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1) THE PRINCIPLES OF 1,'lIRELESS POViER

a) Nikola Tesla and the True \'[ireless



In the period from 1890 to 1900 Dr. Nikola Tesla was engaged in the

sy s t enat i c research of high frequency electric waves with the specific aim of developing a method transmission and reception of electric energy without -:ne use of connecting wires. Inspired by Dr. Heinrich Hertz s experimental ::esearches into the Haxwell theory of electro-magnetic waves, Dr. Tesla

c.eve Loped various appartus with the object of exploring the developments

cf Dr. Hertz. Tesla found his progress slow until he developed his oscillat:':'16' current (0. C.) transformer, kn01.VIl as the Tesla Transformer, which allowed :cr his progress beyond the original exprrioents of Dr. Hertz and thus

b eycnd the original theory of elecro-magnetism.

Tesla found to his dismay that it was not poss:"ble to demonstrate that -::~c: emanat i ons f'r-orn his C. C. transforner wer-e akin to the transverse vibra t i ons of :ight wav e s as t.heor-ixed by Haxwe Ll , ';Ihich Dr. Hertz among others sought to verify. At this point Tesla began to doubt if the Haxwe Ll. theory har. ~~""3 va Li d i t y , To quote 'For .no r-e than 1::~~ years I have been reading -:re2-:~s"es~ reports of scientific transactions, and articles on Hertz-wave :l:eory, to ke ep my s e Lf informed, but they have a". ':lays .i mpr-e s sed me li:~e

-/;r':s of f Lc t Lorr'".

~"ihat Tesl a had discovered was that the emanations from his O. C. tran-

sfar~er were of longitudinal-dielectric waveform, that is, in the form

»: E::"ECRIC RAYS OF INDUCTION. This indicates the purpose of Tesla' s extensi.ve !'esearch into X-rays and kindred forms of radiation,which were con::::':~;ered Lo g i t ud i na" ','laves in the 1uminiferous aether by 'I'e s La and his

corrt empor-a r i e s ,

The theories of electric waves was of no concern to G. Harconi however, and by his adaptation of Dr. Tesla s fundamental patents went on to establish CO'J:n€l<cial wire} ess communication. By 1919 r·larconi comp le t ed construction')f five high frequency power plants around the world. These plants generated currents at a frequency of 1~3, ooo cycles/ second, produced by

200 Kilowatt motor-generator sets.

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The alternators employed in these M.G. sets were fashoned after those :'eve:'._oped by Tesla but became known as the Alexanderson alternators, after C.? Steinmet= s protoge Ernst F .1,'[. Alexanderson. These alternators deli ve::--ed currents to what is ca'..led the multiple loaded flat top antenna. A diagram and equivilent circuit of the Bolinas, California plant is shown in f':'_~ure (1).

Upon completion of these wireless plants in 1919 the U.S. government etab~ ished the Radio Corperation Of America (R.C.A.) to t ak e control of t he r ants constructed upon U.S. territory. R.C.A. ,r·1arconi Wireless Co.,

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and others went on to d e've Lop wireless (novi radio) cornmun i cat Lon based

'~'".'on transverse, or Hertzian, waveforms. The culmination of the -:::n:Jl':-.-'_-,,;,:'.-::r wave antenna \'ras the R.C.A. type "D" director, ::"ater to become the well ':nc':iTI r-homb t c arrt enna , figure (2).

These developments firmly entrenched the use 0: Her-t z i an wave s in the ""Jractice of wi r-e le s s conmun t cat i on , thereby d i ver-t i.ng interest f'r-orn the ·:ra"eforrJ.s discovered by Dr. Ni.ko La Tesla. Tesla' s progress in commercial is-:2' oomerrt ':las further delayed by h i s absolute insistance upon establishing a p er-f'e c t system. the IIWorJ.d Sy s t em'", of Hire~_ess power- and communication. The Vlorld System was much more costly and cornp Lex than the simple i.nstaL.ations o f I'larcon.i. To quo t e Dr. 'I'e s La s thoughts about the devel")""":':~ent of '::ire:ess at this point in h i s't or-y : 'The commer-ct a'' app lLca't Lon

-::': the art has Led to the consruction of larger t r-ansm.i tters and

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, C3:t ."'_·)n of their number, greater d.i s't anc e s had to be covered and it became .'..r~:·_;er':ti v e to e!:ly~ay recieving devices of ever greater s en s i, tivness .. ~_ll

t he se changes have co-operated in empha s i z Lng the t r-oub Le and seriously ."'_~Dairing the reliablity and value of the p~ants. To such a degree has this been the case that conservitive business ::len and financiers have

cone to 10·'.)): upon this me t hod of conveying Lrrt e lLi g en c e as one offering but very limited possibiJ..i ties, and the Co ver'nmerrt has deemed it advisable to assume control. This unfortunate state of affairs, fatal to the enlist:1ent of cap i tal and heal thfuJ J. competitive deve l oprierrt , cou l.d have "been avo i de d had electricians not remained to this day under a de Luc i ve theory a.'1d had the practical ex:ploiters of this advance not permitted enterprise to out r-un technical competence I'.

Dr. Tes1a remained unswayed by these cornmer-c La,', developments and their i~~act upon scJentific thought. Tesla understood that the transverse, or

Hert ian. wavefor:n was useless for the transmission of electric energy on an industria - s ca l e . The scattering nature of these wave s represents the

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~ ::-i:'1ary J_ imi tation to efficient energy transfer. to quote: "Notihf.ng i-lustrates this better than the recent demonstrations of a number of expe r-t s with very short waves, 'which have created the impression that

'9o~:,!er will be eventually +r-ansmr tted by such means. In reality, experiments of this kind are the very denial of the possibility of economic transmission o f electric energy. i! This of course brings to mind the recent proposal to transmit from a sattili te in outer space megawat t s of photo-voltaic energy via a micro-wave beam down to the earth r s surface.

b) The Tesla system

The system of transmission and reception of electric energy wihout the emp Loymerrt of connecting wires, or waveguides, as concieved by Dr. Tesla IS [TOT the propagation of any type of electro magnetic ':lave, nor is it the exc i tation of the earth-ionosphere wavegu t de , Tesla' s system emp Lo ye s

- resonant actions along lines, or rays, of ELECTRIC INDUCTION, these lines standing bet~en the transmitter and the reciever, figure (3). The apparatus for e s't ab t.Ls i.ng these lines of induction is callrd the Tesla Hagnifying Transr.:itter (T.f.'I.T.). The T.I'1.T. is a system of resonant transforers harmonical~y balanced to the electric condition of the earth. The mono~o"_ar nature of the T.I4.T. induction facilitates the ease of transmission and rece,tion that this a'P~aratus exhibits.

These lines of induction establ.ished by the T. r,'I. T. are dr-awn into

:11e high .mduc't L vi ty of the ear-th s Lrrt er-Lo r ; despite the conductivity of

tl12 sur-f'ace ~ '!:Thich wou l.d screen e l ect r-o-raagne t i c vevee . To il2. ustrate this

, :;oint consider 'I'e s La s descriptin of an exper-Lmerrt ; "I have here a short

2.l1C 'oii.de tube wh.i ch is exhausted to a high deGree and covered 'di th a sub-

s t arrt i a? coating of br-onz e , the coa t Lng a=_lo\:ing bar-e ly the light to shine throu[;h. A mettalic c vasp , with a hook for su sp end.i.ng the tube, is fastened around the middle portion of the latter, the clasp being in contact with the bronze coating. I now want to light the gas inside by suspending the tube on a wire connected to a co t ' .. Anyone who wo u.l d try the experiment for the first time, not having any previos exp er-Lenc e , would probably

t a.;e care to be quite alone when nakd ng the trial, for fear that he might become the joke of his assistants. Still, the bulb lights in spite of the ~etal coating, and the light can be distinctly percieved through the latter. A Long tube covered with a t.um Ln Lurn br-o n.r e Li gh't s when he id in one hand-

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even if they were highly resistant, they ought to screen the gas. They certa:_nly screen it perfectly in a condition of rest, but not by far per-

f e c t Ly when the charge is surging in the coating. But the loss of energy

wh i ch occurs within the tube, not withstanding the screen, is occasioned prjncipaJ.~y by the presence of the gas. Were we to take a large hollow ~etta"_ic sphere and fill it ':lith a perfect incoopressible fluid dielectric)

there wou:c. be no Joss inside the sphere, and consequently the inside ~~ght be considered as yerfect'.y screened, though the potentia~ be very r-ap Ld.y alternating. Even were the spher-e fi::_led with oil, the loss would be incomparably smal~er than when the fluid is replaced by a gas, for in the latter case the force produces displacements; that means impact and

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co-lisions on the inside~

The dielectric induction thru the interior of the earth communicates the energy from the transmitter to the reciever as shown by figure (4). The unused po.r-t Lon of energy is refJ_ected back to the transmitter more

or- ess completely. Operating this energy reciprication be tween transmitter and reciever at the natural period arid wave shape of the earth r S own energy ~;u=_sation rate gr-ea t Ly overcomes the effect of distance,.hence no significant - os:=- of energy is app er-errt . Thus a standing ','lave of indution energy exists oet, .. ;een the transmitter and reciever, or '."hat can be ca.L'l ed transponders,

-_:< __ sating at one of the earth s natural harmonics. If the phase ang l e of

the earth pu l sa't i.on frequency lags the phase angle of the pu.Ls a't Lng freqenGY energy is abstracted from the earth's sU:9~ly of energy and delivered

as .. free ener-gy" to the transponders.

It can therefore bc- seen that wh i Le the transmission of transverse waves i vo l ves the spraying of energy, 1tli th its consequent square law diminish::1ent of energy density, and no hope of retrieving the unused energy, the Tesla system involves the direct connection of transmitter and reciever, via the nulsating ~ines of eJ.ectric induction. Therefore, the transmitter and. reciever are rendered as one apparatus.

c) Operating principles of the T. n. T.

Because the energy is propagated thru the or gr-ound" the question exists as to hov to ground the apparatus, that is ,how to establish an electric reference point, since the so ca l.Led ground is now the hot terminal of the transyoncers, and therefore is incapable of also serving as an electric reference pOint. Here exists the singular feature of the Tesla O.C. transfor!71er in that the distributed rr:utual inductance and odd function

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THEORY.



ANA~OO" ~ TElioLA:!> EAR1'''' ""AVE V,.IilAT,ON T ... EOIilV (ole" PVI.$f 01' ',..e "UMD IS "LT "-t'TIot EQuAl.. .~OA.CE AT AI..L. Po'""Ta 0' TIOf( SP"'ER!

Tf'.'A'. Wo,.,d.Wld. Wtr.'e •• T,.a",ml •• to" of Electrical "ana'l, A, WIll At Light and Power. II ......... 11I .... tr.t.d 1ft Theory, ."aloDY and RI'~lIzatlon. T~II.,'. Experiments With 100 Foot DI5charg •• At Pote"tiall 0' Mllllo'" of ValU .... ve Demon.trated Th., U,. H.M& Wa" •• Are Inftnltellmo" In E"ect ~"d U" .... cov.,..ble; the Recov,rab'e Cround Wave. of T.t" Fly .IT.,,.u tf' •• £.rth". lIt.dlD Englne.r. Ar. Gradu.lly Be-glnnino to Se-. thf' Light and T .... t the Law. of Propagatlo" LaId OOW" by T.a', Over .. Quarte" of • Century Ago ,"or", , ...

Aeal .nd True eaal. of AU Wire I ••• T,..nlml •• Jo" To.D.y.

resonance wor-k to e s't ab l i sh a v.i r-t ua l ground. This fundamental pr-Lnc i.p.Le

c:f virtual grounding is a:::"so to be found in the Tes2.a Tele-geodynamic ::sci'lator (T.G.O.) which serves as a mechanical analog to the T.H.T.

The ?rinciple behind this is the geometrical reconfiguration of the fundamental components of energy,the kinetic and potential, this reoonfiguration resulting in the separation of cause and effect in not only time but also

in space. The r-e su L t hereof is the circumvention of the Ne ... vtonian laws of action and reaction. This allows for the production of heretofore unexplored nhenomena.

Hence, the T.N.T. as'W'ell as the T.G.O. is capable of transmitting v.ior-at t ons by virtue of the fact that it is SELF REFERENCING, thereby not requiring any ground,that is, no solid backing from wh.i ch to pu sh against. This relates to the saying lIGi ve me a fulcrum and I v1i11 move the earth". Tesla found this fulcrum and moved the earth; both mechanically, producing a '.0 cal ear-thquake in New Yor-k City; and electrically, producing a standing lightning discharge at Colorado Springs (and possibly lightning else··'here on the p -:.anet ) .

The Tesla transponder (T. r·'I. T.) can be divided into FIVE distinct components:

1) E.i\RTH

2) REFLECTING CAPACITANCE :5) ENERGY TRANSFORNER

4) COU.'.-'LING TRANSFORHER

5) RESONANT COIL

- The interconnection of these five components is shown by figure (5).

In this arrangement energy is continuously bounced back and forth

be t veen the earth and the reflecting capacitance at a rate tuned to a natur-a'. rate of the earth. This standing »sev e of energy pulsation is maintained by the energy transformer wh.i ch delivers electric energy to this standing weve via the coupling transformer. A certain percentage of this energy in the standing wave is refracted thru the earth-transformer reflection point and into the earth. This refracted energy establishes another s t anc.Lng Have in the earth. Hence, a pair of standing l;laves are produced ':hich communicate energy thru the refraction.

The osciJlating resonant coil, tuned to an earth har-mon i c , establishes a virtu.al ground at one ternina·'. of the coup Ii ng transformer thus rendering the earth termininal active from the standpoint re;ative to the electric condi tions surrounding the atroar-at us . The coil termin&J. deginated as the ref'.ecting capacitance app ear-s active and the earth terminal appears to be neut r-at., whereas from the earth I s standpoint the earth t errai.na.; is active. Thus, the reason for the yopular not~on that the reflecting capacitance ~

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is the out~ut of the apparatus. In light of the virtual ground theory this is obvious:y not correct. See figure (6).

The e l e ct r-Lc conditions surrounding the T.n.T. no longer can be represented by conventional, or e::_ecrto-magnetic, concepts because the s/stem has convert~d the electro-magnetic energy of the dinensions

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into a te-materiali=ed, or mass free energy. The dimensions of this form of energy were given by Dr. ~ilhelm Reich as

W, :

m~t

This de-~"Jateriali:::.~ed energy is the spatial ana'l.og of the reactive ,

-;r watrt Le s s . energy that is encountered in a.lt er'nat Lng current systems. ?-asma discharges r-e su l t Lng from die-_eci:ric saturation (br-eakdown) of the

d.i e le c't r-Lc med i.um that surrounds the T.E.T. no longer can be related to

the -~aV!s of thermodynamics but are related to' the Laws of organic GRmlTH, such as the spont~~eous production of enercy and Go-den ratio proportioning. It is of par-t i cuvar- interest to note that these Phenomena serve as expe r-:.:-:-:enta~ verification of the tiheor-y of Cosmic Supriaposition as put forth

0:' Dr. ',:iJ.he' m Reich.

The pu·satj.on 0: ener-gy be tween the energy t r-ans.ror-mer-. wh i ch is di·2-ectr::.c in nature ~ and the C()llT)OO'..ing t.r-ansf'orraer-, wh i ch is nagne t t c in

-:h~ ::-esonant co '. - 2...1'10. -:.ndependent of t.ha t of the earth. This n~,:: s t and.i ng

"o:,"e ::"s ca"_'ec. an electric o s c.i Ti a t Lon and represents a standing ';lay'.'! in

-:11·:, dicension !Jf ti:7!e. The energ:' of t11:'_5 s't and i.n.; ",'ave is refracted thr'_:

the coup _ ing transforoer thereby exchang i ng energy ':.'i th the other standing ' . .'2.ve as shown schema't Lca l.I t in figure (7).

::t can be seen that the T .r-1. T. i vo~.ves three distinct standing ~ .. laves ::.n its operation, each coupled to the other thru t'dO points of refraction • Each of these standing wave s represents a distinct d Lmen s i.ona), aspect:

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:2) II\J"TER TRANSFOR~>2?; TIl-IE DHIENSIONAL

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3) IiiELODY; E..'XTRA DIH&"'JSIONAL

In order for this triple resonsmt, or sextic (6) energy transient to 'J]erate in consonant resonance: conjugate relation must be made to exist bet,.:een a~]_ six energies. Unfortunately, very ~i ttle theoreticaJ. knowl ege '2:cists for transients of more than doub le energy. This is p r-Lmar-L'Ly due tc the ='i.:lited understanding of the science of algebra with regard to the so-utions of equations higher than second degree.

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INDUCTION IN THE DH1ENSION OF TUm

a) History of discoveries

The elemental principles of electric induction were first discovered by Micael Faraday in the early part of the 19th century. Faraday considered actin at a distance thru empty space as an improbable explanation of magnetic attraction and repuJ.tion. By intuitive and experimental method he determined that space is pervadedwith lines of induction. These lines of induction were considered by Faraday to be the polarization of the contiguous particles of the aether. The lines, or polarizations, displayed the curious property of not taking the shortest path between the poles

of an inductor, but followed curved paths thru space. This curvature of

induction wa s unac ceptiab l e to Faraday t s contemporaries and he was sharply criticized for this discovery.

In the course of his experimental researches Faraday found that when a magnetic field surrounding an electric conductor is altered so as to change the amount of induction surrounding this conductor, an electro-

rno t i ve force (E.I·1.F.) is produced along the conductor length in proportion to the quickness tif the alte~ation. Algebraically it is

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That is, the E.M.F. of magnitude E is directly proportional to the total nUQber of lines of induction; enclosing the conductor, and is invesely proportional to the length of time t required to produce or consume these lines of induction. In pr-ac't t ca l wo r'k the E.l'I.F. is .mown as voltage.

This discovery marks the beginning of our knowledge of transformer theory, and. is ca l I ed the LAW OF ELECTRO-I1AGNETIC nmUCTION. Faraday also the existance of another form of lines of induction distinct from the magnetic form. These lines appear around what are called "electo-static charges",and were given the name DIELECTRIC lines of induction. This

field of induction is complimentary to the magnetic field of induction.

The experimental researches of Hichael Faraday greatly impressed two of perhaps the most influential electrical scientists of the 19th century, J. C. f1axwell and J.J. Thompson. i-Iaxwe L'L sought to translate the experimental researches of Faraday into mathematical form in order to prJvide a more quanitive understanding of electric induction.

:·1axwell discovered a fundamental law complimentary to the law of electromagnetic induction, this being the LA;: OF DIELECTRIC INDUCTION, or what IS

is often cal~ed displacement current. Algebraically it is,

J=

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That is, the current of magnitude I is directly proportional to the n~~ber of lines of dielectric induction ~terminating on the conductor surface, and inversely proportional to the length of time t required to produce or consume these lines of induction. In practical work this is known as the amperes.

The complimentary nature of magnetic and dielectric inductions led maxwell to discover the existance of a constant numerical proportion between the units of measure in magnetism and the units of measure in. dielectricity, this constant being numerically equal to the velocity of light sq,u:lred. This famous discovery led Maxwell to the THEORY OF ELECTRO-~~GNETISM, this theory stating that electric waves are ident-_ ieal to waves of light, and thereby gave the notion that magnetism and ~ie~ectricity are inseperable.

The r'Iax',vel'_ theory of electro-magnetism dominated research into electric wave s , particularly after the experiments of H.Hert:z. Nikola

Tesla comment on this matter: " I do not hesitate to say that in a short

t Lne it '!JiLL be recognL:ed as one of the most r-emar-xab l e and inexplicable abberat':ons of the scientific mind which has ever been recorded in history:' Unfortunataly this time has not yet arrived.

P~of. J.J.Thompson took a much less mathematical approach and more yhisicaJ. a~Droach to Faraday1s dicoveries. Prof. Thompson considered Faradays contiguous aether particles and lines of induction as CONCRETE PHYSICAL REALITIES, despite the shift in contemporary thought (cir 19(0) back to what resembles actinn at a distance thru an aetherless, and

now a spiritless, dead, space.

Thompson considered the propagation of magnetic inductions as distinctly INDEPENDENT of each other, rather than these two inductions propagating cojointly as given by the theory of electro-magnetism. He concieved the propagation of magnetic induction, because of the lines being transverse to the direction of propagation, as being retarded by the broadside drag they encounter in their motion thru the aether; ~/ihereas the propagation of dielectric induction, because of these lines being directed along the path of propagation, are not retarded, but

gl':de smoothly thru the aether with litt'e or no opposition to motion.

Ie.

Ana l ogous l y , the propagation of a parachute thru the atmosphere is akin

to magnetic propagation and hence the effect of drag, whereas the propagation of a wissile thru the atmosphere is akin to dielectric propagation. Hence, dielectric induction propagates faster and thus arrives sooner than the magnetic induction, and thus sooner than the electro-magnetic energy. this concept is of prime importance for the understanding of the works of Dr. Niko!a Tesla.

In his search for the contiguous particles of the aether Prof. Thompson discovered what; is known as the electron. Nuch misunderstanding has developed. with regard to the relation between this :particle and dielec-

ric induction. This has wor-ked much harm into the proper understanding

of TesIa's discoveries, and the understanding of electricity in general.

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To Quote C. P. Steinmetz on this matter: ,. Unfortunately, to a Lar-ge extent

in dealing with the d i e Lec t r-Lc fieJ.ds the prehistoric conception of the e~ectro-static charge on the conductor stil:::_ exists~ and by its use destroys the analogy between the two components of the electri.c field, the magnetic and the dielectric, and makes the consideration of dielectric fie1ds unecessariJ.y complicated.

There obviously is no more sense in thinking of the displacement current as current which charges the conductor with a quanity of electricity, than there is of speaking of the E.I1.F. of magnetic induction

as charging the conductor w.i t h a quan.i t y of magnetism. But wh.i Le the

"at t er- concep'ti.on , together with the notion of a quan.i t y of magne't i sm , ets .. has v2.nished since Faraday'S representation of the magnetic fieJd by the ~ines 0f magnetic force, the terminology of electro-statics of many textbool:s still spe ak s ()f electric charges on the conductor. and the energy stored. by them. 'without corrs i de r-Lng that the ciielectric energy is no t on the sur f'ace of the conductor, but in the spac e outside of the conductmr, 'just as the magnetic energy'.

In 1254 Sir l'/illiam Thompson, known also as Lord Zelvin, published the theory of electric oscillations. This theory demonstrated the interaction of the 1m·., of electro-magnetic induction "lith the Law of dielectic inductinn, for~ing the law of electric induction in the di3ension of time. A'Gebraical'y it is,

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This t.heo ry , and its further developr1ent by He Lmho 1 t z , Heaviside, and Ste:Th~etz,represents a fundamental principle behind nearly all of ?esla's

a'J:pa.ratus.

Lore. Ke~_vin felt that it was possible to establish compressional

wave s , such as sound waves, thru the luminiferous aether, these waves

being a ver-s i on of ?-1a.:C\vell s d.i.sp Lacemerrt current. This current, often

ca".' ed capac i tor current, f'Lows thru eJ.ectric insulators, and even thru

so ca lLed empty space. No conductors or electron flux is involved with

this current. Kelvin indicated his feelings that these waves must prop-

aga t e faster than the velocity of light. To quote Kel vin ~ s description

of the actions of the indution in the space bet v ,een the plates of a

capac i tor fed by an alternator: ., Now does anyone believe that , if the r-evo Lut Lon wer-e made fast enough, the electro-static Law of force, pure

and simple, Vlould apply to the air at different distances from each -ulate? ~veryone believes that if the process can be conducted fast enough, several million times, or millions of millions times per second, we should have l.arge deviations from the electro-static law in the distribution of electri force through the air in the neighborhood. It seems absolutely certain

that such an action as that going on would give rise to electrical wave s , Now , it does seem to me probable that these e-:ectrica:_ waves are condensat i onaj wave s in the Lumi.na f er-ous aether; and pr-obab Ly it wou.l d be that the propagation of these waves would be eno rmou s t.y faster than the pro:::,agation of ordinary light waves."

':'he ve Lo c ; ty of dielectric propagation '.'TaS expe r-Lnerrt a.l Ly verified by Pz-o f . '.i'heatstone to be 11/2 times faster than the velocity of light. Tesla also states this velocity in his writings on wave propagation.

':n view of these scientific discoveries, and the fact that Oliver Heav.i s i de developed a theory 'Jf f'as t er- than :ight electrons wh i ch was confirmed by Dr. Tes1a, it is a wonder how the present notions of electroQagnetism and its limiting velocity as purported by Einstein an his followers have dominated electric theory. It is of particuJar interest to note that C.? Steinmetz did not consider Hertzian waves as transmission of energy but as energy Joss by the hysteresis of the aether.

fir

3) THEORETICAL CONCEPTS OF TESLA'S DISCOVERIES

TESLA, PHYSICS AND ELECTRICITY

Research into the works of ~ikola Tesla reveals electric phenomena that behave contrary to the theory of ~10ctricity in present use. Explanation of Tesla's inventions has been ~iven frem the standpoint of physics, yeildin~ many misconceptions. The science of physics is based on the phenomena surroWlding particles and mass, which finds little application i~ the study of electric ~henomena.

The explanation of Tesla's Ji5cQveries are to b~ found in the science of electricity rather than che science of ~hy5ic5. The science of electricity has been dormant s a n c e the .f a y s (1900) f>f .::itei:tmetz, Tesla and Heaviside. rhis is primarily ~ue to vested interests which .... e may call the "Edison 2ffect."

This r.a't er+a l serves as a preface to a theoretical investigation of N. Tesla's discoveries by the examination of the rotating magnetic field and high frequency transformer. It is assumed that the reader is acquainted with the commonly available material on Tesla, and possesses a basic knowledge of mechanics and electricity.

THE ROTATING MAGNETIC FIELD

In the general electromechanical transformer energy is exchanged between mechanical and electric form. Such an apparatus typically employs a system o£ moving inductance coils and field magnets. It is

March-April 1986 JBR, Page 1

:..0;..1 ... --+ -.~ ~~~-4~----~----~"----~>

March-April 1896 JBR, Page 2

M

desirable that the machanical energy produced or consumed by o~ rotational ~orm in order to operate with pumps, engines, turbines, etc. The method o~ producing rotary ~orce, without the use o~ mechanical rectifiers known as commutators, was discovered by Nikola Tesla in the late 1800s and is known as the rotating magnetic field.

ELEMENTAL PRINCIPLES

An examination of the rudimentary interaction between inductance coils and field magnets will provide some insight into tbe principles behind the rotary magnetic field.

Consider a simple electromechanical device consisting of a piece of iron with a copper loop winding around it along with a small bar magnet (Fig. 1) •. ~y variation in the distance (1) between the pole faces of the inductance coil and magnet produces an electromotive force (VOltage) at the terminals of the copper loop resulting from the field magnet's lines of force passing through the iron core of the inductance coil. The magnitude of this E.H.F. is directly proportional to the speed at wh Lch the distance (1) is varied arid the quantity of magnetism issuing from the field magnet pole face.

Conversely, if an electromotive force is applied to the inductance coil terminals, the distance (1) varies at a speed directly proportional to the strength of the E.H.F. and the quantity of magnetism issuing from the field magnet pole face. Thus electrical force and mechanical force are combined in this device.

If a flow of electrical energy (' .... atts) is taken from 1:;ilC ~oil terminals and delivered to a load mechanical rcsistancy (friction) appears at the field magnet as a result of magnetic attraction and repulsion between the magnet and iron core. Hechanical force applied to the field magnet in order to move it results in power flow out of the coil. This flow of power generates an oppositional or counter electromotive force which repels the field magnet against the mechanical force. This results in work having to be expended in order to move the magnet. However this work is not lost but is delivered to the electric load.

Conversely, if the field magnet is to deliver mechanical energy to a load, with an externally E.M.F. applied to the coil terminals, the field magnet tends to be held stationary by the ~c5i3tancy of the connected mechanical load. Since the field magnet is not in motion it cannot develop a counter E.M.F. in the coil to meet che externally applied E.M.F. Thus electrical energy flows into the coil and is delivered to the field magnet as work via magnetic actions, causing it to move and perform work on the load.

Hence, mechanical energy and electrical energy are rendered on and the same by this electromechanical apparatus. Connecting this apparatus to a source of reciprocating mechanical energy produces an alternating electromotive force at the coil terminals, thus a linear or longitudinal A.C. generator. Connecting this apparatus to a source o~ alternating electric energy produces a reciprocating mechanical force at the field magnet, thus a linear A.C. motor. In either mode of operation the field magnet reciprocates in a manner not ~ike

the piston of the internal combustion engine. Rotary motion is not possible without the use of a crankshaft and flywheel.

March-April 1986 JBR, Page J ~,

1'/63

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March-April 1986 JBR,Page 4

Arranging two inductance coils in a line as shown in Fig. 2 and connecting these coils to a pair of alternating E.M.F.s that are out of step by 1/2 of an alternating cycle with respect to each other results in the mechanical force being directed inwardly into the molecular spaces (inner space) within the field magnet. The field magnet is alternately stretched and compressed by magnetic action and no external force is evident except as vibration and heat. However, arranging two of the pairs shown in Fig. 2 at right angles to each other, connecting each to a pair of alternating E.M.F.s that are out of phase or step by one quarter cycle (quadrature) with respect to each other produces a rotating travelling wave of magnetism, that is, a whirling wirtual magnetic pole. This virtual pole travels from one pole face to the next during the time interval of one quarter cycle, thus making one complete revolution around all the pole faces for each cycle of alternation of the E.M.F.s. The field magnet aligns with the virtual pole, locking in with the rotary magnetic wa ve , thereby producing rotational force.

An analogy may assist in understanding this phenomena. Consider that the sun appears to revolve around the earth. Imagine the sun as

a large magnetic pole and your mind's view of it as the field magnet. As the sun sets off in the distant horizon, it seemingly dissappears. However, the sun is not gone but it is high noon 90 degrees, or one quarter, the way around the planet. Now imagine moving with the sun around the planet, always keeping up with it so as to maintain the constant appearance of high noon. Thusly, one would be carried round and round the planet, just .loS the fi-.:ld :nagnct is carried round :i:ld round by the virtual pole. In this c o rrd i, tion the s un - . -o u Ld appear stationary in the sky, with the earth flying backwards underfoot. Inspired to thinking of this relation by the poet Goethe, Tesla percieved the entire theory and application of alternating electric energy, principally the rotating magnetic , .. ave.

~The glow retreats, done is the day of toil;

it yonder has tes, new fie lds 0 f life e x p Lc r t.ng:

Ah , that n o i .. ing can lift .no {rom the 30i1, upon its track to f0110\ .. , f01.10w s o a r-Ln g ••• "

ROTATIONAL ~AVES

The fundamental principle behind the production of the rotary magnetic field serves as the principle behind all periodic electric waves. It is therefore of interest to investigate the discovery a little further.

The apparatus shown in Fig. 1 develops mechanical force along the axis of the field magnet as shown in Fig. l~. Likewise, mechanical COWlterforce is applied along the axis of the field magnet. Hence,

if work is to be drawn or supplied respectively to the field magnet from an axternal apparatus, a connecting rod is required betwoen the two machines. The flow of energy is along the axis of the roa and

thus is in line (space conjunction) with the forces involved. A simple analogy is a hammer and nail. The hammer supplies mechanical force to the nail, the nail transmitting the force into the wood. The counterforce tends to make the hammer bounce off the nail. However, the wood is soft and cannot reflect a strong counterforce back up the nail and

~larch-April 1986 JBR, Page 5 .2~

into the hammer. Thus the nail slides into the wood absorbing mechanical energy from the hammer which is dissipated into the wood.

The apparatus of Fig. 2 develops mechanical force axially also, but it is entirely concentrated within the molecular space. Any counterforce must push back slong the same axis. Thus the work is also along axis like Fig. 4 and is delivered to the molecular structure. The analogy is two hammers striking a steel block from opposite sides, pounding the block and producing heat and vibration within it.

The apparatus of Fig. J produces a quite different wave form (Fig. 5). The mechanical force delivered to the shaft is applied at a right angle to the axis in clockwise direction. The counterforce is applied in the opposite rotational sense or counter-clockwise direction at a right angle to the axis. The flow of mechanical energy

is still along the shaft as in Fig. 4, however, it no longer pulsates in magnitude with the cycle but it continues, quite like the flow

of electric energy in a direct current cirr.'.!iL.

An analogy is a screw and s c r-ewd r-d ve r , The screwdriver is forced rotationally clockwise by the hand or other motive [uree. The counterforce appears in opposition, that is counterclockwise, therebyarresting the rotation of the screwdriver. However, the wood is soft

and cannot reflect the counterforce back into the screwdriver. Thus the screw travels longitudinally into the wood, perpendicular to

the rotation of the screwdriver.

The form of this .. ave has been o i: great interest to a I{ide variety of fields of endeavor. It has been called the Caduceus coil, spinning wave, double helix, solar cross, and of course the rotating magnetic field. Applications are as wide ranging, from se\.age treatment plants and guided missles all the way to the Van T~s3el Integratron and astrology.

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March-April 1986 JBR, Page 6

The Oscillating Current Transformer

The oscillating current transformer functions quite differently than a conventional transformer in that the law of dielectric induction is utilized as well as the familiar law of magnetic induction. The propagation of waves along the coil axis does not resemble the propagation of waves along a conventional transmission line,

but is complicated by inter-turn capacitance & mutual magnetic inductance. In this respect the O.C. transformer does not behave lLke a resonant transmission line, nor a R.C.L. circuit, but more like a special type of wave guide. Perhaps the most important feature of the O.C. transformer is that in ~he course of propagation along the coil axis the electric energy is dematerialized, that is, rendered mass free energy resembling Dr. Wilhelm Reich's Orgone Energy ~ its behavior. It is this feature that renders

the O.Co transformer usefull for wireless power transmiss~n and reception, and gives the O.Co transformer singular importance in

the study of Dr. Tesla's research.

FUNDAMENTALS OF COXL INDUCTION

Consider the elemental slice of a coil shown in fig. 1. Between the turns 1,2 & J of the coiled conductor exists a complex electric wave consisting of two basic components. In one component (fig. 2), the lines of magnetic and dielectric flux cross at right angles, producing a photon flux perpendicular to these crossings, hereby propagating energy along the gap, parallel to the conductors and around the coil. This is the transverse electro-magnetic wave. In the other component, shown in fig. J, the l~es of magnetic flux

do not cross but unite along the same axis, perpendicular to the coil conductors, hereby energy is conveyed along the coil axis. This is the Longitudinal Magneto-Dielectric ~ave.

May-June 1986 JBR, Page 15 ~5

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May-June 1986 JBR, Page 16

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Hence, ~o distinct forms of energy flow are present in the coiled conductor, propagating at right angles with respect to each other, as shown in fig. 4. Hereby a resultant wave is produced which propagates around the coil in a helical fashion, leading

the transverse wave between the conductors. Thus the oscillating coil posses a complex ~avelength which is shor~er than the wavelength of the coiled conductoro

COIL CALCULATION

If the assumptions are made that an alternating current is applied to one end of the coi~t the other end of the coil is open circuited. Additionaly external inductance and capacitance must be taken into account, then simple formulae may be derived for a single layer solenoid.

The well known formula for the total inductance of a single layer solenoid is

L ;;: r2 N2 (9r+l01)

Where

r is coil radius

1 is coil length

N is number of turns

x 10-6 Henry (inches)

( 1 )

May-June 1986 JBR, Page 17 ~7

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May-June 1986 JBR, Page 18

The capacitance of a sing1e 1ayer s01enoid is g~ven by the

formu1a

C = pr

-12

2.~~ x 10 Farads

(inches)

(2)

where the factor p is a function of the 1ength to diameter ratio, tabu1ated in tab1e (1). The dimensions of the coi1 are shown in figure (1). The capacitance is minimum when length to diameter ratio is equal to one.

Because the coi1 is assumed to be in osci11ation with a standing wave, the current distribution along the coil is not uniform, but varies sinusoidially with respect to distance a10ng the coi1. This alters the results obtained by equation (1), thus for resonance

Henrys

(3 )

likewise, for capacitance C o

= ~ C -v

Farads

(4)

Hereby the velocity of propagation is given by

units/sec (5)

=7') v;

'ihere

v = 1/ .j /'" E c

Inch/sec (6)

That is, the velocity of light, and

2 7Tl 0 <) Inch/sec

Where

n = the ratio of coil length to coil diameter. The values of propagation factor ~ are tabula~ed in table (2).

Thus, the frequency of osci11ation or resonance of the coi1 is given by the relation

= V /(1 ·4)

o 0

Cyc1es/sec

(8)

lihere

10 = tota1 length of the coi1ed conductor in inches.

May-June 1986 JBR, Page 19 ,.q

The characteristic impedance of the resonant coil is given by

ZC=n

o

Ohms

(9 )

Hence,

Ohms

( 10)~

Where

Ohms

( inche s ) (1 1 )

and

N = number of turns. The values of sheet impedance,

tabulated in table (J).

The time constant of the coil, that is, the rate of energy dissipation due to coil resistance is giv~n by the approximate formula

Z , are s

Nepers/sec (12) (inches)

\ihQre

r = coil radius 1 = coil length

May-June 1986 JBR, Page 20

In genera~, the dissipation of the coi~'s osci~~ating energy by conductor resistance,

1) Decreases with increase of coi~ diameter, d;

2) Decreases with increase of coi~ ~ength, ~, rapid~y when the ratio, n, of length to diameter is sma~l with litt~e decrease beyond n equal to unity;

J) Is minimum when the ratio of wire diameter to coil pitch

is 60%.

By examination of the attached tables, (1), (2) & (3), it is seen that the long coils of popular designs do not result in optimum performance. In general, coils shou~d be ~hort and Wide, and not longer than n=l. The frequency is usually given as F = V /~

o c 0

which by equation (7) is incorrect. Winding on solid or continous formers rather than spaced slender rods, as shown in figure (1), greatly retards wave propagation as indicated in equation (6), thereby seriously distorting the wave. The dielectric con.~ant of the coil, € , should be as close to unity as is physically possible to insure high efficiency of transformation.

The equations for the voltampere relations of the oscillating coil are





Complex Input Voltage

( 1 J)





Complex In?ut Current

( 14)

z = 1

y Z ... <.:.. c o?

z o

Input Impedance, Ohms

( 1 5 )

Where •
E = Voltage on elevat'=ld terminal
0

Io = eurrent i.nto e~evated termina~
Yc -1
= Z
c
Z = Terminal impedance
0
Yo = Term.ina~ admittance
~ = u/2F :: Decrement
0
j = roo", of V -1 May-J~ue 1986 J&~, Page 21 '31

For negligible losses and absolute values

El = (Z 21t"F C )E coo 0

Volts

( 16)

Amperes (17)

Where

Co = Terminal capacitance By the law o£ conservation of energy

Volt-Amperes (18)

If' the terminal capacitance is small then the approximate input/ output relations of the Tesla coil are given by

E = Z Il

o c

Output Volts

( 19)

I, = E Y o c

Input Amperes

(20)

Output Amperes

(21)

E1 = I Z o c

Input Vol ts

(22)

*+*

***

TABLE (1)

Coil Capacitance Factor

Length/Width Factor Length/Width Factor
= n p = n p
0.10 0.96 0.80 0.46
0.15 0.79 0.90 0.46
0.20 0.70 1.00 0.46
0.25 0.64 1 .5 0.47
O;JO 0.60 2.0 0.50
0.35 0.57 2.5 0 .. 56
0.40 0.54 J.O 0.61
0.45 0.52 ).5 0.67 .
0.50 0.50 4.0 0.72
0.60 0.48 4.5 0.77
0.70 0.47 5.0 0.81
1~
May-.]U!l'3 1986 JBR, Page 22 TA.BLE (2)

Length/Width

= II

Vo Inches/Sec

0.10 0.15 0.20

9.42 % 109 10.9

12.0

0.25 O.JO 0.J5 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.5

13.0 1).9 14.8 15.6 16.4 17.2 18.4 19.5 20.5 21.4 22.1 25.4 27.6 28.7

2.0

J.O

29.7 JO.) 30.9 ) 1.6 32.4 3).0 33.9

).5 4.0

5.0 6.0 7.0

****

****

****

Books by Eric Dollard

Percellt LUIIlina~ Ve~oci ty:: /')'j

79.8~ 92.2 102 110 118 125

1 )2 lJ9 146 156 165 176 181 187 215 2J4 24J 251 257 262 268 274 279 287

****

****

L/W

::rn

0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 O.JO 0.)5 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.5 2.0

2.5

3.0

).5 4.0 1+.5

5.0 6.0 7.0

TABLB (3)

0.107 x lC 0.070 0.116 0.116 0.116 0.115 0.115 0.114 0.11) 0.110 0.106 0.10) 0.099 0.095 0.081 0.070 0.061 0.054 0.048 0.044 0.040 0.0)7 0.0)2 0.028

CONDENSED INTRO TO TESLA. TRANSFORMERS. '!'his book i.s an abstract of theory and construction techniques of Tesla tra~sformers. It is the result of experiwenta1 ~vestigation8 and theoretical considerati.ons. Includes relovant Te81a patent. and an artic1e on capacity by Fritz Lowenstein, Te.1a's assistant. (BSRA #TE-1) •••••••••••••••••••• $5.50

****

****

INTRODUCTION TO DIELECTRIC & MAGNETIC DISCHARGES IN ELECTRICAL WINDINGS. Theory of abrupt e1ectrica1 05ci11ations such as those

used by Tesla for experi~ental researches. Contains ELECTRICAL OSCILLATIONS IN ANTENNAE AND INDUCTION COILS by John Mi~~er, 1919. This is

one of the few artic1es cOllta~ng equations usefu1 to the design of Tea1a coi18. (BSRA #TE-2) •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• I5.50

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