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EXPERIMENT-3

AIM: - To Measure the input and output impedance of a single stage and double
s stage RC coupled amplifier.

APPARATUS: - RC coupled kit- ETB-45, connecting wires, Resistance decade


b box, CRO, DMM.

THEORY:-

Amplifiers are described according to their input and output properties. They
exhibit the property of gain, or multiplication factor that relates the magnitude of
the output signal to the input signal. The gain may be specified as the ratio of
output voltage to input voltage (voltage gain), output power to input power (power
gain), or some combination of current, voltage, and power. In many cases, with
input and output in the same unit, gain is unit less (though often expressed
in decibels (dB)).

In practice the power gain of an amplifier will depend on the source and
load impedances used as well as the inherent voltage/current gain; while
an RF amplifier may have its impedances optimized for power transfer, audio and
instrumentation amplifiers are normally designed with their input and output
impedances optimized for least loading and highest signal integrity.

An amplifier that is said to have a gain of 20 dB might have a voltage gain of ten
times and an available power gain of much more than 20 dB (power ratio of 100),
yet actually be delivering a much lower power gain if, for example, the input is
from a 600 ohm microphone and the output is connected to a 47 kilo ohm input
socket for a power amplifier. In most cases an amplifier will be linear; that is, the
gain is constant for any normal level of input and output signal. If the gain is not
linear, e.g., clipping of the signal, the output signal will be distorted.

There are however cases where variable gain is useful. Exponential gain amplifiers
are used in certain signal processing application.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:-

For single stage RC coupled amplifier

For double stage RC coupled amplifier


PROCEDURE:-

1. To evaluate the input and output impedance of the single stage amplifier,
At f- 1000 Hz, provide input of a few miili volts at the base of the circuit,
check the output. Evaluate the voltage gain. This is the mid band voltage
gain.

2. Connect a decade resistance box in series with the signal lead and adjust the
value of this resistor such that the o/p falls to one half of the value that was
obtained without the series resistance. This is the input impedance.

3. Connect a decade resistance box in parallel with the output resistance and
adjust the value of this resistor such that the o/p falls to one half of the value
that was obtained without the series resistance. This is the output
impedance.

4. Repeat the same for the double staged RC coupled amplifier.

5. The circuit diagram is common for the first four practical sets.

OBSERVATION TABLE:-

For single stage Amplifier

𝑉𝑖= 16 mV

𝑅𝑖 𝑅𝑜 𝑉𝑜 𝑓

15 k 4k 8mv 1k

20k 4k 8mv 10k

……………..(1)
For double stage Amplifier

Vi = 2V

𝑅𝑖 𝑅𝑜 𝑉𝑜 𝑓
13 k 4k 1v 1k
10k 4k 1v 10k

………(2)

CONCLUSION:-

From the observation table no. 1, we conclude that the input impedance of the
single stage RC coupled amplifier is: (50k + 20k)/2 = 35k Ω

From the observation table no. 1, we conclude that the output impedance of the
single stage RC coupled amplifier is: (4k + 4k)/2 = 4k Ω

From the observation table no. 2, we conclude that the input impedance of the
double stage RC coupled amplifier is: (10k + 13k)/2 = 11.5k Ω

From the observation table no. 2, we conclude that the output impedance of the
double stage RC coupled amplifier is: (4k + 4k)/2 = 4k Ω