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Control Cascada conversor DC/DC Half Bridge Bidireccional

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Cascade Scheme for the Half-bridge

Bidirectional DC-DC Converter

Xavier Dominguez, Oscar Camacho, Paulo Leica, Andres Rosales

Departamento de Automatización y Control Industrial, Facultad de Ingeniería Eléctrica

Escuela Politécnica Nacional

Quito-Ecuador

{xavier.dominguez, oscar.camacho, paulo.leica, andres.rosales}@epn.edu.ec

Abstract — For the Half-bridge Bidirectional DC-DC power The control of the buck mode is relatively simple to

converter focused on electric traction applications, this paper accomplish [4]. However, special attention has to be

develops a fixed-frequency Sliding-mode control (SMC) based on considered for the boost operation as a direct voltage control

a cascade structure. First, the use of cascade control is justified

by means of the state space small-signal averaged equations. in this mode results in unstable zero dynamics [5]. This lies in

Then, the design of the proposed cascade SMC scheme is the fact of the control input appearing simultaneously in the

detailed. Lastly, the simulation results showed that the developed voltage and current equations which is typical in a non-

control strategy outperforms the sole use of SMC for different minimum phase structure [6] and denotes a challenging highly

comparison scenarios. nonlinear system having a right half-plane (RHP) zero. To

overcome this issue when controlling the output voltage with a

Index Terms — Bidirectional DC-DC converter, Cascade

single regulator, a cascaded scheme having two nested control

Control, Fixed-frequency Sliding-mode Control.

loops, each one of them controlling a first-order system, have

I. INTRODUCTION been exposed in the literature as a reliable solution for its

Bidirectional power converters have gained notorious improved performance and disturbances rejection capability

acceptance in modern industrial applications such as in hybrid [7].

and electric vehicles (HEV) and renewable energy systems The typical approach to implement a cascade control is by

where bidirectional power flow is a crucial aspect. To achieve means of two PI controllers [8], an outer one regulating the

this double-way energy exchange, some isolated and non- high-side capacitor voltage and an inner one controlling the

isolated power converter topologies have been proposed [1]. inductor current. However, to improve the performance and

Isolated configurations provide galvanic separation but may dynamic response of the cascade control, in recent years the

also imply bigger size and weight resulting in lower well-known PI regulator has been used in combination with

performance and greater costs [2]. For this reason, the non- non-linear control techniques derived from the theory of

isolated half-bridge DC-DC converter is consolidating as an Variable Structure Control (VSC) such as Sliding-mode

attractive option, especially in electric traction applications, Control (SMC) which has shown promising features such as

because of its reduced number of components and improved robustness, excellent dynamic response, large signal stability

efficiency compared to other common non-isolated schemes as well as simple and intuitive implementation as the SMC can

such as the Cuk and SEPIC topologies [3]. naturally act on power converters with two discrete switching

states (on-off) in order to track the desired sliding surface. In

The half-bridge bidirectional DC-DC converter can be this context, for a boost converter it has been proposed the use

understood as a combination of the classic buck and boost of a PI regulator to control the capacitor voltage in the outer

unidirectional converters where diodes have been replaced by loop while the inductor current is controlled with a SMC in the

controllable IGBT or MOSFET switches. By doing so for an inner loop [9]-[10]. This arrangement has shown appropriate

electric vehicle power system, the boost mode can be used in responses but also exhibits one of the biggest drawbacks of the

one direction to step-up the voltage from the battery to the SMC which is known as chattering [11] and it may lead the

DC-bus and the buck mode can be employed in the other switching devices to operate at extreme high varying speeds

direction to step-down the voltage from the DC-bus to the even if a dead-band is employed. Furthermore, the command

battery which is required when performing regenerative of IGBTs or MOSFETs at very high varying frequencies

braking or in downhill driving. Thus, to ensure the correct provoke significant switching losses, inductor and transformer

power flow of this type of converter while maintaining the low core losses, electromagnetic interference (EMI) issues and

and high side voltages under desired references, a versatile difficult design of input and output filters [12]. Therefore, for

and robust control technique is required to properly handle the the practical control of a power converter, its switching

buck and boost actions. frequency should be fixed or maintained within a predefined

2

converter with focus in HEV applications, the contribution of ̂ ̂

this paper is twofold. First, the converter is studied and the use ̂

of cascade control is justified by means of the state space

small-signal averaged equations. Then, a SMC in a cascade

scheme which is able to handle fixed switching frequency is ̂

developed. The simulation results show that this proposal ̂

successfully manages the high-side and low-side voltages of

the converter working in continuous conduction mode (CCM)

and at the same time it permits a bidirectional current flow. ̂

II. THE HALF-BRIDGE BIDIRECTIONAL POWER CONVERTER FOR ̂

ELECTRIC TRACTION APPLICATIONS

Where:

The half-bridge bidirectional power converter topology is

shown in Fig. 1. This converter can be divided into buck and

boost mode. The buck mode transfers the energy from the

high-side voltage to the low-side voltage , while In the previous equations , IL and D represent the DC-

the boost mode does the opposite. For the boost mode RL and components of the high-side voltage, the inductor current and

RH represent the internal battery resistance and the load the duty cycle respectively. Additionally, ̂ , ̂ , ̂ and

respectively. On the other hand, for the buck mode RL acts as ̂ stand for the perturbed small-ac signals around the DC-

the load and RH stands for the internal resistance of the high- components for their corresponding variables. Equations (1)-

voltage source. For instance, two dc sources can be (3) suggest that the controller design is not straightforward and

considered, the high-side voltage source VH and the low-side is quite complex as we are in the presence of a third-order

battery source VL. In addition, and stand for the high and model. To simplify the analysis however, for the case of

low voltage capacitors respectively. Finally, for the inductor, electric traction applications, there is no need to regulate the

RLP stands for its parasitic resistance and for its inductance. low-side voltage as it is a robust DC source having slow

voltage variations which is the case of industrial battery packs.

Therefore, for hybrid and electric vehicles it is primarily

required to control the high-side voltage (through the use of

the boost mode) and of course permit bidirectional current

flow. As it is later detailed, this can be successfully achieved

by the use of a cascade control scheme as an inner current

loop acts as an intrinsic feed-forward element of the outer

voltage loop. For the boost operation, RH acts as the load, VH is

not present and as the low-side battery internal resistance is in

Fig. 1. Half-bridge bidirectional DC-DC converter topology

the order of miliohms; RL and CL can be neglected. Hence, the

To permit the two-way power flow, the switch cells must be boost equivalent circuit can be attained as Fig. 2 exposes.

able to carry the inductor current on both directions. This is

the reason for unidirectional semiconductor power switches

such as power MOSFETs or IGBTs to be placed in parallel

with a diode. As a consequence of doing so, we get not only a

boost converter by modulating Q2 when observing the

circuitry from the battery side, but also a buck converter when

modulating Q1 if looking the system from the high voltage

capacitor point of view. It should be noted that the two modes

have opposite inductor current directions to achieve both Fig. 2. Converter simplification at boost mode

motoring and regenerative braking in the case of an electric The circuitry of the boost operation during the ON and OFF

vehicle for example. In this paper, the approach of a unified states is as follows:

current controller is used provided that the boost and buck

operations share the same power plant transfer function [13].

This is achieved by the use of complementary switching

between upper and lower switches. This technique present

some advantages such as having a single controller for buck

and boost modes, less heat sinking requirements, reduction of

the inductor size and smooth mode transition. By means of the

small-signal ac model, the transfer functions of the converter

Fig. 3. Boost operation: (a) ON state: Q2 on – Q1 off, (b) OFF state:

can be obtained [13] as Equations (1)-(3) detail: Q2 off – Q1 on

3

Consequently, state-space Equations (4) and (5) describe III. THE NEED OF CASCADE CONTROL

the behavior of the converter during the ON and OFF state Equation (11) represents a second order system with a right

respectively. half-plane (RHP) zero which provokes some difficulties

related to transient response and stability problems when

controlled by a single regulator. Furthermore, when looking to

Equation (8), it can be seen that the only control input of the

̇̇ system which is the duty cycle D is present in both, the

( ) ( )( ) ( )

̇ voltage and current equations. This feature denotes a non-

minimum phase condition [6] which implies the system to be

highly nonlinear. An appropriate approach to solve these

issues is to control the output voltage by the use of two nested

control loops, each one of them controlling a first-order

̇̇ system as it is illustrated in Fig. 4. There, the duty ratio D to

( ) ( )( ) ( )

̇ be applied in the switching device Q2 can be found with the

converter being in equilibrium by means of expression (9):

The averaged matrices are:

inductor current from the high-side voltage provided that the

( ) inner current loop is designed to be much faster than the outer

voltage loop. Another benefit of the employment of this type

( ) of control in the bidirectional converter is the natural and

automatic selection of the operation mode. Indeed, the voltage

difference between the high-side and low-side voltages and

Then, the state-space average equations can be written: the duty ratio define the current extraction (boost mode) or the

current injection (buck mode) in the battery with no need of

separate controllers for the two modes [14].

̇̇

( ) ( ) ( )

̇

( )

The equation that defines the converter in equilibrium

̇ is:

Now, the small-signal ac model is constructed by Fig 4. Cascade control with two nested loops

linearizing the system around the steady state operating point

by the use of Equation (10) so that the transfer functions of the IV. A FIXED-FREQUENCY SLIDING MODE CONTROL WITH

systems can be later inferred. CASCADE SCHEME

The conventional approach to employ the cascade technique

̂ ̂ ̂ structure is by the use of one PI regulator for each control

[ ] ̂ loop, this is one for the inductor current and one for the high-

side voltage. However, to improve the overall robustness and

dynamic response of the system against severe variations of

Solving the previous equation by the use of Laplace load and line, a fixed-frequency SMC in a cascade scheme is

transform, assuming ̂ and RLP to be zero for being very developed in this section.

small, obtaining the equilibrium (DC) state vector and doing

some mathematical treatment, the small-signal model of the The initial step when using SMC is to select a sliding

system that provides the transfer function gets the following surface for the state-space to “slide” and lead toward the

expression: equilibrium point. For our particular case, the goal is to adjust

the high-side voltage to a reference voltage .

However, the direct use of the switching surface

̂

for the boost converter has been exposed to

̂ reach zero value only if the inductor current increases

continuously [15] which of course is not viable. Thus, the

desired voltage regulation must be prioritized in terms of the

4

current control. This is why the SMC should be in charge of using the equivalent control (related with the sliding surface

controlling the inductor current as its variations are employed for the inner current loop), is substituted in

considerably faster than those of the voltage, so that the Equation (17):

switching device is mainly activated with the current

oscillations of the inner loop of the cascade control scheme. ̇

Therefore, in function of the voltage error, a linear PI

regulator will be used in an outer loop to generate the Now, for steady-state conditions we have ̇ ̇ ̇

reference current for the inner-loop controller that will use the and additionally will achieve a desired voltage

SMC. reference ( ). By the use of the previous

conditions in Equations (16)-(17) it can be obtained the

First, the selected time-varying sliding surface is required inductor current when the converter is in equilibrium:

selected the same as the current tracking error as in Equation

(13). Being the current reference resulting from the PI

regulator in the outer loop while is the measured current at

the inductor.

Finally, to check the evolution of when applying the

proposed sliding surface, from the previous expression is

replaced in Equation (19):

In order to verify the evolvement of the system on the

sliding line, a smooth feedback control known as equivalent ̇ ( )

continuous control can be found by setting ̇ [16].

For instance, the existence of this equivalent control would The former expression represents a Bernoulli differential

guarantee the viability of a sliding motion over the switching equation which can be solved analytically to have:

surface . To evaluate this condition, the

instantaneous model of the converter must be firstly obtained. √

This has been done in Equation (14) by merging the ON and

OFF states of the converter from Equations (4) and (5) into a It can be seen that as long as increases, converges

single relation (RLP has been neglected for being very small) by asymptotically to the desired voltage . Therefore, the

the use of the control input which is a binary signal proposed sliding surface can be successfully used. On the

being when switch Q2 is OFF and when Q2 is other hand, to impose the sliding mode evolution in the

ON. vicinity of , a switching control can be defined as

follows:

̇̇ [ ]

( ) ( ) ( )

̇

( ) Considering the previous control approach for the boost

converter and the condition ̇ , the attraction domain of

Considering Equation (13), the sliding motion condition the sliding manifold can be found to be [17] :

̇ and (since the internal-loop current reference

can be seen as a constant for being the output of the outer

voltage controller which has a significant lower dynamic than

the inner loop), we can write: Condition which is always fulfilled as long as the high-side

voltage is greater than the battery voltage .

̇ ̇ ̇̇ Furthermore, the former equation probes the reachability

By the equivalent control criterion, the control input is condition for the proposed sliding surface when using the

substituted by the equivalent control in both lines from previously defined switching control [18]. As the direct use

of the defined switching law action would provoke the power

Equation (14):

switches to theoretically work at an infinite frequency, it is a

̇̇ common practice the use of a small hysteresis-modulation

band ( ):

̇

the equivalent control can be found: However, the previous tactic does not prevent the power

switches to operate at a wide range of variable frequency

which may lead to EMI issues or sever difficulties when

designing input or output filters. For this reason, the

To evaluate the response of the outer voltage loop when conventional SMC cascade scheme has been adapted to handle

5

fixed switching frequency. This is achieved through the reduced a 75% from 202[V] to 151.5[V] and down again to

employment of a flip-flop device [19] having a fixed- 101[V] at t=0[s] and t=0.35[s] respectively.

frequency clock signal connected to the SET pin and the At the same instants of time for another simulation, the high-

signal joined to the RESET pin. The clock signal sets to side voltage load was modified from 100[Ω] to 80[Ω] and

“1” at every rising edge. Then, the flip-flop is reset to “0” made smaller again to 40[Ω] correspondingly (Fig. 8). Finally,

when the SMC output achieves the predefined threshold given to check a proper response for the regenerative current mode,

by the hysteresis band. The overall structure of the proposed Fig. 9 exhibits the responses when the voltage source from

fixed-frequency SMC in a cascade scheme is depicted in the high-side was set from 0[V] to 200[V] and up again to

Figure 5. 500[V] once more at t=0[s] and t=0.35[s]. To numerically

infer an idea about the two controllers’ performance, the

Integral Squared Error (ISE) index (See Table II) was found

by means of Equation (23). It can be observed that the

proposed control scheme outperforms the sole use of WFSMC

in all the different scenarios.

TABLE II

CONTROLLERS COMPARISON USING ISE MEASURE

INTEGRAL SQUARED ERROR (ISE)

Reference Rload Regenera-

changes changes ( changes tive mode

Washout

290.4 281.5 453.3 213.6

filter SMC

Cascaded

Fig. 5. Fixed-frequency SMC structure in a cascade scheme 153.1 85.1 135.1 49.52

SMC

Several simulations were performed using Simulink from

Matlab® to verify the system response for the exposed control

strategy. The proposed sliding-mode control in a cascade

scheme (CSMC) was compared with another SMC approach

based on a washout filter (WFSMC) [20] but also with the

conventional cascaded PI tactic (CPI). The converter

parameters detailed in Table I were used. To provide a fair

comparison between the two control options the following

criteria were considered:

i. The switching frequency in the two controllers was settled

to provide similar inductor current ripple.

ii. The cut-off frequency and switching function slope for the

Fig. 6. High-side voltage comparison for step variations in the

WFSMC were fixed to present similar controller

reference

bandwidth as the CSMC.

TABLE I

CONVERTER AND SIMULATION PARAMETERS

30 [mΩ] 500 [mΩ]

202 [V] 1000 [µF]

50 [µF] 100 [Ω]

25 [mH] 0 [V]

CLK 50 [kHz] 1 [A]

Despite the fact that the two control strategies were robust for

the different simulation scenarios, the CSMC always

presented a better outcome regarding the response of the high- Fig. 7. High-side voltage comparison for step variations in the low-

side voltage . Fig. 6 reveals the response of the side voltage

controllers for reference changes. For Fig. 7, the voltage

reference was kept fixed while the low-side voltage was

6

[3] Karshenas, H.R.; Daneshpajooh, H.; Safaee, A.; Bakhshai, A.; Jain, P.,

"Basic families of medium-power soft-switched isolated bidirectional dc-

dc converters," in Power Electronics, Drive Systems and Technologies

Conference (PEDSTC), 2011 2nd , vol., no., pp.92-97, 16-17 Feb. 2011

[4] R. W. Erickson and D. Maksimovic, Fundamentals of Power Electronics,

2nd ed. Springer, 2001

[5] Vadim Utkin, Sliding mode control of DC/DC converters, Journal of the

Franklin Institute, Volume 350, Issue 8, October 2013, Pages 2146-2165,

ISSN 0016-0032

[6] Tarakanath, K.; Patwardhan, S.; Agarwal, V., "Internal model control of

dc-dc boost converter exhibiting non-minimum phase behavior," in Power

Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems (PEDES), 2014 IEEE

International Conference on , vol., no., pp.1-7, 16-19 Dec. 2014

[7] Liuping Wang; Ki Chun Ng, "Sensitivity analysis of PI cascade control of

Figure 8. High-side voltage comparison for step variations in the load power converter," in Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2013 - 39th

Annual Conference of the IEEE , vol., no., pp.7210-7215, 10-13 Nov.

( ) 2013

[8] Zhong Wu; Jianhui Zhao; Jiyang Zhang, "Cascade PID Control of Buck-

Boost-Type DC/DC Power Converters," in Intelligent Control and

Automation, 2006. WCICA 2006. The Sixth World Congress on , vol.2,

no., pp.8467-8471

[9] Zengshi C, Wenzhong G, Jiangang H, Xiao Y; “Closed-Loop Analysis

and Cascade Control of a Non-minimum Phase Boost Converter” IEEE

Transactions On Power Electronics, Vol. 26, No. 4, APRIL 2011

[10] Kumbhojkar, A.; Nitinkumar, P., “A Sliding Mode Controller with

Cascaded Control Technique for DC to DC Boost Converter”, 2014

International Conference on Circuit, Power and Computing Technologies

[ICCPCT]

[11] El Fadil, H.; Giri, F., "Reducing chattering phenomenon in sliding mode

control of Buck-Boost power converters," in Industrial Electronics, 2008.

ISIE 2008. IEEE International Symposium on , vol., no., pp.287-292,

June 30 2008-July 2 2008

Figure 9. High-side voltage comparison for regenerative current

[12] Siew-Chong Tan; Lai, Y.M.; Tse, C.K., "A unified approach to the design

mode of PWM-based sliding-mode voltage controllers for basic DC-DC

converters in continuous conduction mode," in Circuits and Systems I:

VI. CONCLUSIONS Regular Papers, IEEE Transactions on , vol.53, no.8, pp.1816-1827, Aug.

2006

For the half-bridge bidirectional power converter it has been [13] Junhong Zhang; Jih-Sheng Lai; Wensong Yu, "Bidirectional DC-DC

stated and justified the need for a cascade control scheme. To converter modeling and unified controller with digital implementation,"

improve the overall robustness of the cascade approach, a in Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2008. APEC

fixed-frequency sliding-mode control was successfully 2008. Twenty-Third Annual IEEE , vol., no., pp.1747-1753, 24-28 Feb.

implemented to manage the inductor current at the inner-loop 2008

[14] Joshi, M.C.; Samanta, S., "Modeling and control of bidirectional DC-DC

as the desired high-side voltage control must be prioritized in converter fed PMDC motor for electric vehicles," in India Conference

terms of the current regulation. Different operating conditions (INDICON), 2013 Annual IEEE , vol., no., pp.1-6, 13-15 Dec. 2013

were simulated. The system presented robust performances for [15] H. Sira-Ramirez, "Sliding motions in bilinear switched networks", IEEE

step variations of voltage reference, load resistance, input Trans. on Circuits and Systems, Vol. 34,No. 8, August, pp. 919-933, 1987

voltage and regenerative braking conditions. The proposed [16] Siew-Chong T, Member, Y. M. Lai, Chi K. Tse, Fellow,” General Design

Issues of Sliding-Mode Controllers in DC–DC Converters”, IEEE

control arrangement presents better dynamic response and TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 55, NO.

lower Integral Squared Errors (ISE) when compared to 3, MARCH 2008

another SMC approach at different operating scenarios. It has [17] V. Utkin et al, Sliding Mode Control in Electro-Mechanical Systems, 2nd

been verified for the studied application that the use of SMC ed, CRC Press, 2009

in cascade control scheme outperforms the sole use of SMC [18] H. Sira-Ramirez, R. Silva-Ortigoza, Control Design Techniques in Power

Electronics Devices, 1st ed, Springer, 2006.

based on a washout filter. [19] Agostinelli, M.; Priewasser, R.; Marsili, S.; Huemer, M., "Fixed-

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS frequency Pseudo Sliding Mode control for a Buck-Boost DC-DC

converter in mobile applications: A comparison with a linear PID

Oscar Camacho thanks PROMETEO project of SENESCYT, controller," in Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), 2011 IEEE International

Republic of Ecuador, for its sponsorship for the realization of Symposium,pp.1604-1607, 15-18 May 2011

this work. [20] Tahim, A.P.N.; Pagano, D.J.; Ponce, E., "Nonlinear control of dc-dc

bidirectional converters in stand-alone dc Microgrids," in Decision and

REFERENCES Control (CDC), 2012 IEEE 51st Annual Conference on , vol., no.,

pp.3068-3073, 10-13 Dec. 2012

[1] R. M. Schupbachj, C. Bald, “Comparing DC-DC Converters for Power

Management in Hybrid Electric Vehicles,” in IEEE 2003 International

Electric Machines and Drives Conference, 2003, vol.3, pp.1369-1374.

[2] Hamid R. Karshenas, Hamid Daneshpajooh, Alireza Safaee, Praveen Jain

and Alireza Bakhshai (2011). Bidirectional DC - DC Converters for

Energy Storage Systems, Energy Storage in the Emerging Era of Smart

Grids, Prof. Rosario Carbone (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-269-2, InTech,

DOI: 10.5772/23494.

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