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Middle Earth Notes

What are the physical features of a Númenorean?

The Númenóreans were tall. Adult males were normally around 6′4″ or so (2 rangar in Númenórean linear
measure), but some individuals were taller. Elendil the Tall was supposedly 2–1/2 rangar, or 7′11″ tall.
Númenor was a prosperous realm with advanced health care, so I assume that most Númenóreans were well
grown and healthy.

The Númenóreans were descended from the three houses of the Edain. While people of Númenórean
descent in LotR are described as dark haired with grey eyes and pale skin, the population of Númenor itself
included blue-eyed blonds as well, descendants of the House of Hador (e.g., Tar-Aldarion was blond). The
populace also included descendants of the House of Haleth, so there may have been some people with
browner skin and eye coloring. The original population of Númenor also included some Drúedain, called
Woses in the Third Age. (Ghân-buri-Ghân in LotR was one of the Woses.) The Drúedain living in Númenor
started to emigrate from the island around the reign of Tar-Aldarion and were all gone by the time of the
Downfall.

The people of Númenor were long lived. At the beginning of the Second Age the lifespan of an ordinary
Númenórean seems to have been around 210-240 years; they enjoyed a period of vigor three times that of
the Men of Middle-earth. Erendis wife of Tar-Aldarion had felt the approach of old age before her death by
drowning at age 214. Members of the royal house lived to around 400, more or less, at least to the reign of
Tar-Telemmaitë (2136–2526), who died at age 390. After his reign the distinctions between royalty and
ordinary people, in lifespan as well as other attributes, began to grow less. Tar-Ardamin (SA 2816–2899) was
the first ruler to die before age 300. Tar-Palantir, the last Númenórean ruler to die of natural causes, lived to
age 220.

How could a relatively small island as Numenor support a population with an army able to defeat Sauron?

First of all, i assume that you refer to Ar-Pharazon’s army, that Sauron surrendered to.

At this point Numenor was very advanced. Don’t quote me on this, but i remember to have read somewhere
that they were on the verge of discovering gunpowder. And that they already had steelships?

In any case, we know that they were very advanced, which means that the population that they could
support has to be very big.

Which leaves us with approximately 480.000 men from the island itself. and far superior to any orc or troll Sauron could muster. It’s that it is numenoreans. But. for example. That is a HUGE army. of roughly 435. Tolkein is a horse breeder. it’s family tree. If they were drafted as well. Now.Numenor was a fertile island. stronger. Their equipment was proberbly the best in middle earth. or non-numenorean human. Now.000 men. but their quality. cause is its fun :) The real answer isn’t size of the numenorean army or their equipment or huge fleet.08=480.720. I know that i have taken a very metaphysical approach to this question. They are a very powerful people.000 So the Army Ar-Pharazon could muster is anywhere between 1.444.000*0. and that isn’t really what Tolkein’s universe is about. But the Numenorean population base wasn’t just the island. If we are generous and amp it up to even 8% we are left with a little less than a million men already. that gives us another 6. sedimentary nation could at the most mobilize around 4% of their population into their armies. They had hollow steelbows. it could very well be that the island could mobilize even more. with the exception of the remaining noldor.000.000 sq kM. Don’t get me wrong. the numenorean men were very well equipped. but also the colonies. That’s why Aragorn is so powerful. it’s because he is a pure numenorean and everyone else isn’t. and more nobel than any middle-man.000. . How many people could live there then? I have found a very detailed estimate landing them at around a staggering 12 million on the island. The same guy that composed those numbers said estimated that there was around another 6 million numenoreans in the nothern and southern colonies in middle earth. I just enjoy going about that way. Taller. It means everything in Tolkein’s legendarium. In medieval times. they certainly had a bigger army than whatever was in the 3rd age. He places a lot of importance on how noble a character is and it’s descent. they had an amazing ranged and volocity. the strenght in the numenorean army wasn’t their numbers. since the men living there could live around 3 times the lifespan of a “middle man”.

it shows that Númenor was even bigger than Gondor and Rohan combined. Edit: Forgot to add my sources: Populations of Middle Earth .com/2016/09/the-population-of-numenor-through-2nd.000 Númenóreans would take more than 200. and only Orcs to withstand him?” He thought his son could easily defeat any Orc. It literally had the blessings of the Valar.html (1) Who says Númenor was a small island? It was more like an island-continent (or mini-continent). They were the epitome of humanity in Tolkein’s eyes. it’s obvious that an army of 10.The Isle of Numenor (through the 2nd Age) http://www. if not millions of people under their thumb. more impressive. (5) Númenóreans had learned the art of forging various weapons from the Noldor themselves. more powerful. but he did leave enough information that we can come up with a credible explanation. (2) By the time Ar-Pharazôn decided to counter Sauron. They soon began to establish colonies as well as . I assume the map below is pretty accurate. and Umbar was their most important port in the area.So the answer to why such a small island could defeat Sauron. I don’t think Tolkien thought much about military logistics. and yet he did not. as well as great quantities of supply. The arrows of their bows resembled dark clouds falling upon their enemies.stephenwigmore. This means they had thousands.000 Orcs to defeat them. The truth is. They could also most probably defeat any Elf or Dwarf. Númenor possessed extensive colonies and dependencies in Middle-earth.000–400. and far longer-lived (~350 years) than any Orc or Man of Middle-earth. so mighty a man as he was. The average Númenórean was taller than 6′4″ or 1. (3) Númenor was very rich and could sustain a very large population even by itself. smarter. and that their ships started returning to Middle-earth during the reign of Tar-Elendil in the year SA 600. is because they were numenoreans. even a group of them. and definitely bigger than Mordor. Remember Denethor’s words to Pippin: “And how did you escape. Given that Boromir was probably no match for a skilled Númenórean warrior. Colonies and tribute. It is stated that the Numenoreans were great sailors. (4) Númenóreans were a blessed people. They were taller. Harad was under their control.93 m. Some Númenóreans had moved—permanently or temporarily—there as lords and colonists.

mystery and epiphany are essential to Man’s ongoing story. Umbar is the best known. based in the experiences of Men. Pelargir was established as a haven of the Faithful. IIRC. with only seven (albeit large) ships’ worth of people and goods. For the most part. was able to establish not one but two kingdoms in a very short span of time. and point the way toward the world we know now. justify the persistence of magic in our world despite the withdrawal of the Elves. so we must establish the basis for another kind of magic. They might also have used locals in their armies either as troops (think Gurkhas) and almost certainly as support personnel. in my opinion. and far too few cities and towns. how would the story go? I have given a lot of thought to this over the decades. We also know that the Numenoreans in their late moral decline used slaves. and the barely mentioned “Prince of dol Amroth. Of their colonies. We are told that they demanded tribute from the local rulers. Elven magic has departed. we cannot allow magic to have departed from the world. apart from the ruling lines of Rohan and Gondor. A sequel to LOTR should be another step along that path. labor—from their colonies.” or more-or-less cohesive set of myths and legends equivalent to the myths of other parts of Northern Europe. rather like Roman or British subjects born in colonies or remote territories. If you were tasked to write the official sequel to The Lord of The Ring series. but later became oppressive. in Tolkien’s Middle- Earth. food. notably the Nordic peoples. These relationships at first benefited these lesser Men. the stewards of Gondor. That’s the explanation I use in my headcanon for why Elendil. in the broadest sense.relationships with the Men of Middle-earth.” I think there must have been a substantial number of Numenoreans who were not born on Numenor and may never have lived there. and have several directions I think it could go. I want to flesh out the many blanks in LOTR. What of the nobility. Hence. Next. attempting to give Great Britain a “legendarium. Tolkien was. there is far too little governance. Ar-Pharazon’s ships are rowed by “many strong slaves. So the Numenoreans probably obtained many resources—timber.” south of the White Mountains? .

Middle-Earth is fabulously rich in languages thanks to the skills of Tolkien. the Lantern must be recovered and hung in the tallest tower in the land. They want his aid in recovering a sacred Lantern that preserved the light of the Silmarils for a folk living underground long ages ago.A sequel must segue from this sparseness to a more natural-seeming world of men. with more cities. there has been no technical progress at all in Middle-Earth. more infrastructure! Is there really next to no commerce in Middle-Earth? No roads other than in the Shire? Is there naught in Rohan but Edoras and Helm’s Deep? No wonder Theoden sputtered to a halt when he said “Where was Gondor when the Westfold fell? Where was Gondor when… **sputter** “ He had run out of Rohan . I blame the Elves and their beatific vision of stars and swords. The sequel must show the birth of progress and innovation. Here’s one of many possible thoughts for a plotline. The Blue Wizards ride into Osgiliath with dire news for the aged King Eldarion. Eldarion’s teen-aged grandson will go with one of the Wizards for an underwater adventure. they say.one city. lots of rocks. the Tower of the Guard. but a world can’t function with only half a dozen cities and nothing in between. Tower of the Sun. :) Oh. nothing but plains of grass (and. . must once again become Minas Anor. and one (burnt) province? For that matter. and speaking of roads. Minas Tirith. towns. and we have seen that in thousands of years. and colonies. in the movies. the Men must grow. The entire gestalt of Men is shaped by the Elves’ steady-state world view. no road. and Man must light his own torch. now that the Elves are gone. one fortress.) I intend to make a believable country out of this one-horse town called Rohan. The Lantern is nowhere else but the long-drowned Secret City of Gondolin. where were Eomer and his troop headed when they left Edoras headed north? There’s nothing there on the map. when Elven magic will fade entirely from Middle-Earth. The time is fast approaching. more great families and titled nobility on the road to feudalism.

the wizard. The party must recover the Kettle! Our third quest takes place in a renamed and reborn Mordor (Bragol Ninniach. is summoned to Osgiliath. immovable. Radagast having died only a fortnight before the story begins. who shortly before their deaths. traditionally. necessary to turn it into a beacon to shine forth from a Minas Anor reborn. Their journey past the Shire will reveal the existence of a winged dragon. but he never returned. where ghosts once dwelt. found the bowl still there. and on impulse brought some of the water back to the Shire in an old kettle. by a Took and a Brandybuck (we need live dragons to go on the flag of Wales. the only one of his children to learn his magical arts. the water was preserved by none other than The Old Took and the Master of Buckland. Remember Galadriel’s seeing-bowl that contained some light of the Silmarils? As it happens. now a land of rain showers and rich. black volcanic soil around the majestic but quiescent mountain formerly named Doom.But the Lantern requires two other things to function. had made a final ride together to Lothlorien. Radagast the Brown presided over the transformation of this land. now named Hope (Amon Estel). serving by custom in Gondor. . and these will be the objects of parallel quests within the sequel (a trilogy. Berengaith (‘Caverns of the Brave’). Oh. So Eomer’s own grandson. living in the Old Forest and looked after. the knight hoped it would light his way in the dread kingdom of Angmar. friendly and free from Sauron’s vile influence. and the two hobbit dragon-tenders on their own adventure. before becoming mortal by choice and taking a wife. and in many European folk tales!) This dragon will carry the man. ‘Sudden Rainbow’). The Kettle was borrowed long ago by a knight of King Elessar. naturally): the true light of the Silmarils. rides with the second Wizard to retrieve the water. and the Crystal that was taken from it at the Fall of Gondolin. Is Radagast’s wife the last of the bear-to-human shapeshifters? Did his daughter inherit this eccentric yet useful gift? Let’s flip a coin. run by Dwarves from the new colony in the White Mountains. speaking of coins! What about an economy? Gondor will have an exchequer and a mint. his daughter Estel (for whom he always insisted the mountain was named).

they find that the Wizards’ power has gone completely. of which Mount Hope is a natural font (Sauron did not make it magical. rules with strength. Only the royal scholars of Ondoher retain pieces of the truth of the old days. The Lantern is hung in the highest Tower and King Eldarion declares the City once again Minas Anor. This range and its caverns are intact only because of the presence of the Crystal . The armies of Men keep their skills sharp with practice against the Men of the East and South. by the Earth Energy of the mountain. When the quests are successful and all return with their treasures. of course. justice and pride.Lindon is abandoned. As for the heir of Radagast. stories passed down through the generations. . having all but forgotten their ancient friends the Elves. Water. she must return home and care for a new tree she found growing from her father’s grave. present in the Earth. This complex Elven lens was secreted in the caverns and former orc-holes in the only remaining tall range of the old Mountains of Mordor. son of Aragorn and Arwen. The Reunited kingdom. she declares that she will set forth to seek the forest of Entwives the Blue Wizards noted in the Far East. who have long since disappeared from the world. and magic is reborn into the world through the Four Elements. fragments of ancient times. led by Ondoher IV. They travel to the Mountain and there. abandoned. Rivendell and Lothlorien are lost. The citadels of the Dwarves have been shut off with their kind retreating underground. Men flourish. There are yet lands that remain empty . what is Estel’s quest? Why. Most doubt if the elves ever even existed. powers restored by the Elements. The Wizards guess correctly that she is drawing from natural Earth magic. descendant of Eldarion. like the halls of Thranduil. and they are at a loss as to how to re-energise the Lantern. the Crystal that goes into the lantern. the Blue Wizards.” # Two thousand years after the downfall of Sauron. combine with the mountain’s Fire. a tree with beans of an extraordinary flavour that she decides to name “cocoa. which will now be the basis of magic. and Air (sky). the great works they left behind shrouded in mystery and superstition. preserved in the scrolls and books of Annúminas. Even there men will not tread.So. In the denouement. The one fancies the North and takes the name Odun (‘ice’ in the Dwarvish dialect of the Far East).the rest of the mountains gradually subsided into natural mountains with foothills. They have become little more than legends. decide to change their names and missions. the Fourth Age draws to a close. who still trouble Middle Earth despite the Reunited Kingdom expanding into their lands. The power of the Silmarils. Some say that a race of giants built them. Only Radagast’s daughter retains her powers. he only subverted it for a time). the other fancies the southern forests and takes the name Merilin (‘nightingale’ in Sindarin). others say that the Dwarves and Elves were one and the same. Radagast’s daughter lights the Lantern. but first.

Eärnil speaks up. but deformed and crooked. farther than any mariner has gone before him. It is said that their leader is a demon of the ancient world returned to wreak havoc on men. His thirtieth birthday came and went. and he was destroyed by the first of your line of Kings. My brother returned too soon. A fear creeps over them as they discover a fortress of dark stone towering over them. The place is clearly ancient beyond reckoning. They say he conquers quickly and journeys ever further north to the ultimate prize . The man smirks. Just as they are about to turn back Eärnil approaches. As Eärnil reaches to smite upon the door. an unseen force driving him forward. I have lain dormant. Since the fall of my master at the hands of a Mariner much like yourself. They say the southrons are too . I have grown beyond even his power.Prince Eärnil VI. daunted by the sheer wildness of this land that they have found. roamed the lands of Middle Earth. but be watchful. still a young man by the reckoning of the high men of Gondor. Prince. “Why have you ventured to my home. I. days the stranger. and your men. I knew that you wouldn't resist the call of adventure. “Young? I'm 187”. and pale. gathering my power. shall return”. A man replies from the crowd of men. He was too ambitious. A rich landscape stands before him. He speaks to them. They crushed the Jungle Kingdoms of the South with no resistance. “What are you talking about? Children of who?”. After a year of sailing and many adventures young Eärnil lands in the lands he sought. It is time. He is tall. An ancient map from before even the great War that marked the start of their age shows a land beyond Harad. But his greatest journey is yet to begin . He has sailed far and wide. With that the stranger laughed. and the ground began to shake. his journey finally at an end. Harad and Rhûn. “Ah”. For we will meet again”. I knew that you would come.Middle Earth. who sailed with a star in his brow through the skies. But I will not make the same mistake.the ambition of men has always been their greatest downfall. This bodes well. I have been waiting for this day . Two years passed after Eärnil returned home. You will always be the younger children”. Rumours reached the southern kingdom of an mighty warlord risen in the east. Structures of carved stone depicting ancient battles. son of Erestor and heir to the lands of Dol Amroth. The men drew their swords. his curiosity outweighing his judgement. The men of Gondor laugh. who arrived in the south of Harad in black ships. the tantalising glimpse of new lands on an old map. For your help I will release you with your life. with soldiers who were more beast than man. strange creatures watching them in the dark. are you not? The younger children.a journey far south. “You are a man. His men follow their captain as he explores inland. Eärnil intends to find these lands in the name of his king. “I see you men have lost much of your ancient knowledge. But they soon discover strange things. “You have done me a favour. Vanamil of the Úmaiar. by waking me from my long sleep. discovered by Mariners of a long forgotten empire. They looked like men. it opens of its own accord and a man steps out. is a captain in the navy of Gondor based out of Dol Amroth. but Vanamil raised his hand and spoke. young ones?”. and clad in armour of black steel. the creatures that watched the men in the dark stepped forward.

. Umaiar too weak to be classed as Balrogs (such as “Boldogs” . Elrohir and Legolas they mean darkness and death. Eärnil knows better. And King Ondoher just about believes him. Someone arrived in Annúminas. despite being unable to create life of his own . I do have a theory that the first Dragons were what you got when Morgoth rehoused the spirits of fallen Balrogs (themselves too weak to regain corporeal form) in massive mutated lizards .superstitious. His father Elrond once told him a story of this Vanamil.Morgoth? Sauron? Maglor? But to Elladan. (As an aside. The next week. sons of Elrond. How he fled south after the war of wrath. When Eärnil journeys to tell his story before the King. Their names are mentioned only in the oldest of tomes and scrolls and legends. They have no fear. Thus he could breed an intelligent and sentient race of Dragons. driven away by Maglor the Singer. said to have been companions of the first king of the Reunited Kingdom. He claims to be a herald of the old gods of the West sent to warn the men of Middle Earth of the return of an ancient evil. how he was a general of Morgoth alongside Sauron in the first age.by using the lives of his servant Umaiar. someone who defies everything the Men of the Reunited kingdom know. They say he sailed into the ruins of the ancient harbour in Lindon and journeyed with his two companions straight to Annúminas to speak with the King. Lesser spirits. Together with Eärnil they journey south to rally the armies of Gondor and prepare the defence of the Kingdom.thus the description of “the fell spirit” behind Glaurung’s eyes. They say that this warlord is a man like any other. He did not tell anyone of what happened in the South and his men swore to secrecy. and with him are Elladan and Elrohir. for his name is Legolas Greenleaf. a shadow glazes over the eyes of Elladan. the kingdom is in uproar. These names mean nothing to Eärnil and the King .super Orc-like beings) could be the source of many Orcs as well).