90

k = 9. Therefore, the point is P(0, 9).

Check Yourself

1. Find the distance between the points A(2, –1) and B(–2, 2).

2. Find the lengths of the sides of the triangle MNP with vertices at the points M(–1, 3),

N(–2, –3), and P(5, 1).

3. The points K(2, 1) and L(–6, a) are given. If KL = 10 cm, find the possible values of a.

4. A is a point on the y-axis with ordinate 5 and B is the point (–3, 1). Calculate AB.

5. Find the point on the y-axis which is equidistant to the points A(–3, 0) and B(4, –1).

Answers

1. 5 2. ò37, 2ò10, ò65 3. a {–5, 7} 4. 5 5. (0, –4)

2. Midpoint of a Line Segment

Theorem midpoint of a line segment

Let the points A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2) be the endpoints of a line segment AB, and let C(x0, y0)

be the midpoint of AB. Then,

x + x2 y + y2

x0 = 1 and y0 = 1 .

2 2

From the figure, CAK BCD. y

So AK = CD and CK = BD.

B

y2

Now, x0 – x1 = x2 – x0 and y0 – y1 = y2 – y0

y0 C

2x0 = x1 + x2 and 2y0 = y1 + y2 D

x1 + x2 y1 + y2 y1 A

x0= and y0= . K

2 2

x

x1 + x2 y1 + y2 O x1 x0 x2

So C(x0, y0) = ( , ).

2 2

EXAMPLE 39 A(–1, –2) and B(–5, 4) are given. Find the coordinates

of the midpoint of AB.

x1 + x2 1 5 y + y2 2+ 4

Solution x0 = = = 3, y0 = 1 = =1

2 2 2 2

So C(–3, 1) is the midpoint of AB.

EXAMPLE 40 A triangle ABC with vertices A(–2, –2), B(1, 8), and C(6, 2) is given. If the points D and E are

BC

midpoints of AB and AC respectively, show that ED = .

2

Solution First, let us find the coordinates of D(a, b) and E(c, d). Points D(a, b) and E(c, d) are the

midpoints of AB and AC, so their coordinates are

x1 + x2 2+1 1

a= = =

2 2 2 1

D( , 3),

y + y2 2+8 2

b= 1 = =3

2 2

154 Geometry 8

x1 + x2 2+6 y

c= = =2

2 2

E(2, 0). 8

B(1( 8)

y + y2 2+ 2

d= 1 = = 0

2 2

distance formula, and then compare their lengths: D(a( b)

C(6( 2)

2

1

ED = (2+ )2 +(0 3) 2 2

2 x

O E(c( d) 6

25 61 61 2

= 9= A(2( 2)

4 4 2

BC = (6 1)2 +(2 8) 2

= 25 36 = 61.

BC

Hence, ED = .

2

Rule

Let the points A(x1, y1), B(x2, y2), C(x3, y3), and D(x4, y4) D(x4( y4) C(x3( y3)

be vertices of a parallelogram ABCD, and let P(x0, y0) be

the intersection point of the diagonals.

P(x0( y0)

Since P(x0, y0) is the midpoint of the diagonals,

x1 + x3 x + x4

x0 = and x0 = 2 , so x1 + x3 = x2 + x4. A(x1( y1) B(x2( y2)

2 2

y1 + y3 y y4

y0 = and y0 = 2 , so y1 + y3 = y2 + y4.

2 2

As a result, for any parallelogram ABCD with given vertices the following rules are valid:

x1 + x3 = x2 + x4 and y1 + y3 = y2 + y4 .

2+b=1+3 and a+3=4+2 K L

b=2 a = 3.

Therefore, a – b = 3 – 2 = 1.

Check Yourself

1. A(a + 1, 4 – 2b) and B(3 – a, 2b – 3) are given. Find the coordinates of the midpoint of AB.

2. A triangle ABC with vertices A(2, 5), B(–2, 3), and C(4, –1) is given. Find the length of

the median passing through A.

3. The points A(–2, –3), B(3, –2), C(x, y), and D(–1, 3) are the vertices of a parallelogram

ABCD. Find the coordinates of C.

Answers

1

1. (2, ) 2. ò17 3. (4, 4)

2

In any triangle ABC with sides a, b and c, the following inequalities are true:

|b – c| < a < (b + c),

|a – c| < b < (a + c),

|a – b| < c < (a + b).

The converse is also true. This property is also called the Triangle Inequality Theorem.

EXAMPLE 42 Is it possible for a triangle to have sides with the lengths indicated?

a. 7, 8, 9 b. 0.8, 0.3, 1 c. 1 , 1 , 1

2 3

Solution We can check each case by using the Triangle Inequality Theorem.

a. |9 – 8| < 7 < (8 + 9) b. |0.8 – 0.3| < 1 < (0.8 + 0.3) c. This is impossible,

|8 – 9| < 8 < (7 + 9) |1 – 0.3| < 0.8 < (1 + 0.3) since

1 1

|7 – 8| < 9 < (7 + 8). |1 – 0.8| < 0.3 < (1 + 0.8). 1< + .

2 3

This is true, so by the This is true, so by the

Triangle Inequality Triangle Inequality Theorem

Theorem this is a this is a possible triangle.

possible triangle.

figure.

10

5

B C

x

4

7

D

156 Geometry 8

Solution In ABC, |10 – 5| < x < (10 + 5) (Triangle Inequality Theorem)

5 < x < 15. (1)

In DBC, |7 – 4| < x < (7 + 4) (Triangle Inequality Theorem)

3 < x < 11. (2)

The possible values of x are the elements of the common solution of inequalities (1) and (2),

i.e. 5 < x < 11.

So x {6, 7, 8, 9, 10}.

in the figure, then find the smallest possible

integer value of n for this case. 9

n

m

B

6

D 8 C

3 < m < 15.

So the greatest possible integer value of m is 14.

In ADC, |8 – m| < n < (m + 8) (Triangle Inequality Theorem)

|8 – 14| < n < (14 + 8) (m = 14)

6 < n < 22.

So when m = 14, the smallest possible integer value of n is 7.

EXAMPLE 45 In a triangle ABC, m(A) > 90°, c = 6 and b = 8. Find all the possible integer lengths of a.

Substituting the values in the question gives 82 +6 2 < a < (8 + 6), i.e.

Check Yourself

1. Two sides of a triangle measure 24 cm and 11 cm respectively. Find the perimeter of the

triangle if its third side is equal to one of other two sides.

2. Determine whether each ratio could be the ratio of the lengths of the sides of a triangle.

a. 3 : 4 : 5 b. 4 : 3 : 1 c. 10 : 11 : 15 d. 0.2 : 0.3 : 0.6

3. The lengths of the sides DE and EF of a triangle DEF are 4.5 and 7.8. What is the greatest

possible integer length of DF?

4. The base of an isosceles triangle measures 10 cm and the perimeter of the triangle is an

integer length. What is the smallest possible length of the leg of this triangle?

5. In an isosceles triangle KLM, KL = LM = 7 and m(K) < 60°. If the perimeter of the

triangle is an integer, how many possible triangle(s) KLM exist?

6. In a triangle ABC, AB = 9 and BC = 12. If m(B) < 90°, find all the possible integer

lengths of AC.

Answers

1. 59 cm 2. a. yes b. no c. yes d. no 3. 12 4. 5.5 cm 5. six triangles

6. AC {4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14}

158 Geometry 8

H. EUCLIDEAN RELATIONS

Theorem

The altitude to the hypotenuse of a right triangle divides the right triangle into two smaller

right triangles which are similar to the original triangle, and therefore also similar to each other.

altitude to the hypotenuse.

Prove: ABC HBA HAC

B H C

We will give the proof in paragraph form.

Let m(BCA) = x.

A A

Then, m(ABC) = 90° – x, m(HAB) = x

x

and m(HAC) = 90° – x. 90° x

90° x x

larger triangle by the AA Similarity Theorem,

B H H C

and therefore the two smaller triangles are

Remember! A

also similar to each other.

The geometric mean of

two numbers a and b is

a positive number x

a x

such that = , 90° x

x b x

i.e. x = a b. B H C

hypotenuse is drawn, the following two

statements are true: c

b

h

1. The length of the altitude is the geometric

mean of the lengths of the two segments B p H q C

of the hypotenuse formed by the altitude a

(AH2 = BH CH in the figure).

2. The length of each leg is the geometric mean of the length of its adjacent hypotenuse

segment and the length of the hypotenuse. (CA2 = CH CB in the figure).

Proof Let us draw an appropriate figure (shown at the right).

Given: ABC is a right triangle and AH is the altitude to the hypotenuse.

Prove: AH2 = BH CH (1) and

For any right triangle

ABC, the relations BA2 = BH BC and CA2 = CH CB (2)

h2 = p q, c2 = p a and We will write the proof of (1) in paragraph form.

b2 = q a are also called

Euclidean relations. By the theorem at the beginning of this

A section, AHB CHA.

c b By the definition of similarity, corresponding sides are proportional:

h

BH AH

p q

= , i.e. AH2 = BH CH, as required.

B H C AH CH

a

Now let us prove (2). By the same theorem, HBA ABC. So by the definiton of

similarity, corresponding sides are proportional:

BH BA

, i.e. BA = BH BC.

2

=

BA BC

CH CA

, i.e. CA = CH CB.

2

By a similar argument, HAC ABC. So =

CA CB

c a

altitude, we can use the Euclidean relations: 6

h2 = p q; 62 = x 3; x = 12,

a2 = 3 (3 + 12) = 3 36; a = 6ñ3, A x H 3 C

2

1 1

= +

1

h2 b2 c2

in the figure. A

b c

h

B k H p C

a

160 Geometry 8

A. THE CONCEPT OF AREA

1. Basic Definitions

Definition polygonal region

The union of a polygon and its interior region is called a polygonal region.

We name polygons by their vertices. For example, ABC is the name of a triangle with

sides name vertices at points A, B and C, and ABCD is the name of a quadrilateral with vertices at points

3 triangle

A, B, C and D. We use extra notation to refer E

4 quadrilateral

5 pentagon to a polygonal region: (ABC) is a triangular F

region, and (ABCDE) is a pentagonal region. D

6 hexagon

7 heptagon In the figure, (ABCDEF) is the union of the

8 octagon A

hexagon and its interior region. Since

9 nonagon

10 decagon ABCDEF is a hexagon, we can say that

. . B

. . (ABCDEF) is a hexagonal region. C

. .

The interior region of a square with side length one unit is called a square unit. We write

unit2 to mean a square unit.

In the figure opposite, each side of the square

measures 1 unit and so its area is 1 square

1 unit

unit, or 1 unit2. We can also use metric units

for lengths and areas: a square with side 1 cm

has area 1 cm2, and a square with side 1 m

1 unit

has area 1 m2, etc.

Definition area

The area of a closed plane figure is the total number of non-overlapping square units and part

units that cover the surface of the polygonal region. The area of a figure is always a positive

real number.

We use the letter A to mean the area of a polygon: the area of ABC is A(ABC), and the area

of the pentagon ABCDE is A(ABCDE).

If the sides of a figure are not natural numbers or if the polygon is very big, it is difficult to

find its area by counting the individual unit squares. In this book we will learn a set of

formulas and methods to find the area of any geometric figure by calculation.

170 Geometry 8

Definition altitude, height

An altitude is a line segment between a vertex of a polygon and a line containing a side of the

polygon, which is perpendicular to this line. The length of an altitude is called a height of the

polygon. We write ha, hb, etc. to mean the altitudes to sides a, b, etc. of a polygon.

Definition base

The side of a polygon from which we draw an altitude is called the base. We can use any side

of a polygon as a base.

altitude

altitude

altitude

altitude

base

or

rectangle triangle parallelogram

Note

In an isosceles triangle, the congruent sides are called the legs of the triangle and the third

side is the base.

If two figures are congruent then their areas are the same.

congruent if their

corresponding sides and

angles are the same.

2. Area of a Rectangle

Postulate

The area of a rectangle is the product of the

D C

lengths of two consecutive sides:

A(ABCD) = a b . a

A b B

What is the area of this rectangle?

A = a b = 14 20 = 280 cm2.

171 Geometry 8

EXAMPLE 2 A rectangle has area 84 cm2 and one of its sides measures 7 cm. What is this perimeter of this

rectangle?

Solution Let us write a = 7 cm and A = 84 cm2. So A = a b gives us 84 = 7 b, i.e. b = 12 cm.

So the perimeter of the rectangle is 2(a + b) = 2(7 + 12) = 38 cm.

AC = 10 cm and

AB = 8 cm. Find the area of this rectangle. 10

A 8 B

special right triangles to find the length of

BC = b. By the Pythagorean Theorem,

AB2 + BC2 = AC2

82 + b2 = 102

b = 6 cm.

So A(ABCD) = a b = 6 8 = 48 cm2.

EXAMPLE 4 A rectangle has area 108 cm2 and one of its sides measures three times the other side. Find the

perimeter of this rectangle.

Solution Let a = x and b = 3x be the side lengths since one side is three times as long as the other

side.

Then A = ab gives us 108 = x 3x = 3x2, so x2 = 36 and x = 6.

So a = 6 cm and b = 18 cm.

So the perimeter of ABCD is 2 (a + b) = 2 (6 + 18) = 48 cm.

Rule

If we connect a point on one side of a

D E C

rectangle to the endpoints of the opposite

side then the area of the triangle obtained is

half the area of the rectangle: in the figure, b

A( ABCD ) a b .

A( ABE) = A a B

2 2

EXAMPLE 5 In the figure, ABCD is a rectangle with sides D E C

AB = 8 cm and AD = 6 cm, and E is a point

on side DC.

6

Find the combined area of the shaded

regions.

A 8 B

A( ABCD )

Solution By the previous rule, A( ABE) = .

2

A( ABCD )

So the sum of the shaded areas will also be .

2

A( ABCD ) 6 8

= = 24 cm 2 .

2 2

Check Yourself

1. A rectangle has perimeter 40 cm and one side is 4 cm longer than the other side. Find

the area of this rectangle.

and m(ABD) = 30°. Find A(ABCD).

8

30°

A B

3. A rectangle has area 48 cm2 and perimeter 28 cm. Find the lengths of the sides of this

rectangle.

4. One side of a rectangle is twice as long as another side. Given that the perimeter of this

rectangle is 30 cm, find its area.

Answers

173 Geometry 8

B. AREA OF A TRIANGLE

Theorem base-height formula

The area of a triangle is half the product of

A

the length of one base and the height of the

triangle from that base: in the figure,

ah . h

A( ABC ) =

2

B H C

B¢ A C¢

In ABC, BC = a.

We draw a line parallel to BC through A, and

In a triangle, the side

opposite vertex A is from B and C we draw perpendiculars BB' h

called a, the side

opposite B is called b,

and CC' to the parallel line.

and the side opposite C

We can say that BCCB, BHAB and AHCC B H C

is called c.

are rectangles, and also BB = CC = AH = h.

Also, ABH BAB since ABH BAB, BAH BBA and AB is a common side.

By the Area Congruence Postulate we can write A(ABH) = A(ABB) = X.

By similar reasoning we have

Area Congruence A(AHC) = A(ACC') = Y.

Postulate: If two figures

are congruent then their So A(BCCB) = a h = 2X + 2Y

areas are the same. ah

= 2 (X + Y), i.e. X + Y = .

2

ah

Finally, A(ABC) = X + Y = .

2

ah

So A( ABC ) = , as required.

2

Note

a ha b hb c hc

We can use any side of a triangle as a base, so A( ABC ) = = = .

2 2 2

EXAMPLE 6 In the figure, A

BC = 7 cm and

AH = 4 cm.

Find A(ABC). 4

B H C

AH = h = 4.

7

ah 7 4

So A( ABC ) = = =14 cm 2.

2 2

AH = 8,

D

BC = 12 and 10

AC = 10. 8

Find the length of BD.

B H C

Solution BC = a = 12,

12

AC = b = 10,

AH = ha = 8 and we need to find hb.

a ha b hb 12 8 10 hb 48

We have = , so = and so hb = .

2 2 2 2 5

EXAMPLE 8 The base of an isosceles triangle measures 12 cm and the other sides are each 10 cm long.

Find the area of this triangle.

A

BC = a = 12 cm.

We draw the altitude AH = ha. Because the 10 10

triangle is isosceles, H will be the midpoint of

side BC.

By the Pythagorean Theorem in AHC, B 6 H 6 C

ha2 + 62 = 102

ha2 = 100 – 36

ha2 = 64

ha = 8 cm.

a ha 12 8

So A( ABC ) 48 cm 2 .

2 2

175 Geometry 8

EXAMPLE 9 In the triangle ABC opposite, A

BC = 14 cm,

AC = 8 cm and 8

m(ACB) = 60°.

Find A(ABC). 60°

B 14 C

Let us draw AH = ha. A

use the properties of a 30°-60°-90° triangle: if 8

A ha

the hypotenuse AC measures 8 cm then the

2x 60° 60°

x side opposite the 60° angle measures

B H C

8 3

30° = 4 3 ha .

C xñ3 B 2

a 30°H60°H90° triangle a ha 14 4 3

So A( ABC ) = = = 28 3 cm 2 .

2 2

BD = 8 cm and

DC = 4 cm. 6

Find A(ADC).

B 8 D 4 C

ABD is isosceles, so BH = HD = 4 cm.

Now we can use the Pythagorean Theorem in ABH to find h:

h2 + 42 = 62 and h2 = 20, i.e. h = 2ñ5 cm.

AH DC 2 5 4

So A( ADC ) = = = 4 5 cm 2 .

2 2

Check Yourself

1. Find the area of the triangle with the given base and altitude.

a. a = 4, ha = 7 b. b = 3, hb = 8

2. The sides of ABC are a = 6 cm, b = 8 cm and c = 10 cm, and A(ABC) = 24 cm2. What

are the three heights of this triangle?

3. In a triangle, a = 6 cm and c = 12 cm. Find hc if ha = 10 cm.

the base is BC = 18. Find A(ABC).

B 18 C

Answers

24

1. a. 14 b. 12 2. ha = 8 cm, hb = 6 cm, hc = cm 3. 5 cm 4. 27ñ3

5

The area of a right triangle is half the

A

product of its legs: in the figure,

b

ac . c

A( ABC ) =

2

B a C

this line be C. c

B a C

AC BC, m(ABC) = 90° and

m(ACC) = 90. So m(BAC) = 90°.

Also, ABC is congruent to CCA by the ASA Congruence Theorem, since

m(BAC) = m(ACC), m(ACB) = m(CAC) and AC is a common side.

So we can write A(ABC) = A(CCA) = X.

Since ABCC is a rectangle, A(ABCC) = a c = A(ABC) + A(CCA) = X + X = 2X.

A( ABCC ) a c

So X = A(ABC) = , as required.

2 2

177 Geometry 8

EXAMPLE 11 In the triangle opposite, m(C) = 90°, A

AB = 13 cm and AC = 5 cm.

13

Find A(ABC). 5

B a C

given, and we need to find BC = a to find the

area. By the Pythagorean Theorem in ABC,

a2 + 52 = 132 so a2 = 169 – 25 = 144, a = 12 cm.

a b 12 5

So A( ABC ) = = = 30 cm 2 .

2 2

EXAMPLE 12 The hypotenuse of an isosceles right triangle measures 7ñ2 cm. Find the area of this triangle.

right triangle measure x units then the hypotenuse measures A

xñ2 units.

45°

So xñ2 = 7ñ2, which gives x = 7, i.e. a = c = 7 cm. xñ2

x

a c 7 7 49

So A( ABC ) = = = cm 2 .

2 2 2 45°

C x B

an isosceles right triangle

m(AFD) = 30°, m(BEC) = 45°, 30°

12

AF = 12 and AE = 8.

Find the area of quadrilateral AECF. 45°

A 8 E B

12

Solution ADF is a 30°-60°-90° triangle so AD = = 6 and DF = 6ñ3.

2

Since ABCD is a rectangle, BC = AD = 6.

EBC is an isosceles right triangle (because m(BEC) = m(ECB) = 45°), so EB = BC = 6.

So in rectangle ABCD, AD = a = 6 and AB = b = AE + EB = 8 + 6 = 14.

6 6 3 6 6

Finally, A(AECF) = A(ABCD) – (A(ADF) + A(EBC)) = 6 14 – ( + )

2 2

= 84 – (18ñ3 + 18) = 66 – 18ñ3.

Theorem area of an equilateral triangle

The area of an equilateral triangle with side

A

length a is one-fourth of the product of a2

and ñ3: in the figure,

a a

a2 3 .

A( ABC ) =

4

B a C

30°

a 3

m(C) = 60° and so AH = ha = . a

2 añ3

2

a 3

a

a ha a2 3

So A( ABC ) = 2 . 60°

2 2 4 B H a C

2

EXAMPLE 14 One side of an equilateral triangle measures 6 cm. Find the area of this triangle.

a2 3 6 2 3

Solution By the theorem above, A = 9 3 cm 2 .

4 4

a 3 20

Solution The height is h = 10 , so a = cm.

2 3

20 2

( ) 3

a2 3 400 3 100 3

So A( ABC ) = = 3 = = cm 2.

4 4 12 3

EXAMPLE 16 The area and perimeter of an equilateral triangle have the same value. Find the length of one

side of this triangle.

a2 3

Solution Let the side measure a, then the area is and the perimeter is 3a.

4

a2 3

If the area and the perimeter have equal values then = 3a and so

4

12

a= = 4 3 is the length of one side of the triangle.

3

179 Geometry 8

Check Yourself

1. The hypotenuse of a right triangle measures 25 units and one of its legs measures

24 units. Find the area of this triangle.

2. An isosceles right triangle has a hypotenuse of 10 units. Find its area.

3. In the figure, ABCD is a rectangle, D C

EB = 8, m(BEC) = 45° and

EC = DC. Find the area of CDE.

45°

A E 8 B

4. Find the area of the equilateral triangle with the given side length.

a. 4 b. 10

5. Find the area of the equilateral triangle with the given height.

a. 14ñ3 b. 8 c. 2ñ3

Answers

1. 84 2. 25 3. 32ñ2 4. a. 4ñ3 b. 25ñ3 5. a. 196ñ3 b. 64 3 c. 4ñ3

3

The figure shows two triangles. We cut the first triangle along the lines shown

and rearrange the parts to get the second triangle.

When we do this, we can see that there is an empty space in the second

triangle. Where is the missing square?

?

Answer

If we draw the figures accurately and with a large scale, we will see that the slopes of the red and blue

triangles are different. This means that the bigger shapes are not triangles. So we cannot calculate the areas

directly by using the area formula, and in fact the areas are not equal.

?

Theorem Heron’s Formula

If a triangle has sides a, b and c and perimeter A

2u then the area of the triangle is the square

root of the product of u, u – a, u – b and

c b

u – c: in the figure,

abc

u=

2 B a C

A( ABC ) = u( u a)( u b )( u c) .

AH to BC and let AH = h, BH = x,

HC = a – x and A(ABC) = A. b

c

By the Pythagorean Theorem in ABH and h

AHC respectively we get

x2 + h2 = c2, h2 = c2 – x2, (1) B x H ax C

Heron of and (a – x)2 + h2 = b2, h2 = b2 – (a – x)2. (2)

alexandriA

From (1) and (2) we have h2 = c2 – x2 = b2 – (a – x)2

(10-75 AD)

c2 – x2 = b2 – (a2 – 2ax + x2) (expand the binomial)

c2 – x2 = b2 – a2 + 2ax – x2 (simplify)

a 2 b2 c2

2ax = a2 – b2 + c2, i.e. x = . (3) (rearrange)

2a

Heron of Alexandria was a Greek

a 2 b2 c2 2 ( a2 b2 c2 )2

mathematician and inventor who Let us use (3) in (1): h2 = c2 – ( ) , i.e. h2 = c2 – .

lived in Alexandria in Egypt. 2a 4 a2

Heron was mainly interested in

the practical study of mechanics (2 ac)2 ( a2 b2 c2 )2

and engineering. He also studied Equalizing denominators gives us h2 = .

geometry, optics, astronomy and

4a 2

architecture. In geometry, he So 4a2h2 = (2ac – (a2 – b2 + c2)) (2ac + a2 – b2 + c2). (4) (difference of two squares)

found the area of a triangle by

using square roots and the lengths ah a2 h2

of the sides. He invented many

We know that A( ABC ) = A , so A 2 = , i.e. 16A2 = 4a2h2. So

2 4

machines and devices such as

fountains and syphons, and he 16A2 = (b2 – (a2 – 2ac + c2)) (a2 + 2ac + c2 – b2) (from (4))

also invented the first steam

powered device.

16A2 = (b2 – (a – c)2) ((a + c)2 – b2) (use a2 ± 2ac + c2 = (a ± c)2)

Heron wrote around fifteen books 16A2 = (b – a + c)(b + a – c)(a + c – b)(a + c + b). (5) (difference of two squares)

about mathematics, engineering We know that the perimeter of ABC is 2u, i.e. a + b + c = 2u.

and astronomy, including

Katoptirikos (about optics), Let us substitute this in (5):

Automata, Mechanica, Geometrica 2 u 2( u a) 2( u b) 2( u c)

and Stereometrica. The proof of 16A2 = (2u – 2a)(2u – 2c)(2u – 2b)(2u), i.e. A 2 =

the formula presented here 16

appears in his book Metrica. and so A = u ( u a ) ( u b ) ( u c), as required.

181 Geometry 8

EXAMPLE 17 Find the area of the triangle with side lengths 4 cm, 5 cm and 7 cm.

a + b + c 4+5+7

Solution We can use Heron’s Formula with u = = = 8:

2 2

EXAMPLE 18 The sides of a triangle ABC are a = 7, b = 9 and c = 12. Find hc.

7 9 12

Solution By Herons’s Formula with u = 14 we have

2

14 5.

c hc 12 hc 7 5

Also, A( ABC ) = . So 14 5 = and hc .

2 2 3

The area of a triangle is half the product of

A

any two sides and the sine of the angle

between these two sides: in the figure,

b

c

1

A( ABC ) = ab sin C

2

1 B a C

= ac sin B

2

1

= bc sin A .

2

A

Proof Look at the figure.

Let us draw the altitude from the vertex A to

side BC, so AH = ha. From the figure,

c b

h ha

sin C = a , i.e. ha = b sin C.

b

a ha 1

So A( ABC ) = ab sin C.

2 2 B H C

The proofs for the other pairs of sides are

a

similar.

EXAMPLE 19 In the figure, AB = c = 3 cm, A

BC = a = 6 cm and m(B) = 60°.

What is A(ABC)? 3

1 B 6 C

Since A( ABC ) = ac sin B, we have

2

1 9 3

A( ABC ) = 6 3 sin60° cm 2 .

2 2

BD = 6 cm,

AE = 8 cm and 5

8

EC = 2 cm. D

A( ADE)

What is ? 6 E

A( ABC )

2

Solution We can find both of the areas using the B C

trigonometric formulas we have just seen.

We know AD = 5, AE = 8, AB = 11 and AE = 10, so

1

AD AE sin A

A( ADE) 2 AD AE 5 8 4

= = = = .

A( ABC ) 1 AB AC 11 10 11

AB AC sin A

2

A

AB = 6 cm,

BC = 8 cm,

6 3ñ2

AC = 3ñ2 cm and

m(C) = 45°.

a 45°

Find .

B 8 C

Solution We have AB = c = 6, BC = a = 8 and

2

AC = b = 3ñ2, and we know sin 45°= .

2

1 1 2

Since A( ABC ) = ab sin C ac sin , we have 3 2 6 sin which gives us

2 2 2

1

sin , i.e. = 30° or = 150°.

2

Since m(C) = 45°, = 150° is impossible, and so = 30°.

183 Geometry 8

EXAMPLE 22 The sides of PQR are p = 5, q = 12 and r = 15. Find sin R.

Solution Let us find A(PQR) by using both Heron's Formula and the trigonometric formula for the

area of a triangle.

5+12+15

By Heron’s Formula with u = =16,

2

A( PQR ) = 16 (16 5) (16 12) (16 15) = 8ò11.

1 1

By the trigonometric formula, A( PQR ) = p q sin R = 5 12 sin R 30 sin R.

2 2

8 11 4 11

So 30 sin R = 8ò11, and so sin R = = .

30 15

Check Yourself

1. A triangle has sides of 13 cm, 14 cm and 15 cm. Find its area.

2. The sides of a triangle are a = 3, b = 5 and c = 6. Find the three heights of this triangle.

3. AB = 8 cm and AC = 6ñ3 cm are two sides of a triangle ABC. Find A(ABC) if

a. m(A) = 30°. b. m(A) = 60°. c. m(A) = 90°.

4. The sides of a triangle are a = 8, b = 7 and c = 9. What is the sine of angle B?

Answers

4 14 4 14 2 14 5

1. 84 cm2 2. ha = , hb , hc 3. a. 12ñ3 cm2 b. 36 cm2 c. 24ñ3 cm2 4.

3 5 3 3

The incircle (or inscribed circle) of a triangle is a circle inside the triangle which is tangent to

each of its sides. The center of the incircle is called the incenter. It lies at the intersection

point of the angle bisectors of the triangle. The radius of the incircle is called the inradius (r).

The area of a triangle is the product of half

A

its perimeter and its inradius: in the figure,

if a + b + c = 2u then

A(ABC) = u r . c b

r r

I

B a C

Proof Look at the figure. Let I be the incenter of

A

ABC and let r be its inradius. If we connect

I and the vertices A, B and C we can write

A(ABC) = A(AIB) + A(BIC) + A(AIC) c b

r I

r

cr ar br

= + + r

2 2 2

B a C

a+ b+ c

= r

2

= u r.

EXAMPLE 23 A triangle with perimeter 20 cm has inradius 6 cm. Find the area of this triangle.

By the theorem we have just seen, A = u r = 10 6 = 60 cm2.

EXAMPLE 24 The sides of a triangle measure 7, 8 and 9 units. Find the radius of the incircle of this

triangle.

7+8+9

Solution u= =12

2

= 12 5 4 3

12 5

Also, A = u r = 12 r = 12ñ5, so r = ñ5.

The circle which passes through all three vertices of a triangle is called the circumcircle (or

circumscribed circle) of the triangle. The radius of the circumcircle is called the

circumradius (R).

185 Geometry 8

Theorem area of a triangle by its circumradius

The area of a triangle is equal to the ratio of

A

the product of the sides to four times its

circumradius: in the figure,

c b

abc .

A( ABC ) =

4R R

B a C

a b c

Proof The law of sines tells us that = = = 2 R.

sin A sin B sin C

a

So a = 2R sin A, i.e. sin A = .

2R

1 1 a abc

Substituting this in A( ABC ) = b c sin A gives us A( ABC ) = b c = , as

2 2 2R 4R

required.

EXAMPLE 25 The sides of a triangle measure 8 cm, 10 cm and 12 cm. Find the circumradius R of this

triangle.

8+10+12

Solution Let u = =15, then by Heron’s Formula the area of the triangle will be

2

A = 15 (15 8) (15 10) (15 12) = 15 7 5 3 =15 7 cm 2.

abc 8 10 12 16 7

Using the formula A( ABC ) = gives us 15 7 = , i.e. R = cm.

4R 4R 7

EXAMPLE 26 The sides of a right triangle measure 6 cm and 8 cm. Find the sum of the circumradius and

the inradius of this triangle.

Solution From geometry we know that if the vertices of a right triangle all lie on the same circle then

the hypotenuse is the diameter of this circle. So the hypotenuse is the diameter of the

circumcircle (2R). By the Pythagorean Theorem, 62 + 82 = (2R)2. So 2R = 10, i.e. R = 5 cm.

ac 68

Also, if the triangle is a right triangle then its area is A = = = 24 cm 2 .

2 2

a + b + c 6+8+10

Let u = = =12, then since A = u r we have 24 = 12 r, i.e. r = 2 cm.

2 2

So the sum of the circumradius and inradius is R + r = 5 + 2 = 7 cm.

EXAMPLE 27 A circle has radius 8 cm. Find the area of the equilateral triangle whose vertices lie on this

circle.

Solution We can write the area of the equilateral triangle in two ways:

a2 3 aaa

A= and A = .

4 4R

a2 3 a a a

If we equate these expressions using R = 8 cm, we get = and a = 8ñ3.

4 48

a2 3 (8 3)2 3 192 3

So A = = = = 48 3 cm 2.

4 4 4

Check Yourself

1. The legs of a right triangle measure 5 cm and 12 cm. Find the inradius of this triangle.

2. In ABC, m(A) = 90° and AB = 3ñ2. If m(C) = 45°, find the circumradius of ABC.

3. The sides of a triangle measure 12, 9 and 7 units. Find the lengths R and r of the

circumradius and inradius of this triangle.

4. One of the legs of a right triangle measures 9 units and the diameter of its circumcircle

is 15. Find the inradius of this triangle.

5. An equilateral triangle has side length 6. Find the sum of the inradius and

circumradius of this triangle.

6. The base of an isosceles triangle measures 24 units and the other sides are each 13 units

long. Find the inradius r and circumradius R of this triangle.

Answers

27 5 12 169

1. 2 cm 2. 3

3. R ,r 5 4. 3 5. 3ñ3

6. r ,R

10 5 10

So far we have learned several formulas for the area of a triangle. However, sometimes these

formulas may not be enough to solve a problem, or using them can make the solution longer.

In this section we look at some properties of triangles that can help us to solve problems more

directly.

187 Geometry 8

Property 1

In a right triangle, the product of the legs is A

equal to the product of the hypotenuse and

the length of the altitude to the hypotenuse: b

c ha

in the figure,

a ha = b c . B H C

a ha bc

Proof We can write the area of a right triangle in two ways: A( ABC ) = and A( ABC ) = .

2 2

Equating and simplifying gives us a ha = b c.

EXAMPLE 28 The legs of a right triangle measure 7 cm and 24 cm. Find the height drawn to the

hypotenuse of this triangle.

a2 = 72 + 242 = 49 + 576 = 625, i.e. a = 25 cm.

168

Now using a ha = b c gives us 25 ha = 7 24, i.e. ha = cm.

25

As an exercise, try solving this problem using only the formulas we studied in the previous

section. Can you do it?

Property 2

If the base lengths and heights of two triangles are the same then their areas are equal.

base1 height1

Proof Let the area of the first triangle be A1 = , and the second area be

2

base1 height1

A2 = (because the bases and heights are equal).

2

Then A1 = A2, as required.

DE = 12 cm and 8

AH = 8 cm are given.

Find BD = EC = x.

B x D H E x C

12

Solution In the figure, AH = ha = 8 cm is the common height of ABD, ADE and AEC.

The base lengths BD = EC = x are the same and their heights are also equal,

so by Property 2 we have

A(ABD) = A(AEC) = S.

DE AH 12 8

Also, A( ADE) = = = 48 cm 2 .

2 2

From the figure we can say

A(ABC) = A(ABD) + A(ADE) + A(AEC)

112 = S + 48 + S

2S = 64, S = 32 cm2.

x ha

Now, since A( ABD) = S = 32 = , we have 64 = 8 x, i.e. x = 8 cm.

2

Property 3

A median of a triangle divides the area of A

the triangle into two equal parts: in the

figure, if BD = DC then

A(BAD) = A(DAC).

B D H C

Proof Let AD be the median and AH be the altitude, as in the figure. So BD = DC.

We can say that AH is the altitude of both of the triangles ABD and ADC, so

BD AH DC AH

A( ABD ) = and A( ADC) = .

2 2

BD AH DC AH

But since BD = DC we can write = , which means A(ABD) = A(ADC).

2 2

Conclusion

A

By applying Property 3 repeatedly, we can see that a

triangle can be divided into equal parts by taking

successive medians.

S1 S2 S3 S4

For example, if BD = DE = EF = FC in the figure

opposite then S1 = S2 = S3 = S4. B D E F C

189 Geometry 8

EXAMPLE 30 The figure shows a triangle ABC. BD is the A

median of side AC in ABC, DE is the

median of side BC in BCD, and EF is the

median of side BD in BDE. Given that D

A(DEF) = 5 cm2, find A(ABC).

F

B E C

Solution In BDE, BF = FD so

A(BEF) = A(DEF) = 5 cm2 and so A(BDE) = 10 cm2.

In BCD, BE = EC so A(CDE) = A(BDE) = 10 cm2 and so A(BCD) = 20 cm2.

In ABC, AD = DC so A(ABD) = A(BCD) = 20 cm2 and so A(ABC) = 40 cm2.

Property 4

If the heights of two triangles are the same

A

then the ratio of their areas is the same as

the ratio of their base lengths: in the figure,

A( ABD ) m

= .

A( ADC ) n

B m D n C

Proof Triangles ABD and ADC in the figure both have common altitude AH = ha.

AH BD

A( ABD ) 2

So = .

A( ADC ) AH DC

2

A( ABD) BD m

Canceling common terms gives us = = .

A( ADC ) DC n

Note

We can use the letter S to mean the common multiplier in triangle ratio problems which use

this property: A(ABD) = mS and A(ADC) = nS.

EXAMPLE 31 In the figure, A(ABC) = 70 cm2, A

BD = 4 cm and DC = 10 cm are given.

Find A(ABD).

B 4 D 10 C

A(ABD) = 4S and A(ADC) = 10S. Since

A(ABC) = A(ABD) + A(ADC), we have 70 = 4S + 10S, i.e. 14S = 70 and so S = 5 cm2.

So A(ABD) = 4S = 4 5 = 20 cm2.

BD = 6 cm and DC = 5 cm. The area of

5

AED is 15 cm2. What is the area of ABC?

E

3

Solution In ABD, AE = 5 and EB = 3 so we can write

A(AED) = 5S and A(EBD) = 3S. B 6 D 5 C

So A(ABD) = A(AED) + A(EBD) = 5S + 3S = 8S = 8 3 = 24 cm2.

Since BD = 6 and DC = 5 we can write A(ABD) = 6X and A(ADC) = 5X.

So A(ABD) = 6X = 24, i.e. X = 4 cm2.

So A(ABC) = A(ABD) + A(ADC) = 6X + 5X = 11X = 11 4 = 44 cm2.

D E C

DE = EC, AF = FG = GB and

A(EFG) = 6 cm2 are given.

Find A(ABCD).

A F G B

Solution Let us draw EA and EB. By Property 4,

A(AEF) = A(EFG) = A(EGB) = 6 cm2.

So A(EAB) = 6 + 6 + 6 = 18 cm2.

A( ABCD )

We also know that A( EAB) = by the properties of a rectangle.

2

So A(ABCD) = 2 A(EAB) = 2 18 = 36 cm2.

191 Geometry 8

EXAMPLE 34 In the figure, ABCD is a rectangle. DC is

D E F G H C

divided into five equal parts and AB is

divided into four equal parts. Given that

A(ABCD) = 180 cm2, find A(IJGF).

the area of each triangle. We know that if we

connect any point on one side of a rectangle to the two non-adjacent vertices then the area of

the triangle formed will be half the area of the rectangle. Let us draw the lines GI, DI and CI.

A( ABCD ) 180

By the properties of a rectangle we have A( DIC ) = = = 90 cm 2.

2 2

The base DC of DIC is divided into five equal parts, so by Property 4 we can write

A(DIC) = 5S = 90 cm2.

90

So A(IFG) = S = = 18 cm2.

5

In the same way we can draw GA and GB to get

A( ABCD ) 180

A( ABG) = 90 cm 2.

2 2

Since AB is divided into four equal parts, we have

90 45

A( IGJ ) = cm 2 .

4 2

45 81

Finally, A(IJGF) = A(IFG) + A(IGJ) = 18 + = cm2.

2 2

Property 5

If the bases of two triangles are the same A

then the ratio of their areas is the same as D

the ratio of their heights: in the figure,

A( ABC ) h1 h1

= . h2

A( DBC ) h2

B H K C

BC h1

A( ABC ) 2 .

=

A( DBC ) BC h2

2

A( ABC ) h1

Canceling common terms gives us , as required.

A( DBC ) h2

EXAMPLE 35 In the figure, BC = 8 cm and A

DH = 4 cm.

Given that A(ABDC) = 20 cm2, find AD.

4

We have A(ABC) = A(ABDC) + A(DBC).

B H C

A( ABC ) AH

By Property 5, = , so

A( DBC ) DH

48

20+

2 = x+ 4 ,

48 4

2

36 x + 4 9 x+ 4

= , i.e. = , x + 4 = 9, x = 5 cm. So AD = 5 cm.

16 4 4 4

Check Yourself

1. The legs of a right triangle measure 5 cm and 12 cm. Find the length of the altitude to

the hypotenuse of this triangle.

2. Two parallel lines are given. Two points A and B lie on one of the lines and points C, D and

E lie on the other line. What can you say about A(ABC), A(ABD) and A(ABE)?

A( FGH ) E

and AH is the altitude to side BC, find .

A( ABC ) F

B H C

AC is divided into three equal parts.

G

If A(EGH) = 4 cm2, find A(ABC).

H

B D E F C

193 Geometry 8

5. In the figure, ABCD is a rectangle. AB is divided into D H I C

four equal parts and DC is divided into three equal

parts. If A(ABCD) = 120 cm2, find A(EGIH).

A E F G B

Answers

60 1

1. cm 2. they are equal 3. 4. 24 cm2 5. 50 cm2

13 10

Property 6

The ratio of the areas of the two triangles A

formed by the bisector of an angle in a

triangle is the same as the ratio of the

lengths of the two sides separated by the

b

bisector: in the figure, c

A( ABN ) c

= .

A( ANC ) b

B N C

Proof In the figure, let us draw perpendiculars from

the point N to the sides AB and AC and let the intersection points of these perpendiculars and

the sides be D and E respectively.

Since a point on the bisector of an angle is the same distance from the two sides of the angle,

we can write ND = NE = x.

AB ND

A( ABN ) 2 AB x AB c

So = = = = , as required.

A( ANC ) AC NE AC x AC b

2

Given that AC = 4 cm,

N

BC = 9 cm and 4

A(ANC) = 12 cm2,

find A(ABC).

B 9 C

A( ANC ) AC

Solution By Property 6 we have = , so

A( BNC ) BC

12 4

= and so A(BNC) = 27 cm2.

A( BNC ) 9

Property 7

The medians of a triangle together divide

A

the area of the triangle into six equal parts.

S S

F E

G

S S

S S

B D C

Proof Look at the figure. Let D, E and F be

endpoints of the medians to sides BC, AC and AB, respectively. So G is the centroid of ABC.

If AD is a median then by the properties of a centroid we can write GD = x and GA = 2x.

The centroid of a triangle

divides each median in Then by Property 4 we have

BGA, the ratio 1:2:

A(BDG) = S and A(BGA) = 2S.

A

In BGA, GF is a median so

2x E A(AFG) = A(BFG) = S.

So we have

x

B D C

A(AFG) = A(BFG) = A(BDG) = S. (1)

Since AD is a median, we have A(ABD) = A(ADC).

By similar reasoning to the above we can get

A(AGE) = A(EGC) = A(GDC) = S. (2)

Combining (1) and (2) shows that all six areas are equal to each other.

Given that BD = DE = EC and

A(GEC) = 8 cm2, find A(ABC). G 4

B D E C

Solution By Property 4,

A(GBD) = A(GDE) = A(GEC) = 8 cm2.

So A(BGC) = A(GBD) + A(GDE) + A(GEC) = 8 + 8 + 8 = 24 cm2.

By Property 7, A(BGC) = 2S = 24 so S = 12 and A(ABC) = 6S.

So A(ABC) = 6S = 6 12 = 72 cm2.

195 Geometry 8

Property 8

Let ABC be a triangle with inradius r and altitudes, ha, hb and hc. Then

1 1 1 1

= + + .

r ha hb hc

a ha b hb c hc 2A 2A 2A

Proof We know A( ABC ) = A = = = , so we have ha = , hb = and hc = .

2 2 2 a b c

1 a 1 b 1 c

Rearranging these gives us = , = and .

ha 2 A hb 2 A hc 2 A

If we add these terms we have

1 1 1 a b c a + b + c 2u u

+ + = + + = = = .

ha hb hc 2 A 2 A 2 A 2A 2A A

u u 1 1 1 1 1

Since A = u r we can write = = . So = + + , as required.

A ur r r ha hb hc

EXAMPLE 38 The lengths of the altitudes of a triangle are 4 cm, 6 cm and 8 cm. What is the inradius of

this triangle?

1 1 1 1

Solution By Property 8 we have

= + + .

r ha hb hc

1 1 1 1 6+ 4+ 3 13 24

So = + + = = , i.e. r = cm.

r 4 6 8 24 24 13

Property 9

If two triangles are similar then the ratio of their areas is equal to the square of the ratio of

similarity.

A D

a h

Then = k and a = k, where k is the ratio

d hd

of similarity. ha hd

a ha

A( ABC ) a ha a ha B H C E K F

So = 2 = =

A( DEF ) d hd d hd d hd a d

2

k k = k2 , as required.

EXAMPLE 39 In the triangle opposite, D and E are the A

A( ADE)

respectively. Find A( ABC ) .

D E

B C

DE BC and so ADE ABC.

AD 1

The ratio of similarity is k = = . (D is the midpoint of AB)

AB 2

A( ADE) 1 1

So by Property 9, = k2 = ( ) 2 = .

A( ABC ) 2 4

Rule

When we connect the midpoints of the

A

sides of a triangle, the area of the triangle is

divided into four equal parts: in the figure,

S

F E

A(AFE) = A(BDF) = A(DEC) = A(DEF) = S. S

S S

B D C

Rule

If we divide two sides of a triangle into equal

A

lengths and connect the dividing points with

parallel lines, the areas of the parts are D

S

E

proportional to the numbers S, 3S, 5S, 7S... . 3S

F G

5S

H I

7S

J K

9S

.

B . C

.

197 Geometry 8

EXAMPLE 40 In the figure, the sides AB and BC are each A

divided into four equal parts.

F

Given that A(AFIC) = 35 cm2,

E

find A(ABC).

D

Solution By the previous rule,

A(ABC) = S + 3S + 5S + 7S = 16S. B G H I C

As a result, A(ABC) = 16S = 16 5 = 80 cm2.

Check Yourself

A

1. In the figure, AD is an angle bisector,

AB = 8 cm, AE = 7 cm, DE = 4 cm and

A(ABC) = 36 cm2 are given. 7

8

Find DC if DE AC.

E

4

B D x C

A

3. In the figure, G is the centroid of ABC. Given that G1

is the centroid of ADC and the area of DGG1 is

3, find A(ABC). G

G1

B D C

4. The legs of a right triangle measure 6 cm and 8 cm. Find the inradius of this triangle.

A

5. In the figure, G is the centroid of ABC.

Given that E is the midpoint of AC,

FE BC and A(EFG) = 5, find A(ABC). F E

G

B D C

6. Two points D and E lie respectively on sides AB and AC of a triangle ABC. Given that

DE BC, AE = 2 cm, EC = 3 cm and A(BCED) = 42 cm2, find A(ABC).

Answers

1. 5 cm 2. 24 cm2 3. 54 4. 2 cm 5. 120 6. 50 cm2

Areas of Quadrilaterals 198

EXAMPLE 41 In the figure, AB is divided into four equal A

parts and BC is divided into five equal parts. F

If A(ABC) = 180 cm2, find A(DHIF). E

D

Solution First let us draw FH and AH, then we can use

Property 4. In ABC the side BC is divided

B G H I J C

into five equal parts, so

180

A( ABH ) = 2 = 72 cm 2 .

5

72

In ABH, AB is divided into four equal parts, so A( DFH ) = 2 = 36 cm 2 .

4

Now let us draw FC.

180

In ABC side AB is divided into four equal parts, so A( BCF ) = 3 =135 cm 2 .

4

135

In BCF side BC is divided into five equal parts, so A( FHI ) = = 27 cm 2 .

5

Finally, A(DHIF) = A(DFH) + A(FHI) = 36 + 27 = 63 cm2.

D C

CE BD, BE = 9 cm and DE = 16 cm,

16

find A(ABCD).

triangle in CDB we have

A B

M etric relations in a CE2 = DE BE, i.e.

right triangle: CE2 = 16 9 and CE = 12 cm.

A

A( ABCD )

b Also, A( BDC ) = .

c 2

h

12 (16+9)

So A(ABCD) = 2 A(BDC) = 2 = 300 cm2.

B p H q C 2

1. h2 =p× q

2. c2 =p× a

3. b2 = q × a

EXAMPLE 43 Prove that A(ABC) = 2R2 sin A sin B sin C, where R is the circumradius of ABC.

a b c

Solution By the law of sines, 2 R , i.e. a = 2R sin A, b = 2R sin B and c = 2R sin C.

sin A sin B sin C

a b c 2R sin A 2 R sin B 2 R sin C

So A( ABC ) = = = 2R2sin A sin B sin C, as required.

4R 4R

199 Geometry 8

EXAMPLE 44 In the figure, ABC and CDE are two

E

triangles and mD = 90°. Find A(ABC).

5

Solution By the Pythagorean Theorem in CDE,

A 8

CE2 = 52 + 122 = 169, i.e. CE = 13. C 12 D

ACB and DCE are vertical angles so they

13

are equal.

5 B

So sin(ACB) = sin(DCE) = .

13

Finally, by the trigonometric formula for the area of a triangle we can write

1 1 5

A( ABC ) = AC BC sin( ACB) = 8 13 = 20.

2 2 13

mC = 90°. Given that AD is an angle

bisector, AB = 6 cm and DC = 3 cm,

find A(ABD).

6

Solution Let AC = h and BD = x.

By using the bisector theorem we have

B isector theorem: AB AC 6 h B D 3 C

= , i.e. , x

h 18.

A BD DC x 3

BD AC x h 18

c

Finally, A( ABD) = = = = 9 cm 2.

na b 2 2 2

B m N n C

1. c = b

m n

2. na = (b × c) (m × n)

Given that A(ABD) = 1 cm2,

A(ADC) = 9 cm2 and AD BC, find the x

length AC = x. h

B m D n C

Solution Let AD = h, BD = m and DC = n.

By the metric relations in a right triangle we have h2 = m n.

mh nh

Also, A(ABD) = 1 = and A(ADC) = 9 = ,

2 2

which give us m h = 2 and n h = 18.

Multiplying these equations gives us (m h) (n h) = 2 18, i.e. m n h2 = 36.

But we know h2 = m n, so h2 h2 = 36, h = 6 cm.

18

Using this in n h = 18 gives us n = 3 6 cm.

6

Finally, the Pythagorean Theorem in ADC gives us h2 + n2 = x2, i.e. (ñ6)2 + (3ñ6)2 = x2,

which means x2 = 6 + 54 = 60. So x = ò60 = 2ò15 cm.

FB = 3 cm, BD = 4 cm, 3

DC = 2 cm, CE = 5 cm and 4 E

EA = 3 cm. F

5

A( DEF )

Find . 3

A( ABC )

B 4 D 2 C

Solution We can write

A( DEF ) A( ABC ) A( AFE) A( BDF ) A( CDE )

=

A( ABC ) A( ABC )

=

A( ABC ) A( ABC ) A( ABC ) A( ABC )

=1 – .

A( ABC ) A( ABC ) A( ABC )

By the trigonometric formula for the area of a triangle,

1

AF AE sin A

A( AFE) 2 AF AE 4 3 3

= = = .

A( ABC ) 1 AB AC 7 8 14

AB AC sin A

2

A( BDF ) BD BF 4 3 2

Similarly, = = = and

A( ABC ) BC BA 6 7 7

A( CDE) CE CD 5 2 5

.

A( ABC ) CA CB 8 6 24

A( DEF ) 3 2 5 119 49 7

So =1– – – =1 – = = .

A( ABC ) 14 7 24 168 168 24

201 Geometry 8

EXAMPLE 48 The hypotenuse of a right triangle measures 20 cm and its two acute angles are 15° and 75°.

What is the area of this triangle?

15° A

Let us draw the median AD to the hypotenuse.

By the property of a median to the hypotenuse, 10 5

The median to the 30°

AD = BD = CD = 10 cm. If AD = BD then 15°

hypotenuse of a right

B D H C

triangle is half the length m(ABD) = m(BAD) = 15° , which means

of the hypotenuse. 10 10

A m(ADC) = 30°.

Now let us draw the altitude AH to the hypotenuse. In ADH, m(ADH) = 30° and

m(AHD) = 90°.

AD 10

B D C By the properties of a 30°-60°-90° triangle in AHD, AH = = = 5 cm.

2 2

AH BC 5 20

So A(ABC) = = = 50 cm2.

2 2

A1

AB and L is the midpoint of BC. F

Given that AF = 1 cm, FE = 3 cm and 3

K

E must be the midpoint of AC. So EC = 4 cm. B L C

similar triangles. By Property 9,

A( FKE) FE 2 3 9 A( FKE) 9

=( ) = ( )2 = . So = , i.e. A(FKE) = 9 cm2.

A( FLC ) FC 7 49 A( FKE)+ 40 49

Now let us draw AL. In ALC, FC = 7 cm and AF = 1 cm. So A(FLC) = 7S and A(AFL) = S.

We know A(FLC) = A(FKE) + A(EKLC) = 9 + 40 = 49 = 7S, so A(AFL) = S = 7 cm2.

So A(ALC) = 8S = 56 cm2. L is the midpoint of BC, so A(ALC) = A(ABL) = 56 cm2.

So A(ABC) = A(ABL) + A(ALC) = 56 + 56 = 112 cm2.

EXAMPLE 50 ABC is a triangle with sides a = 6 cm, b = 7 cm and c = 5 cm. A circle is drawn which is

centered on AC and tangent to the sides AB and BC. Find the radius of this circle.

Solution The figure illustrates the problem. Let us draw the radii from point O to the points of

tangency on sides BC and AB. If D and E are the points of tangency then we can say that

OD BC and OE AB, since a line passing through the center of a circle is perpendicular

to any tangent line at the point of tangency.

Areas of Quadrilaterals 202

AB OE BC OD 5r 6r 11r

If we draw OB then A( ABC ) A( ABO ) A( BOC ) + = + = .

2 2 2 2 2

A

We can calculate A(ABC) by using Heron's

6+7+5

Formula with u = = 9:

2

E

O

A( ABC ) = 9 (9 – 6) (9 – 7) (9 – 5)

= 6 6 cm 2 .

B D C

11r 12 6

So A( ABC ) = = 6 6 and r cm.

2 11

Check Yourself

1. In the figure, ABCD is a rectangle, AB = 8 cm, D C

6 H

A 8 B

BD = 3 cm and DC = 5 cm, find A(ABD).

B 3 D 5 C

3. ABCD is a quadrilateral with m(A) = 90°. Given that AD = 12, AB = 16, BC = 20 and

CD = 24, find A(ABCD).

4. In the figure, AE = 5 EC, BC = 5 DC, A

m(B) = 30° and AB = 18 cm. 18

If A(ADE) = 15 cm2, find BD. E

30°

Answers B D C

216

1. cm2 2. 3 cm2 3. 288 4. 16 cm

25

203 Geometry 8

Throughout history, people have developed

different ways of finding the area of a polygonal

region. One of these people was Georg

Alexander Pick. He was born in Vienna in 1859

and died in 1943 in a concentration camp. His

famous theorem helps us to find the area of a

polygonal region whose vertices are points in a

regular square grid, such as the region shown

opposite. The distance between points in the

grid must be one unit.

Pick’s Theorem tells us that if I is the number

of grid points inside the polygon and B is the

number of points on its perimeter, the area is

B

Area I 1 .

2

In other words, the area is one less than the sum of the interior points and half of the points on

the boundary.

Let us look at a simple example. Look at the triangle above right. Its legs are four and five units

long, so using regular geometry we can say that

45

its area is

A 10 square units.

2

D Alternatively, using Pick’s Theorem with

I = 6 and B = 10 gives us

B 10

A I 1 6 1 10.

E C 2 2

Now look at the figure on the left. Using our

knowledge of geometry, the combined area of

the triangle and rectangle is

A B

A Atriangle Arectangle

42

(4 2) 4 8

2

12 square units.

You can check this with Pick’s Theorem using

I = 5 and B = 10.

Pick’s Theorem is especially useful for finding the

area of complicated shapes. Look at the shape on

the right. We could divide it into rectangles and

triangles and calculate their area, but this would

take a long time. So we can use Pick’s Theorem

with I = 31 and B = 15:

B 15

A I 1 31 1 37.5 square units.

2 2

using Pick’s Theorem. Remember that the

vertices of a shape must all be points in a square

grid before we can use the theorem. So for

example, we cannot use it to calculate the area of an equilateral triangle, because the three

vertices of an equilateral triangle will never all lie at points on a square grid. We also know that

the area of an equilateral triangle involves square roots, and Pick's Theorem does not use square

roots. Therefore the theorem is only useful in some cases.

EXERCISES 3 .2

A. The Concept of Area 8. In the figure, ABCD is a D E 3 C

rectangle. Given that AE

1. A rectangle has perimeter 80 and one side is four

is the bisector of A, 6

times as long as the other side. Find the area of

AE = 6 and

this rectangle.

EC = 3, find the area of

A B

ABCD.

2. The diagonal of a rectangle measures 20 units. If

one of the sides is 12 units long, find the area of

this rectangle.

9. One side of a rectangle is three times as long as

the other side and its diagonal measures 6 units.

Find the area of this rectangle.

3. In the figure, ABCD is a D C

rectangle. Given that 30°

m(ACD) = 30°, a rectangle.

find the area of this Given that

A B F

rectangle. CE BD,

AE = 6 and

A 6 E 2 B

EB = 2,

4. The ratio of the sides of a rectangle is 3 : 5 and its find A(ABCD).

area is 240 square units. Find the perimeter of

the rectangle.

B. Area of a Triangle

11. In the figure, A D C

5. In the figure, ABCD is a D 8 C

AC = 12 and

rectangle. Given that

BD = 5. 5

CD = 8, DE = 5 and 5

Given that BD AC,

EB = 4, find the area

find A(ABC).

of the rectangle. B

A E 4 B

6. A rectangle has area 72 unit2 and perimeter 34 12. A triangle ABC has sides a = 6 and b = 8.

units. Find the lengths of the sides of this rectangle. If ha = 10, find hb.

7. A rectangle has area 84 unit2. Given that one of 13. The base of an isosceles triangle is 10 units long

the sides is five units longer than the other side, and its other sides are each 13 units long. Find

find the perimeter of this rectangle. the area of this triangle.

14. In ABC, BC = 8, AC = 6 and m(C) = 45°. Find 22. One of the acute angles in a right triangle

A(ABC). measures 22.5° and the length of the hypotenuse

is 12 units. Find the area of this triangle.

15. The sides of a triangle ABC are a = 13,

b = 14 and c = 15. 23. Find the area of the equilateral triangle with the

Given that A(ABC) = 84, find the lengths of given side length.

the three altitudes of the triangle. a. 12 b. 4ñ3 c. 3ñ2

16. A

24. Find the area of the equilateral triangle with the

given height.

a. 3ñ3 b. 4 c. 6ñ5

30°

B 22ñ3 C

In the figure, ABC is an isosceles triangle with 25. The altitude to the hypotenuse of a right triangle

AB = AC. Given that m(C) = 30° and the length divides the hypotenuse into two parts of lengths

of the base is BC = 22ñ3, find A(ABC). 4 and 9 units. Find the area of this triangle.

17. In a right triangle ABC the hypotenuse BC 26. Find the area of the triangle with the given side

is 17 units long and one of the legs is 15 units long. lengths.

Find A(ABC). a. 11, 12 and 15

b. 7, 9 and 10

18. The area of an isosceles right triangle is 16 square

units. Find the hypotenuse of this triangle.

27. The sides of a triangle are a = 12, b = 13 and

c = 15. Find hb.

19. The perimeter of a right triangle is 56 units and

its hypotenuse is 25 units. Find the area of this

triangle. 28. A

120° 10

8

20. A right triangle has hypotenuse AC = 10. If one of

the acute angles of this triangle is 30 find the B C

area of the triangle.

In the figure, m(A) = 120°. Given that

21. In the figure, ABCD is a AB = 8 and AC = 10, find A(ABC).

D C

rectangle.

Given that 29. Two adjacent sides of a triangle are 6 and 8 units

m(BED) = 120° and long. Find the area of this triangle if the angle

E

120°

AB = 10 cm, between these two sides is

A 10 B

find the area of CDE. a. 30°. b. 45°. c. 90°. d. 120°.

207 Geometry 8

30. In the figure, A 38. In the figure, A

5

BD = 4, AC = 8,

E

DC = 7, BC = 10 and

8

BE = 6 and 6

m(C) = 60°.

EA = 5. Find the inradius r and

60°

If A(BDE) = 9, B 4 D 7 C circumradius R of B C

10

what is A(ABC)? ABC.

1

E C. Properties of the Area of a Triangle

AE = 1,

EC = 5, 5 39. Find the length of the altitude to the hypotenuse

BD = 6 and

in a right triangle with legs 8 and 15 units long.

DC = 4.

B 6 D 4 C

A( ABC )

Find .

A( ABDE) 40. In the figure, A

2

A(ABC) = 85 cm .

Given that

32. The sides of a triangle are a = 10, b = 17 and 10

BD = 9,

c = 11. Find the value of sin C.

AH = 10 and B H D x E x C

DE = EC = x,

33. A triangle has perimeter 24 units. Given that the

find x.

area of this triangle is 60 square units, find its

inradius.

41. In the figure, G is A

34. The legs of a right triangle are 9 and 12 units the centroid of

long. Find the inradius and circumradius of this ABC. Given that

triangle. A(ABGC) = 20, G

find A(BCG).

35. The sides of an isosceles triangle measure 16, 10

and 10 units. Find the sum of its inradius and B C

circumradius.

36. One side of an equilateral triangle is 8 units long. BD = 4,

Find the inradius r and circumradius R of this DE = 7 and

triangle. EC = 8.

Given that

B 4 D 7 E 8 C

37. The circumradius of a triangle is 8 units. Given A(ABC) = 95,

that a = 10, find the value of sin A. find A(ABD) + A(AEC).

43. In the given figure, A 48. In the figure, A

4

BD = 12, DE BC.

E

DC = 5, Given that 5

CE = 6 and 6 AD = 5,

EA = 4. DB = 3 and D E

The area of B 12 D 5 C A(DBCE) = 12, 3

AED is 12. find A(ABC).

What is the area of ABD? B C

49. A

1 2

44. In the figure, BD A D E

bisects B, 2 4

DE BC, ? F G

1 2

D I

DE = 4 and H

2

1

A(ABD) = 24.

B C

Find the length of B E C

AB. In the figure, AD = FH = HB = 1 cm,

DF = AE = GI = IC = 2 and EG = 4. Given that

A(DFGE) = 12, find A(ABC).

45. In the figure, I is A

50. In the figure, BC and A

the center of the

AC are divided into six I

incircle of the right

and four equal parts J

triangle ABC. 6

respectively. K

The legs of ABC I

are 6 and 8 units A(ABC) = 120 is

given. Find A(EGJI). B D E F G H C

long. Find A(AIC). B 8 C

46. In the figure, G is A units. Find the inradius r and circumradius R of

the centroid of this triangle.

ABC. D

AB = 4 AD and 52. In the figure, AD is a A

A(ABC) = 84 G median and E and F

are given. are the midpoints of N

F E

Find A(ADG). B C AC and AB

respectively.

If the sum of the B D C

47. The lengths of the altitudes of a triangle are 3, shaded areas is

4 and 6 units. Find the inradius of this triangle. 12, find A(ABC).

209 Geometry 8

53. In the figure, A 57. In the figure, ABC A

AF = FB = BD = 4,

3 is a right triangle

4

DC = 5, E with m(C) = 90°.

EC = 7 and Given that CD is the D

F

AE = 3. 7 median of side AB, 2

4 E

A( ABC ) CD AE,

Find . B C

A( DEF ) ED = 2 and

B 4 D 5 C

BC

AE = , find A(ABC).

2

54. In the figure, point D A median of side AB.

15°

lies on the altitude Given that

D

AH. AB = 10,

Given that D

m(ABC) = 30° and

BC = 10 and m(BAC) = 15°, 30°

AD = 6, find A(ABC). B C

B H C

find A(ABDC).

rectangle and points M

and N lie on the sides

CD and AD, respectively.

N

55. An equilateral triangle ABC is given. Point P lies Given that BMN is an

on the base BC such that m(APB) = 75°. If one equilateral triangle and A B

side of the triangle is 12 units long, find A(APC). A(DMN) = 12, find A(ABN) + A(BCM).

interior of a triangle ABC H

G

and through it three

P

lines are drawn parallel I F

56. P is a point in the interior of an equilateral

to the sides of ABC, as

triangle such that the distances from P to the

in the figure. Prove that B D E C

vertices are 5, 12 and 13 units. Find the area of

this triangle. A( ABC ) = A( HIP ) + A( DEP ) + A( FGP ).

In the previous section we studied the areas of rectangles and triangles. In this section we

will use what we have learned to begin our study of quadrilaterals. First we will study the area

of a general quadrilateral, and then we will look at the areas of special quadrilaterals such as

parallelograms and rhombi.

D. AREA OF A QUADRILATERAL

Rule

By drawing the diagonals of a polygon from D

one of its vertices, we can divide the area of

the polygon into small triangles and then use E

the areas of the triangles to calculate the area

of the given region. C

BC = 12 cm, CD = 14 cm and AD = 15 cm.

15

Find the area of the quadrilateral ABCD if

m(ABC) = 90°. A

14

5

B 12 C

Solution Let us join A and C to get two triangles,

ABC and ACD.

AB BC 5 12

ABC is a right triangle, so A( ABC ) = = = 30 cm 2 .

2 2

Also, the Pythagorean Theorem in ABC gives

AC2 = 52 + 122 = 25 + 144 = 169, i.e. AC = 13 cm.

211 Geometry 8

13 14 15

Now let us use Heron’s Formula in ACD with u = 21:

2

ACB = 21(21 – 13)(21 – 14)(21 – 15) = 21 8 7 6 = 84 cm2.

= 30 + 84

= 114 cm2.

The area of a convex polygon is equal to half C

the product of the lengths of diagonals and

If all the interior the sine of the angle between the diagonals: D

angles of a polygon in the figure,

are smaller than K a

180° then the AC BD sin

polygon is a convex A( ABCD ) = .

polygon. 2

A B

diagonals.

D

180° a

aK a

180° a

AK BK sin(180° ) BK CK sin CK DK sin(180° ) AK DK sin

A( ABCD )

2 2 2 2

We know that sin = sin(180° – ), so we can reduce the above expression to

sin

A( ABCD ) [( AK BK ) ( BK CK ) (CK DK ) ( AK DK )]

2

sin

[[( AK CK ) BK ] [( CK AK ) DK )] ]

2

sin

(( AK CK ) ( BK DK ))

2

AC BD sin

. ( AK

CK AC and BK

DK BD )

2

EXAMPLE 52 In the figure, AC = 12 cm, C

BD = 15 cm and m(AKB) = 150°.

D

Find the area of the quadrilateral ABCD. K

150°

A B

AC BD sin

Solution A( ABCD ) = , so

2

12 15 sin150°

A( ABCD ) =

2

1

6 15

2

45 cm 2 .

Note

If the diagonals of a quadrilateral are perpendicular to each other then the formula for its area

becomes

AC BD

A( ABCD ) =

2

EXAMPLE 53 The diagonals of a quadrilateral ABCD are perpendicular to each other with AC = 3 BD.

If the area of ABCD is 48 cm2, find the lengths of the diagonals.

AC BD x 3x

Using A( ABCD) = gives 48 .

2 2

So x2 = 32, x = 4ñ2. So the diagonals are BD = x = 4ñ2 cm and AC = 3x = 12ñ2 cm.

213 Geometry 8

Theorem

The diagonals of a quadrilateral ABCD divide

D C

the area of the quadrilateral into four parts as S3

shown in the figure. If S4

M S2

A(ABM) = S1, S1

A(BCM) = S2, A B

A(CDM) = S3 and

S1 S3 = S2 S4 .

are the same height then the ratio of their

areas is the same as the ratio of their bases.

So we can write

A( ABM ) S1 BM

and

A( ADM ) S4 DM

A( BCM ) S2 BM

.

A( DCM ) S3 DM

BM S1 S2

So .

DM S4 S3

Cross multiplying gives us

S1 S3 = S2 S4, as required.

EXAMPLE 54 AC and BD are the diagonals of a quadrilateral ABCD, and M is their point of intersection. If

A(ABM) = 18 cm2, A(CDM) = 12 cm2 and A(BCM) = A(ADM), find A(ABCD).

By the previous theorem, S1 S3 = S2 S4, so

18 12 = x x, x2 = 216 cm2, x = 6ñ6 cm2. So

A(ABCD) = S1 + S2 + S3 + S4 = 18 + 6ñ6 + 12 + 6ñ6 = (30 + 12ñ6) cm2.

EXAMPLE 55 In the figure, ABCD is a quadrilateral and K, C

L and M are the midpoints of their respective

sides. Given that KL LM, KL = 8 cm and D

M

LM = 10 cm, find the area of quadrilateral.

K

8 10

A L B

ABD points K and L are the midpoints so KL

is a midsegment. By the properties of a D

R M

A midsegment of a

midsegment,

triangle is a line K N

KL BD and BD = 2 KL = 2 8 = 16 cm.

segment that connects P

the midpoints of two Also, if KL BD then

sides of the triangle.

m(LNR) = m(KLN) = 90°. A L B

is a midsegment, which gives us AC LM and

AC = 2 LM = 2 10 = 20 cm.

If AC LM then m(ARB) = m(LNR) = 90°.

As a result, AC BD and so

AC BD 16 20

A( ABCD ) = =160 cm 2.

2 2

Check Yourself

1. In the quadrilateral ABCD, m(DAB) = m(BCD) = 90°. If AD = 12 cm, AB = 16 cm and

BC = 10 cm, find A(ABCD).

2. In a quadrilateral ABCD, point E is the intersection point of the diagonals and AC is

perpendicular to BD. Given that DE = AE = EC = 6 cm and AB = 10 cm, find the area

of ABCD.

3. AC and BD are the diagonals of a quadrilateral such that AC = 4 BD and the angle

between them is 30°. If the area of this quadrilateral is 160 unit2, find the lengths of AC

and BD.

4. The diagonals AC and BD of the convex quadrilateral ABCD intersect at point E.

A(ABE) = 12 cm2, A(CDE) = 16 cm2 and A(BCE) = 3 A(ADE) are given. Find

A(ABCD).

Answers

1. (96 + 50ñ3) cm2 2. 84 cm2 3. AC = 16ò10, BD = 4ò10 4. 60 cm2

215 Geometry 8

E. AREA OF A PARALLELOGRAM

Theorem area of a parallelogram

The area of a parallelogram is the product of

D C

the length of any base and the length of the

corresponding altitude: in the figure, hb

A parallelogram is

a quadrilateral ha

whose opposite

A(ABCD) = a ha = b hb . b

K

sides are congruent

and parallel to A H B

each other.

a

Proof If we draw the diagonal BD we get two congruent triangles, ABD CDB. So

A(ABCD) = A(ABD) + A(CDB)

= 2 A(ABD)

1

=2 a ha

2

= a ha.

We can use similar reasoning to show A = b hb.

8 cm. The height from the shorter side is 12 cm.

Find the height from the longer side.

A = a ha = b hb, i.e. 6 12 = 8 hb.

6 12

So hb = = 9 cm.

8

BE is perpendicular to DC.

Given that AB = 12 cm, EC = 3 cm and

BC = 5 cm, find A(ABCD). 5

A 12 B

Solution A(ABCD) = AB ha = AB BE.

We need to find BE.

By the Pythagorean Theorem in BEC we have BE2 + 32 = 52, BE = 4 cm.

So AB = 12 cm and BE = ha = 4 cm. So A(ABCD) = 12 4 = 48 cm2.

EXAMPLE 58 ABCD is a parallelogram with sides AD = 8 cm and AB = 12 cm. Given that m(ABC) = 150°,

find the area of this parallelogram.

Let us draw the altitude from the vertex D to

AB and let E be the foot of this altitude. 8

150°

In AED, AD = 8 cm so 30°

A E B

DE = 4 cm (since this is a 30°-60°-90° triangle).

12

So A(ABCD) = 12 4 = 48 cm2.

Theorem

If ABCD is a parallelogram with sides a and b separated by an angle A then

A(ABCD) = a b sin A.

BC = AD = b.

Then we draw the altitude DE from vertex D b b

h

to side AB with length h.

h

From the figure, sin A = , i.e. A E B

b

h = b sin A.

So A(ABCD) = a h = a b sin A.

EXAMPLE 59 The sides of a parallelogram measure 6 cm and 8 cm. Find its area if its interior angles

measure 60° and 120°.

Solution We can use the theorem above with either sin 60° or sin 120°, since we know

3

sin 60° = sin 120° = .

2

3

So A(ABCD) = a b sin A = 6 8 sin 60° = 6 8 24 3 cm 2.

2

217 Geometry 8

Theorem

If P is any point inside a parallelogram

D C

ABCD then

A( PAB) A( PCD ) A( PBC ) A( PDA )

P

A( ABCD )

.

2

A B

point P to sides AB and CD respectively. D F C

Then PE + PF = ha.

P

a PE a PF

Also, A( PAB) A( PCD

)

2 2

a ( PE PF ) A E B

2 a

a ha

2

A( ABCD )

.

2

A( ABCD )

In the same way we can prove that A( PBC ) A( PDA ) .

2

parallelogram ABCD. Given that P

2

A(PAB) = 13 cm ,

A( PBC ) 2

A(PCD) = 12 cm2 and ,

A( PDA ) 3

A B

find A(PBC), A(PDA) and A(ABCD).

A( PBC ) 2

Solution We are given , so we can write A(PBC) = 2S and A(PDA) = 3S.

A( PDA ) 3

By the previous theorem,

A( ABCD )

A(PAB) + A(PCD) = A(PBC) + A(PDA) =

2

13 + 12 = 2S + 3S, i.e. 5S = 25 and S = 5.

So A(PBC) = 2S = 2 5 = 10 cm2,

A(PDA) = 3S = 3 5 = 15 cm2 and

A(ABCD) = 2 (A(PAB) + A(PCD)) = 2 (13 + 12) = 2 25 = 50 cm2.

Properties 10

1. Any diagonal in a parallelogram divides it

into two equal parts. S S

S S

S

divide its area into four equal parts. S

S

S

parallelogram to the opposite vertex and S

the midpoints of the two opposite sides

S F

divide the parallelogram into four equal S S

parts.

A E B

parallelogram which is connected

to the two non-adjacent vertices

creates a triangle which has half area of

the parallelogram: in the figure,

A B

A( ABCD )

A( ABE) .

2

D

sides of a parallelogram creates four

S S

congruent parallelograms. K

E G

S S

A F B

219 Geometry 8

EXAMPLE 61 In the figure, ABCD is a parallelogram and D C

E is the midpoint of side AB.

60°

Given that DE = 6 cm, AD = 8 cm and 8 6

A E B

1 1 3

A( ADE) = 6 8 sin60° = 6 8 =12 3 cm 2.

2 2 2

By Property 10.3 we can now write

A(ABCD) = 4 A(ADE) = 4 12 3 = 48 3 cm2.

D C

is a point on side AB.

Given that DE = 6 cm, CE = 7 cm and

6 7

m(DEC) = 90°, find the sum of the areas

of the shaded regions. A E B

A( ABCD )

Solution By Property 10.4, A( DEC ) = and so the sum of the areas of the shaded regions

2

A( ABCD )

is also .

2

A( ABCD ) 6 7

So the sum of the areas of the shaded regions is

A( DEC ) 21 cm 2.

2 2

that AE = EF = FB, DG = GH = HI = IC and

A(ABCD) = 120 cm2, find the area of

quadrilateral EFIG.

A E F B

Solution Let us connect point G to A, B and F.

Then we can find A(EFIG) as the sum of A(EGF) and A(GFI).

A( ABCD ) 120

By Property 10.4 we have A( AGB) = = = 60 cm 2.

2 2

In AGB, the base AB is divided into three equal parts. So

A( AGB) 60

A( EGF ) = 20 cm 2.

3 3

Now let us connect point F to D and C.

Areas of Quadrilaterals 220

A( ABCD ) 120

By Property 10.4 we have A( DFC ) = 60 cm 2.

2 2

In DFC the base CD is divided into four equal parts and so

A( DFC ) 60

A( GFI ) = 2 30 cm 2.

4 2

So the sum of the shaded areas is A(EGF) + A(GFI) = 20 + 30 = 50 cm2.

the midpoint of AB and BD is a diagonal.

Given that A(BEF) = 8 cm2, find A(ABCD).

F

A E B

Solution If ABCD is a parallelogram then EB DC.

So m(FBE) = m(FDC), m(FEB) = m(FCD) and m(EFB) = m(DFC).

EB 1

So EFB CFD and the ratio of similarity is k = .

DC 2

1 FB 1

If k then = .

2 DF 2

FB 1

Let us draw the segment DE. In DEB, and A(BEF) = 8 cm2.

DF 2

So A(DEF) = 2 8 = 16 cm2 and A(DEB) = 8 + 16 = 24 cm2.

Finally, by Property 10.3 we can write A(ABCD) = 4 A(DEB) = 4 24 = 96 cm2.

EXAMPLE 65 ABCD is a parallelogram and E and F are the midpoints of sides AB and BC respectively. Given

that A(DEFC) = 30 cm2, find A(ABCD).

D C

Solution Let us draw the line segment DF.

By Property 10.3 we can write

F

A( ABCD )

A( DFC ) = = A( ADE).

4

A E B

By Property 10.5 we can write

A( ABCD )

A( ABCD ) A( ABCD ) A( ABCD ) 3

A( EBF ) 4 , so A( DEF ) A( ABCD ).

2 8 2 8 8

3 A( ABCD ) A( ABCD ) 5 A( ABCD )

Now A( DEFC ) A( DEF ) A( DFC ) = 30 cm 2,

8 4 8

30 8

which gives A( ABCD ) 48 cm 2.

5

221 Geometry 8

Check Yourself

1. Two sides of a parallelogram measure 14 cm and 18 cm. Given that the acute angles in this

parallelogram measure 45°, find the area of the parallelogram.

m(DBC) = 90°.

Given that BC = 5 cm and DC = 13 cm, find 5

A(ABCD). A B

Given that m(D) = 120°, m(BEC) = 30°, 120°

30°

A 5 E B

point inside it. The area of the parallelogram is

76 cm2. Find the sum of the areas of the P

shaded regions.

A B

A(ABCD) = 150 cm2, find A(BIG).

A B

is divided into five equal parts and side BC is E

K

divided into four equal parts. F

Given that A(ABCD) = 200 cm2, find A(GIKE). J

G

H I

A B

7. In the figure, ABCD is a parallelogram, E is the D C

intersection point of its diagonals, and BF is

5 F

perpendicular to AC. Given that BF = 3 cm, E

3

DE = 5 cm and CF = 6 cm, find the area of the

parallelogram ABCD.

A B

Answers

1. 126ñ2 cm2 2. 60 cm2 3. 18ñ3 cm2 4. 38 cm2 5. 25 cm2 6. 90 cm2 7. 60 cm2

F. AREA OF A RHOMBUS

A rhombus is also a parallelogram, so it shares the rules and properties that we have seen for

parallelograms. It also has some additional properties.

Properties 11

If ABCD is a rhombus then the following statements are true.

1. The area is given by A(ABCD) = base × height:

A(ABCD) = a ha .

A rhombus is a

quadrilateral with

four congruent

2. A(ABCD) = a2 sin A

sides and parallel 3. Since the diagonals of a rhombus are perpendicular to each other,

opposite sides.

AC BD sin90 AC BD

A( ABCD ) .

2 2

EXAMPLE 66 A rhombus has sides of 6 cm. Given that its height is 4 cm, find the area of this rhombus.

EXAMPLE 67 The diagonals of a rhombus measure 12 cm and 16 cm. Find the length of its altitude.

6

rhombus bisect each other, so in the figure, E

a

DE = BE = 6 cm and AE = EC = 8 cm. a

8 6

By the Pythagorean Theorem,

62 + 82 = a2, i.e a = 10 cm. A a B

AC BD 16 12

Also, A( ABCD ) 96 cm 2.

2 2

Since A(ABCD) = a ha we have 96 = 10 ha, i.e. ha = 9.6 cm.

223 Geometry 8

EXAMPLE 68 The acute angle of a rhombus measures 30° and its height is 6 cm. Find its area.

D C

the altitude and DE = 6 cm.

DE 1 6 6

sin 30° = , so = , i.e.

AD 2 a 30°

AD = a = 12 cm. A E B

So A(ABCD) = a ha = 12 6 = 72 cm2.

EXAMPLE 69 The longer diagonal of a rhombus measures 8 cm and the obtuse angle of the rhombus

measures 120°. Find the area of this rhombus.

diagonals of a rhombus are perpendicular to 120° 30°

4

each other and bisect each other. Also, the

diagonals bisect the vertex angles. 4 E

AC = 8 cm so EC = 4 cm, and by using A B

trigonometric ratios,

DE 3 DE 4 3 8 3

tan 30° = , , DE cm and BD 2 DE cm.

EC 3 4 3 3

8 3

8

AC BD 3 = 32 3 cm 2 .

So by Property 11.3, A(ABCD) =

2 2 3

that BK and CK are angle bisectors and

A(BCK) = 8 cm2, find the area of the

K

rhombus.

m(ABC) + m(BCD) = 180°, so

m(KBC) + m(BCK) = 90° and

m(BKC) = 90°.

We also know that the diagonals of a rhombus are perpendicular to each other, so K is the

intersection point of the diagonals.

A( ABCD )

By Property 10.2 we can write A( BCK ) = and so A(ABCD) = 4 8 = 32 cm2.

4

Areas of Quadrilaterals 224

71

D

EXAMPLE In the figure, ABCD is a rhombus.

Given that

F

AE = 3 EC, ñ3

A C

EF DC, E

3 DF = 5 FC and EF = ñ3 cm, find the area

of the rhombus.

B

3 DF = 5 FC so let DF = 5y and FC = 3y. 5y

F

Now let us draw the diagonal BD and mark 3y

ñ3

the intersection point O of the diagonals. A

x E x

C

2x O

AC = 4x so OC = 2x.

m(EFC) = 90° = m(DOC) and

B

OCD is a common angle, so

m(FEC) = m(ODC) and EFC DOC.

EF EC FC x 3y

By similarity, = = , i.e = and so x2 = 12y2.

DO DC OC 8y 2x

By the Pythagorean Theorem in EFC,

(ñ3)2 + (3y)2 = x2 = 12y2, so y = 1 and x = 2ñ3 which gives us

OC = 4ñ3 cm, AC = 8ñ3 cm, DC = 8 cm.

By the Pythagorean Theorem in DOC,

DO2 + OC2 = DC2, so DO2 = 82 – (4ñ3)2 = 64 – 48 = 16, i.e. DO = 4 cm and BD = 8 cm.

AC BD 8 3 8

Finally, A( ABCD) = 32 3 cm 2.

2 2

Check Yourself

1. One of the diagonals of a rhombus is the same length as one side of the rhombus. Find

the area of the rhombus if one side measures 8 cm.

2. The altitude BH is drawn from vertex B of a rhombus to side CD. Given that DH = 2 cm

and CH = 3 cm, find the area of this rhombus.

3. A rhombus has perimeter 80 cm. Given that one of the diagonals has length 24 cm, find

the area of the rhombus.

4. One side of a rhombus measures 18 cm. Given that an obtuse angle in the rhombus

measures 150°, find the area of the rhombus.

225 Geometry 8

5. The diagonals of a rhombus are 25 cm and 30 cm long. Find its area.

6. The lengths of the diagonals of a rhombus have ratio 3 : 4. Given that the area of this

rhombus is 216 unit2, find the lengths of the diagonals and one side of the rhombus.

D

2

7. In the figure, ABCD is a rhombus and A(ABCD) = 120 cm . E is

the midpoint of BC. Find A(ABF).

O

A C

F

Answers E

1. 32ñ3 cm 2

2. 20 cm 2

3. 384 cm 2

4. 162 cm 2

5. 375 cm 2

2 B

6. diagonals: 24, 18; side length: 15 7. 20 cm

G. AREA OF A SQUARE

A square is a special type of rectangle, so we D a C

can find its area by multiplying the lengths

e e

of its two adjacent sides: in the figure,

a a

A(ABCD) = a a, i.e.

A(ABCD) = a2 .

A a B

to each other. Also, if we say that the length of a diagonal is e then the area of the square is

e2

A( ABCD ) = .

2

A square is also a parallelogram, so it shares all the properties of a parallelogram.

EXAMPLE 73 The length of the diagonal of a square is 12 cm. Find the area of this square.

e2 12 2 144

Solution If e is the length of the diagonal then Asquare = , i.e. A = = = 72 cm 2.

2 2 2

EXAMPLE 74 A square has area 20 cm2. Find the length of its diagonal.

The length of the diagonal is therefore e = añ2 = 2ñ5 ñ2 = 2ò10 cm.

Given that AE = 3 cm and EB = 5 cm,

find the area of the shaded region.

a = 3 + 5 = 8 cm.

83

So the shaded region has area A(ABCD) – A(ADE) = 82 64 12 52 cm 2.

2

equilateral triangle. Given that

A(AEC) = 9ñ3 cm2, find the area of this

square.

A B

Solution Let one side of the square be a and let the E

diagonal AC = e.

e2 3 e2 3 2

The area A of an

So A( AEC ) ,

i.e. 9 3 , e = 36. So e = 6 cm.

equilateral triangle 4 4

with side length a is

e2 62 36

a2 3 Since ABCD is a square, A( ABCD

) 18 cm 2.

A . 2 2 2

4

4

m(AEC) = 120°, find the area of the

square. E 120°

A B

227 Geometry 8

Solution From the figure we can see m(DEC) = 60°.

Let one side of the square be a, so DC = a.

DC

Also, tan 60° = which gives us

DE

a

3 , a = 4ñ3 cm.

4

So A(ABCD) = a2 = (4ñ3)2 = 48 cm2.

divided into three equal parts and side DE is

G

divided into four equal parts. Given that the

area of the shaded region is 3 cm2, find H

A(ABCD). I

A E J B

Solution Let us draw the line EC.

A(CHI) = 3 is given, so

A(DEC) = 4 3 = 12 cm2.

A( ABCD )

From the properties of a parallelogram we know that A( DEC ) .

2

So A(ABCD) = 2 12 = 24 cm2.

Given that AD = EC, EB = 8 cm and

m(AEB) = 90°, find A(EBC).

E

8

A B

Solution We know that EC = AD = BC, so EBC is an

isosceles triangle. Let us draw the altitude CH in EBC.

Since EBC is isosceles, CH is also a median so EH = HB = 4 cm.

Let m(HBC) = x, then m(EBA) = m(BCH) = 90° – x and m(EAB) = x.

m(CHB) = m(AEB) = 90° and AB = BC, so by the ASA Congruence Theorem we can say

AEB BHC and CH = EB = 8 cm.

EB CH 8 8

So A( EBC ) 32 cm 2.

2 2

Check Yourself 12

1. A square has area x cm2 and perimeter x cm. What is the value of x?

2. The perimeter of a square is 8 cm. Find the area of this square.

3. In the figure, ABCD and EFGH are two D C

squares. Given that sum of the perimeters H

of these squares is 36 cm and area of the

E

shaded region is 27 cm2, find the areas of G

the two squares.

F

A B

4. The diagonal of a square is 8 cm long. Each side of the square is extended by 1 cm. By

how much does the area of square increase?

5. The perimeter of a square ABCD and the perimeter of an equilateral triangle EFG are

A( EFG )

equal. Find .

A( ABCD )

D G C

6. In the figure, ABCD is a square with side length 12 cm.

The side AB is divided into four equal parts, BC is

H

divided into two equal parts, and DC and AD are each F

divided into three equal parts. Find the area of the

shaded region.

A E B

Answers

4 3

1. 16 2. 4 cm2 3. 36 cm2, 9 cm2 4. (1 + 8ñ2) cm2 5. 6. 77 cm2

9

H. AREA OF A TRAPEZOID

Theorem area of a trapezoid

The area of a trapezoid is the product of the c

D C

height and half the sum of the bases: in the

A trapezoid is a figure,

quadrilateral with h

two parallel sides.

ac .

A( ABCD ) h

2 A H B

a

229 Geometry 8

Proof Look at the figure. Let us draw the altitudes D c C H

DK and BH.

We know AB DC, so DK = BH = h. h h

A K B

So A( ABCD) A( ABD) A( BCD )

a

AB DK DC BH

2 2

ah ch

2 2

( a c) h

, as required.

2

AB = 13 cm, DC = 3 cm and CH = 6 cm are

given. Find the area of this trapezoid. 6

A H B

ac 13 3

A( ABCD ) h , i.e. A( ABCD ) 6 8 6 48 cm 2.

2 2

Note

We know that the line which connects the midpoints of the legs of a trapezoid is called a

ac

median, and the length of the median is = .

2

ac

So A(ABCD) = h = median × height.

2

EXAMPLE 81 The median of a trapezoid measures 10 cm and the height is 14 cm. What is the area of this

trapezoid?

EXAMPLE 82 In the figure, ABCD is a trapezoid. Given that D 8 C

BC = 12 cm, DC = 8 cm, m(DAB) = 45°

12

and m(ABC) = 30°, find the area of ABCD.

45° 30°

A B

D C

In CKB, BC = 12 cm so CK = h = 6 cm and

12

KB = 6ñ3 cm. (30°-60°-90° triangle) 45° h h

A H 8 K B

m(ADH) = 45°.

So AH = DH and we know DH = CK = 6 cm.

We also know that DC = HK = 8 cm.

So a = AH + HK + KB = 6 + 8 + 6ñ3 = (14 + 6ñ3) cm, and

c = DC = 8 cm.

ac 14 6 3 8

Finally, A( ABCD ) h 6 (22 6 3) 3 (66 18 3) cm 2.

2 2

D 12 C

AB = 24 cm, BC = AD = 10 cm and

DC = 12 cm are given. 10 10

An isosceles trapezoid is a Find the area of this trapezoid.

trapezoid with congruent

legs. A 24 B

D 12 C

base AB.

So HK = DC = 12 cm. 10 10

A H 12 K B

But AB = AH + HK + KB, which gives

24 = x + 12 + x, x = 6 cm.

In CKB, BC = 10 cm and KB = 6 cm. By the Pythagorean Theorem,

CK2 + KB2 = BC2, h2 + 62 = 102, h = 8 cm.

ac 24 12

So A( ABCD ) = h= 8 =18 8 =144 cm 2.

2 2

231 Geometry 8

EXAMPLE 84 In the figure, ABCD is a right trapezoid. D 4 C

Given that AB = 8 cm, BE = 3 cm,

5

EC = 5 cm and DC = 4 cm, find the area of

AED. E

3

Solution A(

AED ) A( ABCD ) A( ABE ) A( DCE ) A 8 B

48 8 3 4 5

(5 3)

2 2 2

(6 8) 12 10

26 cm 2 .

E is the midpoint of AD. Given that BC = 6 cm

and BE = 5 cm, find the area of the

E

trapezoid. 6

5

Solution Let us draw the median EF.

Then EF AB DC, EF BC and F is the A B

midpoint of BC. So BF = 3 cm.

EFB is a right triangle so EB2 = EF2 + FB2, i.e. 52 = EF2 + 32, EF = 4 cm.

Finally, A(ABCD) = median height = EF BC = 4 6 = 24 cm2.

EXAMPLE 86 An isosceles trapezoid has a diagonal of 10 cm and height 6 cm. Find the area of this

trapezoid.

ABCD is an isosceles trapezoid, so let us

10

write AK = HB = x.

6

By the Pythagorean Theorem in AHC we

A x K 8x H x B

have AC2 = AH2 + CH2, i.e. AH = 8 cm.

If AH = 8 and AK = x then KH = DC = 8 – x, AB = 8 + x.

AB DC 8 x 8 x

So A( ABCD ) CH 6 8 6 48 cm 2 .

2 2

Areas of Quadrilaterals 232

Theorem

In the figure, ABCD is a trapezoid and O is

D C

the intersection point of its diagonals. If n

A(AOD) = x, A(AOB) = m, A(BOC) = y x O y

and A(COD) = n, then

m

1. x y m n.

A B

2

2. A( ABCD ) ( m n) .

and two common altitudes, so

A(ADC) = A(BDC). So x + n = y + n and

therefore x = y.

We know that in any quadrilateral,

S1 S3 = S2 S4.

This gives us x y = m n. So x y = x2 = y2 = m n, i.e. x y m n.

2. A(ABCD) = x + y + m + n

= mn + mn + m + n (x = y = m n)

=m+2 mn + n

= ( m n )2 .

intersection point of its diagonals. Given that

A(DOC) = 9 cm2 and A(AOB) = 25 cm2, O

find the area of ABCD.

A B

Solution A( AOD )

A( BOC )

A( DOC ) A( AOB)

9 25

15 cm 2

So A(ABCD) = A(AOD) + A(BOC) + A(DOC) + A(AOB)

= 15 + 15 + 9 + 25

= 64 cm2.

233 Geometry 8

EXAMPLE 88 In the figure, ABCD is a trapezoid and P is D C

the intersection point of its diagonals. Given P

that A(ABD) = 12 cm2 and A(BCD) = 8 cm2,

find the areas of DPC and PCB.

A(DPC) = 8 – x and A(ABP) = 12 – x.

By the previous theorem, we have x m n (8 x) (12 x).

24

Rearranging this equation given us x2 = 96 – 20x + x2, i.e. x A( PCB) cm 2 .

5

24 16 2

So A( DPC ) 8 x 8 cm .

5 5

Theorem

Let ABCD be a trapezoid and let E be the D C

midpoint of leg AD.

E

A( ABCD ) .

Then A( BEC )

2

A B

Proof Let us draw the median EF and the altitudes CH and KB of the trapezoids DEFC and EABF

respectively.

h ac

Since EF is the median, CH

BK

and EF .

2 2

ac h D c C

EF CH 2 2

Now A( ECF

)

2 2 F K

E

( a c) h H

, and

8

ac h a

A B

EF BK 2 2 (a c ) h .

A( EBF

)

2 2 8

( a c ) h ( a c) h

So A( EBC ) A( ECF ) A( EBF )

8 8

ac

h

( a c) h 2

4 2

A( ABCD )

, as required.

2

EXAMPLE 89 In the figure, ABCD is a trapezoid and E is D 5 C

the midpoint of leg AD.

Given that AB = 8 cm, CD = 5 cm and E

A(BEC) = 26 cm2, find the height of the

trapezoid.

A 8 B

AB CD 8 5

But since A( ABCD ) h, we have 52 h, i.e. h

8 cm.

2 2

the midpoint of BC. E

Given that AD = 8 cm,

F

EF = 7 cm and AD EF, find the area of

the trapezoid.

A B

Solution Let us draw DF and AF. By the previous theorem we can write

AD EF

A( ABCD ) 2 A( ADF ) 2

2

8 7 56 cm 2 .

EXAMPLE 91 ABCD is a trapezoid with bases AB and DC and median EF such that E is on AD and F is on

BC. Given that P is the midpoint of EF and A(APE) = 4 cm2, find A(ABCD).

let the height of the trapezoid be h.

a+c

ac 4 P

E F

Then EF ,

2 h

2

ac h

EP and PH . A H B

4 2

ac h ac a

h

EP PH 4 2 2

So A

APE)

2 2 8

A( ABCD ) 2

4 cm .

8

This gives us A(ABCD) = 8 4 = 32 cm2.

235 Geometry 8

EXAMPLE 92 In the figure, ABCD is a trapezoid and

D 6 C

KL AB DC.

Given that A(ABLK) = A(KLCD), K

x

L

AB = 8 cm and DC = 6 cm, find the length

KL = x.

A 8 B

parallel to DA, as show in the figure. h1

So KL = AN = DM = x and NB = 8 – x, K

x

L

CM = x – 6.

h2

Now let us draw the heights h1 and h2 from

A x N 8x B

point L to the bases DM and AB, respectively.

It is given that A(ABLK) = A(KLCD).

8x 6x h1 8 x

So h h1 , i.e. . (1)

2

2

2 h2 6 x

In CLM and BNL,

m(LMC) = m(LNB).

h1 CM x 6

This means CLM BLN, i.e. . (2)

h2 NB 8 x

h1 8 x x 6

Combining (1) and (2) gives us , i.e. 64 – x2 = x2 – 36.

h2 6 x 8 x

Rearranging this expression gives x2 = 50, x = 5ñ2 cm.

is divided into four equal parts and base DC

is divided into three equal parts.

Given that AB = 2 DC, find

A( EGIH )

. A E F G B

A( ABCD )

Areas of Quadrilaterals 236

Solution Let DC = x so AB = 2x, and let h be the height of the trapezoid.

Let us draw the line segments EI, ED and EC.

xh

We can say A( DEC ) .

2

A( DEC ) xh

DH = HI = IC is given, so A( HEI

) .

3 6

Now let us draw the line segments IA and IB.

2 xh

We can write A( AIB) xh.

2

A( AIB) xh

AE = EF = FG = GB is given, so A( EIG

) .

2 2

xh xh 2xh

So A(EGIH) = A(HEI) + A(EIG) = .

6 2 3

2 xh

A( EGIH ) 3 4

Finally, .

A( ABCD ) 3xh 9

2

D C

Given that AD EC and EB = 2 AE, find

A( AEFD ) F

.

A( ABCD )

A E B

DC x 1

Since DC EB, DFC BFE and

k . So EF = 2 CF and BF = 2 DF.

EB 2x 2

A( DFC ) 1 2 1

By Property 9, ( ) , so if A(DFC) = S then A(BFE) = 4S.

A( BFE) 2 4

Property 9: If two triangles

are similar then the ratio If A(BFE) = 4S then A(BFC) = 2S because EF = 2 CF.

of their areas is equal to

the square of the ratio of Now let us draw DE. In DEB, BF = 2 DF and since A(BFE) = 4S, A(DEF) = 2S.

similarity. A( DEB)

In ABD, EB = 2 AE and A(DEB) = 4S + 2S = 6S, so A(ADE) = = 3S.

2

A( AEFD ) A( ADE) A( DEF ) 3S 2S 5

So .

A( ABCD ) A( ABCD ) 12S 12

237 Geometry 8

Check Yourself 13

1. The bases of a trapezoid measure 5 cm and 9 cm. Given that the height of this

trapezoid is 6 cm, find its area.

D 8 C

2. In the figure, ABCD is a trapezoid.

120°

Given that AD = 4ñ3 cm, DC = 8 cm, 4ñ3

m(ADC) = 120° and m(ABC) = 45°,

45°

find the area of this trapezoid.

A B

3. The length of the shorter base of a right trapezoid measures 6 cm. The length of the

longer base is 12 cm and one of the base angles measures 60°. Find the area of this

trapezoid.

120°

Given that AB = 10 cm, BC = 4 cm and 4

A 10 B

EB = 6 cm and

A( DEBC )

DC = 5 cm, find .

A( ABCD )

A 4 E 6 B

6. The ratio of the lengths of the bases of a trapezoid is 6 : 13. The height of the

trapezoid is 20 cm and its area is 380 cm2. Find the length of the longer base.

15

7. In the figure, ABCD is a trapezoid and EF is its D C

median. Given that AB = 3 cm, DC = 15 cm and

A(ABCD) = 90 cm2, find A(ABFE). E F

A 3 B

Given that A(ABC) = 18 cm2 and A(ACD) = 12 cm2, find A(AOD).

9. In the figure, ABCD is a trapezoid and its diagonal BD is D 8 C

divided into three equal parts.

E

Given that AB = 24 cm, DC = 8 cm and A(AEF) = 12 cm2,

find the area of the trapezoid. F

Answers A 24 B

11

1. 42 cm2 2. (66 + 6ñ3) cm2 3. 54ñ3 cm2 4. 16ñ3 cm2 5. 6. 26 cm 7. 30 cm2

15

36

8. cm 2 9. 48 cm2

5

I. AREA OF A KITE D

Recall that a kite is a quadrilateral that has

two pairs of adjacent congruent sides. The

If the diagonals of a diagonals of a kite are perpendicular to each

quadrilateral are

perpendicular to each

other, so the area of a kite is half the product

other then the area of of its diagonals: in the figure,

the quadrilateral is A C

AC BD AC BD

A( ABCD ) . A( ABCD ) .

2 2

B

EXAMPLE 95 The diagonals of a kite measure 12 cm and 8 cm. Find the area of this kite.

AC BD 12 8

SolutionA 48 cm 2 .

2 2

Given that BC = 5 cm, DC = 12 cm and

m(BCD) = 90°, find the area of the kite.

12

triangles ABD and BCD. Since a kite is 5

symmetric about its main diagonal, B

5 12

So A( ABCD) 2 ( BCD) 2 60 cm 2.

2

239 Geometry 8

EXAMPLE 97 In the figure, ABCD is a kite. D

Given that AB = BC = 17 cm,

AD = DC = 25 cm and BD = 28 cm, find the 25

area of the kite.

28

A C

Solution Let us draw the diagonal AC and let the

intersection point of the diagonals be O. 17

Let AO = y and BO = x, then

B

OD = 28 – x.

By the Pythagorean Theorem in ADO we have

y2 = 252 – (28 – x)2 = 172 – x2, i.e. 625 – 784 + 56x – x2 = 289 – x2.

Rearranging this expression gives us x = 8 cm.

Similarly, in ABO we have y2 = 172 – x2 = 172 – 82 = 289 – 64 = 225,

i.e. y = AO = 15 cm and AC = 2 15 = 30 cm.

AC BD 30 28

So A( ABCD ) 210 cm 2.

2 2

Check Yourself

1. A kite has an area of 120 cm2. Given that one of its diagonals measures 24 cm, find the

length of the other diagonal.

D

2. In the figure, ABCD is a kite and O is the intersection

point of its diagonals.

Given that AB = AD, BC = DC, AO = 9 cm and

9 16

A C

OC = 16 cm, find the area of the kite. O

D

3. In the figure, ABCD is a kite.

60° 8

Given that AB = AD = 4 cm, 4

the area of the kite.

Answers

B

1. 10 cm 2. 300 cm2 3. 16ñ3 cm2

Areas of Quadrilaterals 240

The Pythagorean Theorem is one of the oldest and most famous theorems in the history of geometry. Although the

theorem was known by the Babylonians and the Egyptians about 1000 years before the time of Pythagoras (who was

born in around 575 BC), Pythagoras was the first person to publish a deductive proof, which is why the theorem

was given his name.

The Pythagorean Theorem states that the sum of the A

of its hypotenuse, i.e.

b

2 2 2

a +b =c

C a B

where c is the hypotenuse and a and b are the legs of the

right triangle.

Mathematicians since the time of Pythagoras have studied this theorem, and it has been proved in different ways

in different branches of mathematics. A writer called Elisha Scott Loomis once published a book with over 360

different proofs of the theorem. Here are four popular proofs.

D C

length c.

b

In the figure, ABE, BCF, CDG and H b

DAH are congruent right triangles inside

ABCD with sides a, b and c. a b

a b G

c

We can see that the triangles create a E a b

a b

smaller square EFGH with side length a – b.

b

Now we can write the area of ABCD in two F

b

ways: A(ABCD) = c2 and

A c B

A(ABCD) = 4 A(ABE) + A(EFGH).

AH = DG = CF = BE = a

ab

So c2 4 ( ) ( a b)2

2

2ab a2 2ab b 2 . b a

D H C

Simplifying this gives c2 = a2 + b2.

c b

Proof 2: Let us draw a square ABCD with side a c

G

length a + b. Then we choose the points E,

F, G and H such that EAF, FBG, GCH

a

and HDE are right triangles with sides a, E c

b and c. b c

We can say that each of these four triangles

A a F b B

has hypotenuse c.

Now we can write A(ABCD) in two different ways:

A(ABCD) = (a + b)2 and A(ABCD) = 4 A(EAF) + A(EFGH).

ab

So A( ABCD ) (a b )2

4 ( ) c 2 , i.e. a2 + 2ab + b2 = 2ab + c2.

2

Canceling 2ab from each side gives us a2 + b2 = c2.

bases a and b and height a + b. Then we D b C

connect B and C with point E so that CDE

and EAB are congruent right triangles

with sides a, b and c. a c

isosceles triangle with leg c.

E

We can write the area of the right trapezoid c

in two ways: b

A( ABCD ) ,

2

and A(ABCD) = 2 A(EAB) + A(BEC).

ab a b c c a 2 2ab b 2 2ab c 2

So A( ABCD ) ( ) ( a b ) 2 ( ) , which gives us .

2 2 2 2 2

Canceling the denominators and 2ab gives us a2 + b2 = c2.

bases a and b and height a. D a C

EC = DB = c, EDC BAD by the SSS b c

Congruence Theorem.

E

From the angles we can get DB EC. c

a b

Now we can write the area of the right

trapezoid in two ways:

A b B

sum of the bases height

A( ABCD )

2

and A(ABCD) = A(BCDE) + A(ABE).

ab c c (a b ) b

So A( ABCD ) a .

2 2 2

Canceling 2 from both sides and taking ab – b2 to the left-hand side gives us a2 + b2 = c2.

EXERCISES 3 .2

A. Area of a Quadrilateral 6. In the figure, ABCD is a D

convex quadrilateral and

1. In the figure,

E is the intersection point

DC = 6, A

of its diagonals. E

AD = 8,

Given that DC = BC, 20°

AB = 10,

m(DCA) = 20°, C

BC = 12 and

m(DBC) = 25°,

m(ADC) = 90°.

AC = 6 and

Find the area of the quadrilateral ABCD. 25° 10

BD = 10,

find the area of ABCD. B

intersection point of its diagonals. Given that

AE = 2, BE = 5, CE = 6, DE = 10 and BC = 5, 7. ABCD is a convex quadrilateral and E is the

find the area of ABCD. intersection point of its diagonals. Given that

A(ABE) = A(CDE) = 18 and

A(BCE) = 4 A(ADE), find the area of ABCD.

3. ABCD is a convex quadrilateral and E is the

intersection point of its diagonals. DE = 3 cm and

A( ADC )

BE = 12 cm are given. Find .

A( ABCD ) 8. In the figure, ABCD is a C

E

convex quadrilateral, E is D

F

4. In the figure, E is the intersection D is the intersection point

point of the diagonals of ABCD of the diagonals. Given

that AG = 5 cm and A 5 G 7 B

and AC is perpendicular to BD. 8

Given that BC = 4, A( BCF )

GB = 7 cm, find .

DC = 8, AE = EC and A A( DAF )

E C

30°

m(ACB) = 30°, find the

4

area of ABCD.

B

B. Area of a Parallelogram

9. The sides of a parallelogram measure 10 cm and

5. ABCD is a convex quadrilateral with AD = DC = 8, 24 cm. Given that the length of the altitude to the

BD = 14 and m(ADC) = 60°. The angle between longer side is 5 cm, find the length of the altitude

its diagonals is 90°. What is A(ABCD)? to the shorter side.

243 Geometry 8

10. In the figure, ABCD is a parallelogram, 16. One of the diagonals of a parallelogram is 8 units

DE is perpendicular to AB and AF is long and one of its sides is 10 units long. The

perpendicular to BC. Given that AB = 12, AD = angle between this side and this diagonal is 45°.

6 and Find the area of the parallelogram.

AF = 8, find the length DE = x.

17. In the figure, ABCD is D E F G C

a parallelogram. Side

H

DC is divided into

I

11. One of the diagonals of a parallelogram has the four equal parts and

same length as one of its sides. Given that the side BC is divided into A B

longer side of the parallelogram is 6 units long three equal parts. Given that A(ABCD) = 240, find the

and its interior acute angle measures 30°, find the area of the quadrilateral AICF.

area of the parallelogram.

18. In the figure, ABCD D C

12. In the figure, ABCD is D E is a parallelogram

C

a parallelogram and F and E is the mid- 6

H

to DC. Given that Given that A E 4 B

AH = HG = GF = FD, A ? B EB = 4, BC = 6 and

A(GBH) = 6 and EB = 4, find the length of AB. m(DAB) = 150°, find A(AECD).

a parallelogram. Side

13. ABCD is a parallelogram and H is a point on DC

AB is divided into five

such that BH DC. Given that BH = 6, BC = 10

equal parts and side

and DH = 8, find the area of ABCD.

CD is divided into A E F G H B

four equal parts.

14. ABCD is a parallelogram and DB is its diagonal. Given that A(ABCD) = 180, find A(FHKJ).

Given that m(DAB) = 30°, AD BD and BC = 8,

find A(ABCD).

20. ABCD is a parallelogram. E and F are two points

on base AB, and G is a point on CD. Given that

15. In the figure, ABCD is D C 3

EF AB and A(EFG) = 12, find A(ABCD).

a parallelogram and P P

5

is a point inside the

parallelogram. 21. ABCD is a parallelogram and E and F are the

Given that A B midpoints of sides AB and BC respectively. If G is

A(PBC) = 18, A(PAD) = 12 and the intersection point of lines AF and CE and

2 A(PAB) = 3 A(PCD), find the area of PAB. A(AEG) = 12, find A(ABCD).

22. In the figure, ABCD is D

G H C 30. In the figure, ABCD is a D C

a parallelogram and rhombus and the diagonal E

6

E F

sides AD and CD are 10 BD is divided into six

each divided into F

equal lengths. G

three equal parts. A B

Given that I

Give that EG GB, EG = 6 and GB = 10, find the

A(ABCD) = 72, A B

sum of the areas of the shaded regions.

find the sum of the areas of the shaded regions.

C. Area of a Rhombus

31. In the figure, ABCD is D

23. A rhombus has area 80 and a diagonal which is 20 a rhombus. Point E is

units long. Find the length of the other diagonal. on the diagonal BD

such that DE = 41, 41

24. A rhombus has diagonals which are 10 cm and A C

EB = 9 and

22 cm long. Find its area.

m(DCE) = 90°.

E

25. In the figure, ABCD is D C Find the area of this 9

a rhombus. rhombus. B

Given that 8

32. In the figure, ABCD is D 4 E 9 C

AB = BD = 8, find

a rhombus, O is the

A(ABCD). A B

8 intersection point of

O

its diagonals, E is a

26. In the figure, ABCD D C

point on DC, and A B

is a rhombus and BH 120°

OE DC. Given that DE = 4, EC = 9 and

is an altitude. Given H

8 m(OEC) = 90°, find the area of the rhombus.

that BH = 8 and

m(ADC) = 120°, 33. In the figure, ABCD is D C

A B

find the area of this a rhombus and the

E

rhombus. points A, B and F are 10

collinear. Given that

27. A rhombus has area 200 cm2. Given that the A B 10 F

DF BC and

length of the altitude to a side is 10 cm, find the

AD = BF = 10, find the area of rhombus ABCD.

measure of the acute angle of this rhombus.

28. In a rhombus ABCD, the lengths of the diagonals 34. In the figure, ABCD is D E C

have the ratio 5ñ2. Given that A(ABCD) = 120ñ2, a rhombus and the 10

midpoints of sides DC 13

29. The sum of the lengths of the diagonals of a and BC, respectively.

A B

rhombus is 34 and one side of the rhombus Given that EF = 10

measures 13 units. Find the area of this rhombus. and AF = 13, find A(ABCD).

245 Geometry 8

D. Area of a Square 43. ABCD and BCEF are two squares, and P and Q are

the respective intersection points of their

35. Find the area of the square whose perimeter is

diagonals. Given that AB = 8, find the area of

12ñ5 units.

PBQC.

36. The diagonal of a square is 6 units long. Find the

area of this square. 44. In the figure, ABCD is D F C

a square and E and F S1

37. In the figure, ABCD is a D C are the midpoints of

G

square and A, B and E sides AD and DC E

respectively.

A(EDC) = 20, find the Given that

A B

area of the square. A(DEGF) = S1 and

A B E S

A(ABCG) = S2, find 1 .

S2

38. A rectangular floor has side lengths 12 m and 15 m.

We want to cover it with square tiles with side 45. In the figure, ABCD is D C

length 40 cm. How many tiles do we need? a square. Side BC is

E

divided into four G

39. In the figure, ABCD is D C equal parts and AE is

H

F

a square and E is the divided into three I

E A B

that AE = 5ñ5, find 5ñ5 area of the shaded region if A(ABCD) = 120.

the area of this square.

A B 46. In the figure, ABCD is a D C

square and BEC is an

40. If we lengthen the sides of a square by 40%, by

equilateral triangle. E

what percentage will its area increase?

Given that

41. In the figure, ABC is C A(ABE) = 16,

A B

an equilateral triangle find the area of the

and DEFG is a square. square.

G F

Given that

A(ABC) = 4ñ3, 47. In the figure, ABCD is a D C

find A(DEFG). square with side length

G F

A D E B

12 cm and AEFG is a 12

rectangle. Given that

42. Two opposite sides of a square are shortened by

BF = 3 DF, find

2 units. The area of the rectangle obtained is

A( AEFG ) A E B

35 square units. What was the length of one side .

A( ABCD )

of the original square?

48. In the figure, ABCD is a square D C 53. S 6 R

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