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1.0 Definitions 7
2.0 Issues and Solutions 11
2.1 Hard Handoff after Soft Handoff 13
2.1.1 Background 13
2.1.2 DAHO Trigger Review 13
2.2 AHHO Trigger 14
2.3 Seam Location 14
2.4 Optimization Strategy 15
2.5 AHHO Enhancements 18
2.6 Estimating Post-Seam HHO Performance 18
2.7 Joe’s Bullets 19
2.8 Inter-CBSC and Inter Carrier Hard Handoff 21
2.8.1 Use of Pilot Beacon 21
2.8.2 Use of Frequency Hopping Pilot Beacon 21
2.8.3 Traffic Planning 21
2.8.4 DAHO 21
2.8.5 PrimeCo Chicago Proposal 21
2.8.6 Hong Kong Configuration 22
2.9 Inter-CBSC and Inter Carrier Soft Handoff 27
2.9.1 Use of Pilot Beacon 27
2.9.2 Use of Frequency Hopping Pilot Beacon 27
2.10 InterCBSC and Intra Carrier Hard Handoff 29
2.10.1 Traffic Planning 29
2.10.2 DAHO 29
2.11 InterCBSC and Intra Carrier Soft Handoff 31
2.12 IntraCBSC and Inter Carrier Hard Handoff 33
2.12.1 Use of Pilot Beacon 33
2.12.2 Use of Frequency Hopping Pilot Beacon 33
2.12.3 Traffic Planning 33
2.12.4 DAHO 33
2.13 IntraCBSC and Inter Carrier Soft Handoff 35
2.13.1 Use of Pilot Beacon 35
2.13.2 Use of Frequency Hopping Pilot Beacon 35
2.14 IntraCBSC and Intra Carrier Hard Handoff 37
2.14.1 Traffic Planning 37
2.14.2 DAHO 37
2.15 IntraCBSC and Intra Carrier Soft Handoff 39
3.0 CDMA Handoff Deployment & Optimization 41
3.1 Summary 41
3.2 Statement of the Problem 41
3.3 Scope and Audience 41
3.4 Organization 41
3.5 Definitions 41
3.6 Hard Handoff General Operation 41
3.6.1 General Operation 41

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3.7 Pilot Beacon 42
3.7.1 Intra-Carrier Hard Handoff Optimization 42
3.8 Intra-Carrier Hard Handoff Deployment Tips 43
3.9 Inter-Carrier Hard Handoff With Pilot Beacons (Multi-Carrier) 44
3.10 Inter-CBSC Hard Handoff With Pilot Beacons 44
3.11 DAHO and Inter-CBSC Soft Handoff 46
3.11.1 Single Cell Intra-Carrier Hard Handoff 46
3.11.2 Dual Cell Intra-Carrier Hard Handoff 46
3.12 Nondominant PN 49
3.13 Idle mode handoff 51
3.14 PN Planning 55
3.14.1 micro-cell 55
3.14.2 in-building 55
3.15 Neighbor Window Search Planning 81
3.16 Microcell 83
3.16.1 When to Deploy 83
3.16.2 Intercarrier issues 83
3.17 InterVender Hard Handoff 85
3.17.1 IS-634 85
3.18 InterVender Soft Handoff 87
3.18.1 IS-634 87
3.19 Customer Specific Issues 89
3.19.1 KTF 89
3.19.2 Hong Kong MTR 89
3.19.3 Singapore 89
3.20 HHO as soon as One-Way 91
3.21 CDMA Soft Handoff Optimization 93
3.21.1 Introduction 93
3.21.2 General Mechanics of Soft Handoff 93
3.21.3 Mobile Station/Base Station Data Analysis 100
3.21.4 General Conclusion 105

4.0 Present Tools 127
4.1 Pilot Beacon 129
4.2 Qualcomm solution 129
4.3 Motorola solution 129
4.3.1 Integrated Solution 129
4.3.2 Stand alone solution 130
4.3.3 Paging and Sync Channel Requirements 130
4.3.4 how to set up paging and sync channels to redirect idle mode mobiles 131

5.0 CDMA Pilot Beacon Applications 133
5.1 Scope 133
5.2 Objective 133
5.3 PILOT BEACON CONCEPT OVERVIEW 133
5.4 PILOT BEACON DEPLOYMENT SCENARIOS 134
5.4.1 Scenario A: Inter-Carrier HHOs for Partial Overlay Multi-Carrier 135

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5.5 Scenario B: Pilot Beacon to Perform Inter-CBSC Hard Handoffs 137
5.5.1 Primary Deployment Option (“Spot Beacon” Approach) 137
5.5.2 Requirement for Broadcasting Pilots in all Beacon Sectors 139
5.6 KNOWN LIMITATIONS 140
5.6.1 Idle Mode Handoffs 140
5.6.2 Mobile Re-direction with CDMA Channel List Message 140
5.6.3 Mobile Behavior with Loss of Service 141
5.6.4 Recommendations 141
5.7 Subscriber Capacity Limits 142
5.8 IMPLEMENTATION 142
5.8.1 Hardware Requiremets 142
5.9 Installation and Optimization 143
5.10 Beacon Span Requirements 143
5.11 REFERENCES 143
5.12 SC-2.5.1 Pilot Beacon Installation 145
5.12.1 BTS Modifications - Beacon Settings 145
5.12.2 BTS Calibration File Description. 146
5.12.3 Step-by-step procedure to change Bay Level Offsets with Script: 147
5.13 Database Provisioning 147
5.13.1 GENERAL ADD SECOND CARRIER COMMANDS 147
5.13.2 Mobile Programming 149
5.13.3 Source Database Configuration 149
5.13.4 Neighourlist Additions 149
5.13.5 External Sector Topology 149
5.13.6 Optimization Techniques 151

6.0 Idle Handoff Solution Description 155
6.1 Idle Handoff Equipage Procedural Detail 156
6.2 Pilot Beacon Output Power 157
6.3 Expectation for Empirical Results 158
6.4 Static Simulator 159
6.5 Partial Overlay 161
7.0 FutureTools 163
7.1 Frequency Hopping Pilot Beacon 165
7.2 N-Way SHO and Complex SHO (Barry’s paper or parts thereof 181
7.3 Umbrella Cell 209
7.4 Six Sector 211
7.5 DAHO optimization strategies 213
7.6 Back To Back Antennas 215
7.7 Mobile Specification Changes 217
7.8 Nokia/Qualcomm contribution. 217
7.9 DeClerck/Ashley improvements. 217
7.10 Pilot Dominance 223
7.11 Complex Handoff 225
7.12 Edge Sensing 265
7.13 Description and discussion. 265

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7.13.1 Tune TADD/TDROP/TTDROP to force the mobile into less soft-handoff. 265
7.13.2 Design the frequency seam using natural topological features, such as rivers, large open
tracts of land (less clutter).265
7.14 E911 techniques which may be used for hard-handoff detection. 266
7.14.1 Bruckert/Ghosh/ et. al. developments. 266
7.14.2 DeClerck/Harris improvements. 266

8.0 Background 269
8.1 CDMA Hard Handoff Problems & Solutions 271
8.1.1 Hard Handoff Topics 271
8.1.2 IS-95A Pilot Definitions 271
8.1.3 Pilot Status Transitions 271
8.1.4 Pilot Strength Measurement Message 271
8.1.5 Pilot Scan Algorithm 272
8.1.6 Pilot Scanning Basics 272
8.1.7 Pilot Scan Algorithm Implications 272
8.1.8 The Hard Handoff Problem 273
8.1.9 Multi-Carrier Handoff (“Wedding Cake” Example) 273
8.1.10 “Spot Capacity Relief” Example 273
8.1.11 Hard Handoff Algorithm 273
8.1.12 Intra-Carrier Hard Handoff 273
8.1.13 Pilot Beacons (Inter-Carrier Hard Handoff) 274
8.1.14 Pilot Beacon Deployment (Inter-CBSC Handoff Example) 275
8.1.15 Pilot Beacon Deployment (Multi-Carrier Example) 275
8.1.16 Pilot Beacon Optimization 275
8.1.17 Idle Mode Handoff Problems 275
8.1.18 Idle Mode Handoff Solutions 276
8.1.19 Capacity With Pilot Beacons 277
8.1.20 Additional HHO Solutions Under Study/Consideration 277
8.1.21 Edge Sensing (DAHO) 278
8.1.22 DAHO Deployment 279
8.1.23 Edge Sensing (Ec/Io Thresholding) 279
8.1.24 Edge Sensing (Ec/Io Thresholding Example) 279
8.1.25 CDMA Scan Receivers 279
8.2 Moving the Selector 307
9.0 Release Schedule 311
9.1 Release 5 311
9.2 Release 6 311
9.3 Release 7 311
9.4 Release 8 311
9.5 Release 9 311
9.6 Release 10 311
10.0 Competition 313
11.0 Summary 321
11.1 CDMA to Analog (AMPS/NAMPS/TACS) handoff, same service provider 321
11.2 N carriers to N-1 carriers handoff (CDMA carrier handoff). 321
11.2.1 Extra carrier for In-building or tunnel, spot coverage. 321

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11.2.2 Extra carrier for large scale changes in population density (Urban to suburban/ Suburban
to Rural)321
11.2.3 Notes on systems that have older non-adjacent frequency scanning mobiles. 321
11.3 Intersystem seam (where the Carrier bands do not intersect) 322
12.0 Vision 323
12.1 Timeline 323
13.0 System’s Engineering Recommendations 325
13.1 Criteria for Successful Feature Deployment and Operations: 325
13.2 New CDL format: 325
13.3 Trouble-Shooting Guide: 326
13.4 Inter-CBSC Planning Guide: 326
13.5 Inter-CBSC Application Note: 326
13.6 ATP for the Inter-CBSC SHO: 326
13.7 Inter-CBSC Customer Presentation: 326
14.0 Bibliography 329

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Also known as “FPS”. this also implies 2N forward/reverse links where N is the maximum expected size of the active set.[3] DAHO: see Data Base Assisted Handoff. A technique used in R7 CBSC software to transfer transcoder control from one CBSC to another CBSC after successful inter-CBSC soft handoff. at the time of Extended Handoff Direction Message transmission to utilize the maximum number of currently available forward and reverse links for the procedure transaction. Complex Handoff: A handoff instruction to the mobile station which makes more than one change to the mobile’s active set. rather than PN. a technique used in R5. Motorola Confidential Proprietary 1. however performed at the BTS. Full Complex Handoff: The infrastructure’s ability to perform a complex handoff with the maximum num- ber of legs being changed that is allowed by the IS-95 Air Interface Specification. the infrastructure should use the 3 currently active legs and on the 2 new legs. DAHO tech- niques may be used to trigger hard handoffs. R7 software needs the AHHO to allow CBSC seam and multi- carrier transitions. It is an operation similar to Fast Pilot Shuffling. Data Base Assisted Handoff: handoff techniques that use information on cell configuration stored in the CBSC/BTS along with the system’s knowledge of which cells/sectors control a particular call. Hard HandOff. Cell Swapping: The exchange of all legs between a mobile and one BTS with one or more legs to a BTS not currenlty serving the mobile. Full N-Way: This feature implies XC hardware able to support 6 forward and 6 reverse links. If the mobile can support N legs. if the mobile has 3 legs and the infrastructure wants to replace 1 of the legs with 2 different legs. Because of the desire. Cell Swapping: An algorithm in the infrastructure that works with Partial N-Way SHO and actually per- forms reverse link handoff (switching an XC connection) from one cell (BTS) to another. (During the full complex handoff. etc. The need for AHHO is deemed to be ter- mporary in nature as future software functionality will obviate the need for AHHO by allowing subsequent CBSC seam and multi-carrier transitions. Page 7 of 10 . Uses “Next Generation” or “improved” XCDR circuitry that supports the ability to manage 6 MCCce’s.) Full Diversity N-Way: This feature implies everything contained with “Full N-Way” as well as subscriber unit hardware with N demodulation elements. HHO. Fast Pilot Shuffling does not discriminate between soft and softer connec- tions. Full Complex Handoff: This feature implies the ability (on the part of the infrastructure) to perform multiple add and/or drop operations within one Extended Handoff Direction Message.0 Definitions New terms for microcells and umbrella cells. level. the infrastructure should use all of the old legs and all of the new legs. the infra- structure should support 2N legs during the full complex handoff. and R7 whereby T_TDROP tim- ers for active set pilots are preempted only in three way SHO when in the presense of a candidate set pilot that meets the shuffle criteria. R6.[3] Fast Pilot Shuffling. For example. AHHO: see Anchor Hard Handoff Anchor Hard HandOff.

Uses currently available XCDR circuitry. Thus. this feature implies the ability on the part of both sub- scriber unit and infrastructure to connect the subscriber unit into at least 3-way soft/softer handoff immedi- ately at the target following an Extended Handoff Direction Message. 2. softer and hard handoffs. consider the situation where a subscriber unit is in 3-way SHO between 3 different BTSs. Soft HandOff. These operations are defined by the Jim Aldrich matrix and constrained by the number of forward and reverse links required to complete any given handoff operation1. Due to current downlink combining techniques. As an example. This is a condition defined by good/excellent RF coverage (non-thermal noise limited case. Page 8 of 10 . >-80 dBm) with poor pilot Ec/Io performance. Soft Shuffling.[3] Mobile Assisted Pilot Dominance: This feature refers to the recent Qualcomm proposal of using a sec- ondary threshold that is a function of the sum of the active set SNRs as a technique to inhibit Pilot Strength Measurement Messages. Partial Complex: This feature implies those complex operations that may be accomplished by utilizing existing XCDR hardware. MAHO: See Mobile Assisted Handoff Mobile Assisted Handoff: handoff techniques that use measurements made by the mobile and returned to the BTS. superior performing. Motorola Confidential Proprietary HHO Complex: Also known as “complex HHO”. Non-Dominant PN. pilot at another BTS. SHO. MAHO techniques may be used to trigger soft. Also described by some in the industry as “pilot pollu- tion”. A technique used with Partial N-Way SHO whereby a pilot at one BTS is swapped out in favor of another. then the mobile only responds to 3 sets of PCG puncture bits. Both BTSs currently serve the subscriber unit. superior performing. A technique used with Partial N-Way SHO whereby a pilot at one BTS is swapped out in favor of another. Partial N-Way: This feature implies the ability to support up to 6 forward (Walsh codes) and 3 reverse links2. If we wanted to simultaneously add a new BTS while dropping one of the existing BTSs. See appendix #B for clarification of the Qualcomm proposal. Soft Handoff: a state where a mobile station is communicating with two or more cell sites simulta- neously. Leg: A communications path between the infrastructure and a mobile that uses one PN offset and one Walsh code in the forward direction.[3] Soft Shuffling. we can’t just decide to drop a transmitter from the active set without first informing the sub- scriber unit. we’d still want to transmit the Handoff Direction Message via the transmitters of the 3 existing BTSs and receive the Handoff Completion Message via the receivers of the 3 new BTSs. N forward links are transmitting as the subscriber unit performs connection procedures at the target. Infrastructure Assisted Pilot Dominance: This feature implies a handoff algorithm on the part of the infrastructure that examines active set and candidate set pilot Ec/Io estimates in the Pilot Strength Mea- surement Message and attempts to determine an optimal active set while simultaneously minimizing the number of forward link transmitters to the minimum required for quality forward link reception. pilot at another BTS. etc. 1. If the combining bit in the Extended Handoff Direction Message is used. Forward links are a mix of soft and softer connections such that we are always constrained to 3 reverse links. Both BTSs currently serve the subscriber unit.

[3] HandOffMode (Database Parameter): Specifies to the XC which handoff mode to use. superior performing.5dB above any active set pilot).[3] TTDrop (Database Parameter): The amount of time in seconds the MS will allow an active or candidate set pilot strength to remain below the drop threshold before action is taken to remove the pilot from the active or candidate set.[3] Softer Handoff: two or more legs of a call are to the same cell. TADD: When operating in the TAdd mode. and the RF: In Traffic System Parameters Mes- sage. Softer Shuffling. pilot at the same BTS. any time a pilot rises above the TAdd threshold or the TComp threshold (i. Currently two modes are defined.[3] TDrop (Database Parameter): The threshold below which a pilot strength must drop in order for the MS to transmit a pilot strength measurement message. It is set to the largest increment such that the pilots of the neighboring sectors are integer multiples of the increment. and the RF: In Traffic System Parameters Message. RF: Extended Handoff Direction Message.e. TAdd mode tells the system to add a pilot to a call as soon as it crosses the TAdd threshold. TComp mode tells the system to wait for a pilot to rise above the TComp threshold before it is added to a call. and the RF: In Traffic System Parameters Message. not in the MIB. Softer Shuffling: A handoff that involves adding or removing legs that are in softer handoff. a pilot has risen TComp ¥ 0. An old leg is removed before a new leg is added. the system will attempt to add that pilot to the mobile station’s active set via a soft or softer handoff. The system sends this parameter to the mobile station in the RF: System Parameters Message. RF: Extended Handoff Direction Message. and the RF: In Traffic System Parameters Message.[3] TAdd (Database Parameter): The threshold above which a pilot must rise in order for the MS to transmit a pilot strength measurement message.[3] TCOMP: When operating in the TComp mode. RF: Extended Handoff Direction Message. RF: Extended Handoff Direction Message. This data exists in the XC database. The system sends this parameter to the mobile station in the RF: System Parame- ters Message. A technique used with Partial N-Way SHO whereby a pilot at one BTS is swapped out in favor of another. The system sends this parameter to the mobile station in the RF: System Parameters Message. Motorola Confidential Proprietary Softer Handoff: similar to soft handoff except that two of the cell sites involved are sectors of the same cell.[3] PilotInc (Database Parameter): The mobile station uses this field to determine how remaining set pilots should be searched. a pilot must rise above the TComp threshold before the system attempts to add it to the mobile station active set.[3] XASECT (database parameter): eXternal Analog SECTor XCSECT (database parameter): eXternal Cdma SECTor TComp (Database Parameter): The threshold which a candidate set pilot strength must rise above an active set pilot to cause the MS to transmit a pilot strength measurement message. TAdd mode and TComp mode. This data is sent to the mobile station in the RF: Neighbor List Message Page 9 of 10 . The system sends this parameter to the mobile station in the RF: System Parameters Message.

After a hard hand-in. no override). The scope of this parameter is per external CDMA sector. Motorola Confidential Proprietary and the RF: Neighbor List Update Message. soft aplus) to be used to hand the call off to a sector external to the CBSC.[3] HandoffMethod (Database Parameter): This parameter specifies the method (none. no known XCSECT repre- sentations in the source CBSC. i. on all legs remote).e.[3] Inter-CBSC Soft Handoff Override (Database Parameter): This parameter is used to ‘turn-off’ Inter- CBSC soft handoffs between two MMs. to execute a hard handoff when there are no source legs in the call.[3] NeighborList (Database Parameter): This list contains all of the neighbor sector PN offsets for the cur- rent call. hard. hard. It is checked by both source (in handoff detection) and target pro- cedures. the alternative action of either no handoffs or hard handoffs is indicated (no handoffs. majority border checks will be disabled for a period of time in seconds equal to the value of this parameter. This parameter is passed to the XC in both the SCAP: CDMA Update Parameters Message and the SCAP: CDMA XC Channel Assigned Message. When override is allowed. origination. The parameter can be used to keep calls in soft handoff. on no source legs.[3] DAHOHysTimer (Database Parameter): This parameter is used to prevent ‘ping-pong’ handoffs between two sectors which have been marked with the DAHO flag.[3] AnchorHoMeth (Database Parameter): this per CBSC parameter indicates the condition upon which trig- ger the source MM to move a mobile in Inter-CBSC soft handoff from a source (or ‘anchor’) MM to a target MM once all the source legs have been dropped (keep soft. The XC must use the same value as is contained in the MIB.[3] DAHO (Database Parameter): This parameter indicates whether a sector-carrier is near a border and contains neighboring or overlapping sectors operating on another frequency and/or non-CDMA signalling scheme. The scope of this parameter is per inter-CBSC trunk group. and to execute a hard handoff when all the legs are remote. soft trunking.[3] Page 10 of 10 . or termination in a border sector.

0 contains a problem description and a solution. Page 11 of 12 . Motorola Confidential Proprietary 2.0 Issues and Solutions Each sub-section in Section 2.

Motorola Confidential Proprietary Page 12 of 12 .

In this particular Page 13 of 20 .1 Background 2. “border sec- tors”). In addition. it is also easy to speculate that the poorest perform- ing post-seam HHO occurs upon completion of a pilot shuffle operation.1. Note also that the target selection portion of the DAHO algorithm allows inter-cell hard handoff. DAHO is typically used to transition calls from one CDMA carrier to another (intra-CBSC case) or from a CDMA carrier to an analog carrier (AMPS.5. The AHHO (associated with ICBSC-SHO) is similar to DAHO in that the trigger criteria is equivalent. 2. The departure between AHHO and DAHO is that AHHO is always intra-carrier in nature. “Moving the Selector. it is easy to spec- ulate that the “safest” post-seam HHO (Hard HandOff) occurs on a soft handoff drop event when the active set is reduced from 2 active pilots to 1 active pilot. This document describes how to minimize the impact of the hard handoff.2 Anchor HHO and DAHO . Based upon the above trigger criteria.Database Assisted HandOff DAHO uses cell configuration information stored in the CBSC/BTS along with the sys- tem’s knowledge of which cells/sectors control a particular call. 2. 2. This document describes optimization strategies for improving the performance of the AHHO.” on page 213. “Best performance is defined by the strongest Ec/Io measurement in the most recent Pilot Strength Measurement Message prior to sat- isfaction of the detection criteria. however this is not the preferred method.1. In this scenario.1. TACS). NAMPS. This hard handoff is alternatively known as “post seam HHO” or “AHHO” (Anchor Hard HandOff). The preferred method uses an intra-cell hard handoff to a single sector.1. The target is chosen from the current active set pilot list using that active set pilot that demonstrates the “best” performance.2 DAHO Trigger Review The DAHO handoff detection criteria is described in Section 7.e. the target selection (antenna) criteria is identical in that the stron- gest active set pilot Ec/Io in the most recent Pilot Strength Measurement Message is used.1 Hard Handoff after Soft Handoff The Release 7 form of inter-CBSC soft handoff requires that some calls go through a hard handoff. Based upon the previous reasoning. Motorola Confidential Proprietary 2.1. there is no ambiguity as to which target will perform best after the HHO as the target “range” is limited to a single pilot. and the target selection criteria. These sectors can also be omni-directional cellsites. Note that the handoff is driven off of a table that describes the number of soft handoff legs supporting the call from “handout” sectors (i. “DAHO optimization strategies.1.” on page 307.2.1 Hard Handoff Problem Description The hard handoff is required to move the selector function (the software/hardware that selects the best reverse link VCELP frames to be converted to PCM) from one CBSC to another. DAHO is always inter-carrier in nature. See Section 8.

More than likely.3 Seam Location 1. At the time of this writing. This implies that all active set pilots. 2. 2. This is expected to further complicate the situation being described. Note that one of the “spotted cells” would be the (1-Way) target of the AHHO.2 AHHO Trigger AHHO trigger criteria is somewhat similar to that of DAHO. there exist at least1 3 active set pilots that could potentially be used to desig- nate a target sector. Page 14 of 20 . AHHO is triggered when no active set pilots sup- porting the call originate from either the “clear” or “striped” cells in the diagram. this will not be the case. inter-carrier) is deemed to be on the order of 92%-97%. Motorola Confidential Proprietary scenario. and the system engineer will be presented with additional optimization tasks to attempt to improve the success of the handoffs.5% while HHO success rate (Pilot Bea- con. In situations where all pilots perform equally well and with excellent FER margin. Note that plans currently exist for implementation of N-Way SHO (Soft HandOff) where N will be greater than 3. It should be the obvious intent of the system designer to minimize AHHO operations2. The criteria for triggering the AHHO occur when: • No active set pilots originate from the “anchor-side” of the CBSC seam. • No active set pilots originate from XCSECT sectors within the target CBSC that are associated with the “anchor- side” of the CBSC seam. Figure 1: Simplified AHHO Seam Construction Layout CBSC #1 CBSC #2 Key CBSC #1 “anchor-side” cell “XCSECT” cell for CBSC #1 CBSC #2 Cell (Not “XCSECT” cell for CBSC #1) CBSC Seam 2. there is little probability of losing the call. originate from the “spotted” cells in the diagram. The purpose of the two trigger criteria is to provide the system designer with tools to cre- ate an inter-CBSC “hysteresis region”. Consider Figure 1 below for a case of a sub- scriber unit moving from left to right. SHO success rate is nominally greater than 99. at the time of AHHO. This is due to the fact that any type of HHO has inherent risk relative to soft handoff operations.

it might not be possible to implement a hysteresis region to suppress ICBSC- SHO “ping-ponging”. • Load-balancing or “re-parenting” of cells under CBSCs. 1. There are a host of issues that the system designer must be cognizant of when designing an inter-CBSC SHO system. This has to do with slew rate by the subscriber unit if the reference pilot needs to be changed (see below). • The RF system performance of power control and soft handoff across inter-CBSC seams. selection criteria should be based upon the fol- lowing list: • Gradual pathloss roll-off. re-parenting causes inter-CBSC seams to placed in locations that are ideal for load-balancing but non-optimal for RF performance. Due to the “width” of the target CBSC region. The sensitivity of the problem to any particular variable is probably location specific. a multi-variable optimization problem. These could be some combination of customer preferences. or pico-. etc. A high velocity subscriber unit moving through a set of micro-. Sometimes. The following is a non-comprehensive list of some issues that should be considered. • No seams in areas of weak RF coverage. cellular structures might be subject to rapidly changing rank ordering of the active set Ec/Io measurements. 2. Motorola Confidential Proprietary The primary goals of the AHHO deployment should be to simultaneously minimize thrashing of the A+ interface (and related switching equipment) while minimizing the number of RFLOSSs associated with AHHO. Thus. causing lack of certainty in the target selection. • Avoid “distant” soft handoff connections where some probability exists of selecting the “distant” cell as the target of the DAHO. BTS/CBSC span backhaul or microwave concerns. or others. 2.4 Optimization Strategy DAHO (Database Assisted HandOff) uses cell configuration information stored in the CBSC/BTS along with the system’s knowledge of which cells/sectors control a particular call. • No low altitude antenna placements that increase the likelihood of NLOS to LOS (or vice versa) transitions. the former goal might be sacrificed in favor of the latter goal. no doubt. Page 15 of 20 . • No seams in areas of non-dominant PN. It is up to the system designer to understand the issues pertinent to his/ her own market and prioritize these issues in rank order appropriate to the circum- stances2 of that market. There may be constraints due to CBSC traffic loading. (future) experience with inter-CBSC SHO performance. Given that none of these constraints is present. etc. In general. frequency planning. This topic is addressed in slightly more detail below. It is inevitable that the system designer will be presented with some number of patholog- ical situations that are vexing in terms of optimality of seam placement. we expect handoff and power control operations to be slower in the inter- CBSC case than in the intra-CBSC case. This has to do with providing equal growth for N CBSCs in the system under consideration. Seam optimization is. constraints due to physical facilities. and that the designer has freedom to choose. This begs the question of urban deployments of ICBSC-SHO. • Deployment restricted to “large” cells only1 • No quick NLOS to LOS or LOS to NLOS transitions. The intent here is to provide a “stable” set of Ec/Io measurements from which to base target selection.

• Proximity to “other” CBSC seams. The resulting target connection reliability would look something like the dia- gram below. As an example. consider the engineer who is faced with the difficulty of improving DAHO success rates while maintaining suc- cess rates for an analog service used by the same antennas. the optomizer needs to be aware of exactly which cells support the call prior to DAHO attempts. or marginal. or volume. T_TDROP. or make pilot dominance from the target perspective. • The algorithm will experience difficulties in handling regions identified as having high utilization of the Fast Pilot Shuffling algorithm. the CBSC chooses values for T_ADD. etc. See Joe Pedziwiatr’s Inter-CBSC SHO web page for further information on seam planning constraints relative to software capabilities in any given CBSC software release. it makes sense that the success rate will be dependent on . • The algorithm will work poorly in regions identified as being poor. The inverse of the situation would be to try and promote early handoff if this was desired. and T_COMP from amongst all the cells in soft handoff. As an example. Some enhancement techniques may be limited by the amount of freedom associated with repositioning antenna mounts. Some specific DAHO optimization tips/techniques: • Keep soft handoff longer with non-border cells (general case) or source CBSC pilots (ICBSC-SHO case): This might be useful in those instances where the optomizer has observed that nominal DAHO procedures are failing due to the location of the handoff. There are some techniques that the optimization engineer can use to enhance the suc- cess of DAHO. Obviously. of CDMA “noise” in the area of interest. For more detail regarding selection of MAHO parameters when in SHO. Both methods may be attempted by varying the T_TDROP timer and/or the value of T_DROP in the area2 of interest. . • Trunk hardware and other possible transmission or interconnect facilities constraints. however this term is largely less descriptive as the real rea- son for non-dominant PN is the amount. • Making areas of pilot dominance: Since the DAHO target selection process is dependent on Ec/Io measurements contained within the Pilot Strength Measurement Message. the technique where XCSECTs are used to create a spatial hysteresis region works to much greater advantage in this case. When in soft handoff. make the handoff drop occur. con- sider target selection from a soft handoff state where several active set pilot Ec/Io’s are represented in the Pilot Strength Measurement Message. 1. Thus. Motorola Confidential Proprietary • AHHO mode performance. . • Keep soft handoff longer with source CBSC pilots (ICBSC-SHO case): This has the benefit of allowing calls more time terminate normally and avoid an AHHO altogether. possibly to a location that is more advantageous to the DAHO algo- rithm. 2. • Proximity to inter-carrier borders. This technique strives to move the handoff location by prolonging connection to non-border cells for a longer period of time. Our current assumptions regarding success of the DAHO procedure are as follows: • The algorithm will work poorly in regions identified as being “non-dominant PN”1. Page 16 of 20 . in terms of RF coverage. Only a portion of this noise is due to actual pilot signals. The term “pilot pollution” has also been used. consult the Handoff and Power Control SFS. T_DROP.

In the worst of all scenarios. Nokia. There are limits to the amount of antenna adjustment in both vertical and hori- zontal planes specifically for the purposes of optimization of ICBSC-SHO before problems appear in other functionality. Motorola Confidential Proprietary Figure 2: Target Reliability as a function of active set Ec/Io Target Connection Reliability Active Set Ec/Io “Delta” dB • Making soft handoff connections to cells that provide better diversity for the Extended Handoff Direction Mes- sage: In some small number of circumstances. re-parent- ing or cells under a CBSC (AHHO case) or moving of inter-carrier boundaries might be warranted. At one time. Note however that both IS-95A and J-STD-008 specify a slew rate range of 3/8 chip per second (slowest) to 1. CSS claimed they would “snap” to the new reference immediately and bypass the slew rate numbers quoted in the specification.5 to 1. non-multi-pilot areas if possible. The specification currently calls for a mini- mum of two contiguous successful forward link frames at the target before the subscriber unit re-enables his trans- mitter to send preamble (as an example. In general. Since the specification is vague. Disaster occurs when the target selection is performed when the subscriber unit is illuminated by the target site and then execution completes when the subscriber unit is shadowed from the target site. An example of a “non-stable” pilot region might be an area where line-of-sight with a cellsite is impeded by several buildings creating a “picket fence” pattern of pilot Ec/Io for that site.6. etc.2. • Since AHHO takes place after completion of soft handoff drop or pilot shuffling operation. it may be that the cause of DAHO failure is inability the subscriber unit. the PSMM might be on the order of 0. it’s anybody’s guess what Qualcomm.6. Obviously within reason. This implies that the handoff areas need to be stable2. Thus. 1.25 chips per second (fastest).8 of J-STD-008). and this particular problem should appear at low rates. 2. these areas should have previously been optimized for soft handoff. Japanese vendors. This could possibly result in some latency in the subscriber unit sending preamble frames on the uplink at the target. • Making soft handoff connections to cells that avoid significant subscriber unit slew activity in the event that the reference pilot is changed because of the DAHO target selection. It’s not really clear to me exactly what the subscriber unit does for timing correction as far as hard handoff is concerned. • PCS optimization might be easier than cellular optimization in that the PCS engineer has more latitude in adjust- ing antenna patterns3 to create coverage or pilot dominance. Samsung. see section 2. Page 17 of 20 . Oki. Change soft handoff parms. 3.0 seconds old (“stale”) by the time the information is used for target selection. to correctly decode the Extended Handoff Direction Message. we have the expectation that timing slew should have ceased by then in those instances where the reference pilot changes1. will do.

Unfortunately. before AHHO. Page 18 of 20 .6 Estimating Post-Seam HHO Performance The figure below demonstrates the correlation between origination and DAHO proce- dures. The enhancement basi- cally treats the above mentioned AHHO triggers as “AHHO trigger enablers” and goes on to further specify new trigger criteria. in order to trigger the AHHO when in 2-way or 3-way soft handoff. the differential (in dB) between the strongest active set pilot and any other active set pilot must be at least T_COMP dB before the handoff is triggered/executed. Motorola Confidential Proprietary 2. While a separate parameter that decouples the two functions was desirable. this presents the system designer/optimizer with the trade-off dilemma between using the T_COMP parameter for optimization of soft handoff and AHHO. 1. Also. • AHHO trigger on any soft handoff operation where the “imbalance” between active set pilot Ec/Io’s (as repre- sented in the Pilot Strength Measurement Message) is above a certain threshold. This is due to the fact that the beacon handoff would always have occurred. their success rate should be quite high. Some number of connections that attempt DAHO will be 1-way connections. only 1 active set pilot). Thus. As good as originations? Figure 3: Origination and DAHO Procedure Comparisons Mobile Origination Procedure DAHO Procedure Idle mode cell selection Active Set pilot rank ordering Mobile Origination Message Pilot Strength Measurement Message Channel Assignment Message Extended Handoff Direction Message 1-Way Connection at target 1-Way Connection at target Time • Some probability that target sector/pilot will also be reference sector/pilot. it was not possible for the software organization to deliver this in time for R7. The intent is to draw attention to the similarities between the two. There are two new trigger criteria: • AHHO trigger on any soft handoff operation that leaves the subscriber unit in a 1-way connection state (i. or even turning around. the mobile has some very small probability of stopping. • Some probability that the AHHO will never occur as call may terminate normally.5 AHHO Enhancements At this writing.e. an enhancement is being proposed for the R7 release of inter-CBSC that is thought to improve the target selection portion of the AHHO. As long as these are not coverage limited scenarios. For R7. 2. the imbalance threshold will be specified by using the T_COMP parameter1.

• New terms for microcells and umbrella cells. Page 19 of 20 .7 Joe’s Bullets • Notes on Ec/Io statistics from Pilot Strength Measurement Message. • HHO terms from Barry’s slides. Motorola Confidential Proprietary See my slides!!!! 2.

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PrimeCo Chicago uses “bands” of alternating carriers as shown in Figure 4.8. Motorola Confidential Proprietary 2. Page 21 of 26 .4 DAHO 2. F2 Lake CBSC-2. F2 Figure 4: June 1997 PrimeCo Chicago Configuration With the addition of another CBSC.5 PrimeCo Chicago Proposal As of 6/5/97.3 Traffic Planning 2.8. They also need to start con- figuring their system for Release 7 which has InterCBSC SHO. They also maximize the number of Pilot Beacons between the CBSCs as the coverage areas are long and nar- row.8.1 Use of Pilot Beacon 2. The Release 7 version of SHO requires three layers of BTSs to complete the SHO which presents a problem with narrow coverage areas. the configuration will look like Figure 5.2 Use of Frequency Hopping Pilot Beacon 2. F1 CBSC-4.8. PrimeCo now needs multiple carriers because of call traffic.8 Inter-CBSC and Inter Carrier Hard Handoff 2. CBSC-1.8. CBSC-2s coverage area is roughly 2 to 3 cells wide. These configurations provide isolation between like carriers.

Figure 7 shows a PrimeCo Chicago configuration that meets the objectives of minimized seam cells and multiple carriers. The drawbacks with this configuration are: 1.6 Hong Kong Configuration Author: Lau Patrick Q13187 at icid Date: 2/20/97 22:27 Page 22 of 26 . A large coverage area may allow the border with CBSC-1 to be at a low traffic area. Motorola Confidential Proprietary CBSC-3. The reduction in the number of carriers available to carry traffic at the seam 2. F2 CBSC-2.8. F1 Lake CBSC-1. This requires a circular config- uration. To minimize these drawbacks. F2 Figure 5: Late 1997 PrimeCo Chicago Configuration The Hong Kong Systems Engineers have tested? a configuration shown in Figure 6. CBSC-2’s coverage area would be made as large as possible and still handle the load until Release 7 is available. the number of BTSs within the seams should be maxi- mized while minimizing the number of BTSs on the seam. F1 CBSC-4. This strategy uses the Pilot Beacon frequency to carry traffic between the beacons. Two hard handoffs to cross a seam. 2.

Motorola Confidential Proprietary F2 Beacon F2 Beacon F2 PPS+TCH (PPS) F2 PPS+TCH (PPS) F2 PPS+TCH F1 Beacon F1 Beacon F1 PPS+TCH (PPS) F1 PPS+TCH (PPS) CBSC #1 CBSC #2 CBSC #3 Figure 6: Wall-To-Wall Pilot Beacon CBSC-3. F1 Figure 7: Late 1997 PrimeCo Chicago Configuration Priority: Normal TO: Cheng TakLok Q12466M at #EMAIL Page 23 of 26 . CBSC-1. F1 Lake CBSC-2. F2 F1 & F2 CBSC-4.

6.8. All cages need to be calibrated for a range of frequencies rather than one single frequency. Page 24 of 26 . However. it seems like we cannot utilise this approach with 2 traffic carrier right now. there will be a need for the HK CDMA system to support 120 . Pilot beacon seems to be the only solution at the moment.8.150k with the current Rel 5 software.6. This change will require an outage for the entire CBSC and its related sites. This will allow us to reconfigure different cages to transmit at different frequencies more flexibly. 2. Motorola Confidential Proprietary TO: Ip Tim w10691 (Ip Tim W10691C) TO: Tse Thomas CHK010 (Tse Thomas CHK010c) TO: Dubberstein Steve CLXR04 at #EMAIL TO: Chan Joe Q12656M at #EMAIL TO: Chan Simon Q12202M at #EMAIL TO: Kwok Dragon q12753 at #EMAIL TO: Cheng Clement Q12472 TO: Wu William Q13681 TO: Ng WaiKeung Q12436 TO: Tong Simon W10557C at KT_PO TO: Cheng Raymond Q12056c at KT_PO TO: Chan KitWing Q12397 at KC_PO TO: Wong Alex Q12457 CC: Ngan S. and access channels must be changed such that the first cage will always be transmitting the primary frequency.1 Database setting requirement 1.2 Hardware/Calibration requirement 1. it seems we can only guarantee to have clean CDMA carrier for one single frequncy per cage. With the calibration procedure right now. 2. All the cage mapping including paging. in order to have a good handover success rate across the CBSC boundary. sync. This will require site outage should we elected to do this on a site by site basis. 2.K. with a different setup in the database. Q11669 at #EMAIL Subject: Implementing Pilot Beacon with 2 Traffic carrier Abstract Based on Hutchison’s CDMA system requirement. However. it has been proven that we can idea have a 2 traffic carrier system while using the beacon approach. Nonetheless. Configure Frequency F1 = 241 and F2 = 283 for one CBSC while the neighbor- ing CBSC(s) will have F1 = 283 and F2 = 241.

After cage remapping. creating some simple but extra hardware and database reconfigurations due to boundary movement. this problem may possibly go away. we need to evaluate the extent of this issue through some field trial later. Page 25 of 26 . On crossing the boundary. It seems only allowing users to access the Non beacon carrier will create some imbalance between the carriers. Need to ensure both cages are functioning properly and traffic channel cards are balanced between different frequencies in order to allow us to swap transmis- sion frequency if required. Advantage of Pilot Beacon from the RF perspective can still be maintained as most users will cross the boundary through an intercarrier approach. intra cbsc inter carrier hard handoff is no longer required for those calls live in the same cbsc handing into the beacon sites. CBSC Boundary must be defined beforehand based on traffic pattern. 4. Motorola Confidential Proprietary 2. This will no doubt create some dropped calls. In having traffic channels for the beacon sites/ sectors. Hardware installation and re-adjustment may be necessary prior to implementation. Reduction/Removal of Intra -CBSC inter carrier hard handoff : Currently.4 Advantages 1.8. This will allow both the database and hardware to be re-located properly before implemen- tation. we suspect that this is due to the Mobile origination algorithm. 3. users using the beacon carrier will experience one intra carrier. we have the option to allow this beacon to be used as full traffic carrier while minimising the impact of intra carrier hard handover. This can directly increase the capacity of our system especially for those stationary or calls with low mobility. call test must be performed to ensure that the right cage is transmitting the right frequency. This will no doubt in increasing the chance drop call. 3. 2. 2.3 Systems engineering issues 1. 2. we have to set our database such that those sites residing in the same CBSC must do hard handoff into a beacon site. 2.6. However. By using the beacon carrier as a handoff only carrier. loading on the non beacon carrier can be reduced.5 Tradeoff 1.6. 2. Partial loading reduction for the non beacon carrier : Since handoff traffic can still be allowed to access the beacon carrier. All second cages must be verified and the degree of load sharing between dif- ferent carriers must be monitored. inter CBSC Hard handoff first before he can be settled into a stronger non beacon carrier. The beacon carrier will remain as soft handoff target mainly. Should Hutchison decide to take the risk. 3.8. Blocking reduction : Blocking (origination and termination) has been recorded for many of the beacon sites since its implementation. 2.8.6.

practice on database preparation.6. Motorola Confidential Proprietary 2.g. Each party should study the time frame involved and individual needs e. Regards Patrick Page 26 of 26 .6 Conclusion Since the implementation of this setup will require participation from all of the Hong Kong operation departments. Nonetheless. all effort involved for this change could well prove to be worthwhile in meeting many of the Hutchison demand.8. call testing and verification of channel infor- mation.

Motorola Confidential Proprietary 2.9.9.9 Inter-CBSC and Inter Carrier Soft Handoff 2.1 Use of Pilot Beacon 2.2 Use of Frequency Hopping Pilot Beacon Page 27 of 28 .

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Motorola Confidential Proprietary 2.10.2 DAHO Page 29 of 30 .10.10 InterCBSC and Intra Carrier Hard Handoff 2.1 Traffic Planning 2.

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12 IntraCBSC and Inter Carrier Hard Handoff 2.12.2 Use of Frequency Hopping Pilot Beacon 2.12.3 Traffic Planning 2.4 DAHO Page 33 of 34 .12.12. Motorola Confidential Proprietary 2.1 Use of Pilot Beacon 2.

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13.2 Use of Frequency Hopping Pilot Beacon Page 35 of 36 . Motorola Confidential Proprietary 2.1 Use of Pilot Beacon 2.13.13 IntraCBSC and Inter Carrier Soft Handoff 2.

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Motorola Confidential Proprietary 2.14.2 DAHO Page 37 of 38 .1 Traffic Planning 2.14 IntraCBSC and Intra Carrier Hard Handoff 2.14.

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15 IntraCBSC and Intra Carrier Soft Handoff Page 39 of 40 . Motorola Confidential Proprietary 2.

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Intra-Carrier. Soft Handoffadding and subtracting RF connections during a call between the mobile station and the infrastructure without interrupting the audio.1 Summary With planning of hard handoff location and careful selection of hard handoff parameters.6 Hard Handoff General Operation 3.1 General Operation Intra-carrier hard handoff detection is accomplished when the CBSC receives a Pilot Page 41 of 48 .XSect . Intra-Cell 3. the mobile station drops all if it’s current RF connections to the infrastructure. each of Motorola’s hard handoff solutions are described.4 Organization The next section defines terms used in this document. no CDMA vendors currently support inter-vendor soft handoffs which forces hard handoffs between CDMA vendor boundaries. Moving a call from one carrier to another carrier requires a hard handoff.6. the negative impacts of inter-CBSC hard handoffs can be minimized. Intra-carrierwithin the same carrier.Pilot Beacon (in development) . 3. 3. possibly retunes it’s synthesizer to another carrier.3 Scope and Audience This document provides general hard handoff guidelines to Motorola Systems Engineers. Similarly. For example. the hard handoff location and parameters must be carefully planned.0 CDMA Handoff Deployment & Optimization 3. The audio path is interrupted between the dropping of the original paths and reestablishing the new paths. (Compare with Soft Handoff. Motorola Confidential Proprietary 3. Following that. handing off from F1 in Cell A to F2 in Cell B. and reestablishes at least one RF connection with the infrastructure. 3. For example.Database Assisted HandOff (in development) . handing off from F1 in Cell A to F1 in Cell B. the hard handoff operation is described.2 Statement of the Problem The early versions of CBSC software do not support inter-CBSC soft handoff which forces the use of hard handoffs between CBSC boundaries. Hard handoffs cause audio interruptions and increased dropped call rates in the hard handoff regions.5 Definitions Hard Handoffduring a call. To minimize audio interruptions and dropped calls. 3. Motorola currently the following solutions to the hard handoff problem: . After the definitins.) Inter-carrierbetween two different carriers.

there is a certain amount of processing and message passing on the part of the CBSC that must occur upon each hard handoff execution. In addition.34 and v1. however inter-CBSC hard handoff execution times will probably never be below 500 milliseconds. T_COMP is used as a vehicle for hysteresis in the process with the amount of hysteresis proportionate to the value T_COMP is assigned.1 Intra-Carrier Hard Handoff Optimization Given the philosophy above. the amount of hysteresis used in combating the “ping-pong” phenomenon must selected with care.7 Pilot Beacon 3. In addition to this. F1 Pilot Beacon F1 Traffic Channels BTS 1 BTS 2 CBSC 1 CBSC 2 3. and perhaps even at their maximum values. • Mobile station latency: Qualcomm has communicated to us that all versions of mobile station software are late in reporting T_COMP events via the Pilot Strength Measurement Message.60 phones indicate that the delay might be 2 to 3 times as long. especially at slow speeds.e. • Extended Handoff Direction Message success rate: Given the discussion on mobile station sensitivity above. The quickest that a mobile will respond with such an event is 250 milliseconds after the change has occurred in the RF domain. it is apparent that successful delivery of the Extended Handoff Direction Message to the mobile station is difficult in “high-noise” regions (i. There are a few things that can be tried to help this situation. target pilot) is large should be avoided. When this happens. • T_COMP parameter: The Qualcomm mobile station demonstrates poor sensitivity (relative to simulated- expected) in the seam region. hard handoff also forces the MSC and target CBSC to be involved as well. a target channel is set up in the target CBSC and then the mobile is instructed (via the Extended Handoff Direction Message) to change the active set pilot(s). • Infrastructure latency: Just as in soft handoff. Thus.5 dB.7. the seam). there are several other factors which affect the success rate of hard handoff. the implications are that successful hard handoff is a strong function of the deployment methodology. Motorola Confidential Proprietary Strength Measurement Message that reveals a candidate pilot (which is an XSECT in the database) appears T_COMP dB above all active set pilots. situations where the time-rate- of-change of the interfering pilot (i. it may be that T_COMP cannot take on val- ues any greater than 0. in the seam Page 42 of 48 . The first is to keep forward traffic channel gains as high as possible. In some instances. Future versions of CBSC and MSC software will attempt to par- allelize the handoff process to the greatest extent possible. Thus. See below for more details. Lab measurements of v1.e.

An example of this would be the situation in Tate’s Cairn Tunnel in HK where the entrance is blocked by a large vehicle and the source cell “goes away”. As a special note. Unfortunately. • No seams parallel to high traffic flow. 5. Motorola Confidential Proprietary cells. 4. their implementation is not in the near term. Increasing the number of repeats from 3 (default?) to 6 (maximum “sensible” value) may increase the message delivery rate in some slight way. • Deployment restricted to “large” cells only. • Preferably one to one or many to one transitions. Non-line-of-sight. For fairly large cells. separating two cellsites on either side of a CBSC seam. This should increase the probability of 2-way and 3-way soft handoff in those border cells in which the topology favors pilot coverage at T_ADD Ec/Io’s. • No quick LOS to NLOS transitions (source cell(s)). While solutions of this type might fall into the “tractable” category.2 and the value for timer T3m. going in the opposite direction. it is possible that scenarios will present themselves that allow for multiple handoff regions along a line. This only works in low noise. See IS-95A section 6. 3. Each “salvo” is 320 millisec- onds long2 and contains a number of attempts equal to the L2 Num_Repeats count. you’d have a situation where the transition is one to many . successful intra-carrier hard handoff deployment is characterized by: • Gradual pathloss roll-off.8 Intra-Carrier Hard Handoff Deployment Tips In general. 2. low traffic conditions. Page 43 of 48 . We all agree that the case of being in soft handoff at the source cell(s) is advantageous in that we can use the site-to-site “macrodiversity” side benefit of SHO to assist in increasing the probability that the Extended Handoff Direction Message will be delivered successfully5. The number of “salvos” will soon be increased to 7. or even eliminated. • Multiple handoff regions: Due to the nature of radio-wave propagation. Once again. 3. DSD is considering basing hard handoff detection upon phase measurements made by channel elements.6. • No seams in high traffic areas. Some handoffs may be completely unnecessary in the sense that a propagation condition that would trigger a hard handoff comes and goes very quickly due to mobile (vehicle) movement.3. • No quick NLOS3 to LOS4 transitions (target cell(s)). An example of this would be the Tai Po Harbor situation in HK.1. we mean a single target cell. The second is a drastic measure where the amount of power devoted to the paging and synchronization channels is reduced.4. It might be that conditions would allow the usage of sec- 1. Line-of-sight. • No low altitude antenna placements that increase the likelihood of NLOS to LOS (or vice versa) transitions. care must be taken in using this parameter as soft handoff with cells/sectors on the same side of the CBSC seam is dependent on the value that the parameter takes. • Seams placed perpendicular to high traffic flow. • Seams in areas where traffic moves with relatively high speed such that the probability of ping-ponging due to extended "straddling" of the handoff zone is reduced. The “Fast Pilot Shuffling” feature will allow us to specify lower values for the T_ADD parameter in the seam cells. By this. • Cells far enough apart to make use of neighbor search windows to help in suppression of ping-ponging.definitely a situation we’d like to avoid. it may be possible to use the neighbor search window to make the mobile station “blind” to the target pilot until the mobile is well within the overlap region1. or road. • Number of L2 repeats: The current intra-carrier hard handoff algorithm specifies four “salvos” of Extended Hand- off Direction Message attempts.

Motorola Confidential Proprietary torized sites at the CBSC borders to make the target cells unambiguous and to limit the amount of SHO at the bor- der. • No seams in areas of weak RF coverage. • No sector boundaries for a cell that cross high volume traffic paths in expected handoff locations.10 Inter-CBSC Hard Handoff With Pilot Beacons Page 44 of 48 . • Seams should be optimized for soft handoff 3.9 Inter-Carrier Hard Handoff With Pilot Beacons (Multi-Carrier) : F1 Traffic Channels F1 Pilot Beacon F2 Traffic Channels BTS 1 BTS 2 Path of mobile station Trigger Point 3. • Deployment scheme that makes use of natural or man-made terrain features to either limit the number of HHO transitions or limit the amount of “other cell noise” coupling between the two CBSC service areas. This was the tactic that the HK team was using (look at an elevation map of HK). The seam area should be “interference-limited” and not “noise-limited”.

1/2 of all handoffs (assuming symmetrical mobility and carrier distribution per CBSC) are intra-carrier in nature.) Hong Kong R6 Inter-CBSC Solution F3 Beacon (PPS) F3 PPS+TCH F2 PPS+TCH F2 Beacon (PPS) F1 PPS+TCH F1 PPS+TCH CBSC Seam CBSC #1 CBSC #2 Page 45 of 48 . Motorola Confidential Proprietary Figure #8. Figure #9.) Ideal Inter-CBSC Hard Handoff With 4 RF Carriers (R5) F4 Beacon (PPS) F4 PPS+TCH F3 PPS+TCH F3 Beacon (PPS) F2 PPS+TCH F2 Beacon (PPS) F1 Beacon (PPS) F1 PPS+TCH CBSC Seam CBSC #1 CBSC #2 The figure below shows the solution that the Hong Kong account team is proposing. Note that carrier F1 is ubiquitous in the system due to the IS-95 “Primary” CDMA channel requirement. In addition.

This should not be communicated to the customer. Motorola currently supports this type of handoff in an effort to preserve active calls that traverse (different) CBSC service areas. In general. Kowalewski Rolf. Bruckert Gene. intra-carrier hard handoff performance is not as good as that of soft/softer handoff. Jim Aldrich GWI.11. The items in this memo are. Welk John Tom. Menich Barry. common sense.May '97 To: Hulsebosch Tom Cc: Bonta Jeff.1 Single Cell Intra-Carrier Hard Handoff This memo serves to provide general guidelines regarding deployment of intra-carrier (same RF carrier). Motorola Confidential Proprietary Figure #10. May 7. however some are gleaned from practical experience in our Hong Kong market. Campbell Neal. however no tractable solutions have presented themselves. The business case Page 46 of 48 . inter-cell (between 2 different cells) hard handoff.11 DAHO and Inter-CBSC Soft Handoff 3. DSD is working on the problem. This is just a little note to lobby you for a favorable treatment of Mony Hassid's patent dis- closure for intra-carrier CDMA hard handoff up for review on the 15th. Note that “seam” in this discussion designates an area where handoff needs to take place between two different CBSCs.2 Dual Cell Intra-Carrier Hard Handoff Mony Hassid’s idea. Frank Miller. to a great degree. From: Menich Barry on Wed.11. Schuler Joe. 1997 9:30 AM Subject: Mony Hassid Disclosure . Kotzin Mike. 3.) Hong Kong R5 Inter-CBSC Solution F2 Beacon F2 PPS+TCH (PPS) F2 PPS+TCH F1 Beacon F1 PPS+TCH (PPS) F1 PPS+TCH CBSC Seam CBSC #1 CBSC #2 3.

but as you know. This could be a stop-gap measure for some markets with inter- CBSC handoff problems caused by lack of spectrum (Korea? AirTouch?). The business downside is the need for some extra equipment. -Barry Page 47 of 48 . my opinion is that this is a tractable solution that requires no CBSC software modification and I support some kind of mini- trial somewhere (LA?). In addition. For what it's worth. Mony already has some preliminary spreadsheet results and will follow-up with some static simulation ideas. I'm available for technical consultation with any of the committee members that want to discuss this. Motorola Confidential Proprietary here for Motorola is clear. we already have that problem (to some degree) with pilot beacons. The technical merits of the disclosure will obviously be judged by the committee mem- bers at the time of the review.

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Motorola Confidential Proprietary 3.12 Nondominant PN Page 49 of 50 .

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Motorola Confidential Proprietary 3. Motorola’s solution to inter-CBSC handoff was an inter-carrier solution utilizing pilot beacon hardware. A subscriber unit. This memo outlines a possible near term “work-around” for the problem. Ltd. idle-mode handoff problems have been observed that cause lapses in system acquisition by the subscriber unit. “active set”. • Subscriber unit determines that coverage of current active set cell (cell #1) is no longer adequate and that beacon cell pilot (also F1) is superior in terms of Ec/Io. etc. Solution Description The nature of the solution involves a characteristic of the R5.g. “neighbor set”.13 Idle mode handoff TO: PCS PrimeCo. is traversing the seam from left to right and is currently monitoring the paging channel for CBSC #1 on F1. the CDMA Channel List Message on the paging channel and the Sync Channel Message body on the synchronization channel can be used on pilot beacon carriers to force the subscriber unit to re-tune it’s frequency synthesizer to the over-laid (non-beacon) RF carrier. • The subscriber unit then begins monitoring the paging channel (on F1) at the beacon site (cell #2) and recovers the CDMA_FREQ field from the CDMA Channel List Message body. J-STD-008 uses the identical terminology (e. • Subscriber unit determines that CDMA_FREQ S ≠ CDMA_FREQ R such that a frequency retune is required. Maria Martinez. 1) which depicts hypothetical control flow for subscriber unit idle-mode activity. FROM: Motorola CDMA Development Group RE: Idle-mode Handoff Problem at CBSC Seams and Possible “Work-around” CC: Graham Haddock. Page 51 of 54 . • Subscriber unit recovers the CDMA_FREQ field from the synchronization Sync Channel Message body. The sequence of events is as follows: • Subscriber unit monitors pilot Ec/Io and paging channel FER of current idle-mode active set1 cell (cell #1) on fre- quency F1. 1. John Thode As you know. • Subscriber unit changes active set pilot to beacon cell (cell #2) and monitors synchronization channel.) to describe both idle- mode and tch-mode pilots. CBSC #1 (cell #1) and #2 (cell #2) are to the left and right of the seam respectively. Consider the simple diagram below (Fig. in idle-mode. Because of the particular implementation. Traffic channel RF carriers F1 and F2 are also deployed to the left and right of the seam respectively.1 CBSC software load that requires that all carriers at a BTS/sector transmit identical parameter information on synchronization and paging channels. The “work-around” proposed has already been tested by another Motorola CDMA infrastructure customer and appears to provide relief from some idle-mode handoff problems associated with the inter-CBSC deployment. In particular.

established (F1)? Scan other PNs. Yes possibly other Current RF carriers. we will only have to add one overhead MCC for each sector that is involved in the beacon hand-off. RF Yes carrier in CDMA Chan List Msg? Subscriber Unit retunes to RF carrier in CDMA Subscriber Unit Chan List Msg camps on beacon and monitors signal (undesired synch/paging outcome) Equipage Procedural Detail Given that the beacon sites are already provisioned. etc. No paging channel coverage Acquire new cell exhausted? synchronization channel Yes Acquire new cell paging channel Obtain neighbor (F1 beacon) cell sample Current RF No carrier. Figure #4 Subscriber Unit Traversing CBSC Seam Start Scan current Beacon active paging cell coverage No channel.EQ. Motorola Confidential Proprietary • Subscriber unit retunes from F1 (beacon) to F2 (TCH bearing pilot) at cell #2 and begins monitoring synchroniza- tion channel. Below (in bold font) is an example of commands that should be run in order to provision the new overhead MCC's and alter the channel list: add sch-bts#-sector#-carrier#-sch# add pch-bts#-sector#-carrier#-pch# Page 52 of 54 .

Pilot Beacon Output Power Since the addition paging and synchronization channels to the beacon carriers will result in an additional 2. then the above edit will link the channellist to F1. Nevertheless.) add mcc-bts#-sector#-mcc# SRCHAN0= SRCHAN1= SRCHAN2=0-0-0-0 SRCHAN3=0-0-0-0 SRCHAN4=0-0-0-0 SRCHAN5=0-0-0-0 SRCHAN6=0-0-0-0 SRCHAN7=0-0-0-0 MODE=ONEOCG MCCTYPE=MCC8 (By linking the srchan's to 0-0-0-0. if the site has traffic on F2 and the beacon on F1. inhibit all channel elements. So. If that happens. simply disable/enable the cage controlling gli (in this case. In addition.) edit sch-bts#-sector#-carrier#-sch# link ce=bts#-mcc#-1 edit pch-bts#-sector#-carrier#-pch# link ce=bts#-mcc#-0 (This will link the paging and sync channels to MCC. field engineers should be alert for undesirable changes in handoff locations.) edit carrier-bts#-sector#-carrier# channellist chan1=1 or 2 (depending on side) If the site has traffic on F1 and the beacon is F2. then the edit will link the channellist to F2. it might be necessary in some situations to reassess beacon output power and adjust (upward) accordingly. This has been monitored by both customer and Motorola personnel and is estimated to take Page 53 of 54 . the Qualcomm subscriber unit will attempt to scan all PN-space on the current carrier (while at the beacon site) before aborting and retuning to another carrier for system acquisition attempts. This allows us to add the card without using up valid timeslots. will most probably manifest themselves between beacon sites. Motorola Confidential Proprietary (Do not provision an ach as we do not want the mobile to access the beacons. should they occur. it is most likely due to the gli_dev_map not getting updated real-time.67 dB of extra output power. the database is informed that we wish to add a card without traffic channels. The expectation is that this should be a rare occurrence given that beacon output powers in the PrimeCo markets were adjusted by “feel” rather than by some analytical technique. gli-3. activate mcc cutover mcc enable mcc There is a possibility that the MCC may not come INS. In order to "work-around" this problem if it is seen. SyncCdmaFreq parameter in the Sync Channel Message will get set to the same frequency as is specified in the Channellist Message.) The above changes will link the beacon's channellist to the frequency of the traffic cage and allow the mobile to re-tune to the frequency specified in the message. Expectation for Empirical Results The desired result from deployment of this technique is quicker response time by the subscriber unit in acquiring the synch/paging channels of the TCH-bearing RF carrier at the target cell during a seam transition. a mobile powering-up in the zone could re-tune without having to acquire paging. and will. With the current deployment. in turn. Conversely. These changes.

The “ping-pong” phenomenon may be exacerbated by the lack of paging and synchronization channels in the beacon sites. The goal of any testing is to observe decreased system unavailability of the Pilot/Page/Synch beacon sites relative to the Pilot-only sites. The other area1 would be equipped with the relevant hardware and provisioned with synch/paging channels as discussed previously. 1. Motorola’s recommendation is that 2 seam transition areas be identified for testing purposes. no guarantee that this will occur and Motorola will continue to investigate. Motorola Confidential Proprietary no less than several seconds. however one hypothesis offered attempts to explain the problem via the mechanism of the “ping-pong” phenomenon associated with idle-mode scanning. One area would serve as a control for purposes of data comparison. Page 54 of 54 . See next section “CFC Problem”. or elimination. mitigation. If possible. the experimental area should be chosen from those seam cells that exhibit high CFC5 counts. or idle-mode “ping-pongs” should place the subscriber unit well within the reverse link range of the over-laid TCH cell and hopefully reduce the CFC5 counts in these regions. the subscriber is inhibited from placing call attempts or receiving pages. There is. however. During this period. Motorola is still investigating this problem. Because of the reduced beacon footprint relative to the over-laid TCH cell at the beacon sites. CFC5 Problem Motorola field engineers have observed that higher occurrence of CFC5 problems appears to be associated with CBSC seams.

14. Motorola Confidential Proprietary 3.1 micro-cell 3.14 PN Planning 3.14.2 in-building Sam Fernandez e-mail Page 55 of 56 .

Motorola Confidential Proprietary Page 56 of 56 .

Reverse engineering of any or all of the information in this document is prohibited. This document contains trade secrets of Motorola. or disclosed. The copyright notice does not imply publication of this document. 1996 Version#: 1. or published.0 Supersedes Version#: Preliminary Reviewed Inspected Reviewed By: Location: HP -> /usr/test/adv_sys/cdma/documentation/stolen/fernandez/pn_planning MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL PROPRIETARY This document and the information contained in it is CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION of Motorola. Date: June 17. . The copyright notice does not imply publication of this document. or disclosed. MOTOROLA CUSTOMER CONFIDENTIAL Information contained herein is proprietary to Motorola and DSC. This document contains trade secrets of Motorola. The importance of the PILOT_INC parameter is explained. DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: PN Offset Planning User Presentation Samuel D. Fernandez Abstract This document provides an overview of factors impacting PN Offset Planning in a CDMA System. or published. for whose benefit confidentiality shall be maintained. MOTOROLA INTERNAL USE ONLY This document and the information contained in it is for INTERNAL USE ONLY for Motorola. or disseminated outside of Motorola in whole or in part without Motorola’s consent. GENERAL CELLULAR INFORMATION Information contained herein is intended for use by Motorola and customers of Motorola (current or future). or dissem- inated outside of Motorola in whole or in part without Motorola’s consent. Reverse engineering of any or all of the information in this document is prohibited. and shall not be used. and shall not be used.

. Fernandez • First Release . 1996. It is anticipated that further changes will be made especially in consideration of planning on a border. This was after presentations to both PrimeCo and GTE. Revision History 1.contains the presentation as it was made to BANM on June 4.0 06/17/96 Samuel D.

This interference in the ‘active’ area and involve the active search window (SRCH ■ A neighbor set pilot may falsely appear strong enough for the M the pilot to the candidate set and recommend to the BS to p handoff ‘add’ via the PSMM. This ‘falsing’ would occur in the ‘n and involve the neighbor search window (SRCH_WIN_N). Page 59 of 80 . Motorola Confidential Proprietary Consequences of poor offset plannin ■ Interference may occur for an active set pilot. ■ A signal may travel far enough so as to be incorrectly identifie when it translates the MS reported phase into a PILOT_PN.

co-channel interference was managed via the antenna configuration and the re-use patte adjacent-channel interference was managed through the application of a simple frequency pla With the CDMA channel. Offset 4 can interfere w 4. If the PILOT_INC is chosen carefully. 2). Motorola Confidential Proprietary Co and Adjacent Offsets The possible sources of interference and falsing include the ‘co’ and adjacent offset In analog. all sites reuse the same frequency. Interference isolation is obtained via sh (inter-sector) and walsh codes (intra-sector). there should be little concern with 2 interfering w Page 60 of 80 . 2 4 6 8 1 The ‘valid’ set of offsets is limited to multiples of PILOT_INC (in this example.

What is the impact of changing PILOT_INC? ■ Remaining Set Pilot scanning rate ■ Mis-identification by the Base Station ■ Protects against falsing/interference associated with Adjacent Co-offsets) Page 61 of 80 . Motorola Confidential Proprietary Impact of PILOT_INC The setting of PILOT_INC is fundamental to the PN Offset Plan design.

Motorola Confidential Proprietary Scan Rate for Remaining Set Pilots • Remaining Set pilots are assigned a lower priority in the order. A remaining set pilot is scanned N times slower neighbor (where N is the number of remaining pilots). And all neighbors are scanned between rem pilots. All actives/candidates are scanned between neig remaining. [ facturer specific] • IS-98 specifies no performance criteria for remaining se • A remaining set pilot that appears strong enough (and l enough) to recommend promotion to active needs analy haps it should be a neighbor (or have its coverage adju • Motorola does not currently honor any requests to ente handoff with a remaining set pilot. Page 62 of 80 .

• Note the relationship between PILOT_INC and SRCH_WIN_N. • For PILOT_INC = 3. Motorola Confidential Proprietary Mis-identification by the Base Station PILOT_INC = 3 = spacing between ‘v 0 3 6 9 12 pilot phase reported by MS in PSMM 0 3 6 9 12 SRCH_WIN_N • The BS uses PILOT_INC to translate the pilot phase into a pilot pn offset.4 km = 7. • You may want to ask yourself whether it is expected for a MS to interact with a BS at a d than PILOT_INC/2 away. If a signal tra greater than PILOT_INC/2 than it may be misidentified by the BS. PILOT_INC/2 = 3 x 64 chips / 2 = 96 chips = 23. It is a rule that SRCH always smaller PILOT_INC.8 R (w/R Page 63 of 80 .

thi corresponds to 3 x 64 .S • An offset must traverse a minimum distance PILOT_INC able to fall into the window of the adjacent offset.30 = 162 chips = 39.5 = 13.30 chips. Motorola Confidential Proprietary Protection Against Adjacent Offsets PILOT_INC 3 6 SRCH_WIN_N = +/.2 R (w/R = 3 km). • For PILOT_INC = 3 and SRCH_WIN_N = +/.5 km = 24. Page 64 of 80 .

8 106.6 Page 65 of 80 .5 13 203.9 8 124.3 67.2 14 218.8 29.6 135.3 10 156.2 7 109.0 126.0 11 171.7 12 187.5 87.4 3 46.7 58.5 6 93.4 116.2 145.8 5 78.2 19.9 77.9 15 234.1 4 62.5 38.6 9.1 48. Motorola Confidential Proprietary Table: PILOT_INC vs Distance Distance Distance Pilot_Inc (km) (miles) 1 15.7 2 31.6 9 140.2 97.

Motorola Confidential Proprietary Selecting PILOT_INC PILOT_INC LO HI CO_OFFSET Good Protection ??? ADJACENT OFFSET ??? Good Protection COMMENTS More Offsets Fewer Offsets Larger Reuse Pattern Smaller Reuse Patte Larger D/R Smaller D/R marginal co-offset? 1 2 3 4 5 6 only for small marginal adjacent offset ? Page 66 of 80 .

0. ■ At this point. D. m >= 5. ■ A smaller PILOT_INC delivers larger number of valid offsets reuse pattern. the likelihood of co-offse diminishes.31 x (R+s). As the D/R increases. a ⁄ ( law × 10 ) m ≥ ( R + s ) × ( 10 – 1) For a = 24 dB C/I and law = 3. Motorola Confidential Proprietary Approach with small PILOT_INC/large cl ■ Determine a PILOT_INC which delivers a sufficient interferen against adjacent interference. and PILOT_INC may tell us. Page 67 of 80 . it may be possible to adopt any reuse pattern an high degree of confidence that we are protected against both adjacent offset interference. ■ Is there anything we can do to optimize the reuse pattern? A of the reuse distance.

5 10 10 24 3 106 2 256 2 8 10 24 3 96 2 256 Page 68 of 80 . Motorola Confidential Proprietary PILOT_INC determinations Table 3-1: Pilot Sequence Offset Index Assignment R R PILOT number a (C/I in (radius in (radius in s (chips) law m (chips) _INC of valid dB) km) chips) (offsets) offsets 7 29 10 24 3 207 4 128 5 21 10 24 3 165 3 170 3 12 10 24 3 117 2 256 2.

Motorola Confidential Proprietary PN Offset Plan: PILOT_INC = 3 5 18 31 44 9 6 19 32 45 10 23 7 20 33 46 11 24 25 8 21 34 47 12 13 26 39 22 35 48 1 14 27 40 36 37 2 15 28 41 •48 cell cluster 38 3 16 29 42 •Alpha Sector Offset = 9N - 4 17 30 43 Beta Sector Offset =9N Gamma Sector Offset =9N •There are 26 remaining o can be organized into 8 separate sites. Page 69 of 80 .

Motorola Confidential Proprietary PN Offset Plan: PILOT_INC = 2 45 53 38 46 54 62 70 •73 cell cluster 39 47 55 63 71 6 14 31 •Alpha Sector Offset = 6N . 61 69 4 12 20 28 36 44 5 13 21 29 37 22 30 Page 70 of 80 .4 32 40 48 56 64 72 7 15 23 Beta Sector Offset =6N 41 49 57 65 73 8 16 24 Gamma Sector Offset =6N 42 50 58 66 1 9 17 25 33 •There are 37 remaining of 51 59 67 2 10 18 26 34 can be organized into 52 60 68 3 11 19 27 35 43 sites.

37 cell cluster 30 3 13 23 33 4 14 24 34 •Alpha Sector Offset = 9N . Page 71 of 80 .3 • There are 57 remaining offsets which can be organized rate 2-ring cluster of 19 sites.6 Beta Sector Offset =9N Gamma Sector Offset =9N . Motorola Confidential Proprietary A different look at PILOT_INC = 3 5 15 25 35 5 16 26 36 9 53 6 7 17 27 37 10 20 54 4 8 18 28 1 11 21 31 47 19 29 2 12 22 32 4 •3-Ring.

70 1 8 3 97 17.2 ring Motorola Confidential Proprietary 4 1 21 7.12 3 7 0 49 12.64 5 6 0 36 10.12 3 6 2 52 12.55 8 <--.00 6 4 2 28 9.66 6 3 3 27 9.87 2 6 5 91 16.49 3 7 1 57 13.80 2 5 5 75 15.58 15 <--- 3 0 9 5.75 2 8 0 64 13.10 2 7 3 79 15.08 2 5 4 61 13. Largest i j N D/R PILOT_INC 1 0 1 1.54 4 <--.52 1 <--.82 4 6 1 43 11.06 1 .39 2 8 2 84 15.5 ring 7 4 93 16.4 ring 6 3 63 13.73 15 1 1 3 3.3 ring 5 2 39 10.1 ring 2 1 7 4.53 2 <--.36 3 4 4 48 12.20 15 2 2 12 6.24 12 4 0 16 6.00 3 5 3 49 12.93 10 3 2 19 7.39 4 4 3 37 10.18 2 8 1 73 14.17 5 5 1 31 9.00 13 <--- 3 1 13 6.94 7 5 0 25 8.86 2 Page 72 of 80 7 2 67 14.46 15 <--.00 15 Table: i & j coordinates for N-sized Clus 2 0 4 3.00 2 6 4 76 15.

6 7.3 adjacent offset PILOT_INC .5 24.2 2.55 12 10.5 20.4 23.5 24.5 23.8 7.8 5.8 23.6 neighbor proxi %Overhead Offsets 46 17 51 16 34 insurance • Radius = 3km • C/I = 30 × log ( m ⁄ ( R + s ) + 1 ) Page 73 of 80 .54 14.8 adjacent offset PILOT_INC (chips) 384 192 192 128 64 compare w/SR PILOT_INC/2 (chips) 192 96 96 64 32 neighbor proxi PILOT_INC/2 (km) 46.4 39.8 13 13 8 2.5 29.8 neighbor proxi PILOT_INC/2 (R) 15.s (R) 28.5 39.8 19.6 7.s (chips) 354 162 162 98 34 adjacent offset PILOT_INC .s (km) 86.5 co-offset C/I (3km) 37.6 adjacent offset C/I (6 km) 32.4 15.5 24.8 29.2 13.9 8.9 17.6 adjacent offset PILOT_INC . Motorola Confidential Proprietary Comparison of different plans INC = 6 INC = 3 INC = 3 INC = 2 INC = 1 Co 19 cells 48 cells 37 cells 73 cells 127 cells D/R 7.

Motorola Confidential Proprietary PILOT_INC determinations (w/16 dB C Table 3-1: Pilot Sequence Offset Index Assignment R R PILOT number a (C/I in (radius in (radius in s (chips) law m (chips) _INC of valid dB) km) chips) (offsets) offsets 7 29 10 16 3 94 2 256 5 21 10 16 3 74 2 256 3 12 10 16 3 54 1 512 2.5 10 10 16 3 49 1 512 2 8 10 16 3 44 1 512 Page 74 of 80 .

Motorola Confidential Proprietary Database Parameters ■ PILOT_INC Set in the HO_pilot_inc field of the XC Subsystem SET_HO_PARAMS. Page 75 of 80 . The range is 0 to 511. EDIT CBSC CBSCGEN. ■ PILOT_INC Set in the pilotinc field of the DBCM CBSC Command. SRCH_WIN_N Set in the srchwina and srchwinn fields of the DBCM Sector C EDIT SECTOR MAHO. The range is 0 to 15 (defaults to 6). ■ SRCH_WIN_A. ■ PILOT_PN Set for each sector in the pilotpn field of the DBCM Sector Com SECTOR SECGEN. The range is 1 to 15 (defaults to 1). The range is 1 to 15 (defaults to 1).

Every transmit sector will have an offset assign Page 76 of 80 . in units of 64 PN chip from 0 to 511. This time reference will be the earliest arriving m ponent being used for demodulation. ■ Time Reference The mobile station shall establish a time reference which is u system time. ■ PILOT_PN The Pilot PN sequence offset (index). This reflects the assum mobile station’s fix on system time is always skewed by dela with the shortest active link. which is traceable to and synchronous with Univ nated Time (UTC). Motorola Confidential Proprietary Definitions ■ System Time All base station digital transmissions are referenced to a com system-wide time scale that uses the Global Positioning S time scale.

■ Neighbor Set The pilots that are not currently in the Active Set or the Candidate Se candidates for handoff. As a property of the M HandOff (MAHO). the mobile station promotes a Neighbor Set or pilot to the Candidate Set when certain pilot strength criteria are me ommends the pilot to the base station for inclusion in the Active Set. ■ Remaining Set The set of all possible pilots in the current system on the current CD assignment. These pilots must be in of PILOT_INC (defined below). Neighbor Set pilots are identified by the b Neighbor List and Neighbor List Update messages. Motorola Confidential Proprietary Definitions ■ Active Set The pilots associated with the Forward Traffic Channels assigned to tion. excluding pilots in the other sets. It is the base station that assigns all active set pilots to mobile st ■ Candidate Set The pilots that are not currently in the Active Set but have been r mobile station with sufficient strength to indicate that the associated Channels could be successfully demodulated. Page 77 of 80 .

SRCH_WIN_R These parameters represent the search window sizes ass Neighbor Set and Remaining Set pilots. Page 78 of 80 . The mobile station search window for each pilot around the pilot’s PN sequence timing defined by the mobile station’s time reference. Note that in contrast to the neighbor or r search windows. the active/candidate search windows are loc signals. ■ SRCH_WIN_A This parameter represents the search window size associa Active Set and Candidate Set pilots. That is to say that the center position of the sear updated every scan to track the new location of the earliest a path component. The mobile station cente window for each pilot around the earliest arriving usable mult nent of the pilot. Motorola Confidential Proprietary Definitions ■ SRCH_WIN_N.

The mobile station computes t PILOT_PN_PHASE as a function of the PILOT_ARRIV PILOT_PN. Note also that the not identify pilots by their offset index directly. in other words. The pilot arrival component represents the time pilot relative to the time reference or. how ske is from the mobile’s concept of system time. ■ PILOT_PN_PHASE The mobile station reports pilot strength and phase meas each active and candidate pilot in the Pilot Strength Measu sage when recommending a change in the handoff status assisted handoff). Motorola Confidential Proprietary Definitions ■ PILOT_ARRIVAL The pilot arrival time is the time of occurrence of the earliest a multipath component of a pilot relative to the mobile station ence. Page 79 of 80 . If the pilot arrival was larger than 32 chips (1/2 of a pilo miles). then this could undermine the ability of the base statio translate pilot phase into pilot offset index. but by their pha ment.

its affect is different. 510) instead of 512. Only valid pilots (i. to determine which from among the Remaining set. For the mo PILOT_INC impacts only the scanning rate applied to Rema accomplishes this by reducing the number of Remaining pilots be scanned. The increased separation means arrival must be larger before adjacent offset ambiguity is poss sequently the likelihood of a strong interferer is reduced. Its valid range is from 1 to 15. The m uses this parameter in only one manner. Motorola Confidential Proprietary Definitions ■ PILOT_INC The pilot PN sequence offset index increment is the interval be in increments of 64 chips. In the it is used in properly translating pilot phase back into pilot offs consequence is that the operator may artificially increase th between valid time offsets.e. By selecting a PILOT_INC of 2. fo operator chooses to limit the number of valid offsets to 256 ( 508. those p multiples of PILOT_INC) will be scanned. For the base station. Page 80 of 80 .

4 WG III trip report BCTel presented the idea that Search window size should be a function of each pilot that needed to be scanned. Motorola Confidential Proprietary 3. Page 81 of 82 . and showed how there would be an improvement mobile pilot scanning speed and thus handoff execution time.15 Neighbor Window Search Planning From Dan DeClerck’s CDG IAT/TR45. They showed examples of where the setting of the search windows in their system was more than 200 chips.

Motorola Confidential Proprietary Page 82 of 82 .

Motorola Confidential Proprietary 3.2 Intercarrier issues Page 83 of 84 . 3.1 When to Deploy 3.16.16 Microcell • Will Bayer’s comments on reverse link timing imbalance between microcells and macrocells (possible implemen- tation in motion sim?).16.

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17.17 InterVender Hard Handoff 3.1 IS-634 Page 85 of 86 . Motorola Confidential Proprietary 3.

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1 IS-634 Page 87 of 88 .18 InterVender Soft Handoff 3.18. Motorola Confidential Proprietary 3.

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19.2 Hong Kong MTR 3.1 KTF plots Mony’s HHO idea 3.3 Singapore in-building sites with handoff to macrocell leaky coax coverage Page 89 of 90 .19 Customer Specific Issues 3. Motorola Confidential Proprietary 3.19.19.

Motorola Confidential Proprietary Page 90 of 90 .

Motorola Confidential Proprietary 3.20 HHO as soon as One-Way After an inter-CBSC SHO. wait for DAHO. perform the HHO as soon as the call goes into one-way on the target CBSC. Otherwise. Page 91 of 92 .

Motorola Confidential Proprietary Page 92 of 92 .

These common failures are typically encountered during the CDMA initial system opti- mization phase or during system expansion (installing additional BTS).21.21 CDMA Soft Handoff Optimization 3. Motorola Confidential Proprietary 3.2 General Mechanics of Soft Handoff 3. This will provide a general understanding of the mechanics of soft handoffs. An event where either the Reverse or Forward Traffic Channel is lost. This document will discuss approaches in recognizing the two types of failures by ana- lyzing mobile station logs and base station logs. This section of the docu- ment focuses on the detailed approaches in recognizing the root cause of failed soft handoffs as well as approaches in correcting the various types of common failures.2.21. 1% to 2% system RF Loss rate. There are instances where extra effort is required when encountering a possible infrastructure software bug. An MR (Modification Request) is generated once the issue has been identified. This document also contains brief overviews of soft handoff related parameters and sys- tem algorithms. there are basically two general categories that soft 1. CDMA Soft Handoff Optimization Motorola Confidential Proprietary . Provided that the software of the handoff algorithm is executed according to design3. handoff failures fall into: 1) RF coverage hole.21.1 Overview of Soft Handoff Parameters Recommended settings for adjustable system parameters: ■ TADD = 24 ~ 28 (-12dB ~ -14dB) ■ TDROP = 26 ~ 32 (-13dB ~ -16dB) ■ TTDROP = 1 ~ 4 (1 sec ~ 6 sec) ■ TCOMP = 0 ~ 4 (0 ~ 4dB) ■ SrchWinA = 6 (28 PN chips) ■ SrchWinN = 8 (60 PN chips) ■ SrchWinR = 9 (80 PN chips) 3.1 Introduction The soft handoff optimization is a continuous process that is required in maintaining an acceptable1 system performance level in terms of call quality. Resolving the failed soft handoffs that result in an “RF Loss”2 is usually the main em- phasis in the optimization process. and 2) non-optimal parameter settings. 2. 3.

The soft handoff parameters are set on a sector basis. Fast Pilot Shuffle is a soft handoff algorithm triggered at the MM when it detects three pilots in the active set and a candidate pilot that measures a stronger Ec/Io than at least one of the pilot in the active.e.ver6.”. Therefore. Examples of situations where parameters are set in an atypical fash- ion are described below: ✥Tadd and Tdrop parameters could be adjusted relatively high in regions where pi- lots become difficult to manage (no dominant pilot) ✥The mobile station Window Search Sizes could be increased when the site radius is extremely large (8 to 15 miles) ✥Tcomp parameter could be set large to suppress Fast Pilot Shuffling1 ✥TTdrop parameter could be set larger to “slow down” soft handoff activity 3. The mech- anism of this algorithm will be discussed later in the document. Motorola Confidential Proprietary There are. If there are more than one sector in the Extended Handoff Direction Message (i. Referring to Tdrop and Tadd: “These parameters. The System Parameter Message is sent at least once every 1. or a Tdrop event occurs. The Extended Handoff Direction Message is sent each time a handoff criteria is met. Page Page 94 of 106 .28 seconds over the Paging Channel.2. however. page 50.2. and are sent to the mobile sta- tion by the System Parameter Message on the Paging Channel or by the Extended Handoff Direction Message on the Forward Traffic Channel.21.2-a): 1) The value of TDrop shall be the largest value from each of the sectors involved5 2) The value of TAdd TComp and TTDrop shall be the smallest value from each of the sectors2 3) The value of SrchWinA. calls that are instructed to transition into a soft handoff state). Tcomp. HO_Exec_Preface. SrchWinN shall be the largest value from each of the sectors involved 1. exceptions where the parameters may be set outside the recom- mended range. which actually represent fractions. 2. the largest actual value is represented by the smallest value of the parameter. The PSMMs are triggered when a Tadd.and vice-versa.0.0.2 Soft Handoff Detection All soft handoff decisions are based on the Ec/Io information and the “keep-flag” status from the PSMM (Pilot Strength Measurement Message) sent by the mobile station. SrchWinR. are transformed into their current values via a log function. the MM will use the following criteria in selecting the soft handoff parame- ters in those instances when the values are different for each of the involved sectors (refer to illustration 11. HOPC SFS.

14dB . Page Page 95 of 106 .15dB Tcomp 3 dB 1 dB 1 dB TTdrop 4 sec 2 sec 2 sec SrchWinA 7 chips 6 chips 7 chips Assume that the Extended Handoff Direction Message includes 2 sectors. The hysteresis will prevent the mobile station from attempting unnecessary soft handoffs. sector a and sector b. the infrastructure is limited to having 3 pilots in the active set. The infrastructure has the capability of executing soft handoffs in either the Tcomp mode or the Tadd mode.2-a which is sent down to the mobile station on the Forward Traffic Channel. The weakest pilot in the active set is dropped. a candidate pilot is added to the active set via soft handoff execution when the Ec/Io reading from the PSMM is above the Tadd threshold1 and when there are less than 3 active pilots in the active set2. This list will be included in the Extended HDM Message Figure 11. This not only reduces the CPU utilization time at the MM and the XCDR. The values listed under “Extended Handoff Direction Message” are the values selected by the MM. Motorola Confidential Proprietary Sector-a Sector-b Extended Handoff Direction Message Tadd . regardless of the “keep-flag” status con- tained in the PSMM. This “shuffling” process is as- sisted by an algorithm called the Fast Pilot Shuffle that is triggered at the MM when it detects the scenario mentioned above. there will be instances where a fourth pilot is strong enough to be in the active set. Ideal- ly. This feature will support up to 6 pilots in the active set. The idea is to allow a hysteresis between the two thresholds so that once a pilot is added into the active set.2.1 (N-way complex handoff). the focus is to prevent the mobile station from dropping a call caused by not having the correct set of pilots in the active set. The concept of Fast Pilot Shuffle is to detect a pilot in the candidate set that is mea- sured to be relatively stronger (via the measurement of pilot Ec/Io in the PSMM) than any of the three pilots in the active set. it is less likely that a Dim-and-Burst frame will be sent over the air (main- tain good speech quality). and after the 1.15dB . 2. therefore. In adding a pilot to the active set.14dB Tdrop .12dB . it does not immediately fall below the Tdrop threshold. The recommended mode is Tadd.0.x and earlier. but will decrease the Traffic Channel message rate. Cur- rently. For CBSC software release R7. There will be significant soft handoff algorithm changes in R8. The MM data base parameters are listed above according to each of the sectors. If Traffic Channel messages are reduced. Extra effort is required in adjusting the soft handoff parameters such that the pilots are “shuffled” in and out of the active set smoothly.16dB . the Tadd parameter should be above the Tdrop parameter for any given sector.

from the PSMM. but possibly degrade other locations. The wider the search window. For example. and the candi- date’s Ec/Io is greater than at least two of the active pilot’s Ec/Io Note: The third Fast Pilot Shuffle detection criterion will be applied in future CBSC software releases starting from software release R8. The following is the Fast Pilot Shuffle detection criteria1: 1) The candidate Ec/Io is a TComp event. If the TTdrop timer is relatively short. and all neighbor pilots without degrading the accuracy of locating a valid ray. the pilot was very weak. Naturally. the infrastructure may drop the pilot with a relatively high level of confidence. It would appear that. optimization may be required to determine the most effective window search size value. Handoff Detection. In many cases. The mobile station window search size parameters should be set such that the mobile station searcher is capable of searching all multi-paths in the active set.x. 1. Ver 6. therefore. The weight or the significance of information contained in the PSMM is controlled by how the parameters are set. the longer the mobile station takes to complete it’s search across the window. driving the same route several times while adjusting the parameters is necessary in order to perfect difficult locations. a soft handoff is triggered to add the candidate pilot that is the strongest as recorded in the subsequent PSMM. via the PSMM. The speed of the search mechanism is dependent upon the search window size. there is a high risk that the pilot Ec/Io will change (for the bet- ter) by the time the infrastructure makes it’s decision to drop. A pilot is dropped from the active set when an Ec/Io from the PSMM is below the Tdrop threshold for a TTdrop period. the infrastructure will. the weight of a PSMM triggered by a Tdrop of -15db and a TTdrop of 4 sec is more significant than a PSMM triggered by a Tdrop of -15db and a TTdrop of 1 sec. The exces- sive window search size may cause “under-sampling” of the signal such that an inaccu- rate measurement is made. Motorola Confidential Proprietary success of the soft handoff drop. therefore. as it may improve the RF condi- tion for the intended location.0 Page Page 96 of 106 . This is commonly seen when the system makes the decision to drop a reasonably strong pilot that may have briefly been in a fade or may have been receiving a weak multi-path ray at the time the PSMM was reported. never encounter a case where there is a sudden improvement of the pilot Ec/Io measurement. In other words. Caution must be taken when adjust- ing the RF power or the soft handoff parameters. 2) The candidate’s Ec/Io is greater than at least two of the active pilot’s Ec/Io 3) The candidate Ec/Io is equal to or greater than the TAdd threshold. the system will drop the pilot not knowing that it would recover from the fade or the weak multi-path. more than likely. HOPC SFS. if a pilot that is continuously below the Tdrop threshold for relatively a long period (period controlled by TTdrop). after deciding to drop from the active set.

“The mobile station uses the neighbor set as a way of reducing the amount of resources applied to searching for handoff candidates. a soft handoff attempt will be rejected if the pilot to be added is not listed in the neighbor list. BTS#2.” With the current architecture of the infrastructure system. “HO_Exec_Preface”. For each sector. which is 6 miles away from the mobile station. As stated in the HOPC SFS1.2 chips) in order for the mobile station to detect PN_B. the Neighbor search window size must be at least set to 26.21.0. Figure 11. The mobile station’s time reference is typically the earliest arriving component being used for demodulation. Motorola Confidential Proprietary The following is an illustration (Figure 11.0.2-b IS-95A (in reference to the Neighbor search window size): “The mobile station should center the search window for each pilot in the Neighbor Set around the pi- lot’s PN sequence offset using timing defined by the mobile station’s time refer- ence”.2 ro x.2.2. For this reason it is important that the mobile station’s neighbor set is appropriate for its location within the system. ver 6. an effective way in determining an accurate set of neighbor list during the initial stages of system deployment is to drive test the handoff regions and analyze which neighbor pilots are most likely to be used as active pilots.2chips) since the ray from BTS#2 has a delay of 13. from BTS#1.3 Neighbor List Configuration Maintaining the correct set of neighbor list for each sector is crucial in the perfor- mance of soft handoff. The neighbor search mechanism applies for when the mobile station is in the Idle State and the Traffic State.2-b) that may provide a visual under- standing of how the window search parameter is associated with the distance rela- tive to the surrounding BTS. 1 app iles ( 2m BTS # 1 PN_A BTS #2 PN_B 4 miles away from mobile station 6 miles away from mobile station 4 mile radius In order for the mobile station searcher to be able to detect the ray from BTS#2. as the earliest arriving ray. HOPC SFS.4 chips (+/.4 chips (+/.2. page 49 Page Page 97 of 106 . the Neighbor window search size must be at least 26. all neighbors must be sorted and listed in the system database in the order of decreas- 1.13.0.13. Earliest arriving ray s) chip (reference Pilot_A) 3. The above figure illustrates that with PN_A. 3.2 chips relative to the earliest arriving ray (BTS#1). Unfortu- nately.

2-c 1. the frequency of a given pilot. Pilot_D CDL #6: Pilot_A. This data can then be used to find the weight of each neighbor pilot relative to pilot “A”. pairing up with the rest of the pilots found in each of the CDL logs can be broken down. There have been many suggestions on different approaches in developing an optimal neighbor list. PN Index Offsets from the Handoff Recognized message are con- verted to a BTS (LAST_MAHO_ACT_BTS) and Sector(LAST_MAHO_ACT_SECTOR) . Ideally.0. Call Detail Log generated at the OMCR. Pilot_D. Pilot_D CDL #4: Pilot_A. Pilot_D CDL #5: Pilot_A. Pilot_E Figure 11. Please refer to the illustration be- low (Figure 11. Pilot_C CDL #2: Pilot_A. Developing such a list is a time consuming task. Pilot_C CDL #9: Pilot_A. STR (LAST_MAHO_ACT_STR) is the Ec/Io Measurement as received from the Mobile Station.2 In each CDL record. Motorola Confidential Proprietary ing priority . Pilot_B CDL #10: Pilot_A. displayed in hex. there is a field that lists all the sectors from the last Handoff Recognize Message received by the MM (LAST_MAHO_ACT)3. developing a prioritized neighbor list for pilot “A”.2-c): Extract Last_RF_Conn_Sector field listed in CDL (CDL Samples): CDL #1: Pilot_A. is only valid for a system that is running at a significant load since large sam- ples of CDL logs are required in calculating an accurate probability that a given pilot “A” would be paired with another pilot “x”. a reference pilot “A”.0. 3. Pilot_B. thus.2. Pilot_E CDL #7: Pilot_A. Pilot_C CDL #3: Pilot_A. 2. With enough samples. This approach. Pilot_B CDL #8: Pilot_A. Last MAHO Information Active Pilot. how- ever. Pilot_C.1 One example is to have the general user generate data so that the CDL logs could be manipulated. Page Page 98 of 106 . Pilot_B.2. an initial neighbor list (prioritized) is derived prior to system deployment by means of simulator. Pilot_B.

Refer to HOPC SFS for more information on the criteria in sending the Neighbor List Update Message. CDL#9) Pilot_A paired with Pilot_C = 4 counts (CDL#1. The MM will enter the neighbor pilots into the list in the order of decreasing priority. or 20. CDL#4.Menich’s Internal Memo. CDL#5. ✥Send a Neighbor List Update on a handoff drop situation only if the last time the list was sent to the mobile station had to be truncated (i.e. 2. CDL#7. CDL#2. When the total amount of neighbor pilots as- sociated with each of the pilots in the active set exceeds 20. Please refer to the following Soft Handoff Neighbor List “Merge” Example3 (Figure 11. CDL#8. CDL#4. CDL#6) Pilot_A paired with Pilot_E = 2 counts (CDL#6.2-d The neighbor list at the mobile station will be updated (via the Neighbor List Update Message on the TCH) provided that one of the following condition is met: ✥Always send a Neighbor List Update on a handoff add situation (either soft or softer). The maximum amount of pilots in a neighbor list created by the base station is 20 neigh- bor pilots2.2.2.2-e). Page Page 99 of 106 . CDL#5. as determined by the order of the neighbors in the system database. 1995. CDL#10) Neighbor list for Pilot_A in the order of decreasing priority as entered in the database: 1)Pilot_B 2)Pilot_C 3)Pilot_D 4)Pilot_E Figure 11. MM Management of Neighbor Lists and Remaining Set Handoff (CDMA). CDL#8) Pilot_A paired with Pilot_D = 4 counts (CDL#3. October 18. 1. the MM will “merge” the database entries in a round robin order. the lowest priority neigh- bors will be truncated off the list. Barry J. In the case of the mobile station having more than one pilot in the active set. (IS-95A: N8m = 20) 3. Motorola Confidential Proprietary From the above set of CDL samples the following numbers may be generated: Pilot_A paired with Pilot_B = 5 counts (CDL#1.0. neigh- bors)1. was > N8m.0.

poor forward link due to weak Ec/Io in good RSSI (non-dominant pilot)3 1. 2)Eliminate all duplicates from the merged list.3 Mobile Station/Base Station Data Analysis There are many approaches in analyzing “RF Loss” cases.e. Other information from the raw SMAP logs are available (i.2. FWD FER information. A2 B2 B3 and C4 are not A1 B1 C1 C2 included in the A2 B2 C2 merged list as they A3 are duplicates. thus. 3. Motorola Confidential Proprietary Soft Handoff Neighbor List “Merge” Example Merge Assume: A1 A1 = B3 B1 A2 = C4 Highest C1 Prob. forcing a direct replacement.0. rev FER. The useful information pro- vided by the CBSC SMAP are the call processing messages at the XCDR CPP. it is not necessary to characterize all of the “RF Loss” calls in such great detail. however. usage: re <smap raw file> | dmta (script developed by Mike Lynch) Page Page 100 of 106 . 3)Truncate the list to 20 entries Figure 11.2-e The NGHBR_MAX_AGE parameter is recommended to be set to 0. B6 not included in the list C6 as they are truncated. as just the messaging is sufficient in most cases. as the list will al- ways contain the most updated neighbors.poor forward link due to weak RSSI . The “RF Loss” calls are typically broken down to the following broad categories: . A3 B3 C3 C3 A4 B4 C4 A4 A5 B5 C5 B4 Ordered list sent to A6 B6 C6 mobile in Neighbor A5 List Update Message A7 B7 C7 B5 A8 B8 C8 C5 Neighbor List Cell A(Oldest) Neighbor List Cell B Neighbor List Cell C(Youngest) Lowest A6 Note: B8 and C8 are Prob. target Eb/No. There are several non-commercial scripts that are located on the OMCR or the local work sta- tion at the MTSO that will extract the call processing messages for SMAP. The useful mobile station information extracted from the output of QC NPAR1 tool are: over-the-air IS-95A messages. FWD TCH gain). A7 B7 C7 A8 1)Merge neighbor lists in round-robin fashion starting with the oldest cell in the active set and proceeding to the youngest cell. The com- monly used decoding scripts are called “re” and “dmta”2. This will prevent the mobile station from leaving “aged” pilots in the neighbor list. and FWD/REV frame rate and type. One common approach in characterizing an “RF Loss” is to analyze the logs from the Qualcomm Mobile DM and the base station CBSC SMAP.21. Qualcomm NPAR decoding tool 2. TX/RX/RSSI levels.

For the mobile station log in figure 1-b. The RSSI. This condition creates problems in soft handoffs as the mobile station finds itself in a region that is commonly referred to as a “non-dominant pilot” region. it is important to recognize that. however. The idea is to carefully set the Tadd and Tdrop threshold such that the PSMMs are triggered at just the appropri- ate time. is not associated with soft handoff failures. as it may improve the RF condition for the intended location. as illustrated in figure 1-c. it is apparent that the Ec/Io for both the ac- tive set and the candidate set is measured to be very weak. unlike in category #1. poor forward link due to weak Ec/Io in good RSSI (non-domi- nant pilot). Caution must be taken when adjusting the RF power or the soft handoff parameters. but possibly degrade other locations. other methods may require a re-adjustment of the antenna direction or possibly adding a BTS at the most optimal location. The RSSI. the RSSI level is measured to be at an acceptable level indicating that the poor pilot Ec/Io is not caused by the lack of base station “RF_Pilot_PWR” power. poor forward link due to weak RSSI. Non-dominant pilot is a term often used to describe a an RF condition where all of the surrounding Pilot Ec/Io measures to be weak. Motorola Confidential Proprietary . Depending on the root cause of the problem. it is safe to conclude that the “drop call” was caused by poor forward link due to weak RSSI (“RF Loss” category #1). This RF charac- teristic will also contribute to very poor pilot Ec/Io measurements as illustrated in figure 1-b. Figure 1-a is the Sparse AGC Power Control Information Message extracted from the QC Mobile DM. “RF Loss” category #2. is a condition where the forward link is deteriorated. however. If an “RF Loss” occurs with data that is similar to figure 1-a and figure 1-b. It is recommended that the power is not transmitted too high to the point where it creates unwanted “non- dominant pilot” regions in different unexpected locations. This simply illustrates that the mobile station receive power (RSSI) is very low indicating that either the output of the “RF_Pilot_PWR” at the base station may be too low or the line of sight of the base station may be blocked. is at an acceptable level. This scenario may appear that the mobile station is at an edge of a system. the RSSI level at the mobile station 3. In addition. in some cases.poor reverse link due to interference The following are common characteristics for when a general “RF Loss” occurs: ■ RSSI level very low (weaker than -95dBm) ■ Ec/Io level very low (weaker than -13dB) ■ Neighbor pilots remain at a poor level (weaker than -13dB ) ■ Forward erased frames detected (several Power Measurement Report Message) ■ Missed base station layer 2 acknowledgment message (logs will indicate several re- peated messages Although category #1. A common method in correcting this problem is to carefully increase the pilot power so that it forms a sufficient coverage area with an overlap with the adjacent sectors such that it forms a stable soft handoff region. For this particular non-dominant pilot case. the mobile station will find itself in an area where the soft handoff regions are not fully overlapped with adja- cent sectors. Page Page 101 of 106 . is measured to be a an acceptable level. as there are no domi- nant pilot in the vicinity.

the soft handoff parameters must be set opti- mally in order to maintain the optimal pilot combination in the active set while the mo- bile station passes through such harsh Ec/Io environment. an increased likelihood of a timer expiring (fade timer/message acknowledgment timer). The soft handoff procedures then becomes staggered as frame erasure rate between the mobile station and the base station increases. Page Page 102 of 106 . Figure 1-d indicates that an Extended Handoff Direction Message is sent multiple times from the base station with- out an acknowledgment. Motorola Confidential Proprietary is at an acceptable level (stronger than -90dBm) but all pilots in the vicinity measured at the mobile station are poor ( pilot Ec/Io weaker than -13dB). thus. Combining figure 1-b. Again. the key is to set the parameters such that the mobile station does not attempt unnecessary soft handoffs. thus. decreasing the chance of timing out either at the mobile station or the base station. There is no scientific reasoning in determining what is “weak” and what is “strong”. which indicates that the message is not received at the mobile station. The numbers mentioned are strictly associated with the illustrated case. This will decrease the risk of messages being missed. To alleviate this sort of behavior. There will be many message re-tries from both ends.1 The neighbor pilots acts as interference to the point where a dominant pilot no longer exists. 1. figure 1-c along with figure1-d. it is suggests that the mo- bile station was in an area where the forward link has deteriorated with the cause of poor forward link due to weak pilot Ec/Io in a region with strong RSSI.

000 2: Rx/Tx/Adj = -95.083.430 dB may be too low TX AGC Average = 0x00da. -2. 20. -1.581. 17. 17. 20. -4.750.000 18: Rx/Tx/Adj = -94. -1. -4.000 16: Rx/Tx/Adj = -96.417.417.000 98: Rx/Tx/Adj = -92.750.083.417. -1. 22. -2.000 5: Rx/Tx/Adj = -97.000 1: Rx/Tx/Adj = -93. 18.581.492 [18] Sparse AGC Power Control Information adc_therm = 0x009c batt_volt = 0x008d tx_pwr_limit = 0x00e0 Note: very low RSSI level indicating that Rx AGC Average = 0xffa0.915.248.750.000 90: Rx/Tx/Adj = -94. 15. -1. -4.248.417. 17.000 86: Rx/Tx/Adj = -95. 21.915.000 10: Rx/Tx/Adj = -97. 21.000 81: Rx/Tx/Adj = -96. 1. -6.750.000 7: Rx/Tx/Adj = -94.750.417.750. 1. -4.083.581.417.000 97: Rx/Tx/Adj = -94.581.915. 22.417.248.083.000 6: Rx/Tx/Adj = -96.750. 19. 22.417.083. 18. 1.248.915. -2.000 85: Rx/Tx/Adj = -96.000 83: Rx/Tx/Adj = -96. -2.417. 18.083.750.000 8: Rx/Tx/Adj = -95. -3.417.000 11: Rx/Tx/Adj = -94.417. 19. 20.581.000 87: Rx/Tx/Adj = -95.915.915.417.248. 0. 21. 0.000 4: Rx/Tx/Adj = -96.000 20: Rx/Tx/Adj = -96.915. 18. 20. 18.901 dBm 0: Rx/Tx/Adj = -95.000 99: Rx/Tx/Adj = -94. 21. 21.581.000 9: Rx/Tx/Adj = -94.581.915.915.000 92: Rx/Tx/Adj = -96.915. 22.000 93: Rx/Tx/Adj = -96.000 12: Rx/Tx/Adj = -91.417.750.750. -2.915.915.750.083.915.083. 20. 19. ADJ = -1. 22.581. -2.000 91: Rx/Tx/Adj = -94. -4.750. -2. Motorola Confidential Proprietary 08/04/1997 02:39:00.000 17: Rx/Tx/Adj = -94.248.750. AGC Power = 20. -4.915.581.083.750.000 96: Rx/Tx/Adj = -95. -3.248. 1.248.000 15: Rx/Tx/Adj = -92.417. 22.581.703 dBm TX Turnaround Power = 20. 22.000 95: Rx/Tx/Adj = -95. -2. 22. 22. -2.248.000 14: Rx/Tx/Adj = -97.581. Rx Power = -95. 0. 21. 0.000 3: Rx/Tx/Adj = -96. -1.915.000 13: Rx/Tx/Adj = -96.000 89: Rx/Tx/Adj = -95.083. 1. 21. 20.750. 22.750.331 dBm the “RF_Pilot_PWR” at the base station ADJ Average = 0x0002.000 80: Rx/Tx/Adj = -96. -4. 18. 21.000 88: Rx/Tx/Adj = -94. 22.000 94: Rx/Tx/Adj = -95.000 82: Rx/Tx/Adj = -94.083.248. 19. -2. -2.915. -1.915.000 19: Rx/Tx/Adj = -96. -4. 20. 0.248. 20.248. -1.248.000 Figure 1-a Page Page 103 of 106 . -1. -4.000 84: Rx/Tx/Adj = -95.

This creates a reverse link noise rise that disrupts the reverse link for the surrounding mobile stations that are in use. The RF pilot power for the base drop Station(s) that are designated to serve this particular region should be adjusted to eliminate the RF hole.0 dB ) be lacking in power. as indicated in figure 1-c. the base station will detect a Layer 2 failure or detect a fade time-out. msg_seq 0.872 to 02:38:13. encryption 0 ref_pn 0x13a = 314 ( 314 ) Errors_detected 3 pilot_strength 25 ( -14. it is safe to assume that this particular region is considered to pilot_pn_phase[1] 0x1b83 => 110 + 3 chips ( 110 ) pilot_strength[1] 36 ( -18.0 dB ) Note:the Markov information also indicate 86 erased frames drop out of 100 detected from 02:38:11. ack_req 1.5 dB ) keep Figure 1-b Category #3 is an “RF Loss” caused by poor reverse link. after loading a new software release. in-band signals may also be generated from other ana- log infrastructure systems that are deployed near by.772 [10] REVERSE TC CAI Pilot Strength Measurement Message ack_seq 1. Occasion- ally. ack_req 0.872. encryption 0 ack_seq 1.872 [11] REVERSE TC CAI Pilot Strength Measurement Message Power Measurement Report Message ack_seq 1.0dB).732 [0F] REVERSE TC CAI 08/04/1997 02:38:13. msg_seq 5.5dB ~ -18. This scenario has been encountered close to local airports where signals are transmitted within the CDMA band.0 dB ) pilot_strength 26 keep 08/04/1997 02:38:11. keep With the RSSI information from figure 1-a. It is critical that all power control related parameters are set to the default values. Similarly. 08/04/1997 02:38:13.5dB. Typically. When encountering very high FER on the reverse link. Unfortunately. Another source of reverse link degradation is in-band interference. The scenario will occur when the power control parameters are not set according to the default settings. This power control behavior is easily recognized as the mobile station TX gain adjust is very large. pilot_pn_phase[2] 0x2686 => 154 + 6 chips ( 154 ) pilot_strength[2] 27 ( -13. there are no technical approach in correcting the above two situations. Motorola Confidential Proprietary 08/04/1997 02:38:13. encryption 0 ref_pn 0x13a = 314 ( 314 ) The Pilot Strength Measurement Messages indicate pilot_strength 25 ( -14.872 [11] Markov 8Kpr 3 D1/2 0 D1/4 0 D1/8 9 SIGs 0 pilot_pn_phase[1] 0x1b81 => 110 + 1 chip ( 110 ) 4800 2 2400 0 1200 0 FERR 0 ERAs 86 pilot_strength[1] 36 ( -18. Page Page 104 of 106 . ack_req 1.-13dB). msg_seq 6. pilot_pn_phase[0] 0x1d82 => 118 + 2 chips ( 118 ) along with weak pilot Ec/Io measurements in the active pilot_strength[0] 28 ( -14. the base station instructs the mobile station to increase it’s power.5 dB ) very poor Ec/Io measurements for all listed pilots keep (-13.5 dB ) pwr_meas_frames 8 keep last_hdm_seq 2 pilot_strength 30 pilot_pn_phase[0] 0x76 = 118 ( 118 ) pilot_strength 33 pilot_strength[0] 28 ( -14. the parameters are accidentally set in a way that the mobile station transmits unusually high power.-16. The Power Measurement Report Message indicate very high fwd FER (3 frame erasures out of 8).0 dB ) set (pilot_strength = -15dB.

083. 4. AGC Power = 14. 2. 0. 16. 4.083.083.750. Ext Handoff Direction -----> 2 2 1 Tue Mar 18 1997 14:21:25:020 10216 9f032b94 01 --.061 dBm 0: Rx/Tx/Adj = -87.750.083. 21. Ext Handoff Direction -----> 2 2 1 Tue Mar 18 1997 14:21:28:060 10252 9f032b94 01 --.450 dB TX AGC Average = 0x00c9. 2.417. 15. 6. 4.248.581.083.417. 2.750.000 87: Rx/Tx/Adj = -84. 3.417. This Rx AGC Average = 0xffc0.21.915. 2.000 2: Rx/Tx/Adj = -86. Ext Handoff Direction -----> 2 2 1 Tue Mar 18 1997 14:21:29:200 10264 9f032b94 01 --. 21.000 20: Rx/Tx/Adj = -82.581. Ext Handoff Direction -----> 2 4 1 Tue Mar 18 1997 14:21:26:540 10240 9f032b94 01 --.248.000 84: Rx/Tx/Adj = -87.915. 14.000 17: Rx/Tx/Adj = -85.083.000 Figure 1-c 10210 9f032b94 01 --.248. 15.750.581.000 89: Rx/Tx/Adj = -84.248. 9. 2.083.581. 12.000 99: Rx/Tx/Adj = -84.915.000 1: Rx/Tx/Adj = -84. ADJ = 3.915. 5. Rx Power = -84.915.083.417. 2.750.417.000 6: Rx/Tx/Adj = -86.083. 15. 4.417. 0.581. 6.581. Ext Handoff Direction -----> 0 2 1 Tue Mar 18 1997 14:21:24:580 10213 9f032b94 01 --. 12.915. 16. Ext Handoff Direction -----> 2 2 1 Tue Mar 18 1997 14:21:26:920 10243 9f032b94 01 --.000 93: Rx/Tx/Adj = -84. 14.611 dBm is a clear indication that the base station is receiving erased frames.750. 2.915.000 86: Rx/Tx/Adj = -86. 16.000 4: Rx/Tx/Adj = -86.915.000 12: Rx/Tx/Adj = -85. 14.083.750.000 3: Rx/Tx/Adj = -85.632 [09] Sparse AGC Power Control Information adc_therm = 0x009c batt_volt = 0x0092 Note:High transmit gain adjust while tx_pwr_limit = 0x00de maintaining a good RSSI level.000 8: Rx/Tx/Adj = -86.417.000 91: Rx/Tx/Adj = -84.581. 4.581.083. 3. 17.915.000 5: Rx/Tx/Adj = -86. Ext Handoff Direction -----> 2 3 1 Tue Mar 18 1997 14:21:26:080 10231 9f032b94 DM_SOFT_ADD_START CIC= 1c12 Call Id= 1e5bCell Id= 002c 9f032b94 R_NORMAL Tue Mar 18 1997 14:19:36:320 10234 9f032b94 01 --.750.581.000 18: Rx/Tx/Adj = -85. 14. 21. 14. 2. Ext Handoff Direction -----> 2 2 1 Tue Mar 18 1997 14:21:27:300 10246 9f032b94 01 --. Ext Handoff Direction -----> 2 2 1 Tue Mar 18 1997 14:21:26:460 10237 9f032b94 01 --. 11. ADJ Average = 0xfffa. 12. 15. 6. 8.000 11: Rx/Tx/Adj = -85.083. 2.000 95: Rx/Tx/Adj = -82. 2. 2.248.581. 13. 12.417. 2.000 97: Rx/Tx/Adj = -84. along with recommended methods in resolving common prob- Page Page 105 of 106 .000 80: Rx/Tx/Adj = -88. 14.083. -3.915. 17.915.000 83: Rx/Tx/Adj = -84.000 96: Rx/Tx/Adj = -83. 0. 13.000 92: Rx/Tx/Adj = -84.581. 13.840 dBm TX Turnaround Power = 15. 14.248.581. 0. 4.915.000 85: Rx/Tx/Adj = -85.915.248.083.000 10: Rx/Tx/Adj = -84. 15. 16. 1.915.750.000 98: Rx/Tx/Adj = -85. Ext Handoff Direction -----> 2 2 1 Tue Mar 18 1997 14:21:28:820 10261 9f032b94 01 --.000 13: Rx/Tx/Adj = -84.000 90: Rx/Tx/Adj = -86.083.000 9: Rx/Tx/Adj = -86. 14.750.417.417. 17.000 7: Rx/Tx/Adj = -86. 14.417.083. 4. Ext Handoff Direction -----> 2 2 1 Tue Mar 18 1997 14:21:25:400 10219 9f032b94 01 --.248.000 15: Rx/Tx/Adj = -85.000 94: Rx/Tx/Adj = -83. Motorola Confidential Proprietary 08/04/1997 02:38:28. 17. 9.000 16: Rx/Tx/Adj = -84.248.248.915. Ext Handoff Direction -----> 2 2 1 Tue Mar 18 1997 14:21:25:780 10225 9f032b94 DM_SOFT_ADD_FAILURE CIC= 1c12 Call Id= 1e5bCell Id= 0074 10228 9f032b94 01 --. Ext Handoff Direction -----> 2 2 1 Tue Mar 18 1997 14:21:24:640 10207 9f032b94 01 --.248. Ext Handoff Direction -----> 2 2 1 Tue Mar 18 1997 14:21:29:580 10267 9f032b94 DM_RELEASE_START CIC= 1c12 Call Id= 1e5bCell Id= 002c 9f032b94 R_RF_LOSS Tue Mar 18 1997 14:19:40:160 CBSC SMAP Message Output Figure 1-d 3. 4. 14.248.4 General Conclusion This document provides sufficient background on the mechanics of the current Soft Handoff algorithm. 16. 15.581. Ext Handoff Direction -----> 2 2 1 Tue Mar 18 1997 14:21:27:680 10249 9f032b94 01 --. 13. 2.000 81: Rx/Tx/Adj = -84.750.000 19: Rx/Tx/Adj = -85.248.750.000 14: Rx/Tx/Adj = -85. 2.750. 15. 4.000 88: Rx/Tx/Adj = -86. 18. 0. 9.417.000 82: Rx/Tx/Adj = -84. 0. 6. Ext Handoff Direction -----> 2 2 1 Tue Mar 18 1997 14:21:28:440 10258 9f032b94 01 --. 16.

callproc1. 1.g. Referring to the simulation result for the system that is being optimized may provide additional RF information. Al- so. however. the current optimization process must be exe- cuted manually. in that one must drive test a system and analyze each problem one by one. Page Page 106 of 106 . however. the most strongly recommended methods.out at the MM. XCDR CPP via MMI port. one must be familiar with the Soft Handoff algorithms and logs mentioned in this document. Recommendations are based on the fact that the system is being optimized while stem deployment or sys- tem expansion. It is suggested that to be effective in optimizing a CDMA system. There are also other debugging sources throughout the subsystems where detailed logs may be captured (e. using a variety of mobile station manufacturers in field testing to eliminate the possibility of a defected mobile station. this document will be modified to focus on automation. Currently. however. it is the most accurate way in correct- ing a problem. most of which are strictly used in laboratory testing as it impacts system performance when used on a commercial system. Motorola Confidential Proprietary lems encountered in the system deployment phase or in the system expansion phase. When this algorithm is integrated into the in- frastructure system in the future software release. MCC data via MMI port). It is. It is a time consuming task. Unfortunately. there is research effort in developing an algorithm which will allow the optimization process to be automated. the recommendations described throughout this document is recognized to be the most effective way in correcting common problems under the given circumstances1. The methods recommended throughout this document are just one of several ways in correcting common problems. Nonetheless. Other methods in correcting common field problems are attempting to re- create the scenario in the test laboratory where it is in a controlled environment.

• Barry’s alternating sector power idea. • Notes on Ec/Io statistics from Pilot Strength Measurement Message. Pilot Beacons description and optimization strategies. Ft. Deployment “Special Situations” • Hong Kong MTR deployment and optimization • Singapore in-building sites with handoff to macrocell and coverage by leaky coax. CDMA Umbrella Cells (Big Topic! Lots of IPR Potential!) • John Toone slides from April ‘97 PrimeCo TEM Note on Pilot Dominance and implications N-Way SHO and Complex SHO (Barry’s paper or parts thereof?) Special considerations for 6-sector systems • Dennis Schaeffer 30 degree rotation idea. Time-line and future “vision” for HHO. • Where to place carrier boundaries as a function of traffic density or gradient? Reference my email on “tiering” and John Voigt’s PowerPoint slide (probably not right). • Notes from Barry’s slides. Future Possibilities and implications of spec changes. Inter-CBSC SHO • Performance • How to optimize • Any consideration for inter-vendor? KTF handoff between Motorola and Samsung • Mony’s HHO idea feasability? • Still need to look at plots after technique has been identified. Worth tests on frequency-hopping pilot beacons. • Edge Sensing (note that edge sensing can be used to make DAHO more robust). PN planning for microcells and in-building sites contained within macrocell coverage. • TIA improvements a la Qualcomm/DeClerck method. • Reference Sam Fernandez email. DAHO description and optimization strategies. AirTouch Back-to-Back Antenna Idea Page 107 of 108 . • Hong Kong input. Motorola Confidential Proprietary Traffic planning for HHO: • DAHO • Idle-mode and TCH. Tom Ritchie email on partial overlays and notes about Singapore system. etc.

Page 108 of 108 . CDMA microcells • Will Bayer’s comments on reverse link timing imbalance between microcells and macrocells (possible implemen- tation in motion sim?). or is this a dead issue? Mony’s HHO Idea • Possible modifications or motion simulations to support efficacy of design? Start document with terminology list • SHO terms from Barry’s N-Way document. • HHO terms from Barry’s slides. • New terms for microcells and umbrella cells. Motorola Confidential Proprietary • Anything worth persuing here.

• Notes from Barry’s slides. • Where to place carrier boundaries as a function of traffic density or gradient? Reference my email on “tiering” and John Voigt’s PowerPoint slide (probably not right).) Time-line and future “vision” for HHO. 1997 TO: Distribution Channels FROM: Motorola CDMA Development Team RE: CDMA Handoff Deployment & Optimization CC: New Stuff on 05/16/97 1.) DAHO description and optimization strategies. • TIA improvements a la Qualcomm/DeClerck method. 7.) Neighbor search window planning. etc. PAGE 109 OF 116 . 9. • Edge Sensing (note that edge sensing can be used to make DAHO more robust). 3.) KTF handoff between Motorola and Samsung • Mony’s HHO idea feasability? • Still need to look at plots after technique has been identified. 2. • Notes on Ec/Io statistics from Pilot Strength Measurement Message. Motorola Confidential Proprietary MEMO: November 25.) Traffic planning for HHO: • Beacons • DAHO • Idle-mode and TCH.) Inter-CBSC SHO • Performance • How to optimize • Any consideration for inter-vendor? 5. 8. • Hong Kong input. 6.) Future Possibilities and implications of spec changes. 4.) Pilot Beacons description and optimization strategies.) PN planning for microcells and in-building sites contained within macrocell coverage. • Reference Sam Fernandez email.

or is this a dead issue? 18. 17.) Tom Ritchie email on partial overlays and notes about Singapore system.) N-Way SHO and Complex SHO (Barry’s paper or parts thereof?) 15. • HHO terms from Barry’s slides.) Mony’s HHO Idea • Possible modifications or motion simulations to support efficacy of design? 19.) Ft.) CDMA Umbrella Cells (Big Topic! Lots of IPR Potential!) • John Toone slides from April ‘97 PrimeCo TEM 13.) Start document with terminology list • SHO terms from Barry’s N-Way document.) Deployment “Special Situations” • Hong Kong MTR deployment and optimization • Singapore in-building sites with handoff to macrocell and coverage by leaky coax. Motorola Confidential Proprietary 10. • Barry’s alternating sector power idea.) CDMA microcells • Will Bayer’s comments on reverse link timing imbalance between microcells and macrocells (possible implemen- tation in motion sim?). 20.) AirTouch Back-to-Back Antenna Idea • Anything worth persuing here. 12.) Note on Pilot Dominance and implications 14. • New terms for microcells and umbrella cells. 11. 16. Page 110 of 116 .) Special considerations for 6-sector systems • Dennis Schaeffer 30 degree rotation idea. Worth tests on frequency-hopping pilot beacons.

) Ideal Inter-CBSC Hard Handoff With 4 RF Carriers (R5) F4 Beacon (PPS) F4 PPS+TCH F3 PPS+TCH F3 Beacon (PPS) F2 PPS+TCH F2 Beacon (PPS) F1 Beacon (PPS) F1 PPS+TCH CBSC Seam CBSC #1 CBSC #2 The figure below shows the solution that the Hong Kong account team is proposing. Page 111 of 116 . In addition. Note that carrier F1 is ubiquitous in the system due to the IS-95 “Primary” CDMA channel requirement. 1/2 of all handoffs (assuming symmetrical mobility and carrier distribution per CBSC) are intra-carrier in nature. Motorola Confidential Proprietary Inter-Carrier Hard Handoff With Pilot Beacons (Multi-Carrier) Inter-CBSC Hard Handoff With Pilot Beacons Figure #11.

Motorola Confidential Proprietary Figure #12.) Hong Kong R6 Inter-CBSC Solution F3 Beacon (PPS) F3 PPS+TCH F2 PPS+TCH F2 Beacon (PPS) F1 PPS+TCH F1 PPS+TCH CBSC Seam CBSC #1 CBSC #2 Figure #13.) Hong Kong R5 Inter-CBSC Solution F2 Beacon F2 PPS+TCH (PPS) F2 PPS+TCH F1 Beacon F1 PPS+TCH (PPS) F1 PPS+TCH CBSC Seam CBSC #1 CBSC #2 Page 112 of 116 .

separating two cellsites on either side of a Page 113 of 116 . Hard Handoff Philosophy Intra-carrier hard handoff detection is accomplished when the CBSC receives a Pilot Strength Measurement Message that reveals a candidate pilot (which is an XSECT in the database) appears T_COMP dB above all active set pilots. or even eliminated. There are a few things that can be tried to help this situation. it is apparent that successful delivery of the Extended Handoff Direction Message to the mobile station is difficult in “high-noise” regions (i. target pilot) is large should be avoided.e. Lab measurements of v1. This only works in low noise. the seam). especially at slow speeds. the implications are that successful hard handoff is a strong function of the deployment methodology. however inter-CBSC hard handoff execution times will probably never be below 500 milliseconds. or road. T_COMP is used as a vehicle for hysteresis in the pro- cess with the amount of hysteresis proportionate to the value T_COMP is assigned. low traffic conditions. inter-cell (between 2 different cells) hard handoff. in the seam cells. common sense. The quickest that a mobile will respond with such an event is 250 milliseconds after the change has occurred in the RF domain.60 phones indicate that the delay might be 2 to 3 times as long. Motorola currently supports this type of handoff in an effort to preserve active calls that traverse (different) CBSC service areas. See below for more details. there is a certain amount of processing and message passing on the part of the CBSC that must occur upon each hard handoff execution. • Mobile station latency: Qualcomm has communicated to us that all versions of mobile station software are late in reporting T_COMP events via the Pilot Strength Measurement Message. Intra-Carrier Hard Handoff Optimization Given the philosophy above. In addition to this. • Infrastructure latency: Just as in soft handoff. Motorola Confidential Proprietary DAHO and Inter-CBSC Soft Handoff Single Cell Intra-Carrier Hard Handoff This memo serves to provide general guidelines regarding deployment of intra-carrier (same RF carrier). a target channel is set up in the target CBSC and then the mobile is instructed (via the Extended Handoff Direction Message) to change the active set pilot(s). to a great degree. This should not be communicated to the cus- tomer. Future versions of CBSC and MSC software will attempt to par- allelize the handoff process to the greatest extent possible. situations where the time-rate- of-change of the interfering pilot (i. • Multiple handoff regions: Due to the nature of radio-wave propagation. The first is to keep forward traffic channel gains as high as possible. it is possible that scenarios will present themselves that allow for multiple handoff regions along a line. there are several other factors which affect the success rate of hard handoff. • T_COMP parameter: The Qualcomm mobile station demonstrates poor sensitivity (relative to simulated- expected) in the seam region. When this happens. hard handoff also forces the MSC and target CBSC to be involved as well. it may be that T_COMP cannot take on val- ues any greater than 0. Thus. and perhaps even at their maximum values.34 and v1. DSD is working on the problem. intra-carrier hard handoff performance is not as good as that of soft/softer handoff. In general. Thus. Note that “seam” in this dis- cussion designates an area where handoff needs to take place between two different CBSCs. • Extended Handoff Direction Message success rate: Given the discussion on mobile station sensitivity above. In addition. The items in this memo are. The second is a drastic measure where the amount of power devoted to the paging and synchronization channels is reduced. however some are gleaned from practical experience in our Hong Kong market. In some instances.5 dB.e. however no tractable solutions have presented themselves. the amount of hysteresis used in combating the “ping-pong” phenomenon must selected with care.

See IS-95A section 6. Unfortunately. For fairly large cells. It might be that conditions would allow the usage of sec- torized sites at the CBSC borders to make the target cells unambiguous and to limit the amount of SHO at the bor- der. it may be possible to use the neighbor search window to make the mobile station “blind” to the target pilot until the mobile is well within the overlap region1. • Preferably one to one or many to one transitions. • No seams in high traffic areas. 1. their implementa- tion is not in the near term. 3. Line-of-sight. We all agree that the case of being in soft handoff at the source cell(s) is advantageous in that we can use the site-to-site “macrodiversity” side benefit of SHO to assist in increasing the probability that the Extended Handoff Direction Message will be delivered successfully5. DSD is considering basing hard handoff detection upon phase measurements made by channel elements. we mean a single target cell. Page 114 of 116 . going in the opposite direction. The number of “salvos” will soon be increased to 7.1. The “Fast Pilot Shuffling” feature will allow us to specify lower values for the T_ADD parameter in the seam cells.3. As a special note. Each “salvo” is 320 millisec- onds long2 and contains a number of attempts equal to the L2 Num_Repeats count. This should increase the probability of 2-way and 3-way soft handoff in those border cells in which the topology favors pilot coverage at T_ADD Ec/Io’s. 2. 5. care must be taken in using this parameter as soft handoff with cells/sectors on the same side of the CBSC seam is dependent on the value that the parameter takes. • No quick NLOS3 to LOS4 transitions (target cell(s)). While solutions of this type might fall into the “tractable” category. • Deployment restricted to “large” cells only. Increasing the number of repeats from 3 (default?) to 6 (maximum “sensible” value) may increase the message delivery rate in some slight way. Once again. An example of this would be the situation in Tate’s Cairn Tunnel in HK where the entrance is blocked by a large vehicle and the source cell “goes away”. Non-line-of-sight. • Cells far enough apart to make use of neighbor search windows to help in suppression of ping-ponging. • Seams placed perpendicular to high traffic flow. • Seams in areas where traffic moves with relatively high speed such that the probability of ping-ponging due to extended "straddling" of the handoff zone is reduced. An example of this would be the Tai Po Harbor situation in HK. Intra-Carrier Hard Handoff Deployment Tips In general. successful intra-carrier hard handoff deployment is characterized by: • Gradual pathloss roll-off. • No quick LOS to NLOS transitions (source cell(s)). Motorola Confidential Proprietary CBSC seam. • No seams parallel to high traffic flow. By this. • No low altitude antenna placements that increase the likelihood of NLOS to LOS (or vice versa) transitions. Some handoffs may be completely unnecessary in the sense that a propagation condition that would trigger a hard handoff comes and goes very quickly due to mobile (vehicle) movement.6.2 and the value for timer T3m. 4.definitely a situation we’d like to avoid. you’d have a situation where the transition is one to many .4. • Number of L2 repeats: The current intra-carrier hard handoff algorithm specifies four “salvos” of Extended Hand- off Direction Message attempts.

Welk John Tom. The business case here for Motorola is clear. For what it's worth. This could be a stop-gap measure for some markets with inter-CBSC handoff problems caused by lack of spectrum (Korea? AirTouch?). Jim Aldrich GWI. In addition. The technical merits of the disclosure will obviously be judged by the committee members at the time of the review. my opinion is that this is a tractable solution that requires no CBSC software modification and I support some kind of mini-trial somewhere (LA?). but as you know. May 7. Mony already has some preliminary spreadsheet results and will follow-up with some static simulation ideas. 1997 9:30 AM Subject: Mony Hassid Disclosure . The business downside is the need for some extra equipment. Kowalewski Rolf. -Barry Page 115 of 116 . From: Menich Barry on Wed. I'm available for technical consultation with any of the committee members that want to discuss this. This is just a little note to lobby you for a favorable treatment of Mony Hassid's patent disclosure for intra-carrier CDMA hard handoff up for review on the 15th. This was the tactic that the HK team was using (look at an elevation map of HK). Menich Barry. Kotzin Mike. Campbell Neal. • Seams should be optimized for soft handoff Dual Cell Intra-Carrier Hard Handoff Mony Hassid’s idea. we already have that problem (to some degree) with pilot beacons.May '97 To: Hulsebosch Tom Cc: Bonta Jeff. Bruckert Gene. • No seams in areas of weak RF coverage. The seam area should be “interference-limited” and not “noise-limited”. Motorola Confidential Proprietary • Deployment scheme that makes use of natural or man-made terrain features to either limit the number of HHO transitions or limit the amount of “other cell noise” coupling between the two CBSC service areas. Schuler Joe. Frank Miller. • No sector boundaries for a cell that cross high volume traffic paths in expected handoff locations.

Motorola Confidential Proprietary Page 116 of 116 .

e. or Mobile Assisted Handoffs. or where sys- tems using differing carriers abut. are triggered by MS (Mobile Station) reporting of neighboring signal strengths. “legs”) are indicated (via the database) to be “DAHO” sectors (each for- ward traffic channel corresponds to a sector) a handoff is triggered to the DAHO sector Handoff Application Notes 117 of 126 /usr/test/adv_sys/cdma/documentation/stolen/aldrich/ho_notes Motorola Confidential Proprietary . When a certain number of the active Forward Traffic Channels (i. This is a substantial drawback where CDMA carriers are not ubiquitous. 2 Background 2. This includes environments where multiple or differing carriers are used in a system. It was specifically created to provide a means to handoff to an underlying analog network when the MS appeared in a sector near the edge of CDMA coverage. Motorola Confidential Proprietary W H ITE PA P E R : Handoff Application Notes November 25. 2. It can also be used to trigger a hard handoff.2 DAHO DAHO is the acronym for Database Assisted Handoff. Currently within IS-95-A and J-STD-008 an MS can only scan and report on pilot PN sequences within the current in use CDMA frequency. 1997 Jim Aldrich 1 Introduction This paper contains various application notes as pertaining to handoff operation within a CDMA system.1 MAHO MAHO. originally called “last active pi- lot” and sometimes called a “blind” handoff. MAHO is what is normally used to add and drop pilots.

the MM will use the DAHOHysTimer database value to inhibit all subsequent DAHO bor- der checks for a fixed length of time. This “edge sensing” capability is currently under study but not yet planned for any release. This capability has been extended to include CDMA targets as well as analog. idle mobiles are sometimes redirected to the analog system (via the Global Service Redirection Message on the paging channel). Since a non-border (non-DAHO) pilot/sector may be dropped shortly after a mobile arrives in a DAHO sector (thereby triggering the handoff). and where a mobile is handed into the system (i. mobile origination or mobile termination to a border sector. Where an underlaying analog system exists. it is important that the target’s coverage area completely overlaps that of the source. thus delaying the handoff until the mobile is more fully within the coverage zone of the DAHO capable sec- tors. Motorola Confidential Proprietary with the best signal strength. Ideally the MS would not handoff until it reached the periphery of the current sec- tor(s). Following are the exact majority criteria used when determining if a DAHO hand- off should be attempted Page 118 of 126 . thus increasing the erlang capacity of the cell and reducing the overlap re- quired. This can be accomplished by raising the drop timer value (T_TDROP) and lowering the pilot drop threshold (T_DROP) for the DAHO (hand-out) and adjacent sector/cells. since a new call may immediately be handed off to the analog system anyway. Upon completion of a successful hard hand-in.e. In cases where an idle mobile is not redirected. CBSC). Another means of increasing the Erlang capacity is to suppress the handoff by keeping non-DAHO sectors in the active set (of pilots) of the mobile as long as possible. a hysteresis timer is employed to give the system time to perform any soft or softer adds or drops which might result in the mobile remaining in that sector-carrier (majority condition not met). it becomes harder to drop pilots. As the mobile approaches the hand-out cells from the adjacent cells.

as shown in Figure 14. There are two basic methods that can be used. Also. specific sectors may be overlayed (completely). This configuration thus enables the MS to report on these locations as in a normal case. There is considerable debate at this point whether or not this should be a “N”. there are no traffic chan- nels. MAHO and DAHO methods may both be used in a BTS/Sector/Carrier. Note that in both cases the analog cell may be an OMNI cell. In general the transition may occur from a more sectorized cell to a less sectorized cell but not vice-versa because the target cannot then be precisely determined.1.1 Handoff to Analog Both DAHO and MAHO trigger methods may be used to initiate a handoff to ana- log. This pilot beacon is used at the periphery of coverage of a particular CDMA frequency. 3. 3 MAHO and DAHO Techniques When CDMA frequency coverage is not ubiquitous.1 DAHO Method This method works best when a full overlay of the CDMA cells occurs. Motorola Confidential Proprietary TABLE 1 1 Active Pilot 2 Active Pilots 2 Active Pilots 3 Active Pilots Different Sites Same Site 0 DAHO Sector-Carrier Active Pilots N N N N 1 DAHO Sector-Carrier Active Pilot Y N Ya N 2 DAHO Sector-Carrier Active Pilots Y Y Y 3 DAHO Sector-Carrier Active Pilots Y a. to gain more usage out of the CDMA cells. the figures Page 119 of 126 . The end result is a handoff to an adjacent cell. and the approach known as “Pilot Beacon”. Al- though there may be an access and paging channel as well. It has been decided to allow this to be changed during process initialization via an environment variable. However. as in Figure 15 (which shows one sector being overlaid). or where CDMA coverage ends. means other than the standard MAHO pilot reporting must be employed. each with some variation. 3. This method is used mostly to trigger a handoff to a different CDMA frequency but could be used for handoff to analog as well. although such combinations would require unusual circumstances. These are the DAHO method. The Pilot Beacon approach uses a pilot channel only on an adjacent cell/sector which is active on the same frequency that is in use on the source cell/sector.

Motorola Confidential Proprietary below show just two cells. 3. 3.2 MAHO Method In this method a handoff to analog is triggered from a MS report of a pilot that is considered external to the CBSC. usually there are groups of cells where frequency bound- aries occur. This configuration is depicted in Figure 16. (It may be that the normal overlap between cells is sufficient. Page 120 of 126 . both MAHO and DAHO methods may be used. a handoff to analog will occur when the conditions stated in TABLE 1 occur.1. The search for the target results in a handoff to analog. Typically the pilot PN measured and reported by the mobile is a pilot bea- con (else the target is a real CDMA cell in which case there would be no need to do a handoff to analog). Figure 16 3 Sector BTS on Carrier X 3 Sector Analog BTS with Carrier X Pilot Beacon The advantage of this method is that the CDMA cell may be used for a longer peri- od of time (more Erlangs) and less of an overlay of the analog cell is required.2 Handoff to CDMA As in handoff to analog. Figure 14 3 Sector BTS on Carrier X 3 Sector Analog BTS Figure 15 3 Sector BTS on Carrier X 3 Sector Analog BTS In the configurations above.) The disadvantage is more equipment is required to populate the pilot beacon. The target will be the external analog sector associated with the DAHO (has the DAHO indicator enabled) sector with the strongest pilot measurement.

A MS on carrier Z is travelling from left to right. Y.sectors designated as DAHO. Carrier Zs cover- age ends in BTS 2. This allows the MS to measure and report on those neighbors as if the coverage were ubiquitous. coverage between the source and target must be complete. When this occurs the system will make every attempt to ensure the MS will be better served by the neighboring cell. but there exists continuous coverage of another carrier. In fact.2. As the mobile passes from BTS 2 to BTS 3 it can now do so using soft handoff. Figure 17 Carriers X. one of the best uses of this method is to use it to handoff from one carrier (frequency) to another carrier within the same cell/sector. Y BTS’s 1->4 Carriers Z Carrier Z->X Carrier X Soft HO Hard HO Soft HO 3. In order to enjoy the benefits of soft handoff between cells.1 DAHO Method Since this method uses a rough geographic estimation of where the mobile is at us- ing cell. Another occasion for a MAHO initiated handoff is when the MS is in a location where the current carriers coverage is about to end. As it travels it is able to soft handoff from BTS 1 to BTS 2. Sometimes these Pilot PNs are resident on another CBSC. This is useful when the MS is travelling towards the end of coverage of a particular carrier.2 MAHO Method This is the normal method of performing handoffs. Since the neighbor will not have any traffic channels available within the current carrier. An example is given in Figure 17 below. Here the Pilot Beacon approach is used. it will allocate one where it does have some available. a hard handoff is performed to carrier X. The MS reports on neighbors (pilot PNs) it has measured and deemed to be adequate in strength. when the MS is within majority DAHO coverage of the right-most sectors of BTS 2 (shown as shaded). Using the hard handoff trig- ger criteria previously mentioned. Z Carriers X. necessitating a hard handoff. Motorola Confidential Proprietary 3. a hard handoff will then be attempted to the neighboring BTS. It accomplishes this by not executing the handoff until the reported signal strength of the candidate pilot is a TComp event over each of the current active pilots.2. Page 121 of 126 . CDMA pilot channels are set up in adjacent cell/sectors where the current carrier would not otherwise be present.

as it closely re- sembles the handoff method. 5.1 Initial System Access/Handin Carrier Selection Figure 18 shows the inputs used for initial carrier selection following a mobile orig- ination. Note that in the case of a handin. as the search strategy will likely be re- peated across sectors having the same physical characteristics (i. Page 122 of 126 . alternate targets are allowed. For example. a failed handoff to a CDMA target due to no resources available may be followed by an attempt to handoff to an ana- log target. up to a maximum of 4. the source carrier is optional in A+ and may not always be present. Input to the decision pro- cess is either the source sector and carrier in the case of an origination/page ack (also called sector and carrier of access) or the sector and carrier identified within the A+ Handoff Request message. Motorola Confidential Proprietary 4 Miscellaneous With release 6. Hard handoffs are always executed through the MSC. These parameters are then utilized to return an Inward Route Index. even if the source and target CBSCs are the same. handoff detection and handoff target selection are kept as separated as possible. Either MAHO or DAHO detection schemes can be used to trigger a handoff to analog or a handoff to CDMA.e. 5 Handoff/Database Interaction The following sections within this chapter were part of the original design proposal and are included here to provide a high level logical representation of how the handoff algorithms and the database interact with each other to determine handoff operation. page acknowledgement. The source sector and source carrier are used to obtain a Carrier Selection List from the carrier database. or hard handin request. Initial system access carrier selection is also included. Output from the Inward Route Index Table is a list of routes in preferred order of selection. The IRI is a number used to access the Inward Route Index Table. carriers). a retry of additional handoff targets may be specified. In that event the first equipped carrier in the database for that sector is used. or IRI. Depending upon the type of failure. The type of access is also used as an input. The access type is used in conjunction with the CBSC level Call Distribution Technique parameters to return a Call Distribution Index. The In- ward Route Index Table is at a CBSC level. In addition. in the case of a hand-in.

Motorola Confidential Proprietary

Figure 18 Handoff/Access Target Carrier Selection
Carrier
Source Sector Carrier List Selection
Edit Carrier Carrier Selection List
Source Carrier Carrselect
CBSC
Access Type Call Distribution
Edit CBSC Call Distribution Index
Calldist

Inward Route Index (IRI)
CBSC
Inward Route Index Table
Edit Inroute
IRI Route List
(Carriers)
1 1,2,3,4
2 3,4

. .
. .
. .

Notes:
1.) Source Sector is sector of access for orig or page ack, target sector for HO
2.) Access Type is orig/page ack or handin
3.) Source Carrier is:
a) if orig or page ack, carrier of access
b) if handover:
if present in Handoff Request, source carrier
else is first equipped Carrier in database

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5.2 Handoff Target Selection, Source
This section outlines the handoff target selection algorithm on the source CBSC.
Once an external1 handoff has been triggered, either by MAHO or DAHO means,
the CBSC must select a target for the handoff.

The handoff target selection process is entered via either a PSMM (SCAP: Han-
dover Required received) (MAHO) or an indication of DAHO criteria being met.

Handoff Target Selection is based on where the MS is at and what initiated the
handoff. In particular, the following information is used:
1. Source Sector(s)
2. Source Carrier
3. PN of reported pilot (MAHO), or indication none was received (DAHO)

Please refer to Figure 19 for the following discussion.

For each sector/carrier there will be an associated list of PNs. For each PN in the
list there will be an Outward Route Index (ORI). There will be an additional entry
for the case where there is no PN.

The ORI is similar to the Inward Route Index, in that it specifies a list of logical
routes to try (to handoff to) in preferred order. Up to 4 may be specified. Each logi-
cal route identifies a XASect or XCSect object. These objects contain the data
needed to identify the target and execute the handoff. They are managed at the
CBSC level.

An alternate route (the next in the list) will be attempted when:
■ A handoff to the current route cannot be attempted. When attempting to hard
handoff to an XASect these reasons are:
- Hard handoff not allowed for current service option
- If MAHO initiated, reported signal strength is not TCOMP better than
all
active pilots
- Mobile not analog capable
When attempting to hard handoff to an XCSect the reasons are:
- Hard handoff not allowed for current service option
- No mutual service option between mobile and target system
- If MAHO initiated, reported signal strength is not TCOMP better than
all
active pilots
■ A handoff to the current route is rejected by the MSC and all retry attempts have
been exhausted (see HHORetryCnt parameter). Retries can only occur when the
MSC rejects the handoff for causes of “no resources available”, or “handoff
blocked”.

1. The method for adding (and dropping) of local neighbors does not change. The mobile re-
ported PN is looked for in the neighbor lists of the active sectors and if found, is added.

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Figure 19 Handoff Target Selection
Carrier
Outward Route Index
Source Sector Generator Table
Source Carrier Add/Edit Carrier/Sector
Sectop Outward Route Index (ORI)
PN (if via PSMM) Edit Carrier/Sector/BTS
DAHOParms (DAHOOri)
PN ORI
(noPN) 1
16 2
64 3
192 4
...

CBSC Carrier
Outward Route Index Table Outward Route Table
Edit Outroute Edit Carrier/Sector
ORI Route List Route List Routenum
1 1, 2 Route Target Info
2 3, 4 1 XCSECT-1-1
2 XCSECT-1-2
3 5
3 XCSECT-3-1
4 6, 7
. . 4
5
XCSECT-3-2
XCSECT-3-3
. . 6 XCSECT-3-4
. . 7
..
XASECT-2-1
..
. .

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4.0 Present Tools

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4.1 Pilot Beacon
from Dan Declerck’s taxonomy:
The definition of a pilot beacon will include a pilot channel, a sync channel, and optionally
a paging channel (for legacy IS-95A systems). This method is mobile assisted handoff
(MAHO) utilizing beacons to trigger the infrastructure to perform hard-handoff. The trig-
ger to handoff occurs when the mobile indicates to the base station when a pilot channel
(that is the beacon) is TCOMP above all active set pilots.This method is backward com-
patible with the 2 million CDMA phones that exist today. As we take our previous exam-
ple, and show which sites would contain beacons:
Two CDMA Carrier Domain

P P
P P P P
Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3

Single, Primary CDMA carrier domain
Figure 2
4.2 Qualcomm solution
Presently, Qualcomm sells a pilot beacon unit for approximately $20,000/sector/car-
rier which is controllable via modem. This is impractical in Japan due to: cost, the
nightmare of antenna combiners, inconsistent O&M interfaces
4.3 Motorola solution
Presently, there is a working group, chaired by Thomas Appiah, that is working on a
series of solutions. This group meets once a week on Fridays. Here are the following
options:
4.3.1 Integrated Solution

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This concept relies on designing a multi-carrier BBX with no receiver for
reducing cost, and utilizing an entire shelf (many BBX’s with one MCC) to
do multiple carrier beacons.
4.3.2 Stand alone solution
This concept is essentially an SC601 BTS with modified TRX’s which do
multiple carriers. There are difficult issues regarding low-cost O&M inter-
faces, with trade-offs in timeliness of delivery (drop-and-insert span vs. ana-
log modem interfaces).
4.3.3 Paging and Sync Channel Requirements
From: Menich Barry on Wed, May 28, 1997 6:17 PM
Subject: RE: Pilot Beacon - No Paging and Sync
To: Tenbrook Keith
Cc: Campbell Neal; Menich Barry

Keith,

Well, I understand Steve’s point of view and I’m all for reduced cost beacons.However,
we have J-STD-008 subscriber units to contend with. Some points:
1. I think we are getting the ability to set (via command line interface) more fields
in the Extended Neighbor List Message with the R6 load (I will check this with
Craig Reilly tomorrow morning). So, beyond the priority field, we can also specify
an RF carrier to be associated with a PN index offset. Thus, a J-STD-008 sub-
scriber unit in idle-mode should be able to scan across carriers. It’s anybody’s
guess if there are any perfomance issues associated with this. Note that ENLM is
not currently supported in IS-95A systems and subscriber units. When IS-95 and
J-STD-008 merge, we will still have the problem of supporting 1,000,000+ sub-
scriber units that do not have this feature. I think that this will always be a nagging
problem.
2. From what I understand of the spec., we’ll still need sync/paging to redirect to
AMPS/TACS/Other CDMA (Global Service Redirect Message). I am unaware of
any alternative way of doing this. Thus, at the outskirts of systems, or at operator
seams (where the operators have a service agreement) where a different technol-
ogy is supported, inter-technology idle-mode handoff will need to occur.
3. According to Bob Neely, Motorola subscriber units will search for synch/paging
on the RF carrier that was being used when a live call terminated. Thus, for those
(admittedly small) fraction of calls that end in the overlap region of a multi-carrier
transition, the mobile will hunt for synch/paging on the current RF carrier which
might not be the “best” PN (ie. reduced power beacon). Not finding synch/paging
just reproduces the problem we were trying to fix in the PrimeCo markets (eg.

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subscriber units taking a long time to search all PN space and make the decision
to slew to a different carrier) by adding the channel card to the cage with the bea-
con BBX. It’s possible that all, some, or none, of the other subscriber manufactur-
ers will also use the same implementation.
______________________________________________________________
From: Dubberstein Steve on Tue, May 27, 1997 7:21 PM
Subject: Pilot Beacon - No Paging and Sync
To: Haddock Graham
Cc: Appiah Thomas; Berghuis Tim; Campbell Neal; Cheng T L; Chuang Ching; Malone
Mike; Menich Barry; Ngan S K; Strong Dan; Tenbrook Keith; Thode John

Graham -

I know your team is working on Pilot Beacon issues as we speak. I think the results of a
test done here in Hong Kong last week may impact the design.

Last week the team in Hong Kong were able to successfully test R6 multi-carrier paging
using only the primary channel. In other words, they were successful in not using hash-
ing but distributing the traffic across the carriers upon origination on the primary carrier.
They were able to do this after carefully reading what R6 is capable of. This is the traffic
management issue that was the big barrier to removing paging and sync from the pilot
beacon.
The way I see it is that we can move forward to making a pilot beacon box with no pag-
ing/sync as we now have a method of avoiding the mobile in idle mode acquiring a bea-
con. All mobiles would be on the primary channel in idle mode, or hashed to carriers that
have no beacons as neighbours.
The system design will be a bit more difficult if you always must avoid beacons with no
paging/sync in idle mode, but I think it is a workable tradeoff for a much simpler beacon
product.
I solicit the opinions of all copied on this email to check my conclusion and make sure I
did not miss something.

regards, steve
4.3.4 how to set up paging and sync channels to redirect idle mode mobiles
use CDMA_FREQ field in the Sync Channel Message

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5.0 CDMA Pilot Beacon Applications
SC-2.5.1 Application Note by Charlie Harrison
5.1 Scope
In the implementation of inter-carrier handoffs, a method is required to trigger the handoff
event as the Mobile System reaches the desired handoff zone. An adjacent Base Station
(BTS) broadcasting a pilot signal on the current MS carrier, known as a Pilot Beacon (PB),
is one method which has been tested, successfully deployed and is supported by Motor-
ola. The technique uses the Pilot Signal as interpreted by the MS Mobile Assisted Hand
Off [MAHO] feature to trigger the handoff.
A Pilot Beacon can be used as a handoff trigger in at least two specific inter-carrier appli-
cations. It has been successfully deployed as a means to trigger an inter-CBSC hard
handoff HHO at a seam between two CBSCs broadcasting on different frequencies. An
additional application of PB in future SC releases is as a trigger to handoff within a CBSC
broadcasting multiple carriers.
The functionality of Pilot Beacon is addressed in this paper only as it is supported by Su-
perCell Base Station System Release SC-2.5.1.
5.2 Objective
This document is intended to be used as a guide to evaluating the implementation of a
Motorola Pilot Beacon to facilitate handoff between frequencies. It is not intended as sys-
tem design guide or as an implementation manual. The Annexes to this document contain
some installation procedures which are useful in the planning and implementation of a
Pilot Beacon solution and can be used conjunction with the existing CDMA Command
Reference Manuals listed in the References Section (Section 5.11 on page 143).
5.3 PILOT BEACON CONCEPT OVERVIEW
To understand the concept of Pilot Beacon, refer to the simple case shown in Figure 20
on page 134. This is a depiction of a Pilot Beacon scenario independent of the method
of application. Consider a mobile station on the path (moving from left to right) as shown
initially being served on the left side of the diagram by carrier F1 on BTS 1. For this par-
ticular scenario, the parent CBSC of each BTS is not important.

Page 133 of 144

4 PILOT BEACON DEPLOYMENT SCENARIOS There are several instances in the deployment of a CDMA system which may make use of a Pilot Beacon to trigger a handoff. BTS 2. Motorola Confidential Proprietary FIGURE 20: : Simple Pilot Beacon Scenario F1 Traffic Channels F1 Pilot Beacon F2 Traffic Channels BTS 1 BTS 2 Path of mobile station Trigger Point As the mobile station nears BTS 2. When the TComp threshold is reached. As BTS 2 is not equipped with traffic channels on carrier F1. Therefore eliminating multiple handoffs (the ping-pong phenomenon). the MM executes a CDMA-CDMA HHO with the XCSECT data to the target cell. it detects the F1 pilot broadcasted by BTS 2. The MS will continue on its path until it detects the BTS 2 pilot strength at a definable threshold above the MS active set. a scenario observed in inter-CBSC (HHOs) with a high probability of dropping calls. Figure 21 on page 135. via the Mobile Switching Center (MSC). With TComp criteria satisfied and the XCSECT defined.F2. Page 134 of 144 . there are no XCSECTs in that cell’s neighbor list that could trigger a hard handoff back to the source BTS 2. 5. the target MM will allocate a traffic channel (TCH) on carrier F2 and the handoff occurs to BTS 2 . the MS reports the pilot strength to the Mobility Manager (MM) via a Pilot Strength Message Measurement (PSMM). Once the mobile transitions to F2. (Active Versus Candidate Set Comparison Threshold or TComp). the pilot PN Offset of the Beacon signal has been defined as an External CDMA Sec- tor (XCSECT) neighbor pilot for the serving cell BTS 1. Within the MM. provides a simple diagram- matic representation of some of the possible scenarios.

This scenario may also exist intentionally in order to make use of a Pilot Beacon to im- prove inter and intra-carrier inter-CBSC hard handoffs. There are several deployment strategies which make use of this concept to overcome the problems inherent to making intra-carrier handoffs at CBSC seams. 5. CDMA operators may deploy multiple carriers for additional capacity in regions of heavy traffic. The Pilot Beacon is used to trigger the handoff at the boundary between the two carriers. a HHO must occur from F2 to F1 or the call will drop. The additional carriers may only be required in the heavy traffic areas and may not be deployed ubiquitously across the entire system. Referring to Figure 21. Page 135 of 144 . if a mobile is serviced by cells on carrier F2 and travels outside of the carrier F2 service area. result- ing in large clusters or islands of multiple carrier sites. and will require a method to initiate an inter-carrier handoff to the ubiquitous or primary carrier. Motorola Confidential Proprietary FIGURE 21: : Hard Handoff Scenarios F1 F2 F1 & F2 Cells F1 Cells Only F2 Core With A: F1 Ubiquitous B: Simple Seam • Scenario A: F2 Core With F1 Ubiquitous In densely populated areas.4.1 Scenario A: Inter-Carrier HHOs for Partial Overlay Multi-Carrier In a multi-carrier system. This type of deployment may result in a scenario such as shown in Figure 21 Scenario A. This may be as a result of a Telecommunications Carrier holding dif- ferent frequency allocations/licences in different regions or at a transition between two Li- cence holders. additional carriers may be requierd only in areas of high traffic. • Scenario B: Simple Seam This is the simplest of scenarios and represents two adjacent areas each serviced by a different frequency.

Consider a system that deploys two carriers (F1 & F2).5. the F2 PB must be defined as an XCSECT in the F2 BTS 1 Neighbour List. Specifically. The success rate of the resultant intra-carrier BTS 1 to BTS 2 HHOs would likely be higher than a normal inter-CBSC intra-carrier HHO as the MS will not attempt to HHO back to BTS 1 and no ping-ponging will occur.5. however this configuration has never been tested.1.5. however. In addition. A MS on carrier 1 uses the same sector/neighbour topology as a MS on carrier 2. optimization for both the inter-carrier and the intra-carrier HHOs may be difficult.1 is not recommended for use to trigger and facilitate intra-CBSC inter-carrier handoffs for partial carrier overlays. as both carriers must share parameters. Pilot Beacon in SC-2. External Sector topology is defined per sector regardless of the source car- rier. Given the limitation in SC-2. Please note that a full second carrier overlay has always been recommended for SC-2. In order to force a handoff from the F2 TCHs on BTS 1 to the F1 TCHs on BT2. Feature # 704) is limited in versatility and configurable options. a configuration similar to the simple diagram shown in Figure 22 will occur at the end of F2 coverage. This limitation will cause unnecessary hard handoffs on the primary or ubiquitous carrier if PBs are used in a partial overlay system.1.5.1 (Multi-Carrier Phase I. in the majority of its cells. the BTS 2 F1 PN offset would also be defined as an XCSECT. If a PB were to be used to trigger HHOs from F2 to F1 as the mobile leaves the F2 coverage area.5. In SC-2. Page 136 of 144 .1. only requires one carrier (F1) in some isolated outer rural areas. This would force unnecessary intra-carrier HHOs from BTS 1 to BTS 2 on carrier F1. Motorola Confidential Proprietary FIGURE 22: Partial Overlay Handoff Example F2 Pilot Beacon F1 Traffic Channels F2 Traffic Channels BTS 1 BTS 2 Hard Handoffs Path of mobile station The version of Multi-Carrier deployed in SC-2. all system database param- eters for each Sector of each BTS are shared between the two carriers with the exception of the CDMA Channel List Message.

only one scenario has been tested in the field. ensuring that the signal strength of the ADD leg on the target cell is sufficient to maintain the call. The gain of the PB is reduced. Page 137 of 144 . only the Primary deployment option is discussed in this document. All strategies require the use of extra spectrum. To date.5 Scenario B: Pilot Beacon to Perform Inter-CBSC Hard Handoffs There are several deployment strategies which make use of a Pilot Beacon to improve inter-CBSC handoffs. Please bear in mind that the setting of the Pilot strength for the Pilot Beacon should consider cell “breathing”. Each adjacent CBSC must broadcast on a different frequency thereby facilitating an inter-carrier HHO at the CBSC seam. the hard handoff is delayed. Motorola Confidential Proprietary 5. The PBs are transmitted using F1 when deployed on CBSC2 cells and F2 when deployed on CBSC1 cells. Thus. 5. represents a CBSC seam area with carrier F1 TCHs deployed to the left and carrier F2 TCHs deployed to the right. The larger circles represent cell site traffic coverage and the smaller circles represent the coverage of the PBs with sufficient Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) to trigger a handoff. and while plans are in progress at this time to begin testing a more complicated option.1 Primary Deployment Option (“Spot Beacon” Approach) The Primary Inter-CBSC Inter-Carrier PB deployment option requires that a minimum of two CDMA frequency channels are available to the operator. limiting their coverage and providing some hysteresis in the process by forcing a MS to travel closer to the target system before the PB is detected.5. F1 broadcasts are indicated with a shaded pattern. The diagram in Figure 23 on page 138.

Advantages: • Reduction. This occurs due to the fact that the “oth- er cell” interference component (Ioc) for these frequencies is small in those coverage ar- eas. Motorola Confidential Proprietary FIGURE 23: : Primary Deployment Option F1 Beacons CBSC #2 F2 Traffic Channels F1 Traffic Channels CBSC #2 CBSC #1 A B C D F2 Beacons CBSC #1 Hysteresis Zone For example. Once the mobile is well into Cell C. however. • Selection of pilot based on best performing candidate set pilot increases probability of suc- cessful connection at target. it detects the F1 Beacon pilot and a handoff occurs to F2 where there is now strong coverage from Cell C. The benefit from this approach is that the coverage of F1 in the CBSC2 coverage area and F2 in the CBSC1 coverage area is increased. it is in the coverage area of both CBSC 1 and CBSC 2 as B and C overlap. a mobile moving from left to right in Figure 23. calls can travel further before running out of coverage. • Optimization parameters now include T_COMP value and power of target beacon. begins on traffic with CBSC 1 Cell A passes through Cell B (via Soft and Softer Handoff). or elimination. The mobile. As the mobile enters Cell C. of ping-ponging. • Pilot Shuffling feature should help in improving performance. Thus. Page 138 of 144 . does not see the pilot for the traffic channels on Cell C as it is transmitted on F2.

5. Motorola Confidential Proprietary • Possible relief from execution speed/latency issues. or completely eliminated. depending on its location and application. PBs must also be broadcast on the sectors facing away from the source cells. The diagram shows the reduction in Beacon coverage as result of the reduced output power of the Beacon pilot and the resultant handoff hysteresis. 5-2. the requirement and power settings for bea- cons in each of the three sectors of a sectorized cell must be considered to account for hysteresis and coverage concerns.2 Requirement for Broadcasting Pilots in all Beacon Sectors The diagram shown in Figure 23 is an extremely simplified representation of a Spot Bea- con deployment. When planning and deploying beacons in the field. • Requires pilot beacon hardware at seam sites/cells. The output power of the beacon pilot facing the source cells has been attenuated to create the hysteresis. 5-3 is increased beyond that of the source facing sector to close the resultant gap. execution speed may not end up being as critical as it is today with CDMA to CDMA intra-carrier hard handoff. Page 139 of 144 . they will nevertheless be subject to zoning and antenna mast wind-loading concerns. Increasing the pilot strength of these sectors has no adverse affect on the beacon performance of the handoff. While these antennas may be small in size. In order to use this hysteresis option. These requirements must be consid- ered for each beacon cell. As a result of this attenu- ation. Evaluation needs to be done on a case-by-case basis. The beacon strength in sectors 2-2. Because the handoff can take place at lower T_COMP values (we no longer need to optimize to mitigate ping-ponging) and because ping-ponging is greatly reduced. Situations may arise where the tech- nique completely fails. Consider the two adjacent cells 2 and 5 shown in Figure 24 on page 140 and observe the path of the mobile moving from right to left. it is possible for the MS to travel on the path shown between the adjacent cells miss- ing the Beacon pilot on sectors 2-1 and 5-1. 5. 2-3. Disadvantages: • No guarantee that coverage will extend far enough to make this work under all conditions. • Extra antennas may be required at each site.

The CDMA Channel Page 140 of 144 . if not it will temporarily lose service until the traffic channel frequency is acquired.6.6. The details of each of each scenario are discussed below. This handoff occurs with no infrastructure interaction and therefore there is no opportunity for the infrastructure to actively direct the mobile to the traffic channel car- rier on the target system. The Beacon site can be configured to passively direct the mobile to the traffic channel car- rier in SC-2.1 with the CDMA Channel List Message if the site is equipped with a Paging and Synchronization Channel which require the addition of hardware. If the CDMA Chan- nel List Message is implemented.2 Mobile Re-direction with CDMA Channel List Message A Paging Channel and a Sychronization Channel can be equipped for the Beacon site with the addition of an overhead Multi-CDMA Channel (MCC) card to the CDMA Channel Processor (CPP) PB shelf and subsequent traffic channel enabling.6 KNOWN LIMITATIONS 5. it will initiate an idle handoff to the Beacon site. the subscriber unit will quickly retune to the traffic chan- nel frequency. 5. Motorola Confidential Proprietary FIGURE 24: : Sectorized Beacon Deployment Beacon Pilots on F1 Source Cells on F1 2-2 CBSC 1 Cell 2 2-1 2-3 Path of Mobile 5-2 Cell 5 5-1 5-3 Minimum Extent of F1 Coverage Target Cells on F2 CBSC 2 5.5.1 Idle Mode Handoffs When a subscriber in idle mode moves into a Beacon site and detects that the beacon pilot is sufficiently stronger than that of its current BTS.

The number of times the mobile will cycle through this loop is not defined and is currently unknown. the mobile will enter the Custom System Selection Process which is also very loosely defined in both specifications and is left to the mobile station manu- facturer. the subscriber unit has changed its active set pilot to the beacon site and it will begin to monitor the beacon Sync Channel Message. “Idle Handoff Solution Description. The CDMA_FREQ field is read from the Sync Channel Message body and the CDMA Channel List Message Body. From the Custom System Selection Process the mobile should identify the car- rier equipped with traffic channels as the correct system to use. These re- sults are based on limited testing and it is therefore recommended that they be considered approximate. however. In both the IS-95A and ANSI-J-STD-008 cases. The Subscriber unit determines that CDMA_FREQ has changed such that a frequency retune is required.6. This flow is described again in even further detail in Section 6. It is highly recommended that before choosing to depend on the mobile to re-acquire the traffic channel carrier. may be weighed against the financial/business implications of equipping all beacon sectors with MCCs and should be considered on a case by case basis. 5. After initiating an idle handoff.” on page 153 of this document. Motorola Confidential Proprietary List Message on the paging channel and the Sync Channel Message body on the syn- chronization channel can then be used on pilot beacon carriers to force the subscriber unit to re-tune it’s frequency synthesizer to the TCH carrier. The advantage of deploying the Paging and Synch Channels is that idle handoffs occur with no interruption of service to the user.4 Recommendations Reports from the current ANSI-J-STD-008 field implementations are that the mobile can take from 3-10 seconds to re-acquire service after handing in to the PB site. the mobile will attempt to acquire the paging and synch channel on its current carrier (Beacon site). 5. the end result is a visible temporary loss of service. field testing be conducted on the specific system with typical handsets in various configurations. Upon entering this state the mobile should attempt to select the same system that was lost (PB frequency). The mo- bile will successfully acquire the PB Pilot and will again fail with no Paging and Synchro- nization Channels. The subscriber unit then retunes from the bea- con pilot to traffic channel pilot within the current cell and begins monitoring synchroni- zation channel. the mobile is left to re-acquire the traffic channel equipped carrier on its own. and will fail and enter the System Determination Substate of the System Initialization State with a System Lost Indication as defined in the IS-95A and ANSI-J-STD-008 specifications.6. This advantage. The specifications do not stipulate minimum time requirements to regain ser- vice and the length of the period of lost service will vary with system type and subscriber unit model. Eventually. version and configuration. etc. Page 141 of 144 . After the idle handoff.3 Mobile Behavior with Loss of Service In the absence of any direction.

1.8.5. The second carrier capability of each CDMA BTS(4850. 5. In addition to the hardware for a second carrier installation listed above.8 IMPLEMENTATION Pilot Beacon has been implemented in various markets with Motorola equipment by mak- ing use of the Multi-Carrier Phase I functionality in SC-2. therefore. Idle Mode Handoffs to verify the requirement for Paging and Synchronization Channels. 5. • Appropriate cables and brackets.1 Hardware Requiremets 5. 5.1.12.1 Motorola PB Hardware Requirements Pilot Beacon is possible in SC-2. Any such PB Generator. Motorola Confidential Proprietary 5. The source of the Pilot Signal in a PB triggered handoff is unrelated to the active call and it is possible to make use of Pilot Beacon Generator manufactured by a third party.6. Please refer to Section 5. are the same as those required for a second carrier installation with a few exceptions.1.1 on page 143 for the details of the requirement attenuators and the recommendations for setting beacon power levels.7 Subscriber Capacity Limits Pilot Beacon makes use of second carrier capability of SC-2. however.8. the following hardware is required for a BTS second cage/ second carrier installation: • 1 CDMA Carrier HdW Kit (Includes CCP Shelf.1.5. The second carrier capability of each CDMA BTS is used to transmit the beacon pilot. Hardware requirements for PB implementation.1. item [4] in the references section for further details on BTS equipment planning. The source side MM database is configured no differently than if the Pilot Signal originated from a Motorola BTS. GLIs.2 PB Generator The source of the Pilot Signal in a PB triggered handoff is unrelated to the active call and it is possible to make use of Pilot Beacon Generator manufactured by a third party.5.1 with Multi-Carrier Phase I functionality. 2450 or 9600) is used to transmit the beacon pilot signal. If the second carrier is required for traffic purposes. attenuators are required for each sector.8. a Pilot Beacon implementation with Motorola equipment is not possible with SC-2.5. For use as a general guide. Please refer to Annex 5. would not be a Motorola CBSC managed device and Page 142 of 144 .1. Please refer to the CDMA Equipment Planning Guide. BDC etc) • 1 BBX for Redundancy (if desired) • 1 BBX for each beacon sector • 1 Sector LPA for each beacon sector • 1 Duplexer for each beacon sector • Overhead MCCx8 cards as required per sector.

7 Please note: • this document as well as items [4] and [8] can be found on the World Wide Web at the URL. http://www. [6] and [7] can be found on the World Wide Web at URL.html Page 143 of 144 . In addition.com/CIG/IviewDocs/cdrom2/cci/www/html/sc_pfa.6.0. Release Notes Book Version 0.mot. A second span is only required for the second carrier to relieve span congestion.cig. Motorola Confidential Proprietary would require external maintenance tools. the Idle Handoff Problem dis- cussed in Section 5.11 REFERENCES [4] CDMA Equipment Planning Guide [5] CDMA Second Carrier Installation SC2400/SC4800 Technical Education and Docu- mentation (TED) 68P04245A14. it is a slave to the MGLI that terminates the original span and receives/sends all information to the Transcoder via that card.cig.20.68P09226A21-6 [8] SC .9 Installation and Optimization The details of equipment installation. 5. The existing implementations of PB use only one T1 in all sites. 5. 4850 and 9600 BTSs. The second CCP shelf transmits overhead channels only and there is no reason to add additional timeslots (as all traffic is forced to the first cage). unless the PB Generator can be equiped to transmit Paging and Synchronization Channels with a configurable CDMA Channel List Message or Global Service Redirect Message. Please refer to the documents in the references section or the Annexes to this document for examples and details regarding these issues. In the implementation of true mini-multi carrier (both carriers used for traffic) timeslots can be stripped from the original T1 and used in the second cage for traffic. In addition.2. http://scwww. 5.com/people/cdma/PjM/product/release_info/rel_5/rel_5.10 Beacon Span Requirements An additional span is not required for PBs installed in the second CCP Shelf of the 2450.5.mot. [6] CDMA System Commands Reference -TED 68P09226A24-3 [7] SC 2400/4800/9600 CDMA Cellular System Administration . database provisioning and optimization are beyond the scope of this document.html • items [5].1 on page 140 will prevail. the pilot beacon does not need it’s own LAPD.

Motorola Confidential Proprietary Page 144 of 144 .

and not on a per carrier basis.com. The BLOs reside in a calibration file that resides on MM.1 BTS Modifications . This should ease in the calibration procedure and facilitate automatic scripting to implement changes. the various steps are listed in systematic order. This will potentially reduce HHO ping-ponging by reducing hysteresis zone near the seam while at the same time increasing beacon coverage area away from the seam thereby minimizing the probability of MS failing to detect beacon pilot (please see section 5.12 SC-2.1 Pilot Beacon Installation This section contains a collection of detailed notes which are useful in the implementa- tion of Pilot Beacon. • Modify subscriber unit configurations with 2nd carrier capability 5. pateldt@cig. • Install required Pilot Beacon hardware. The pro- cedure is such that it can be applied without a need to know which of the two carriers is primary or beacon. Since the current release allows changing “SIF Pilot Power” only on a per sector basis. an alternative method is needed to control carrier power individually.2 of the main document). the following steps are required to install Pilot Beacons to a Motorola system. Motorola Confidential Proprietary 5. For proper functioning of “Pilot Beacon” aided HHOs.5. Thereafter. skypage 1570165 This section describes the procedure to change the Bay Level Offset which is required to attenuate the Beacon Frequency Power out. • Provision Pilot Beacon hardware in database (not required if external PB Box). migrate CBSCs to different frequencies (for Inter-CBSC. the Bay level offsets need to be increased since they rep- resent gain value. Motorola has devised a procedure to accomplish this by chang- ing the Bay Level Offsets (BLOs) in the downlink for each Tx branch (BBX).Beacon Settings WPD Contact: Devesh Patel. • Define XCSECT devices and make database Neighbourlist and and Sector Topology changes at Source CBSC.5. It is recommended to attenuate the bea- con sectors pointing away from the HHO seam by 6 dB and those towards the seam by 20 dB.12. the second carrier (also known as the Beacon Frequency) needs to be transmitted with lower power as compared to the Pri- mary carrier. Key Points Page 145 of 154 . Inter-Carrier HHOs). What follows below is an outline on how these BLOs are stored in a cal file and how they need to be changed. In order to reduce power out for a carrier. In general. • If required. • Modify gain settings for pilot beacons.mot.

next 30 for Main Rx branch for 3 sectors and last 30 for Diversity Rx branch for 3 sectors. The next 16 cal points are don't care within each valid section of a slot (these may become necessary for more than 2- carriers per BTS) • In order to reduce effective power out for a beacon frequency. through market implementation. For the purpose of Pilot Beacon aided HHOs. Hence the 90 cal points for each slot are arranged in an array of 180 elements.12. • Each BLO is entered in the cal file after translating the dB value to integer as follows: BLO_in_cal_file = [(BLO_in_dB) + 150] * 100 (Eg. It is also essential to include the two frequencies in an ascending order. for each 3 sector site. Each cal point is represented by two parameters -.Frequency and corresponding Bay Level Offset (BLO).first 30 for the 3 Tx branches. It is essential that all of the eight BBXs/Tx paths/slots are calibrated with the LMF for each 2 carrier BTS and that the corre- sponding Cal files are uploaded on the MM for each 2 carrier BTS. 3-sector BTS cal file. Each array element in the cal file is indicated as C[x].cal" (eg. • For a 2-shelf SC 4850(E) frame. Motorola Confidential Proprietary • A 2-carrier BTS contains 8 BBXs. The script may be available from the WPD contact for this section. So. Further. Similarly. array elements 1 through 20 repre- sent “valid” section to include Tx cal points. 5. it is essential to have at least first four cal point elements filled in with cal data in each “valid” section to represent the two frequencies. The odd numbered elements represent Frequency and the even numbered ones represent BLO. Each slot contains 90 Calibration points . for slots 2 and 6. each Cal file contains Calibration data points for 8 different BBX slots. • The uploaded Cal file for each BTS resides on the MM under /screl/active/loadable/bts-xxx directory and is named with suffix ". In addition. file which is useful if manual editing is required. has already been created. these changes will have to be made only for slots 5-8. The remaining 21 through 60 are dummy points. The Rx cal points (i. all 60 cal points from 1 through 60 represent “valid” section. for the slots 1 and 5. the first four BBXs are referred to as those supporting the Primary frequency and the remaining 4 as those supporting the beacon frequency. elements C[61] through C[180] ) for each slot should be left as they are.cal) The modification of the BLOs can be automated through the use of a script which. 45 dB <->19500) • In a 2-carrier. Eg. For slots 4 and 8 that are for the redundant BBX.2 BTS Calibration File Description. a Step-by-Step procedure for editing the cal files with the script is provided. array elements 21 through 40 represent “valid” section while array elements 41 through 60 do so for slots 3 and 7. What follows is a description of the BTS cal. mm2:/screl/active/loadable/bts-108/bts- 108. It is also essential to calibrate each of these eight slots with both the primary as well as the beacon frequencies. 20 the array element will be shown as C[20]. array elements C[21] and C[23] for slots 2 and 6 should indicate 425 & 450 (and not 450 & 425). • For a 2 carrier BTS.e. This is Page 146 of 154 . only Tx cal points need to be modified.

com.mot.13. Item [5] in the References Section of the Main Document (Section 5. • Open an xterm on the MM machine and change the directory to where the cal file to be modified resides. the BLO for both frequencies need to be increased by 600/2000 to effec- tively decrease beacon power by 6/20 dB. • Place the cal files obtained from step1 on proper MM under /screl/active/loadable/bts-xxx. it is highly desirable to change all the 10 BLOs that are present in the òvalidó section for each of these slots(eg. In general. First shelf (first 4 slots) in each BTS supports Primary frequency and no changes are needed there. The commands are followed by verification command references and a brief description. seymour@cig.. alternate elements from C[2] to C[60]). The walsh codes for the CDMA channel are provisioned as part of provisioning the CARRIER) >"DISPLAY BTS-bts# CHANCONF" Page 147 of 154 .e. Each command section is listed in bold. alternate elements from C[22] through C[40] for slot 6). DEFINE A NEW LOGICAL CARRIER FOR THE CBSC >EDIT CBSC-x CARRIER! >DISPLAY CBSC-cbsc# CARRIER ADD CARRIER Command to SECTOR >"ADD CARRIER-bts#-sector#-carrier#" (A CARRIER defines an instance of a CDMA channel within a sector. all the BLOs corresponding to both frequencies need to be increased by 600/2000 to effectively decrease beacon power by 6/20 dB (i. it can be done so.12.11 on page 141) provides details of a second Carrier installation and provisioning. All the 8 BBXs should be calibrated with both the carrier frequencies. 5. Motorola Confidential Proprietary because beacon frequency is supported by second shelf (last 4 slots) of each BTS.1 GENERAL ADD SECOND CARRIER COMMANDS This section describes the commands and arguments needed to provision a second car- rier. 6 and 7. • For slot 5. skypage # 1570196 5. Run the script provided to change the bay level offsets for the beacon car- rier. after making all the cal file changes. For slot 8. The commands are to be entered via a CLI are shown in italics. The commands listed below do not form a procedure.3 Step-by-step procedure to change Bay Level Offsets with Script: • Each 2 carrier BTS need to be calibrated by a CFE with a LMF. without any need for a fur- ther change in the cal files.13 Database Provisioning WPD Contact: Mike Seymour. 5. it were decided to move a 2-carrier BTS from 1 CBSC to the other. transparently. they are simply provided as a reference and should be used in conjunction with the CDMA Command Reference Man- uals. The reason behind changing BLOs for both the fre- quencies is that if. The script will be provided with the applicable modification procedure.

>"DISPLAY CARRIER-bts#-sector#-carrier# OVHDGRP" ADD ACH Command >"ADD ACH-bts#-sector#-carrier#-pch#-ach#" Add an access channel to the CDMA channel. Add a synch channel to the CDMA channel. Motorola Confidential Proprietary EDIT the CARRIER of each sector in the BTS Channellist >EDIT CARRIER-bts#-sector#-carrier# CHANNELLIST CHAN1=carrier# >DISPLAY BTS-bts# CHANNELLIST ADD SCH Command >"ADD SCH-bts#-sector#-carrier#-sch#". >"DISPLAY MDM-bts#-mdm# MDMCONF" EDIT MDM LINK Command >"EDIT MDM-bts#-mdm# LINK CARRIER=carrier#” Assign a logical carrier to the shelf.10) to existing BTS. >"DISPLAY CARRIER-bts#-sector#-carrier# OVHDGRP" EDIT PCH LINK Command Page 148 of 154 . >"DISPLAY CARRIER-bts#-sector#-carrier# OVHDGRP" ADD MDM Procedure >"ADD MDM-bts#-mdm#" An MDM is added for each configured modem frame shelf. EDIT SCH LINK Command >"EDIT SCH-bts#-sector#-carrier#-sch# LINK CE=bts#-mcc#-1” Associate the SCH with an MCC channel. The mode of the device (traffic only or traffic and overhead chan nels) is specified on the command line. >"DISPLAY MDM-bts#-mdm# MDMCONF" ADD BBX Procedure >"ADD BBX/BBXR-bts#-bbx/bbxr#" Add the BBX to a CDMA MDM. Adding the MDM provisions the appropriate number of BDC's. >"DISPLAY CARRIER-bts#-sector#-carrier# CHANCONF" ADD GLI (Remaining GLIs) Procedure >"ADD GLI-bts#-gli#" Add remaining GLIs (3 . >"DISPLAY MCC-bts#-mcc# MCCCONF" EDIT Overhead Channel Linkages Associate the overhead channels with a servicing MCC card. BTSLINK #1 must be provisioned before any GLIs can be provisioned within the site. T2 CDMA only supports a single shelf CDMA configuration.16) and/or MGLIs (9 . >"DISPLAY CARRIER-bts#-sector#-carrier# OVHDGRP" ADD PCH Command >“ADD PCH-bts#-sector#-carrier#-pch#” Add a paging channel to the CDMA channel. For a BTS.8 and 11 . >"DISPLAY GLI-bts#-gli# GLICONF" ADD MCC Procedure >"ADD MCC-bts#-mcc#" Add an MCC device to the MDM.

2 Mobile Programming All subscriber units to be used on the system must be programmed with all possible fre- quencies on the system. all sectors from pilot beacon cells should be added to their source neighbor lists.13. additional neighbors must be added to the neighbor lists. XCSECT objects must be established for the beacon pilot’s PN Offset Index. 5.5 External Sector Topology As PB Handoffs make use of SC infrastructure CDMA-CDMA HHO Execution. This should step occur before detailed drive testing and optimization. Motorola Confidential Proprietary >"EDIT PCH-bts#-sector#-carrier#-pch# LINK CE=bts#-mcc#-0” Associate PCH with an MCC channel. Page 149 of 154 . >"DISPLAY CARRIER-bts#-sector#-carrier# OVHDGRP" 5. This will insure that mobiles initiating calls within the coverage of the border cells can hard handoff to any cell after traffic channel assignment and that mo- biles that travel past the reduced beacon spot beams are captured by the rear pointing sectors (see Section 5.13. 5.3 Source Database Configuration For each source sector it is important the following XCSECT and Neighbor list additions/ changes are made. if a PCS system with two CBSCs were to broadcast F=425 on CBSC 1 and F=450 on CBSC 2 in order to facilitate Inter-CBSC Inter-Carrier HHOs. In general. This is to ensure that during the Mobile System Selection Pro- cess. then both frequen- cies/channels should be programmed in the phone.13. The technique for programming mobiles will vary with system (IS-95A or PCS) and mobile manufacturer.13. the Mobile recognizes and can select the traffic channel bearing carrier.4 Neighourlist Additions Due to the increased range of the border cells. It is imperative that the rear sectors of each beacon cell are included in the neigh- bor list of hard-handoff cells and the XCSECT table reflects these additions.5. >"DISPLAY CARRIER-bts#-sector#-carrier# OVHDGRP" EDIT ACH LINK Command >"EDIT ACH-bts#-sector#-carrier#-pch#-ach# LINK CE=bts#-mcc#-0" Associate ACH with an MCC channel. For example.2 on page 137 in the main body of the document). 5.

Figure 25. Although this topology also contains internal sec- tors/neighbours. Motorola Confidential Proprietary ANNEXES . the configuration data information required for each handover candidate sector specified on the Topology Map must be accessible on the Source MM. consider that the cells equipped with Pilot Beacons on the target side are configured as shown in Annexes Table 2 on page 150. they have not been included in this example. the Source (CBSC 1) Side handover candidate neighbour sectors (only external sectors are listed) for sectors 23-1 and 24-1 would be configured as in Table 4 on page 151. Note that the PN settings for this table are independent of the source of the Pilot signal (i.FIGURE 25: XCSECT Example Beacon Pilots on F1 Source Cells on F1 8-2 CBSC 1 BTS 8 23-1 8-1 BTS 23 8-3 5-2 BTS 5 5-1 24-1 BTS 24 5-3 Minimum Extent of CBSC 1 F1 Coverage Target Cells on F2 CBSC 2 Referring to Figure 25.e.ID Pilot PN SECTOR . For each HHO. Motorola Beacon or PB Box) Table 2: Pilot Beacon PN Configuration SECTOR .ID Pilot PN bts-Sector (PILOTPN) bts-sector (PILOTPN) SECTOR 8-1 230 SECTOR 5-1 240 SECTOR 8-2 232 SECTOR 5-2 242 SECTOR 8-3 234 SECTOR 5-3 244 Again referring to Annexes. In order to Page 150 of 154 .

5.ID SECTOR . The device provides some of the information required to execute the HHO via the A+ in- terface. Page 151 of 154 . external sector topology is defined per sector regardless of the source carri- er. the XCSECT device is creat- ed. For each of the external sectors listed as neighbour candidates. Table 3: XCSECT Data XSECT ID BTS SECT Pilot PN XCSECT 2-1 8 1 230 XCSECT 2-2 8 2 232 XCSECT 2-3 8 3 234 XCSECT 2-4 5 2 242 XCSECT 2-5 5 1 240 XCSECT 2-6 5 3 244 Table 4: Source Side External Sector Topology Source Neighbour Neighbour Primary SECTOR . For this particular example in Table 3 on page 151.6 Optimization Techniques What follows are a few techniques that can be used to optimize hard handoff borders.13. Motorola Confidential Proprietary provide the accessing of this information at the source MM. the BTS and SECT fields are used to populate the Cell ID in the A+ Handoff Required message from the BSS to the MSC. For example. A XCSECT Device is a device which contains the configuration data information of the CDMA handover candidates sector which are not under control by the Source MM. A MS on carrier 1 uses the same sector/neighbour topology as MS on carrier 2. 5.ID Pilot PN SECTOR 23-1 XCSECT 2-1 Yes 230 SECTOR 23-1 XCSECT 2-2 Yes 232 SECTOR 23-1 XCSECT 2-3 Yes 234 SECTOR 23-1 XCSECT 2-4 Yes 242 SECTOR 24-1 XCSECT 2-5 Yes 240 SECTOR 24-1 XCSECT 2-4 Yes 242 SECTOR 24-1 XCSECT 2-6 Yes 244 SECTOR 24-1 XCSECT 2-3 Yes 234 In SC-2. there must be a corre- sponding XCSECT DEVICE. only target BTS and Sector are listed along with the XCSECT PN as the remaining fields in the XCSECT tables are not relevant to this discussion.1.

The pn of a beacon (a pilot with offset index 51. If the coverage across the seam is inadequate. 2 The second method is to decrease the pilot beacon in the inwardly pointing sector. the beacon power should be increased by use of the beacon adjustment script in 2 dB increasing increments.6. For the purposes of explanation. This should only be done after analysis shows too much coverage. or other. assume the mobile viewpoint and drive across the seam.6.13. The region should be re-driven in order to insure that coverage still exists for the entire sector. The overlap at the seam should provide a handoff region where the source is > -10 dB and tar- get is >-10 dB after the transition has taken place.13. Suppose the North region operates on the “North frequency” and the South operates on the “South frequency”. 6. After increasing the Sifpilot power the neighbor lists should be re-exam- ined to insure that newly created neighbor pairs are placed in the neighbor lists.6. 5. Finally. What you see will probably fall in to one of the following scenarios 5. Motorola Confidential Proprietary 5.3.13. This will only be effective if the overlapping coverage is good (in which case method 1-2 should provide effective reduction of the bounces) 5. 3 The third method is to increase the Tcomp from the standard value in 1 dB steps. 7. To diagnose events at the seam.1 Description Beginning A mobile originates in the South/West region. It is able to do this because the mobile has been programmed with the North/East frequency as primary and the South/West frequen- cy as secondary or vice versa. if the region is still not satisfactory. This should only be done after analysis shows poor coverage.13. The range for this adjustment is 27-33 dBm. call it “beacon pn index”) in the North/East region transmitting a pilot at the South/West fre- quency becomes visible to the mobile and is reported on the DM F9 screen. The region should be redriven in order to insure that the overlap still occurs at good Ec/Io levels.1 Increasing Coverage/Overlap 4. 5. The range for this adjustment is 33-37 dBm. The mobile proceeds in a North/East direction and ap- proaches the seam area.3 Drive Testing and Trouble-Shooting Suggestions The section provides an outline of scenarios that may encountered during early drive test- ing of recently installed PB sites. lower Tcomp from the standard value. Pilot “beacon Page 152 of 154 .6.2 Reducing Bouncing 1 First step is to adjust the source TCH Sifpilot power level to provide coverage into the beacon spot. First step is to adjust the source TCH Sifpilot power level to provide coverage into the beacon spot. consider that there is a seam between a “North/East CBSC” region and “South/West CBSC” region.

1 Soon pilot “beacon pn index” is T_comp higher than the best active set pilot.3. Propagation conditions contin- ue to change and the mobile sees the North/East site. so no HHO is allowed. Motorola Confidential Proprietary pn index” exceeds Toad and the mobile sends a PSMM.5 The events of paragraph section 5. followed by a handoff direction message to a channel on the North/East frequency. Finally. the mobile RF losses on it's South/West frequency active set.6. The audio quality may or may not immediately improve. the mobile would now be in SHO with what is the North/East beacon site. The XC sends the mobile back via inter-carrier hard handoff to the South/West Site.13.1 occur and there is no quick evolution to the T_comp event.1.6.6.13. neighbor list: 5. the mobile sees another distant South/West fre- quency pilot (with traffic) along with the beacon.3.4 The events of paragraph section 5. for a total of 3 HHOs in crossing the seam region. South/West frequency beacon again and inter-carrier hard handoffs back one more time.1 occur. Instead the North/East beacon interferes with the mobile and causes multiple frame erasures.6. A single moderate click may be heard on the mobile side. There is no action taken by the XC for this event. the beacon is T_comp bet- ter than all active set members and the inter-carrier HHO takes place.3.13. sync and traffic at this sector on the North/East frequency are all Page 153 of 154 . From our mini-test area at I-355 and Lake.3 The events of paragraph section 5.6. Unsuccessful.13.3. The mobile is directed (via Ex. paging.2 The events of paragraph section 5.13.13. in this sce- nario. Eventu- ally. beacon ok but traffic dead: 5. Unsuccessful.1 occur. this seems to be a typical occurrence. The mobile quickly goes into soft handoff with various North/East site pns.1.6. Unfortunately.6. Handoff Direction) to the North/East channel number and given a new walsh cover index for the forward channel. Several things may happen next: Perfect outcome: 5. the beacon pn index is not in the neighbor list. Not perfect. Instead.13.13.6.3.3.3.1.1 occur and then: the new pilot on the North/East frequency falls T_comp below a now-visible South/West region site transmitting a beacon on the North/East frequency.6. pilot.3. If inter-CBSC SHO were in place. Successful. The mobile goes into SHO with this pilot and is not close enough to the beacon site to trigger T_comp (the beacon is not T_comp better than the active set). followed by T_comp.1.13. but acceptable: 5. and an inter-carrier hard handoff of the mobile to the same pn index but on the North/ East frequency takes place. but poorer audio: 5.1. However.3.

6. The mobile HHOs to the North/East frequency but finds no live channel. To avoid this. followed by an evolution similar to paragraph 3. try lowering T_comp.6 The events of paragraph section 5. Page 154 of 154 . Motorola Confidential Proprietary dead because there is a site problem and there is no alarm to inform the system opera- tor. Unsuccessful.6.1 occur.13.3. poor audio and no handoff: 5.13. It has been suggested that this problem be avoided by shutting down the beacon if there is no power on the traffic channel. but there is no T_comp event before the mobile fade timer expires and the mobile RF losses.1.3.

“neighbor set”.5. the CDMA Channel List Message on the paging channel and the Sync Channel Message body on the synchronization channel can be used on pilot beacon carriers to force the subscriber unit to re-tune it’s frequency syn- thesizer to the over-laid (non-beacon) RF carrier. Traffic channel RF carriers F1 and F2 are also deployed to the left and right of the seam respectively.” on page 156) which depicts hypothetical control flow for subscriber unit idle-mode activity. in idle-mode.6. • Subscriber unit determines that CDMA_FREQ S ≠ CDMA_FREQ R such that a frequency retune is required.) to describe both idle- mode and tch-mode pilots.1 software load that re- quires that all carriers at a BTS/sector transmit identical parameter information on syn- chronization and paging channels. CBSC #1 (cell #1) and #2 (cell #2) are to the left and right of the seam respective- ly. “Idle Mode Handoffs. “active set”.1. J-STD-008 uses the identical terminology (e. This section outlines the only solution for the problem in SC-2.0 Idle Handoff Solution Description As described in Section 5. The nature of the solution involves a characteristic of the SC-2. Consider the simple diagram below (Figure 26.” on page 138. In particular. Page 155 of 158 . is traversing the seam from left to right and is currently monitoring the paging channel for CBSC #1 on F1. A subscriber unit.. • Subscriber unit retunes from F1 (beacon) to F2 (TCH bearing pilot) at cell #2 and begins monitoring synchronization channel.5.1. etc. etc. Motorola Confidential Proprietary 6. • Subscriber unit recovers the CDMA_FREQ field from the synchronization Sync Channel Message body. idle-mode handoff problems have been observed that cause lapses in system acquisition by the subscriber unit. “Subscriber Unit Traversing CBSC Seam.g. The solution has been tested in several Motorola CDMA markets and provides relief from the idle-mode handoff problems associated with Pilot Beacon intiated handoffs. • Subscriber unit determines that coverage of current active set cell (cell #1) is no longer ade- quate and that beacon cell pilot (also F1) is superior in terms of Ec/Io. The sequence of events is as follows: • Subscriber unit monitors pilot Ec/Io and paging channel FER of current idle-mode active set1 cell (cell #1) on frequency F1. • Subscriber unit changes active set pilot to beacon cell (cell #2) and monitors synchroniza- tion channel. • The subscriber unit then begins monitoring the paging channel (on F1) at the beacon site (cell #2) and recovers the CDMA_FREQ field from the CDMA Channel List Message body. 1.

No paging channel coverage Acquire new cell exhausted? synchronization channel Yes Acquire new cell paging channel Obtain neighbor (F1 beacon) cell sample Current RF No carrier. RF Yes carrier in CDMA Chan List Msg? Subscriber Unit retunes to RF carrier in CDMA Subscriber Unit Chan List Msg camps on beacon and monitors signal (undesired synch/paging outcome) 6. we will only have to add one over- head MCC for each sector that is involved in the beacon hand-off. established (F1)? Scan other PNs. The following is an outline of the procedure to add and equipe the overhead MCC without equipping any traf- fic channels (critical to the implementation of Pilot Beacon). Yes possibly other Current RF carriers. Motorola Confidential Proprietary FIGURE 26.EQ.1 Idle Handoff Equipage Procedural Detail Given that the beacon sites are already provisioned. • Add a synch channel with the ADD SCH command. for example: add sch-bts #-sector #-carrier #-sch # Page 156 of 158 . After the MCC-8 card has been physically installed in the CCP Shelf. Subscriber Unit Traversing CBSC Seam Start Scan current Beacon active paging cell coverage No channel.

2 Pilot Beacon Output Power Page 157 of 158 . The srchans should be linked to 0-0-0-0 which inhibits all channel elements. then the channel list message on the beacon site should inlcude only F2. 6. If that happens. for example: add pch-bts #-sector #-carrier #-pch # • Add an access channel with the ADD ACH command: add ach-bts #-sector #-carrier #-pch #-ach # • Add the mcc with the ADD MCC command. simply disable/enable the cage controlling gli. SyncCdmaFreq parameter in the Sync Channel Message will get set to the same frequen- cy as is specified in the Channellist Message. paging and access channels to the MCCCE with the EDIT commands. edit sch-bts #-sector #-carrier #-sch # link ce=bts #-mcc #-ce # edit pch-bts #-sector #-carrier #-pch # link ce=bts #-mcc #-ce # edit ach-bts #-sector #-carrier #-pch #-ach # link ce=bts #-mcc #-ce # • Link the channel list of the PB site (for which the overhead channels were just equipped)to the carrier equipped with the traffic channels. for example. edit carrier-bts#-sector#-carrier# channellist chan1=1 • Move the MCC from a PRECUT state to OOS_MANUAL by typing: cutover mcc-bts #-mcc # • Activate the MCC by typing: activate mcc-bts #-mcc # • Enable the MCC by typing: ena mcc-bts #-mcc # unc There is a possibility that the MCC may not come INS. if the site has traffic on F1 and the beacon is on F2. So. For example. This allows the addition of the MCC without using valuable timelslots. for example. Motorola Confidential Proprietary • Add a paging channel with the ADD PCH command. The above changes will link the beacon's channellist to the frequency of the traffic cage and allow the mobile to re-tune to the frequency specified in the message. add mcc-bts#-sector#-mcc# SRCHAN0=SRCHAN1=SRCHAN2=0-0-0-0 SRCHAN3=0- 0-0-0 SRCHAN4=0-0-0-0 SRCHAN5=0-0-0-0 SRCHAN6=0-0-0-0 SRCHAN7=0-0-0-0 MODE=ONEOCG MCCTYPE=MCC8 • Link the synch. This is done with the EDIT CARRIER command. In order to "work-around" this problem if it is seen. a mobile powering-up in the zone could re-tune without having to acquire paging. In addition. it is most likely due to the gli_dev_map not getting updated real-time.

it might be necessary in some situa- tions to reassess beacon output power and adjust (upward) accordingly. will re- sult in an additional 2. 6. will most probably manifest themselves between beacon sites. These changes.67 dB of extra output power. the subscriber is inhibited from placing call attempts or receiving pages. This has been monitored by both customers and Motorola personnel and is estimated to take no less than several seconds. field engineers should be alert for undesirable changes in handoff locations. The expectation is that this should be a rare occurrence nevertheless. Page 158 of 158 . During this period. With the current deployment. Motorola Confidential Proprietary Since the addition of paging and synchronization channels to the beacon carriers. should they occur.3 Expectation for Empirical Results The desired result from deployment of this technique is quicker response time by the sub- scriber unit in acquiring the synch/paging channels of the TCH-bearing RF carrier at the target cell during a seam transition. the Qualcomm subscrib- er unit will attempt to scan all PN-space on the current carrier (while at the beacon site) before aborting and retuning to another carrier for system acquisition attempts.

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The frequency hopping is very very slow and is not used to spread the signal as in a CDMA-Frequency-Hopping system A single TX pilot beacon is scanned between all of the pilot beacon frequencies in a sector. HallSenior Staff Engineer Jon St.1997 by Scott M. The time spent on each frequency is long enough (typi- cally 2 seconds) to cause a hard handoff. Idle mode handoff requires both sync and page channel for IS-95A and Japan-CDMA. Idle mode handoff requires a sync channel for J-STD- 008. Active calls do not use sync or page channels. Motorola Confidential Proprietary Frequency Hopping Pilot Beacon May xx. The time to cover all frequencies is short enough (4 to 12 seconds for 2 to 6 frequencies) to cause mobiles traveling across the hard handoff boundary to handoff before the mobiles are impaired. Sync and page information does not change as the pilot beacon hops frequences. Page 167 of 180 .Clair. Senior Staff Engineer ________________________________________________________________________ Motorola Confidential Proprietary Abstract: • Frequency Hopping Pilot Beacon reduces costs by eliminating multiple pilot beacons in each sector of a BTS.

As the mobile travels into the coverage area of the new cell with a pilot beacon. dwell time. Appendex B has initial concerns about frequency hopping pilot beacons • This paperõs idealized examples use 3 hopping frequencies. • The purpose of this document is to outline the plan to show proof of concept for scanning pilot beacons. Motorola Confidential Proprietary Table on Contents • Introduction • Theory • Lab Test • Field Test • Where it does not apply • Conclusion • Appendix A:Hard Handoff explaination • Appendix B:Initial Concerns Introduction: • Currently all hard handoffs in CDMA are caused by pilot beacons. at some point. Page 168 of 180 . Field Test. or any number of CDMA frequencies. Pilot beacons are typi- cally 10 dB lower than pilots. The concepts shown by these idealized examples can be easily transfered to real world CDMA systems that may have different number of frequences. Theory. and where it does not apply. the new cell can have one.2 watt pilot beacon power. 2 seconds dwell time per fre- quency. Lab Test. 4 dB Tcomp and 0. Tcomp. each frequency in the old cell requires a corresponding pilot beacon. This trig- gers a hard handoff to a new frequency. A lot of information presented in this paper applies to all pilot beacons independent of whether they are frequency hop- ping or not. • Today. However. The single TX pilot beacon is scanned amoung the old frequecies. Appendex A covers the general Pilot Beacon theory. the beacon will. • Frequency Hopping Pilot Beacon reduces costs by replacing multiple pilot beacon equip- ment in each sector of a BTS with one peice of pilot beacon equipment. get stronger than the pilot from the old cell. or pilot beacon power. Please refer to Appendix A for more detaileds on pilot beacon theory. Three CDMA frequencies in the old cell would require three pilot beacons in the new cell. three.

Motorola Confidential Proprietary Use Wor view Ma Use Word 6.0c or view Macintosh pi Page 169 of 180 .

0c view Macintos Page 170 of 180 . Motorola Confidential Proprietary Use Word 6.

Pilot beacons are set 10 dB lower (0. that it is close to the cell and well withing the cell range on the new frequency. Freq 2. after receiving a Tcomp PSMM (Pilot Strengh Measurement Message) from the mo- bile. or Freq 3 in an old cell. Freq 1. • Idle mode hard handoff is much different as shown in Figure 3. sync. etc. As a mobile travels to a new cell with a beacon. the CBSC will direct the mobile to hard handoff to Freq 4. • Figure 1 shows that pilot beacon does not imply that only pilot is transmitted. This arcuture was chosen to simplify the software and hardward need for pilot beacon. Changing TX frequency. The lower beacon power insures that when a mobile hard handoffs to the new frequency. the hopping beacon must use the same PN for all 3 frequencies. For other CDMA standards. No sync or page information is used for the handoff. A true MAHO with no CBSC involvment. The exact frequency is determined by a hashing algorithm. Sync and page channels are also used except for J-STD-008 where only page channel is not needed. keying and dekeying the LPA can easily be isolated to the BBX software. A new hashing algorithm on the new cell will then direct the mobile to monitor Freq 4. However. Freq 5 or Freq 6 respectfully on the new cell. the CDMA_FREQ pa- rameter in the sync message will cause the mobile to start to monitor Freq 4. At that point. or page channels. At that point. Freq 5 or Freq 6. • Page 171 of 180 . Beacon 2 or Beacon 3 respectfully will get to point where it is 4 dB stronger than the old pilot. It hops between Freq 1. the mobile monitors pilot and sync and maybe page to make its own hard hand- off decision. the mobile read the beacon sync channel. A mobile monitoring Freq 1. A mobile has a call on Freq 1.2 watts) than that typical pilot (2 watts) in a system. • Figure 1 implies that the only thing that changes over time is the frequency switch. As a mobile travels to a new cell with a beacon. the mobile must continue on to the paging channel to receive a CDMA Channel List message to cause the change to Freq 4. Freq 3. In J-STD-008. the beacon (Beacon 1. No CBSC software modification is needed to change sync and page information as the beacon hops in frequency. Freq 2. Beacon 2 or Beacon 3 respectfully will get to point where it is stronger than the old pilot . the beacon (Beacon 1. or Freq 3 in an old cell. Freq 2. Motorola Confidential Proprietary General Hopping Beacon Theory • The three figures on the previous page represent the generalize case for frequency hopping pilot beacon. Note how there is no change in the pilot. • Hard handoff during an active call is illustrated in Figure 2.

since it does not use sync or page. is not currently available in Motorola CDMA systems. However. we have deturmined the exact page message used. • Figure 7 shows an older implimentation of pilot beacon with no sync or page. Active call hard handoff works fine. IS-95A uses the CDMA Channel List on the page channel to direct mobiles to the new frequency. 4 & 6 illustrate the slight differences between the standards. mobile idle mode handoff had some out of service time. which can also direct mobile to new frequencys. The CDMA_FREQ information at the end of the sync message directs mobiles to the new frequency. We know that both sysc and page are need for Japan CDMA. The Global Service Redirest Message. Motorola Confidential Proprietary Use Wor view Ma • Figures 4. it goes Page 172 of 180 . J-STD-008 does not require a page channel. When a mobile receives a strong pilot beacon with no sync. However.

Pilot Beacon in Neighbor List 3. Mobile receives new sync and page 7. If the primary frequency was Freq 1. Pilot Beacon > Tcomp Mobile issues PSMM CBSC issues Hard Handoff for mobile to New Frequency Idle Mode J-STD-008 1. CDMA Channel List message in page causes Mobile to hash to its appropriate Frequency. Pilot Beacon > Tadd Mobile issues PSMM CBSC denies Soft Handoff to New Pilot Mobile may repeat step 3 several times 4. Strongest Pilot in Old Cell 2. Mobile moves to Beacon Page Channel CDMA Channel List message in page causes Mobile to change to New Frequency. Hard Handoff Flows Active Call 1. Mobile receives Beacon Sync Message 5. the mobile will then again detect a strong pilot beacon with no sync. CDMA Channel List message in page causes Mobile to hash to its appropriate Frequency. Mobile receives Beacon Sync Message CDMA_FREQ field in sync causes Mobile to change to New Frequency 5. The mobile repeats this cycle 50 to 100 times. Pilot Beacon > Old Pilot 4. Strongest Pilot in Old Cell 2. Idle Mode IS-95A 1. Motorola Confidential Proprietary to its primary frequency. Pilot Beacon in Neighbor List 3. Mobile receives new sync and page 6. Page 173 of 180 . Pilot Beacon in Neighbor List 3. Pilot Beacon > Old Pilot 4. Strongest Pilot in Old Cell 2. 6.

vary on time • Call.0c or view Macintosh p * Typical Sync cycle is less than 240 mS. the Global Service Redirection Message. * The paging channel is there to deliver the System Parameter Message. Give two cycles for the mobile to lock and complete a complete cycles. HH. then get bommed) low prob event.28 or less timing) • Origination (Originate. CDMA Channel List Message. it shall be sent once every 1. if the Global Service Redirection Message is sent. and most importantly . • Phone Power Up Lab Test • Soft Handoff if HH not available. * Typical paging channel decode time is also estimated to be around 240 mS at 4800 BPS and this assumes that there are no personal station directed messages. idle Page 174 of 180 .28 Seconds (the T1b time period). * • Idle Slotted Mode (1. Motorola Confidential Proprietary Frequency Hop Timming Use Word 6. • handoff is one shot deal. * Call processing dictates that.

) 10 hour before data. (with slotted if available) Call origination 100 calls. 10 hour after data. • Drive one direction. Over a hill the signal disappears rapidly. • Put programable atten on beacon. • Rapid Change of pilots • Cresting a hill • Extreme shadowing • • Categories of Personal Station Service States 1. Adjust duty cycle to match. Require more pilot beacons. All tries except drops when mobile reaches the point. When a mobile search of the beacon neighbor coin- cides with the multiplexed transmission on the mobile frequency. Mobiles in the ACTIVE mode. This soft handoff is denied by the CBSC since it knows the beacon pilot does not support soft handoff. 1 person land line. Where does not apply • Not test extreem situation. 2 seconds on. Motorola Confidential Proprietary Field Test • Before and After data. Call origination 100 calls. no valid system out of 100 tries. (100 drive bys @ 10 per hour = 10 hours of testing. Idle mode. engaged in a call. Call Termination out of 100 calls. The Beacon pilot should always be configured in adjacent cell neighbor lists. If the signal strength is above the absolute T_ADD threshold. Page 175 of 180 . • 4 phones. Find handoff point. the mobile adds the pilot to the Can- didate Set and sends up a Pilot Strength Measurement Message to the base. Call Drops out of 100 calls. 2 people van. 2% of situations will not work. These mobiles are constantly searching the neighbor list (and more infrequently the remainder list) looking for neighbor cells and sectors for soft or softer hand-off. 10 seconds off. the mobile will detect the pilot and take asses the signal strength.

• • Page 176 of 180 . multiplexing a pilot only signal quickly. it will decode sync and proceed to decode the paging channel.) 3. Note. Motorola Confidential Proprietary If the signal strength is above the relative T_COMP threshold. 2. If the mobile comes up during the period when the carrier is multiplexed off. failing. Placing Sync and Paging on the beacon avoids the problem of the mobile chasing its tail by going to the primary CDMA frequency. then the mobile searches for the secondary or tertiary CDMA carriers (or the AMPS signaling channel) automatically. These mobiles are constantly looking for neighbors also to perform an Idle mode hand-off. Mobiles in the IDLE mode. until the beacon region is crossed or the mobile gives up and tries another frequency. A process which can disrupt service for typically 15 to 20 seconds. may element the need for sync and paging altogether. going back to system determination. recovering from a fade or powering on within range of the beacon. detecting a pilot. If it is a IS-95A mobile. When an Idle mode mobile hands off to a pilot beacon. The hard hand-off is performed and the Sync and Paging channels are never decoded. it will detect the CDMA_FREQ parameter at the end of the Sync message and change to that frequency instantly. If it is a PCS JS-STD-008 mobile. at a low duty cycle. it proceeds to decode the Sync and Paging chan- nels. searching for pilot etc. the mobile adds the pilot to the Can- didate Set and sends up a Pilot Strength Measurement Message to the base. This is exactly what would happen if the mobile came up in a region just beyond the beacon. attempting sync detection. being reassigned to the primary CDMA frequency. This message triggers the base to perform a hard hand-off. Mobiles in entering the System Determination Substate. so all of the above apply to them also. These mobiles come up into the IDLE mode first. and is not a problem. (Note: it has been proposed that the paging channel could be eliminated for IS-95A mo- biles by setting the sync channel MIN_P_REV {minimum protocol revision} level to one level above all mobiles in service. When the mobile reads the Global Service Redirection Message it performs an hard hand-off the specified frequency. constantly monitoring the paging channel.

2 watts each. Motorola Confidential Proprietary Appendix A:Pilot Beacon Theroy Use Word view Macin Hard handoff from one CDMA frequency to another is illustrated in Figure 1. Page 177 of 180 . The Cell 1. The 4 dB higher condition. above. F1 (Frequency 1) pilot power and the Cell 2. F2 pilot beacon and the Cell 2. causes the mobile to hard handoff from F1 to F2. which occurs at Point A. F1 pilot beacon are 0. The Cell 1. F2 pilot power are 2 watts each. A mobile traveling from Cell 2 to Cell 1 will hard handoff at Point B. Assume a mobile starts a call at Cell 1 and travels to Cell 2. The MHO (mobile assisted handoff) algorithm will keep the mobile on F1 until the Cell 2 pilot beacon on F1 is received 4 dB higher at the mobile than the Cell 1 pilot on F1. The mobile initiates the call on F1.

Motorola Confidential Proprietary Use Word 6 view Macin Figure 2 shows a scanning pilot beacon in a 6 frequency CDMA system. (F1<--> F2. F3 and F5. Also. starts 3 calls on 3 phones. the scanning pilot beacon starts to TX on F3. The van arrives at the Cell 1 & Cell 2 hard handoff boundary. Page 178 of 180 . assume a phone can lock onto a scanning pilot beacon and hard hand- off in less than 2 seconds. The van is traveling 60 mph. Less than 2 seconds latter. or 0. assume the Cell 2 pilot beacon is scanned between F1. F5<-->F6) Assume a van. Cell 1 services calls using odd frequencies. the scanning pilot beacon starts to TX on F5. At t=2 seconds. one call on F1. at Cell 1. At t=4 seconds. All the hard handoffs occurred within 6 seconds. Hard handoff takes place from odd and even frequencies and vice versa. Cell 1 and Cell 2 are 1 mile apart.1 miles of the hard handoff boundary. Finally. the F3 phone will hard handoff to F4. exactly when the Cell 2 scanning pilot beacon starts to TX on F1. at t=0 seconds. The van travels to Cell 2. Less than 2 seconds latter. F3<-->F4. dwelling 2 seconds on each frequency. one call on F3. the F1 phone will hard handoff to F2. Less than 2 seconds latter. Cell 2 services calls using even frequencies. the F5 phone will hard handoff to F6. and one call on F5.

size. Even though the low capacity site has only 6 carrier sectors. Total beacons required = 24. • • Beacon provides a Sync channel for the primary CDMA_FREQ parameter and a paging channel for the Global System Redirection Message. A site along a highway out of town or in a subway tunnel deploys 2 carriers in 3 sectors. • For example. Page 179 of 180 . Issues with antenna combining methods are reduced. and complexity. It is not desirable to burden every cell site with the overhead of pilot beacon hardware for the sake of the few sites that need it. but it is conceivable that from 3 to 1 up to 6 to 1 multiplexing may be feasible. In this example a simple 6 carrier-sector site needs to broadcast another 24 pilot beacons just to support hard handoff. • The deployment of pilot beacons will vary widely from site to site depending upon where the hard handoff boundaries are. • The optimal trade-off between multiplexing channel gain and system performance remains to be determined. Motorola Confidential Proprietary • • • Attachment for Part 2: (State the problem(s) solved by the invention) • The Pilot Beacon approach to managing hard handoff in a CDMA cellular system becomes very costly in systems with more than three or four carriers. with one or two carriers must deploy a pilot beacon on every carrier sector supported by an adjacent high ca- pacity with many more carriers. Various configurations require many pilot beacons. A simple modular approach is need- ed. on each of the 3 sectors. it must provide pilot beacons for all 8 other carriers. Scanning pilot would increase the handover detection time. Po- tentially a costly problem. with more carriers than an adjoining lower capacity site. Appendex B:Scanning Beacon Initial Concerns 1. No longer are multiple turned cavity power combiners necessary to combine all bea- con carriers prior to connection to an antenna. Lower capacity sites. • When handing down from a high capacity site. mobile units must soft handoff on the intersecting carriers or receive a beacon to ini- tiate a hard handoff on the carriers not covered at the lower capacity site. There are no Personal Station Directed Mes- sages on the Paging Channel. a JCDMA system has 10 carriers deployed in 6 sectors per site in a downtown urban area. • Attachment for Part 5: (Improvements over known technology) • Primary improvement: Integration of multiple pilot beacon carriers into one transmitter significantly reduces device cost.

Slotted mode and idle handoff muddy the waters as to exactly when sectors need to be on or off. Will mobiles get confused and not be able to receive pages because it's constantly locking/ unlocking on a time shared pilot?Joe Pettinger 4. I can only warn against undesirable outcomes. You just try to build something that does a "reasonable" job at all speeds. When the scanning pilot comes up on a carrier.). It would be unfortunate to design a hopping beacon and then find out that Nokia mobiles won't work. We've always assumed that QC has tweaked their chipset and SW for some particular ve- hicle speed. bursts of handoff on that carrier will oc- cure. Joe Pettinger 3. etc. Oki. It's the sampling that has me worried. Motorola. Barry Menich Page 180 of 180 . Barry Menich 8. Since. etc. How could you build a matched filter for a fading process without knowing the vehicle speed? Answer: You don't. Different pilot Ec/Io filters implemented by different subscriber manufacturers make it dif- ficult to speculate on a minimum energy requirement.Joe Pettinger 2..Barry Menich 5. Motorola Confidential Proprietary This will increase dropped call rates. Barry Menich 7. Coupled with this is some sampling scheme that is simultaneously "slow enough" to cap- ture decorrelated data while "fast enough" not to miss interesting portions of the signal. The baseband portion of the hopping generator would need to be cognizant of sector spe- cific information needed on the sync/paging channel (Global Service Redirect. Neighbor Lists. I think the best thing we could do would be to actually test scanning under a variety of con- ditions with QC. LG. and Nokia mobiles and see what they all would do. none of this is in the spec. Barry Menich 6. unlike GSM. Samsung.

2 N-Way SHO and Complex SHO (Barry’s paper or parts thereof Page 181 of 182 . Motorola Confidential Proprietary 7.

Motorola Confidential Proprietary Page 182 of 182 .

Thus. Menich. Matt Dillon. John Nolting. 1. However. Randy Kohl. Please forward your comments to Barry Menich. Hard HandOff. Devesh Patel. Gino Scribano. One algorithm is a very simple extension of today’s normal soft handoff algorithm with Fast Pilot Shuffling. or Ken Fujikawa. HHO. Keith Ten Brook. We are soliciting feedback from the technical community regarding the necessity for this feature as well as the algorithms that comprise the feature. and “Softer Shuffling”. Definitions: Provided below are some definitions that we’ve adopted for the sake of this document and to further facilitate internal discussion. Roland Ho. Joseph Pettinger. Bob Love. The other algorithm is more complicated and strives to minimize PN “thrashing” as well as limiting pilot shuffling “exposure” during periods of poor RF or non- dominant PN. This algorithm will probably replace the current “Fast Pilot Shuffling” feature. Chris Schmidt. Marilyn Escue. John Kay. SHO. Paul Steinberg. it is assumed we are still targeting R8 as the release for introduction. simulation results of any algorithms propsed herein are desirable prior to full committment to a particular release. Per our previous discussions. Pat Connors FROM: Barry J. John Voigt. Note that there are no industry standards with regard to these. “Soft Shuffling”. Tom Ritchie. this document represents a “best shot guesstimation” of an N-Way SHO algo- rithm. Gerry Labedz. this memo will contain proposals for sub-algorithms known as “Cell Swapping1”. Anil Barot. Chris Schmidt. PAGE 183 OF 208 . Minimal Complex Handoff Algorithm Strawman/Proposal CC: Jim Aldrich. they should not be used outside Motorola until such time that we are confident in the need for these features and/or their implementation in a particular software release. Ken Fujikawa. Obviously. More specifically. Will Bayer. Soft HandOff. Steve Dubberstein. Two algorithms will be discussed. & Dennis Thompson RE: Partial N-way. Note that the complexity of the algorithms derives partly from the lack of HW available to support true 6-Way SHO. Joseph Pedziwiatr. John Thode. Dan Willey This memo will serve as a “strawman” proposal for our next round of soft handoff upgrades which is centered around the “Partial N-Way SHO” algo- rithm. Motorola Confidential Proprietary 11/25/97 TO: Neal Campbell.

we can’t just decide to drop a transmitter from the active set without first informing the subscriber unit. at the time of Extended Handoff Direction Message transmission to utilize the maximum number of currently available forward and reverse links for the procedure transaction. Cell Swapping: An algorithm in the infrastructure that works with Partial N-Way SHO and actually performs reverse link handoff (switching an XC connection) from one cell 1. Because of the desire. etc. this also implies 2N forward/reverse links where N is the maximum expected size of the active set. See appendix #B for clarification of the Qualcomm proposal. Due to current downlink combining techniques. this feature implies the ability on the part of both subscriber unit and infrastructure to connect the subscriber unit into at least 3- way soft/softer handoff immediately at the target following an Extended Handoff Direction Message. If the combining bit in the Extended Handoff Direction Message is used. Motorola Confidential Proprietary Full Complex: This feature implies the ability (on the part of the infrastructure) to per- form multiple add and/or drop operations within one Extended Handoff Direction Mes- sage. Full N-Way: This feature implies XC hardware able to support 6 forward and 6 reverse links. Full Diversity N-Way: This feature implies everything contained with “Full N-Way” as well as subscriber unit hardware with N demodulation elements. N forward links are transmitting as the subscriber unit performs connec- tion procedures at the target. consider the situation where a subscriber unit is in 3-way SHO between 3 different BTSs. HHO Complex: Also known as “complex HHO”. Partial Complex: This feature implies those complex operations that may be accom- plished by utilizing existing XCDR hardware. then the mobile only responds to 3 sets of PCG puncture bits. Mobile Assisted Pilot Dominance: This feature refers to the recent Qualcomm pro- posal of using a secondary threshold that is a function of the sum of the active set SNRs as a technique to inhibit Pilot Strength Measurement Messages. These operations are defined by the Jim Aldrich matrix and constrained by the number of forward and reverse links required to complete any given handoff operation1. If we wanted to simultaneously add a new BTS while dropping one of the existing BTSs. Partial N-Way: This feature implies the ability to support up to 6 forward (Walsh codes) and 3 reverse links2. we’d still want to transmit the Handoff Direction Message via the transmitters of the 3 existing BTSs and receive the Handoff Completion Message via the receivers of the 3 new BTSs. Infrastructure Assisted Pilot Dominance: This feature implies a handoff algorithm on the part of the infrastructure that examines active set and candidate set pilot Ec/Io esti- mates in the Pilot Strength Measurement Message and attempts to determine an optimal active set while simultaneously minimizing the number of forward link transmitters to the minimum required for quality forward link reception. As an example. Page 184 of 208 . Thus. 2. Uses currently available XCDR circuitry. Forward links are a mix of soft and softer connections such that we are always constrained to 3 reverse links. Uses “Next Generation” or “improved” XCDR circuitry that supports the ability to manage 6 MCCce’s.

rather than PN. • Concurrent drop of multiple softer links. This latter trigger is not directly1 under the control of the optimizer/operator. R6. and possibly more. to the end user. It is an operation similar to Fast Pilot Shuffling. This is desirable to minimize the amount of “exposure time” while in a marginal forward link diversity state due to the lack of Full Complex capability2. Should this become known to the operators (right now this is not generally known . >-80 dBm) with poor pilot Ec/Io performance. FPS concepts need to be extended to “Cell Swapping”.even within Motorola). Unfortunately. possibility exists for 3-way. • Give the customer/system optimizer some control over “Cell Swaps”. Non-Dominant PN. the Fast Pilot Shuffling algorithm does not discriminate between pilots that originate from the same or different sites. it could be provoke ill feelings. 2. FPS will no longer be useful. Fast Pilot Shuffling does not discriminate between soft and softer connections. Use of increasing values of T_ADD can be used to “weed out” the candidate set and thereby inhibit some number of FPS operations. pilot at another BTS. Cell Swapping is an undesirable additional burden on the infrastructure as well as an additional handoff operation. softer handoff. Chris believes that this is possible. with all it’s attendant messaging (and resulting voice degradation due to lost speech content). The current FPS algorithm triggers off a T_COMP event as well as an event defined by the candidate set pilot Ec/Io being stronger than 2 of 3 active set pilot Ec/Io’s. • Full N-Way Softer Capability. Japan 6-sector will eventually be implemented with single BTS cellsites. Fast Pilot Shuffling. superior performing. Cell Swaps have the potential to leave the subscriber unit especially vulnerable on the forward link during swap transitions. this requires more skill than most operators and system operators possess. This is a condition defined by good/excellent RF coverage (non-ther- mal noise limited case. Page 185 of 208 . 4-way. a technique used in R5. Also known as “FPS”. Softer Shuffling. Thus. however performed at the BTS. 1. • Minimize the number of “Cell Swaps”. Because of the current software limitation of 3 forward/reverse link pairs. A technique used with Partial N-Way SHO whereby a pilot at one BTS is swapped out in favor of another. Also described by some in the industry as “pilot pollution”. Algorithm Requirements / Wish List N-Way soft handoff will require modifications to the MM to determine when to “Cell Swap”. One negative attribute of the current FPS algorithm is that it is completely insensitive to absolute pilot Ec/Io values. Thus. and R7 whereby T_TDROP timers for active set pilots are preempted only in three way SHO when in the presense of a candidate set pilot that meets the shuffle criteria. Both BTSs currently serve the subscriber unit. Instead. Several people have come forth to complain about the algorithms performance in poor RF and/or non-dominant PN conditions where dropping down to 2 forward links (during the shuffle operation) is detrimental to the health of the call. A technique used with Partial N-Way SHO whereby a pilot at one BTS is swapped out in favor of another. Motorola Confidential Proprietary (BTS) to another. superior performing. level. • Suppress Cell Swapping under poor pilot conditions or conditions of non-dominant PN. Soft Shuffling. pilot at the same BTS. In addition. As with FPS.

connections at another cell. 5. • Factor in consideration for IS-95/J-STD-008 Pilot Strength Measurement Message transmission rules. not so complex that it cannot be completed within a release cycle). 2. Motorola Confidential Proprietary • Provide at least some Pilot Dominance capability. • Provide growth path for the eventuality of Full Complex. General Attributes of “Partial N-Way” Partial N-Way soft handoff has the following attributes: 1. we would never implement a 6-sector site with MCCx8 HW and expect it to be capable of 4-Way softer.) Cell Swapping: Swap connections from one cell to one. solid lines are indicative of forward link connections from the cell(s) in question. and T_TDROP parameters is preserved. 7. Full N-Way. This rules must be adhered to.) Softer Shuffling: Fast Pilot Shuffling amongst pilots eminating from a single BTS. In other words. 8. 3. etc. In this figure. Motorola has no experience with Qualcomm subscriber unit performance under N-Way SHO conditions beyond N=3. The R8 implementation should not inhibit. • The implementation must be “achievable” by R8.) Softer Active Set Limiting: Limitation of the number of subscriber active set members by BTS (need better description here. and C. T_COMP. Thus. or restrict.) General ADD/DROP Operations Preserved: Usage of T_ADD. 6.) Multiple Softer DROP Operation: Dropping more than 1 co-BTS pilot (softer connection) from the subscriber active set. or more. This one’s gonna be tough2.) Soft Shuffling: Fast Pilot Shuffling amongst pilots eminating from two different BTSs. Both specifications have clear rules for transmission of Pilot Strength Measurement Messages. 2-way 1. the subscriber unit is in 2-way softer handoff with cell A. As an example. This implies that the algorithm eventually selected lies within the capabilities of current hardware configurations (including inter-CBSC soft handoff) and software development availability (ie. consider the current subscriber growth rate for Hong Kong extrapolated to the R8 time- frame. Page 186 of 208 . 4.) Multiple Softer ADD Operation: Adding more than 1 co-BTS pilot (softer connection) to the subscriber active set. and a full implementation of Infrastruc- ture Assisted Pilot Dominance algorithm(s). Cell Swapping Under “Partial N-Way” Consider Figure #1 below where a subscriber unit is in 5-way soft handoff with cells A. B. 2. • Provide “Fall-back” position in case of possible dissatisfaction with Qualcomm demodulator assignment/reas- signment algorithm(s). T_DROP. It should be noted that the release date for an N-Way SHO algorithm is sufficiently far enough into the future to warrant consideration of impact with respect to heavily loaded CDMA systems1. future soft handoff algorithm evolution.) Maximum number of softer handoff legs from any site is self-limited 3-sector or 6-sector deployments. All 6-sector sites to be implemented by MCCx24 HW.

This trigger is called a “cell swap”. Notice the simularity between “Cell Swapping” and the current FPS algorithm. 5-Way Soft Handoff via Partial N-Way Cell A Cell C Mobile Cell B Cell D For the purposes of our discussion. and 1-way soft handoff with cell B. Intermediate Stage of “Cell Swap” Procedure All forward links associated with Cell A have been Cell A disconnected. The dotted line eminating from cell D and terminating at the subscriber unit denotes that one sector from cell D has achieved candidate set status from the subscriber unit’s perspective. Cell C Mobile Cell B Cell D Page 187 of 208 . FPS does not discriminate between soft and softer connections. Figure #27. Motorola Confidential Proprietary softer handoff with cell C. Notice in Figure #2 that all forward links from Cell A have been dropped simul- taneously. Cell Swapping will need to have this capability. we shall assume that the soft handoff algorithm in the MM has decided that cell D’s pilot will provide better forward link performance for the subscriber unit than the composite forward link signals from cell A. Figure #28. and the intermediate step is shown in Figure #2 along with the final result in Figure #3.

Softer Shuffling Under “Partial N-Way” Consider Figure #4 below where a subscriber unit is in 5-way soft handoff with cells A. pilots #1 and #2 are active set pilots while pilot #3 is a pilot that has achieved an Ec/Io level sufficient to trigger a softer shuffle. the intermediate step of a softer shuffle is depicted with the MM having cho- sen pilot #1 as the pilot to be dropped from the active set. In this illustration. Note that pilot #1 and pilot #3 are co-BTS pilots. Dotted lines indicate transmission cells/sectors for candidate set pilots. Figure #30. In this figure. They are soft handoff “add” opera- tions that are identical to those currently performed. Final Result of “Cell Swap” Procedure Cell A Cell C Mobile Cell B Cell D The execution aspects of cell swapping are obvious. The soft handoff “drop” operation of multiple forward links is a small stretch from today’s single forward link drops. solid lines are indicative of forward link connections from the cell(s) in question. Motorola Confidential Proprietary Figure #29. and C.B. Page 188 of 208 . 6-Way Soft Handoff via Partial N-Way Cell A #1 Mobile #2 Cell C #3 Cell B In Figure #5.

Page 189 of 208 . In this illustration. Final Stage of Softer Shuffle Procedure Cell A #1 Mobile #2 Cell C #3 Cell B Soft Shuffling Under “Partial N-Way” Consider Figure #7 below where a subscriber unit is in 6-way soft handoff with cells A. pilots #1 and #2 are active set pilots while pilot #3 is a pilot that has achieved an Ec/Io level sufficient to trigger a soft shuffle. Intermediate Stage of Softer Shuffle Procedure Cell A #1 Mobile #2 Cell C #3 Cell B The procedure finally finished in Figure #6 which shows that pilot #3 has been “shuffled” into the subscriber unit active set.B. Figures #8 and #9 depict intermediate and final stages of the soft shuffling operation. Note that the mechanism used was not “Full Com- plex”. Note also that Cell C was limited to 2 active set pilots only. Motorola Confidential Proprietary Figure #31. solid lines are indicative of forward link connections from the cell(s) in question. This will be covered in the section on “Pilot Dominance”. pilot #4 has been chosen by the MM software as an underperforming pilot to be dropped from the subscriber unit active set in favor of pilot #3. In this example. Dotted lines indicate transmission cells/sectors for candidate set pilots. In this figure. and C. Figure #32.

Motorola Confidential Proprietary Figure #33. 6-Way Soft Handoff via Partial N-Way Cell A #4 #1 Mobile #2 Cell C #3 Cell B Figure #34. Intermediate Stage of Soft Shuffle Procedure Cell A #1 Mobile #2 Cell C #3 Cell B Figure #35. Final Stage of Soft Shuffle Procedure Cell A #1 Mobile #2 Cell C #3 Cell B Implications of N-Way SHO Implementation The CDMA Static Simulation (CSSS) may need to be ugraded. This upgrade work would take into account the eventual partial N-Way algorithm chosen. Page 190 of 208 .

and 6-way forward power control unless we specify.6. Handoff operation risk is proposed as Figure #10 below. Handoff Risk Hierarchy Cell Swap Soft Shuffle Increasing T_COMP Prime Softer Shuffle Risk Drop BTS (non-Cell Swap) T_ADD (single or multiple) T_DROP (single) The current state of the call (which includes the number of active set pilots and their associated BTS identities) and the current contents of the Pilot Strength Measurement Message (active set and candidate set Ec/Io information and “keep” flags) defines the future state space per Simple Rule #1. shall be honored1. release cycles.2. Beyond that.) Any T_COMP event for a candidate set pilot where the candidate’s Ec/Io in the Pilot Strength Measure- ment Message is T_COMP dB greater than all active set pilot Ec/Io. This event will be referred to as “T_COMP Prime” in this document and will always invoke some response from the infrastructure. 5. Page 191 of 208 . Figure #36. Perhaps this is acceptable for 1. The primary algorithm we are proposing (Algorithm #1) assumes sorting of Ec/Io for active set and candidate set pilots as well as the ability to associate both with BTSs. Add events in PSMM always prioritized over drop events.2 and IS-95A section 6. Motorola Confidential Proprietary Won’t have gains for 4. Rule #10. Rule #11.) Any T_DROP event in a Pilot Strength Measurement Message will always result in at least one active set pilot drop. Honoring this simple rule gets us past J-STD-008 section 2.5. or 2.6. Algorithm Detail The basic philosophy taken with the proposed approach is to minimize the number of “highest risk” handoff operations. Algorithms Proposed Simple Rules The following proposed simple rules should always apply regardless of what algorithm is finally chosen.2.5. except in cases where shuffling is required. Rule #9. the algorithm is no more complicated than making decisions of when to add candidate pilots and when to drop active pilots.6. This statement is a gross oversimplification of the algorithm/software actually required to real- 1.2 which specifies rules for transmitting T_COMP event information to the infrastructure.) The algorithms will follow the convention in Fast Pilot Shuffling whereby the XC and MM are not required to have memory capability with regard to “add” pilots on any shuffle operations. from any BTS.6. Not having gains available will put us in a position of possibly delivering poorer capacity than would be possible.

Algorithm #1 Algorithm #1 is an intentionally complicated algorithm where a “superstructure” makes decisions regarding add/drop/null events and then calls various sub-procedures (add. The algorithm also assumes that Table #1 allows four BTS connections. drop. This makes use of every opportunity to keep the active set “clean”. The idea here is that the macrodiversity benefit to the call might be Page 192 of 208 . • Multiple pilot add (same BTS only). Finally. The pre-processing portions of the algorithm are shown in Figure #11 below as a process flow. Note the use of the “AddFlag”. One point needs to be made with regard to the handoff “add” operation. swap). • Multiple pilot drop (same BTS only). Figure #10 can be expanded to yield the following criteria require- ments: • Single pilot drop. If any “add” operations should fail to produce a result. The “superstructure” and sub-procedures are presented separately to reduce visual complexity. a simple single pilot drop event or a BTS with only one connection need not invoke any Ec/Io sorting or any BTS Associations. Figure #37. Algorithm #2 is insensitive to soft versus softer connections. • Soft Shuffle. then any existing “drop” events in the PSMM will be honored. For example. • Single pilot add. The algorithms have also not been reduced to their minimal logical expressions and may contain flaws at this point. Handoff Pre-processing Example BTS Associations with PSMM Event Discrimination associated Handoff Events Parallel Activity? Ec/Io Sorting (Candidate Set) Ec/Io Sorting (Active Set) Handoff Decision In terms of detection. three algorithms are presented here. Note that the entire flow need not be executed for all events. • Cell Swap. Motorola Confidential Proprietary ize such a capability. Algorithm #3 requires some of the logic of Algorithm #1 but strives to minimize the active set via a form of “diversity” calculation utilizing the information in each Pilot Strength Measurement Message. It is the philoso- phy of this document that new BTSs be added to a call instead of additional sectors at existing servers in the case of multiple candidate pilots existing in a Pilot Strength Mea- surement Message. • Softer Shuffle. Algorithm #1 is extremely complicated.

The other 2 BTS situation with 4 links and 2 links is not allowed given Table #1. SuperStructure: Perform Event Discrimination For (i=0. This call should handle the situation of 2 BTSs with 3 forward links each. i++) If ( Candidate Ec/Io i > T_ADD ) Then CandidateScreened i = Candidate i Endif Endfor Sort T_COMPPrime Pilot Sort and count Drop pilot(s) Sort and count candidate set pilot(s) Sort and count T_COMP pilot(s) Sort and count Add pilot(s) AddFlag = 0 DropFlag = 0 N Set #BTS = ∑ Active BTSi i=1 If (((Event == ADD) || (Event == T_COMP) || (Event == T_COMPPrime)) && (#BTS == 3)) If ( Best Candidate Set Pilot ∉ Current Serving BTSs ) Then Call Cell Swap Else If ( Best Candidate Set Pilot ∈ Current Serving BTSs ) If ((active_set_size == 6) && (Candidate BTS currently at Table#1_Constraint)) Then Call Soft Shuffle Else If ((active_set_size < 6) && (Candidate BTS currently at Table#1_Constraint)) Call Softer Shuffle Else Call Add Endif Endif Endif Endif If (AddFlag = 0) If (((Event == ADD) || (Event == T_COMP) || (Event == T_COMPPrime)) && (#BTS < 3)) If (active_set_size < 6) Then Call Add Else Call Soft Shuffle1 Endif Endif Endif If ((AddFlag == 0) && (DropFlag == 0) && (T_DROP Event)) Then Call Drop End 1. Motorola Confidential Proprietary of more value than additional softer handoff legs due to high probability of decorrelated shadowing between sites. Page 193 of 208 . i<All Candidate Set Pilots.

2. “NoKeep” pilots are active set pilots represented in the Pilot Strength Measurement Message with keep flag set to zero. Motorola Confidential Proprietary Drop: The following is an example of a simple “drop” event where single or multiple NoKeep1 pilots are involved. Page 194 of 208 . This is obviously an unfortunate situation to find ourselves in. it is the latter case that will occur with the greatest frequency. Note that this loop causes no shuf- fling: If (#Drop Events in PSMM > 1) Count NoKeep Pilots per BTS Sort Count Find BTS with greatest count If (All NoKeep Pilots In Same BTS) If (Ec/Io of any NoKeep Pilot > Ec/Io of all Keep Act Pilot at same BTS) If (#BTS > 1) Then Drop ALL pilots at BTS Else If (#BTS == 1) If (# of Keep Act Pilots >= 1) Then Drop all NoKeep pilots at BTS Else Drop weakest2 NoKeep pilot at BTS Endif DropFlag = 1 Endif Else If (Ec/Io of any NoKeep Pilot ! > Ec/Io of all Keep Act Pilot at same BTS) If (#BTS > 1) Then Drop all NoKeep pilots at BTS DropFlag = 1 Endif Endif Else If (NoKeep Pilots Distributed Amongst Multiple BTSs) If (Ec/Io of any NoKeep Pilot > Ec/Io of all Keep Act Pilot at same BTS) Then Drop all NoKeep pilots at BTS Else Drop weakest (by Ec/Io) NoKeep pilot Endif DropFlag = 1 Endif Endif Else If ((#Drop Events in PSMM == 1) && (#Active_Pilots > 1)) If (Ec/Io of any NoKeep Pilot > Ec/Io of any Keep Act Pilot at same BTS) If (#BTS > 1) Then Drop ALL pilots at BTS Endif Else Drop only NoKeep pilot Endif DropFlag = 1 Endif 1. and finally a single pilot. Unfortunately. then all NoKeep pilots. The precedence is to always try to drop an entire BTS worth of forward links.

per Table#1_Constraint5 . 3.e. AddFlag = 1 Else If (BTS == NEW_BTS){ Then add all candidates at NEW_BTS above composite T_ADD . all candidate pilot Ec/Io associated with that BTS must satisfy the composite2 T_ADD criteria in order to be added (i. The probability of this occurring is probably higher than that of seeing multiple NoKeep pilots since handoff add operations might be deferred in favor of drops/swaps/T_COMP events. a form of pilot dominance): Rank order pilot Ec/Io If (#Candidates in PSMM > 1){ If (All Candidates in same BTS){ If (BTS == OLD_BTS){ Then add all candidates at OLD_BTS above composite T_ADD . By this we mean the T_ADD value chosen by the MM algorithm that merges handoff parameters during soft handoff operations. 6. Also. 5. 2. Table constraint exception allowed under T_COMPPrime conditions. such that #Actives < 7.AND. such that #Actives < 7.AND. Table constraint exception allowed under T_COMPPrime conditions. per Table#1_Constraint4 .AND. the word “can- didate” is underlined everywhere to draw attention to singular and plural forms. such that #Actives < 7. In the case of adding multiple forward links from a new BTS. Page 195 of 208 .AND. Table constraint exception allowed under T_COMPPrime conditions. 7. Note that this loop causes no shuffling. AddFlag = 1 Endif Endif Else If (Candidates distributed over multiple BTSs){ If (BTS == NEW_BTS){ Then add all candidates at NEW_BTS above composite T_ADD . Motorola Confidential Proprietary Add: The following is an example of a simple “add” event where single or multiple candi- date set pilots1 are involved.AND. 4. AddFlag = 1 Endif Endif Endif Else If (#Candidates in PSMM == 1){ If (BTS == OLD_BTS){ Then add candidate per Table#1_Constraint7 AddFlag = 1 Else If (BTS == NEW_BTS){ Else add candidate AddFlag = 1 Endif 1. Table constraint exception allowed under T_COMPPrime conditions. Table constraint exception allowed under T_COMPPrime conditions.AND. AddFlag = 1 Else If (BTS == OLD_BTS){ If (#Candidates < Table#1_Constraint6) Then add strongest candidate in PSMM. per Table#1_Constraint3 .

i=1 Sort to find σ Weakest BTS If ( Candidate Ec/Io > σ Weakest BTS ) { If (NoKeep pilots exist at σ Weakest BTS ) Then drop all NoKeep pilots at σ Weakest BTS Else drop weakest pilot associated with σ Weakest BTS . Endif Endif Endif Soft Shuffle: The following is an example of testing for the Soft Shuffling criteria and choosing a pilot to drop. Endif Endif Endif Cell Swap: The following is an example of testing for the Cell Swap criteria and choosing a BTS to drop. Endif Else If (T_ADD Event on OLD_BTS){ N Calculate σ BTS = ∑ Ec/Ioi for other 2 BTSs. If (T_COMP Event on OLD_BTS){ Find weakest pilot on other 2 BTSs. If (T_COMPPrime Event){ If (NoKeep pilots exist for this BTS) Then drop all NoKeep pilots at this BTS Else drop weakest pilot associated with this BTS. Endif Else N Calculate σ BTS = ∑ Ec/Ioi i=1 If ( ( Candidate Ec/Io > σ BTS ) ) || (T_COMP Event)){ If (NoKeep pilots exist for this BTS) Then drop all NoKeep pilots at this BTS Else drop weakest pilot associated with this BTS. If (NoKeep pilots exist for this BTS) Then drop all NoKeep pilots at this BTS Else drop weakest pilot associated with this BTS. Motorola Confidential Proprietary Endif Endif Softer Shuffle: The following is an example of testing for the Softer Shuffling criteria and choosing a pilot to drop. i=1 Page 196 of 208 . N Calculate σ BTS = ∑ Ec/Ioi for all legs of all 3current BTSs.

This should handle the situation where a call is already engaged with 3 BTSs and candidate set pilots appear for more than one new BTS. Another simple technique to limit cell swapping under conditions of non-dominant PN would be to alter the values depicted in Appendix A to make cell swapping more difficult as a function of decreasing σBTS . Motorola Confidential Proprietary N Calculate σ Cand = ∑ Ec/IoCand for all candidate set pilots at new BTSs1 i=1 Rank order σ Cand Set σ Strongest Cand BTS from all σ Cand Rank order σ BTS Set σ Weakest BTS from all σ BTS If (T_COMPPrime Event){ Drop all pilots at σ Weakest BTS DropFlag = 1 Else If (T_ADD Event or Other T_COMP Event){ If ( σ Strongest Cand BTS > σ Weakest BTS ) { Drop all pilots at σ Weakest BTS DropFlag = 1 Endif Endif Non-Dominant PN or “Poor Coverage”: An algorithm extension to those shown above would suppress softer shuffling. Page 197 of 208 . The justification for this is that the shuffling/swapping procedures “expose” the subscriber unit to unnecessary risk on the forward link as the number of available for- ward links goes from N to (N-M) during the “drop” portion of the shuffle/swap. One could argue that soft and softer shuffle have less inherent risk than a cell swap. This is more “true” in the cell swap case as cell swapping has the possibility of dropping several forward links in one simultaneous procedure. soft shuffling. This has the effect of making it difficult to decide on appropriate values of σBTS to use as forward link sensitivity is greatly affected by the diversity available2. we don’t even have forward link FER data available for anything beyond 3 demodulators. or cell swapping under conditions of non- dominant PN. Thus. the algorithm would only trigger on T_COMPPrime events and honor Simple Rule #2. 2. The problem here is in deciding on a scaling factor. A simple technique to limit cell swapping under conditions of non-dominant PN would be to alter the trigger criteria (shown above) to eliminate T_ADD and T_COMP events. The problem is further compounded by noting that the algorithm will probably need to exist during an epoch when subscriber manufacturers go from the QC ASIC to proprietary designs that possibly support more than 3 demodulators. The disadvantage here is probably just a small capacity hit from having non-optimal BTS connections (due to the lack of the T_ADD and T_COMP triggers) in areas of domi- nant PN. 1. In fact.

cell swapping. Witness the variety Ec/Io and TCH Eb/No required to reach 1% FER as a function of vehicle speed. Several points can be made: • An algorithm of this type would possibly end up being insensitive to soft vs. softer shuffling. etc. This might become especially vexing in a mixed vocoder system. • Choosing the target combined Ec/Io makes the algorithm insensitive to TCH Eb/No. There is also no concurrent add/drop of softer links. Algorithm #3 The suggestion has been made that the table in Appendix A be used to calculate a “com- bined” Ec/Io value for the contents of every Pilot Strength Measurement Message using both active and candidate set pilots and then using this value in a comparison function with a target threshold. • Choosing the target combined Ec/Io would be a subject of debate. Note that our forward power control algorithm changes gain as a function of the number of forward TCHs involved in the soft handoff. The goal of such an algorithm is simplification wrt to Algorithm #1. The algorithm would strive to add those candidates that assist in achieving the threshold and dropping those active set pilots that do not. there’s a need for “add detection” and “drop target” algorithms at the MM. softer connections and would not favor the adding of softer legs over cell swapping as Algorithm #1 does. The algorithm merely examines each Pilot Strength Measurement Message received and makes add/drop decisions based on the contents. vested in the algorithm. A limit is placed such that only 3 BTS are used no matter how many forward links are in SHO (just as in Algorithm #1). we will probably be presented with some number of situations where a number of handoff “knobs” will be useful. This would require a combined Ec/Io threshold that is a function of soft handoff. Since cell swapping is now the dominant feature Page 198 of 208 . There is certainly much smaller development associated with error legs in this case. • Some form of cell swapping (and decision criteria) would still be required. The advantage of Algorithm #2 is pure reduction in development effort making an R8 tar- get date more “achievable”. This is merely an extension of algorithms implemented today with FPS. The disadvantage of Algorithm #2 is lack of handoff suppression features (particularly cell swapping). • Choosing the target combined Ec/Io would be further complicated by differences in RS1 and RS2 forward channel performance. In other words. Fast Pilot Shuffling works in the same fashion as it does today. delay spread. with the only modification being that it triggers with 6 forward links instead of 3 for- ward links and triggers with 3 BTSs in the presence of a 4th BTS candidate. • As with Pilot Dominance. It might be that the only way to achieve algorithm #1 would be to code algorithm #2 into release R8 and then “evolve” it into algorithm #1 in release R9. Motorola Confidential Proprietary Algorithm #2 Algorithm #2 is much simpler than algorithm #1 in that it is insensitive to issues of soft shuffling. Algorithm Summary (Algorithm #1 Specific) As you can see. or non-dominant PN. optimization choice is taken away from the field technician and instead. While this is prudent approach the vast majority of the time. you need to be able to detect a condition that would cause a shuffle or swap and then decide on which pilot(s) to add.

Many have made the observation wrt the FPS feature that we tend to perform an excessive number of handoff operations. when is Ec is large. the Ec/Io ratio exhibits relatively small variance. In addition.The purpose of this table is to provide an integer-based means for dealing with Ec/Io values without having to implement floating-point arithmetic (costly). we make the following observations: • Ec/Io values contained with Pilot Strength Measurement Messages are transient values present at the time the message was sent. it seems realistic to expect that the stationarity of the Ec/Io frequency/ density function is only short in time duration for most subscriber cases and dependent on the time rate of change of the pathloss. • Choice(s) of add cells/pilots needs to be made with high confidence. Io > Ec). confidence in static. with the inclusion of mechanisms to perform multiple simulta- neous softer adds and softer drops. For Cell Swapping. Ec >> Io). forward link SNR for a subscriber unit wrt any given pilot measurement is a function of that measure- ment.e. Care must be taken to develop confidence in these values as swap/shuffle triggers. that the Cell Swapping is really no worse than the current FPS algorithm while providing the benefits of more than 3 forward links. the variance of the Ec/Io ratio increases and more of the fading attenuation can be seen in the measurement. Appendix A shows a an Ec/Io Conversion look-up table composed of integers that correspond to the Ec/Io values contained in a Pilot Strength Measurement Message. we intend to put in place a more rigorous criteria and attempt to reduce the amount of falsing associated with shuf- fling/swapping. By this we mean that high confidence exists that the cell(s) to be added will out-perform the cell(s) dropped. • A mechanism needs to be implemented to ensure that a PSMM containing “add” information will be available upon termination of the “drop” portion of any swap/shuffle operation. • Each active set pilot Ec/Io in the Handoff Request Message is used to lookup the corresponding absolute value. • Each candidate set pilot Ec/Io in the Handoff Request Message is used to lookup the corresponding absolute value. Page 199 of 208 . • Choice(s) of drop cells/pilots needs to be made with high confidence. The table in Appendix A is used as input to the Cell Swapping algorithm. Motorola Confidential Proprietary that will put us at a disadvantage on the forward link (no availability of full N-way or full complex). and all other interference sources are small (i.e. Thus. This is probably a function of the secondary criteria for pilot shuffling that the candidate set pilot have stron- ger Ec/Io than 2 out of 3 active set pilots. It should be noted that. Nature of Ec/Io Values in Pilot Strength Measurement Messages The Ec/Io measurement made by the subscriber unit places Ec both in the numerator and the denominator. When Ec is small relative to Io (i. What is not so obvious is the criteria for cell swap detection or pilot shuffling. Thus. more so than is necessary to support the call. There is also some execution time savings in using a look-up table technique.

2. This should reinforce the notion in Figure #12 by asking to what distribution the value of -13 dB Ec/Io returned in a Pilot Strength Measurement Message would be assigned2. ener- gies from interfering systems. I choose to exclude delay spread. Ec/Io Confidence Ec/Io Measurement Increasing Confidence -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 -14 -15 -16 -17 -18 .as an example of the variation of Ec/Io as a function of ambient ζ 1 ⋅ E c + N Thermal noise where the scaler ζ1 represents the fast fading process. paging and synchronization channel energies. Motorola Confidential Proprietary Figure #38. Confidence The main point in the discussion above is one of having high confidence in Cell Swap and Pilot Dominance operations. 1. etc. NThermal is usually a gaussian random variate but is held constant in this experiment. traffic channel energies. Decreasing . . For the sake of this simple demonstration. Note that in this example the 9 dB and 15 dB Nth/Ec distributions overlap. Page 200 of 208 . The situation is further complicated by not- ing that the above equation is extremely simplistic and that additional terms in the denominator are present for increasing numbers of cells3. Figure #13 below shows select Ec/Io frequency distributions for the simple case1 of ζ1 ⋅ E c E c ⁄ I o = ------------------------------------------ . This observation has broad implications for target selection in DAHO deployments as well as possibly influencing the soft handoff model in the CDMA Static Simulation. Both of these have high risk associated with them such that triggers for both and ultimate active set composition decisions need either a lot more study or sufficient parameterization such that we can “parameterize our way out of a jam”. 3.

non-correlated fading from several cells/sectors) should sum Var ( X 1 + X 2 + … + X N ) = Var ( X 1 ) + Var ( X 2 ) + … + Var ( X N ) . 1. N=5000. at some point excessive transmission loss renders the variance of any particular Ec irrelevant. Single Pilot Ec/Io Frequency Distributions (Thermal Noise relative to Ec. 0. This time. the sum of several independent random variables (e. The conclusion to be drawn is that any Ec/Io value represented in a single Pilot Strength Measurement Message is probably a poor estimator of E[Ec/Io] (or SNR). Of course. Motorola Confidential Proprietary Figure #39. Figure #14 below depicts a continuation of the above simple experiment extended to 2 and 3 Ec values. Page 201 of 208 .02 Sampling) 20 0 dB 15 dB 9 dB BJM 05/07/97 15 % of distribution 10 5 0 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 Ec/Io dB In general. 100 Hz. These random variables actually make up the Io portion of the measurement and each random variable has a scaling factor attributed to it’s transmission loss wrt the subscriber unit. the graph is drawn as a function of NTh/Ec. This may be why the Korean manufacturers have implemented their Pilot Dominance algorithm(s) with periodic Power Measurement Report Message reporting.g. we would expect the variance of any Ec/Io measurement to increase as the number of cells with “detectable” Ec increases1. Thus. Example of Single Pilot Ec/Io as a function of Nth/Ec. They have essentially moved the filtering process for active set pilot drops (pre-empting the T_DROP/ T_TDROP process) out of the subscriber unit and into the infrastructure.

5 Three Pilots 5 4. Pilot Dominance would be optimized under conditions of Full Complex SHO (which is not available). most of the work would be similar to algorithm #2 with additional parameters. Should have a picture with basic SHO theory and how you really want to make sure a pilot is dead before you take it out of the active set. the other pilot(s) get better!”. “When one pilot fades. It should be noted that adjusting handoff parameters is an indirect way of applying Pilot Dominance. Motorola Confidential Proprietary Figure #40. Also. Obviously. 1. Proposed (Simple) Algorithm Extensions for Pilot Dominance While Pilot Dominance algorithms seek to maintain the minimum number of forward links1.5 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Nth/Ec dB and Nth/Ec.5 3 BJM 05/08/97 2. Example Ec/Io variance as a function of number of pilot signals (all at equal transmission loss) Ec/Io Variance as a function of Nth/Ec and number of pilots (Ioc) 6 One Pilot Two Pilots 5. Adjusting the T_ADD parameter for higher Ec/Io values limits the usage of the candidate set. Higher values of T_DROP and lower values of T_TDROP also limit the candidate set size as well as “trimming” the active set.5 VAR(Ec/Io) dB 4 3. provide diagram of subscriber combining. Does Pilot Dominance also seek to optimize the reverse link? Page 202 of 208 .

This technique also serves the function of keeping “open” active set slots for an emergency handoff situation. In the case of adding multiple forward links. Note also that the MM would have to be cognizant of how many pilots remain in the active set (under the assumption that the procedure would be suc- cessful) and ensure that at least one active set pilot remains at the end of each proce- dure execution. Notes: Argument for Pilot Dominance is expected loads on HK and PrimeCo by the time R8 hits. How to play this off against QC proposal? We are now implementing the opposite of handoff detection and target selection by detecting when a pilot has gone bad and deciding how/whether to swap out. Note that imposing constraints on the maximum number of softer handoff connections allowed from a single BTS might cause us to perform more softer shuffling. the convention of only adding those candidates whose Ec/Io value in the current Pilot Strength Measurement Message helps to limit the number of forward transmitters. An example is given in the table below. etc. Table #5. This assumes that the primary mechanism by which forward links are added remains the sim- ple T_ADD event.) Softer Handoff Inhibit for Pilot Dominance Maximum Number of Number of BTSs Softer Connections Involved in Soft Allowed from One Handoff BTS 1 4a 2 3 3 2 a. However. Another possible extension for Pilot Dominance would be to limit the amount of softer handoff used by a subscriber unit as a function of the number of BTS connections. Page 203 of 208 . either for a new BTS or for an existing BTS. Pending confirmation that current Channel Element tracking algorithms can handle four simultaneous sec- tors’ worth of activity. Motorola Confidential Proprietary One possible extension to the algorithms proposed above to include minimizing the active set size would be to drop all connections from a BTS in the event of T_TDROP timer expiry and associated pilot Ec/Io being greater than all other pilot Ec/Io’s from that same BTS (as represented in the same Pilot Strength Measurement Message). Note that this proposal relies only on the ability to simultaneously drop all connections from a BTS and does not rely on complex operations of the sort that produce simultaneous add and drop operations.

Charles Nicoll idea! Vary soft handoff parameters as a function of the number of legs in soft/softer handoff. precludes additional transmission of PSMM. or is it only limited to trans- mit sectors? Will? Might have to send PMROs in those situations where the spec. Page 204 of 208 . Motorola Confidential Proprietary Do MCCx8 and MCCx24 really have full reverse link diversity.

5 3548 14 -7 3162 15 -7. Motorola Confidential Proprietary Appendix A: Ec/Io Conversion Table Ec/Io Actual Absolute Value Reported in Ec/Io Function (Integer) PSMM dB 0 0 15848 1 -0.5 11220 4 -2 10000 5 -2.5 5623 10 -5 5011 11 -5.5 7079 8 -4 6309 9 -4.5 14125 2 -1 12589 3 -1.5 8912 6 -3 7943 7 -3.5 4466 12 -6 3981 13 -6.5 2238 18 -9 1995 19 -9.5 2818 16 -8 2511 17 -8.5 1778 20 -10 1584 21 -10.5 1412 Page 205 of 208 .

5 891 26 -13 794 27 -13.5 1122 24 -12 1000 25 -12.5 354 34 -17 316 35 -17.5 112 44 -22 100 45 -22.5 707 28 -14 630 29 -14. Motorola Confidential Proprietary Ec/Io Actual Absolute Value Reported in Ec/Io Function (Integer) PSMM dB 22 -11 1258 23 -11.5 223 38 -19 199 39 -19.5 562 30 -15 501 31 -15.5 141 42 -21 125 43 -21.5 446 32 -16 398 33 -16.5 281 36 -18 251 37 -18.5 177 40 -20 158 41 -20.5 89 Page 206 of 208 .

5 14 62 -31 12 63 -31.5 56 50 -25 50 51 -25.5 17 60 -30 15 61 -30.5 70 48 -24 63 49 -24.5 44 52 -26 39 53 -26.5 11 64 -32 10 Page 207 of 208 .5 35 54 -27 31 55 -27.5 28 56 -28 25 57 -28. Motorola Confidential Proprietary Ec/Io Actual Absolute Value Reported in Ec/Io Function (Integer) PSMM dB 46 -23 79 47 -23.5 22 58 -29 19 59 -29.

Page 208 of 208 . Note also that Qualcomm probably does not use the term “Pilot Dominance” to describer the benefits provided by this proposal. the proposal also contains a point-slope inequality (depicted below) with y-intercept and slope parameters under control of the infrastructure. In addition. Motorola Confidential Proprietary Appendix B: Qualcomm Subscriber Unit Pilot Dominance Quick Summary Qualcomm is proposing a modification to the current J-STD-008 and IS-95 rules for transmission of Pilot Strength Measurement Messages. The technique forces the sub- scriber unit to perform summation operations on active set SNR values and use those as a basis for comparison with candidate set SNRs on and individual candidate set pilot basis. It should also result in reduced soft handoff factor under judicious selection of the aforementioned parameters1. Obviously there’s trade-offs between forward link capacity and the integrity of the forward link. Candidate SNR Send PSMM Do Not Send PSMM N ∑ ActiveSet_SNRi i=1 1. This technique should result in reduced PSMM messaging by the subscriber unit.

Motorola Confidential Proprietary 7.3 Umbrella Cell John Toone slides from April ‘97 PrimeCo TEM Page 209 of 210 .

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Motorola Confidential Proprietary 7.4 Six Sector • Dennis Schaeffer 30 degree rotation idea. • Barry’s alternating sector power idea. Page 211 of 212 .

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where the mobile biases the adding of a pilot over the dropping of a pilot. All DAHO sectors are indicated with a D. and 3. two rows of base stations outside the frequency coverage area are required to handle all combinations of soft-handoff to trigger the hard handoff. • HHO terms from Barry’s slides. This is due to the TADD nature of DAHO. due to the hysteresis of TTDROP used in soft/softer handoff. 2.5 DAHO optimization strategies DAHO uses cell configuration information stored in the CBSC/BTS along with the sys- tem’s knowledge of which cells/sectors control a particular call. Triggers on Active Set information from the last PSMM Uses strongest Active Set pilot Best trigger is two-way to one-way drop Worst trigger is the completion of a pilot shuffle • Notes on Ec/Io statistics from Pilot Strength Measurement Message. All DAHO marked sectors would include all neigh- bor PN’s of Cells 1. or TDROP of a pilot not on the seam. Typically. It is triggered by the TADD event of adding a pilot on the seam. Motorola Confidential Proprietary 7. DAHO suffers from the largesse required to deploy it. From Dan Declerck’s taxonomy: Database Assisted handoff (DAHO) is a hard handoff triggered by the active set of the mobile station being comprised of a majority of sectors on a seam. This is illustrated in Figure 1. Page 213 of 214 . where a majority of the remaining pilots in the active set are on the seam. • New terms for microcells and umbrella cells.

Primary CDMA carrier domain Figure 1 Page 214 of 214 . Motorola Confidential Proprietary Two CDMA Carrier Domain D D D DD D D D D DD D D D D Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Single.

6 Back To Back Antennas Page 215 of 216 . Motorola Confidential Proprietary 7.

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5 WG III trip report: Presently there are three methods for using MAHO techniques for CDMA hard handoff: 1. The trigger for hard handoff would include the target pilot channel being TCOMP higher in strength than all active set pilots. from Dan DeClerck’s CDG IAT/ TR45. Motorola Confidential Proprietary 7. with two methods somewhat similar in execution.8 Nokia/Qualcomm contribution. and if it fails. The base then can adjust the periodic interval the mobile is away to scan the adjacent frequency(s). as it would not be prudent to degrade the speech quality constantly when the mobile is not on a frequency seam. the base gives the the mobile it’s scan list. 7. Page 217 of 218 . This method will inherently degrade speech quality for the period the mobile is scanning other pilots. a periodic method. 3. The advantage of this method over the others. is that the mobile actually samples the target environment and it is used as a criteria for triggering a handoff. a method where the mobile is hard-handed off.9 DeClerck/Ashley improvements. This contribution set allows the subscriber unit to vacate the traffic channel to scan adjacent frequencies. and improves speech quality by allowing the subsciber unit to vocode ahead of time. and provide a more consistent scan of the RF spectrum. 2. and the mobile reports it’s ability as a total time to scan all elements in the list. as well as the longest number of consecutive frames it will be away. where the mobile does repeated scans at approximate inter- vals specified by the base station. 1) a one-shot method.The down- side to this method is the inherent degradation of speech quality. Motorola’s improvement over this method utilizes the same traffic channel frame formats. and reports when those scans indicate a hand- off might be required. 7.7 Mobile Specification Changes from Dan DeClerck’s taxonomy: This technique basically involves the mobile station vacating the traffic channel for a period of time to visit other frequencies to scan for pilots. Typically a DAHO technique would be employed to trigger the scan of adjacent frequen- cies. The pre-quel to the scan. it can be optionally told by the base to do a complete scan of all pilots in the list and report it’s results. where the mobile does a single scan of the pilots/chan- nels on other frequencies and returns with a report.

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RECOMMENDATION: That the group review the proposed changes to inter-frequency hard hand- off procedure. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication. A license will be made available to applicants under reasonable terms and conditions that are demonstrably free of any unfair discrimination. amend or withdraw the statements contained herein. or copyright.com ABSTRACT: This contribution provides a proposal to enhance the inter-frequency hard handoff in a way that speech quality is not degraded for inter-frequency search intervals. or otherwise any license or right under any patent. to copyright in TIA's name any TIA standards publication even though it may include portions of this contribution. Inc. The contributor may hold one or more patents or copyrights that cover information contained in this con- tribution. whether or not the use of information herein necessarily employs an invention of any existing or later issued patent. The contributor reserves the right to add to. Page 219 of 222 . Notice ©1997 Motorola. estoppel.mot. including republication and distribution to others. The contributor grants a free. irrevocable license to the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) to incorporate text contained in this contribution and any modifications thereof in the creation of a TIA stan- dards publication. Dan DeClerck 847-632-4596 declrckd@cig. The contributor reserves the right to use all material sub- mitted in this contribution for their own purposes. Motorola Confidential Proprietary TITLE: Enhancements for inter-frequency hard handoff SOURCE: Motorola Inc. and at TIA's sole discretion to permit others to reproduce in whole or in part the resulting TIA standards publications. The information contained in this contribution is provided for the sole purpose of promoting discussion within the TIA and is not binding on the contributor.

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with mobile stationõs ESN as the HASH_KEY modulo divided by the number of frames in the scan period. This gives the base station the flexibility in the trade-off between scan time and speech degradation. This time period would be in frames. similar to the one described in Section 6.7. It is recommended that the above aspects be incorporated as part of an enhancement to the pro- posal that is adopted for inter-frequency hard handoff. similar to that of the traffic channel. and would most likely be transmitted in the Candidate Frequency Neighbor List Message (CFNLM) previously proposed. 2. 3 . Motorola Confidential Proprietary Introduction The proposals that are currently being considered for inter-frequency hard handoff require a mo- bile station to periodically scan adjacent CDMA channels for an indeterminate period of time. Recommendations Motorola proposes that the following key enablers for hard handoff be added to PN-3693: 1 .The specific frame used by the mobile station to scan adjacent frames may be derived using a hash algorithm. Secondary Traffic is used for the second half-rate frame. The reason to stagger the frames used is that this adjacent scanning method will probably be used in spe- cific geographic regions. 5 . and that most of the mobile stations in this region would employ this algorithm. and the procedure for hard handoff continues as de- scribed in other proposals. Page 221 of 222 . as allowed in IS-95. In a frame prior to the open frame (the frame where the mobile station scans other frequencies). using Service Configuration and Negotiation procedure. The contribution utilizes the signaling method proposed by QUALCOMM. the base station and mobile station transmit two half-rate frames in a single full-rate frame.A mechanism (negotiated using Service Configuration procedure) that allows delaying the sending of speech frames by 20 ms (one frame) and forcing the vocoder to the maximum cod- ing rate of half-rate for two frames prior to an open frame. the voice quality will degrade substantially. This contribution propos- es a mechanism that ensures preservation of a reasonable level of voice quality by utilizing exist- ing capabilities of IS-95 (such as Service Configuration and Negotiation). 4 . During this period of time. the mobile station changes frequency to scan adjacent channels for stronger pilots.1. It indicates the re- sult of the search to the base station. Ensuring that all mobile stations do not vacate the traffic channel simultaneously ensures a more uniform radio environment. During the open frame.6.The base station should be allowed to specify the time-period between adjacent scanning pe- riods. Such a mechanism should be negotiated when it is deemed necessary by the base station.

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Motorola Confidential Proprietary 7.10 Pilot Dominance Page 223 of 224 .

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Motorola Confidential Proprietary 7.11 Complex Handoff Page 225 of 226 .

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Inter-CBSC Soft Handover 11/25/97 Digital Systems Division Motorola Confidential Proprietary Inter-CBSC Soft Handover 11/25/97 Digital Systems Division Page 228 of 264 .

MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL PROPRIETARY Cellular Infrastructure Group Contents ❑ Introduction ❑ Architecture ❑ Call Processing ◗ HO Detection ◗ Procedures ◗ Inter-CBSC Trunk Group Resource Management ◗ Restrictions ◗ Example ❑ Operations and Maintenance ◗ Configuration Management ◗ Fault Management ➠ IC Trunk Group Mgmt. ➠ Global Reset ◗ Performance Management Supercell Arc PDS .229 of 264 MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL PROPRIETARY . ➠ IC Link Mgmt.

1-6-2 3-2-2 Carrier C B: BTS #.230 of 264 MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL PROPRIETARY . XCDR and MCCce(s) ✓ Traffic Frame Delivery to MCCce(s) (via Strau) and MSC (TerCkts) ◗ Unable to support Soft Handoff across CBSC Boundaries ◗ Requires Hard Handoff to External CBSC ➠ MAHO via Pilot Beacon Configuration ➠ DAHO via Configuration Parameters Hard Handoff Seam 2-1-1 Source 2-1-3 Target (CBSC-1) 1-1-1 2-1-2 (CBSC-2) 2-2-3 Carrier A Carrier B 1-1-3 2-2-2 1-2-1 1-1-2 2-3-1 2-2-2 2-4-3 1-2-3 2-3-3 2-4-2 = Pilot Beacons 1-2-2 1-3-1 2-3-2 1-1-1 2-4-1 MS 1-3-3 2-5-3 1-3-2 2-5-2 = Xcsectors 1-4-1 3-1-1 2-6-1 1-4-3 3-1-3 2-6-3 = Internal 1-4-2 1-5-1 3-1-2 3-3-1 2-6-2 sectors (first ring in) 1-5-3 3-3-3 = Internal 1-5-2 3-2-1 Target sectors 1-6-1 3-3-2 1-6-3 3-2-3 (CBSC-3) A-B-C = A: CBSC #. C: Sector # Supercell Arc PDS . MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL PROPRIETARY Cellular Infrastructure Group Introduction: Intra-CBSC Soft Handoff ❑ Intra-CBSC Soft Handoff ◗ Support of multiple active legs between the MS and Base Station within a com ➠ Mobility Control ✓ Handoff Detection and Determination ✓ MS Power Control ✓ RF Resource Allocation ➠ Physical Connectivity ✓ Control Messaging between MM.

➠ Eliminates need for Pilot Beacons ✓ Frees CDMA Spectrum ✓ Eliminates need to purchase Pilot Beacon Hardware (BTS Shelf. MCCces. MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL PROPRIETARY Cellular Infrastructure Group Introduction: Inter-CBSC Soft Handoff ❑ Inter-CBSC Soft Handoff ◗ Support of multiple active legs between the MS and Base Station within a com and across CBSC Boundaries. GLIs. B ➠ Introduces a buffer zone between Intra-Carrier SHO and Hard Handoff ✓ Reduces Hard Handoff Ping-Ponging between CBSCs ➠ Supports Inter-CBSC SHO simultaneously with Multiple CBSCs/MSC IC SHO Handoff Seam Hard Handoff Seam (CBSC-1) Hard Handoff Seam (CBSC-2) 2-1-1 Source Target 2-1-3 (CBSC-1) 2-1-2 (CBSC-2) 1-1-1 2-2-3 Carrier A Carrier A 1-1-3 2-2-2 1-2-1 1-1-2 2-3-1 2-2-2 2-4-3 1-2-3 2-3-3 2-4-2 1-2-2 1-3-1 2-3-2 1-1-1 2-4-1 1-3-3 2-5-3 MS 1-3-2 2-5-2 = Xcsectors 1-4-1 3-1-1 2-6-1 1-4-3 3-1-3 2-6-3 = Internal 1-4-2 1-5-1 3-1-2 3-3-1 2-6-2 sectors (first ring 1-5-3 3-3-3 = Internal 1-5-2 3-2-1 sectors 1-6-1 3-3-2 1-6-3 3-2-3 A-B-C = A: CBSC 1-6-2 3-2-2 Target B: BTS (CBSC-3) C: Secto Carrier A Supercell Arc PDS .231 of 264 MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL PROPRIETARY .

and terckt to MSC ◗ Target: CBSC providing soft(er) handoff legs - backhauled to source via inter-CBSC trunks MSC-1 MSC-2 CBSC-2 CBSC-1 CBSC-4 CBSC-5 CBSC-3 = Inter-CBSC Trunks = Inter-CBSC Trunks (Complex-KeepSoft only) = Existing PCM Trunks Page 232 of 264 . add/drop HO execution ➠ Traffic: 16 kbps STRAU ◗ Backhaul soft handoff legs via inter-CBSC trunks ◗ Anchor handoff (non-data calls) when MS is established (via SHO) in another CBSC ◗ Inter-CBSC Soft Handoff detection via standard CDMA MAHO ◗ MSC (A+) not involved except for anchor handoff ❑ Terminology ◗ Source: Anchor CBSC containing transcoding. ICBSC SHO: Architecture Motorola Confidential Proprietary ICBSC SHO: Architecture ❑ Strategy ◗ Inter-connect CBSCs (that may collaborate in SHO) via dedicated trunks ➠ Control: Inter-CBSC resource allocation. frame selection. power control.

233 of 264 MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL PROPRIETARY . MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL PROPRIETARY Cellular Infrastructure Group Architectural Premise: Scope MSC = Voice = Contr OMC-R NFS.TCP-IP AP NEC-A / J7 RNMP / TCP-IP MM XC XC Scap/TCP-IP Scap / LAPD CBSC Scap / LAPD BTS BTS BTS BTS Supercell Arc PDS .

ICBSH SHO: Architecture Motorola Confidential Proprietary ICBSH SHO: Architecture MSC PSTN TERCKT (PCM) CBSC-1 (Full DS0) CBSC-2 MM-1 MM-2 Callproc1 MSCSPAN Callproc1 Src Call Target S-1 T-1 MSCSPAN XC-1 ICSRCHAN XC-2 MSI ICTRKGRP (16kbps subrate) MSI FEP-1-1 XCDR XCDR FEP-2-1 M M S S I I FEP-1-2 FEP-2-2 ICSPANs ICLINKs (Full DS0) M M CPP S S CPP GPROC I I GPROC MSI MSI MSI MSI BTS-1 BTS-2 BTS-202 BTS-201 MS : BTS Control Links / FEP connections = Control Path Exte omitted for clarity = Voice Path Extens = CP Control Extens Page 234 of 264 .

backhaul additional DB Information ✓ Neighbor list of remote sector (including “external” neighbor target) ✓ Search and power control parameters ◗ “Fast pilot shuffle” supported for remote/local leg mixtures Page 235 of 264 . TComp) ❑ Mobile Scans all Neighbor Candidates ◗ Neighbor Set Pilot: ➠ Prior to entering Inter-CBSC SHO ✓ Local Neighbors (internal sectors) ✓ Selective Remote Neighbors (Xcsectors)-Path into remote CBSC is only via source Xcsector ➠ During Inter-CBSC SHO ✓ Local Neighbors (internal sectors) ✓ Selective Remote Neighbors (Xcsectors) ✓ Neighbor list of remote sector (including “external” neighbors to target) ◗ MS updated with merged neighbor list and parameters using current algorithms ➠ On Remote Add. Handoff Determination and Detection Motorola Confidential Proprietary Handoff Determination and Detection ❑ HO Detection ◗ Performed on Anchor CBSC ◗ Use of existing Handoff Detection Algorithms (TAdd.

➠ Hard ✓ Overrides XCSECTOR Handoff Method specification (HandOffMeth) ✓ Inhibits IC SHO. Handoff Determination and Detection IC SHO Entry Motorola Confidential Proprietary Handoff Determination and Detection IC SHO Entry ❑ Adding IC SHO (Initial and Subsequent IC SHO ADDs) ◗ Performed on Anchor CBSC ◗ MAHO Indication used to Select SHO Candidate (Remote or Local) ◗ Database parameter at IC Trunk Group level (HOOverRide) specifies entry criteria ➠ No_Handoff ✓ Overrides XCSECTOR Handoff Method specification (HandOffMeth) ✓ No Hard or Soft Handoffs allowed to remote CBSC. could override via IC Trunk Group: HOOverRide Setting Page 236 of 264 . new Active Leg added via Hard Handoff (Must pass current Inter-CBSC Hard Handoff checks) ➠ No_OVERRIDE ✓ Use XCSECTOR Handoff Method specification (HandOffMeth)None ◗ Database parameter at XCSECTOR level (HandOffMeth) ➠ None ✓ No Handoff Performed ➠ Hard ✓ Perform Hard Handoff ➠ Soft_Trunking ✓ Attempt IC SHO.

g.g. data call) ➠ “Keep_Soft” (Simple) ✓ Support call with only MAHO backhauled information ◗ Anchor Handoff for Active Calls ➠ Leg with best signal strength (Ec/Io) is chosen for hard-handoff candidate ➠ Conventional CDMA-to-CDMA hard handoff employed ◗ IC Target Failure ➠ Failure in Target Side Procedure ✓ Results in Call Teardown ◗ MS Re-enters Anchor CBSC ➠ No Remaining Active Legs on Target CBSC ◗ Call Release ➠ Normal Call Release (e..e. data call) ➠ “No_Legs” ✓ No HO legs are in source CBSC (NOTE: multiple targets may be involved) ✓ Hard handoff is not otherwise blocked (e... Drop Call) Page 237 of 264 .. Land Release) or Abnormal Call Release (e. Handoff Determination and Detection IC SHO Exit Criteria Motorola Confidential Proprietary Handoff Determination and Detection IC SHO Exit Criteria ◗ Performed on Anchor CBSC ◗ Checked at completion of ADD or DROP Operation ✓ Fast Pilot Shuffling viewed as atomic operation ◗ Active Calls: Database parameter at source CBSC level (AnchorHoMeth) controls exiting criteria ➠ “Legs_Remote” ✓ No HO legs are in source CBSC (NOTE: multiple targets may be involved) ✓ No HO legs are “known” (i. correspond to an Xcsector) to the source ✓ Hard handoff is not otherwise blocked (e..g.g.

(CBSC-3) C: Sector # Neighbor Candidate List Step Active Set (Assume: (1) sector’s neighbors are adjacent sectors and (2) ignore Comments latent neighbor list from last drop) 1 1-3-1.SHO Detection 2-1-1 Source 2-1-3 Target 2-1-2 (CBSC-1) 1-1-1 2-2-3 (CBSC-2) 1-1-3 2-2-2 1-2-1 1-1-2 2-3-1 2-2-2 2-4-3 1-2-3 2-3-3 2-4-2 1-2-2 1-3-1 2-3-2 1-1-1 2-4-1 1-3-3 1 2-5-3 1-3-2 2-5-2 = Xcsectors 1-4-1 3-1-1 2-6-1 1-4-3 3-1-3 2-6-3 = Internal 1-4-2 1-5-1 3-1-2 3-3-1 2-6-2 sectors (first ring in) 1-5-3 3-3-3 = Internal 1-5-2 3-2-1 sectors 1-6-1 3-3-2 1-6-3 3-2-3 A-B-C = A: CBSC #. 1-3-3.238 of 264 MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL PROPRIETARY . 1-6-2 3-2-2 Target B: BTS #. 1-3-2 1-1-2. 3-1-2 Initial Conditions Supercell Arc PDS . 2-3-3. 1-5-1. MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL PROPRIETARY Cellular Infrastructure Group ICBSC SHO: Call Processing .

1-3-3. 1-3-3. (CBSC-3) C: Sector # Neighbor Candidate List Step Active Set (Assume: (1) sector’s neighbors are adjacent sectors and (2) ignore Comments latent neighbor list from last drop) 1 1-3-1.SHO Detection 2-1-1 Source 2-1-3 Target 2-1-2 (CBSC-1) 1-1-1 2-2-3 (CBSC-2) 1-1-3 2-2-2 1-2-1 1-1-2 2-3-1 2-2-2 2-4-3 1-2-3 2-3-3 2-4-2 1-2-2 1-3-1 2 2-3-2 1-1-1 2-4-1 1-3-3 1 2-5-3 1-3-2 2-5-2 = Xcsectors 1-4-1 3-1-1 2-6-1 1-4-3 3-1-3 2-6-3 = Internal 1-4-2 1-5-1 3-1-2 3-3-1 2-6-2 sectors (first ring in) 1-5-3 3-3-3 = Internal 1-5-2 3-2-1 sectors 1-6-1 3-3-2 1-6-3 3-2-3 A-B-C = A: CBSC #. 1-3-2. 3-1-3 Initial Conditions 2 1-3-1. 1-5-1. 1-6-2 3-2-2 Target B: BTS #.239 of 264 MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL PROPRIETARY . 2-3-2. 2-3-3 1-1-2. 3-1-3 Add 2-3-3 Supercell Arc PDS . 1-5-1. MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL PROPRIETARY Cellular Infrastructure Group ICBSC SHO: Call Processing . 2-3-3. 2-3-1. 1-3-2 1-1-2.

MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL PROPRIETARY Cellular Infrastructure Group ICBSC SHO: Call Processing .SHO Detection 2-1-1 Source 2-1-3 Target 2-1-2 (CBSC-1) 1-1-1 2-2-3 (CBSC-2) 1-1-3 2-2-2 1-2-1 1-1-2 2-3-1 2-2-2 2-4-3 1-2-3 2-3-3 2-4-2 1-2-2 1-3-1 2 2-3-2 1-1-1 2-4-1 1-3-3 1 3 2-5-3 1-3-2 2-5-2 = Xcsectors 1-4-1 3-1-1 2-6-1 1-4-3 3-1-3 2-6-3 = Internal 1-4-2 1-5-1 3-1-2 3-3-1 2-6-2 sectors (first ring in) 1-5-3 3-3-3 = Internal 1-5-2 3-2-1 sectors 1-6-1 3-3-2 1-6-3 3-2-3 A-B-C = A: CBSC #. 3-1-3 1-1-2. 3-1-2 Drop 1-3-1. 1-5-1. 3-1-3 Add 2-3-3 3 1-3-2. 3-1-3 Initial Conditions 2 1-3-1.240 of 264 MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL PROPRIETARY . 2-3-2. 1-3-2. 1-3-3. 1-3-3. 2-3-3. 1-3-2 1-1-2. 2-3-2. 2-3-3. 1-3-1. 2-3-3 1-1-2. 2-3-1. (CBSC-3) C: Sector # Neighbor Candidate List Step Active Set (Assume: (1) sector’s neighbors are adjacent sectors and (2) ignore Comments latent neighbor list from last drop) 1 1-3-1. 2-3-1. 1-6-2 3-2-2 Target B: BTS #. Add 3-1-3 Supercell Arc PDS . 1-5-1. 1-3-3. 1-5-1. 3-1-1.

Add 3-1-3 4 2-3-2. 1-3-3. 1-5-1. 3-1-1. 2-3-3 1-1-2. 1-3-3. 1-3-3. 3-1-3 Initial Conditions 2 1-3-1. MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL PROPRIETARY Cellular Infrastructure Group ICBSC SHO: Call Processing . 3-1-1. 2-3-3. 1-5-1. (CBSC-3) C: Sector # Neighbor Candidate List Step Active Set (Assume: (1) sector’s neighbors are adjacent sectors and (2) ignore Comments latent neighbor list from last drop) 1 1-3-1. 3-1-2 Drop 1-3-2. 3-1-3 1-3-1. 2-3-3. 1-3-2 1-1-2. 1-3-2. 2-5-3. 2-3-2. 3-1-3 Add 2-3-3 3 1-3-2. 2-3-3. 3-1-3 1-1-2. Add 2-3-2 Supercell Arc PDS . 2-3-1. 1-5-1. 2-3-1. 1-6-2 3-2-2 Target B: BTS #. 2-3-1. 1-3-2.241 of 264 MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL PROPRIETARY . 3-1-2 Drop 1-3-1. 1-5-1.SHO Detection 2-1-1 Source 2-1-3 Target 2-1-2 (CBSC-1) 1-1-1 2-2-3 (CBSC-2) 1-1-3 2-2-2 1-2-1 1-1-2 2-3-1 2-2-2 2-4-3 1-2-3 2-3-3 2-4-2 1-2-2 1-3-1 2 2-3-2 1-1-1 2-4-1 4 1-3-3 1 3 2-5-3 1-3-2 2-5-2 = Xcsectors 1-4-1 3-1-1 2-6-1 1-4-3 3-1-3 2-6-3 = Internal 1-4-2 1-5-1 3-1-2 3-3-1 2-6-2 sectors (first ring in) 1-5-3 3-3-3 = Internal 1-5-2 3-2-1 sectors 1-6-1 3-3-2 1-6-3 3-2-3 A-B-C = A: CBSC #. 1-3-1. 2-3-2.

Add 2-5-3 (3-1-1 exclu Supercell Arc PDS . 1-3-1. (CBSC-3) C: Sector # Neighbor Candidate List Step Active Set (Assume: (1) sector’s neighbors are adjacent sectors and (2) ignore Comments latent neighbor list from last drop) 1 1-3-1. 3-1-3 1-1-2. 2-3-2. 2-3-3.SHO Detection 2-1-1 Source 2-1-3 Target 2-1-2 (CBSC-1) 1-1-1 2-2-3 (CBSC-2) 1-1-3 2-2-2 1-2-1 1-1-2 2-3-1 2-2-2 2-4-3 1-2-3 2-3-3 2-4-2 1-2-2 1-3-1 2 2-3-2 2-5-1 2-4-1 4 5 1-3-3 1 3 2-5-3 1-3-2 2-5-2 = Xcsectors 1-4-1 3-1-1 2-6-1 1-4-3 3-1-3 2-6-3 = Internal 1-4-2 1-5-1 3-1-2 3-3-1 2-6-2 sectors (first ring in) 1-5-3 3-3-3 = Internal 1-5-2 3-2-1 sectors 1-6-1 3-3-2 1-6-3 3-2-3 A-B-C = A: CBSC #. 2-3-1. 2-5-3. 1-6-2 3-2-2 Target B: BTS #. 1-3-3. 2-3-3. 1-5-1. 1-3-2. 3-1-3 1-3-1. 2-3-2. MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL PROPRIETARY Cellular Infrastructure Group ICBSC SHO: Call Processing . Add 3-1-3 4 2-3-2. 2-3-3. 2-3-1. 3-1-3 Add 2-3-3 3 1-3-2. 1-5-1. 1-3-3. 2-5-2 Drop 3-1-3. 1-3-2. 1-3-3. 2-5-1. 1-3-2 1-1-2. 1-5-1. 3-1-1. 3-1-2 Drop 1-3-1. 3-1-1. 2-3-3 1-1-2. 3-1-3 Initial Conditions 2 1-3-1. Add 2-3-2 5 2-3-3. 1-3-1. 3-1-2 Drop 1-3-2. 2-3-1. 1-5-1. 2-3-2. 2-5-3 1-1-2.242 of 264 MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL PROPRIETARY . 2-3-1.

2-3-3. 1-5-1. 1-5-1. 1-3-3.SHO Detection 2-1-1 Source 2-1-3 Target 2-1-2 (CBSC-1) 1-1-1 2-2-3 (CBSC-2) 1-1-3 2-2-2 1-2-1 1-1-2 2-3-1 2-2-2 2-4-3 1-2-3 2-3-3 2-4-2 1-2-2 1-3-1 2 2-3-2 2-5-1 2-4-1 4 5 6 1-3-3 1 3 2-5-3 1-3-2 2-5-2 = Xcsectors 1-4-1 3-1-1 2-6-1 1-4-3 3-1-3 2-6-3 = Internal 1-4-2 1-5-1 3-1-2 3-3-1 2-6-2 sectors (first ring in) 1-5-3 3-3-3 = Internal 1-5-2 3-2-1 sectors 1-6-1 3-3-2 1-6-3 3-2-3 A-B-C = A: CBSC #. 2-5-1. 3-1-2 Drop 1-3-1. 3-1-1. 1-3-3. 2-5-3 2-3-1. 2-3-1. 1-6-2 3-2-2 Target B: BTS #. 2-3-1. 1-5-1. 1-5-1. 2-5-3 1-1-2. 1-3-3. 2-3-3. Add 2-3-2 5 2-3-3. 1-3-2. 1-3-2. 2-3-2. 3-1-1. 1-3-1. 2-3-3. 2-3-1. (CBSC-3) C: Sector # Neighbor Candidate List Step Active Set (Assume: (1) sector’s neighbors are adjacent sectors and (2) ignore Comments latent neighbor list from last drop) 1 1-3-1. 2-3-2. 1-3-1.243 of 264 MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL PROPRIETARY . 1-3-2 1-1-2. MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL PROPRIETARY Cellular Infrastructure Group ICBSC SHO: Call Processing . 3-1-2 Drop 1-3-2. 3-1-3 1-3-1. 2-3-2. 2-3-3 1-1-2. 3-1-3 1-1-2. 3-1-3 Add 2-3-3 3 1-3-2. 2-5-2 Drop 3-1-3. Add 3-1-3 4 2-3-2. 2-5-3. 2-5-1. 2-5-2 Drop 2-3-3 (assume 2-5-3 has best E Supercell Arc PDS . 2-3-2. 3-1-3 Initial Conditions 2 1-3-1. Add 2-5-3 (3-1-1 exclu 6 2-3-2. 2-3-1.

2-5-2 Drop 3-1-3. 1-3-2 1-1-2. 2-5-3 1-1-2. 1-6-2 3-2-2 Target B: BTS #. 2-3-2. 2-5-2. 2-3-3. 2-5-3. 2-3-1. 2-5-1. 1-5-1. 2-3-1. MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL PROPRIETARY Cellular Infrastructure Group ICBSC SHO: Call Processing . 1-5-1. 1-5-1. 2-3-2. Add 2-5-3 (3-1-1 exclu 6 2-3-2. 2-3-3. 2-3-3.244 of 264 MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL PROPRIETARY . 1-3-3. 2-5-1. 1-3-2. 1-3-1. 2-3-1. 2-3-2. 2-3-2. 3-1-3 Add 2-3-3 3 1-3-2. 1-5-1. Add 3-1-3 4 2-3-2.SHO Detection 2-1-1 Source 2-1-3 Target 2-1-2 (CBSC-1) 1-1-1 2-2-3 (CBSC-2) 1-1-3 2-2-2 1-2-1 1-1-2 2-3-1 2-2-2 2-4-3 1-2-3 2-3-3 2-4-2 1-2-2 1-3-1 2 2-3-2 2-5-1 2-4-1 4 5 67 1-3-3 1 3 2-5-3 1-3-2 2-5-2 = Xcsectors 1-4-1 3-1-1 2-6-1 1-4-3 3-1-3 2-6-3 = Internal 1-4-2 1-5-1 3-1-2 3-3-1 2-6-2 sectors (first ring in) 1-5-3 3-3-3 = Internal 1-5-2 3-2-1 sectors 1-6-1 3-3-2 1-6-3 3-2-3 A-B-C = A: CBSC #. 2-3-3 1-1-2. 1-3-2. 2-5-1. 1-3-1. 2-3-1. 2-5-3 2-3-1. 3-1-2 Drop 1-3-2. 3-1-3 1-3-1. 1-3-3. 3-1-1. 3-1-1. 1-3-3. 3-1-3 Initial Conditions 2 1-3-1. 3-1-3 1-1-2. 3-1-1 Anchor Handoff to CBSC-2-5-3 Supercell Arc PDS . 2-5-2 Drop 2-3-3 (assume 2-5-3 has best E 7 2-5-3 2-3-2. 3-1-2 Drop 1-3-1. Add 2-3-2 5 2-3-3. (CBSC-3) C: Sector # Neighbor Candidate List Step Active Set (Assume: (1) sector’s neighbors are adjacent sectors and (2) ignore Comments latent neighbor list from last drop) 1 1-3-1.

Target MCCce / TC ❑ Inter-CBSC Subsequent Soft/Softer Handoff Add ◗ Establish second or third Soft[er] HO legs. 20 new/mo ❑ Inter-CBSC Initial Soft Handoff Add ◗ Establish first Soft HO leg.Procedure ❑ Orchestrated via Inter-CBSC SCAP Messaging (Approx.. for a given call. IC-SRCHAN.245 of 264 MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL PROPRIETARY . on a particular target CBSC ◗ Allocates Target MM. from a particular target CB ◗ Soft HO drop deallocates IC-SRCHAN and target MCCce / TCHwc ◗ Softer HO drop deallocates target BTS TCHwc ❑ Inter-CBSC Disconnect ◗ Remove all target Soft[er] HO legs and Target State ➠ Deallocate Target XC CPP ➠ Deallocate Target BTS MCCce(s) and TCHwc(s) ➠ Deallocate IC-SRCHAN(s) ◗ Applies to Last Soft HO drop on Target and Call Release/Teardown ❑ Inter-CBSC Target Failure ◗ Indication from Target to Source of non-Recoverable Failure (e. for a given call. for a given call. Equipmen ◗ Results in Source-initiated Call Teardown Supercell Arc PDS . MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL PROPRIETARY Cellular Infrastructure Group ICBSC SHO: Call Processing . Target XC CPP GPROC. on a particular ta ◗ Softer HO only requires allocation of target BTS TCHwc. (no IC-SRCHAN / ta ❑ Inter-CBSC Soft/Softer Handoff Drop ◗ Remove a remote Soft[er] HO leg.g.

ICBSC SHO: Call Processing .Inter-CBSC Trunk Group Resource Mgmt. GPROC. ❑ Single ICBSC Trunk Group Between two CBSCs ❑ Provisions for two-way trunks (recommended) ◗ A given IC-SRCHAN may be Allocated from either CBSC ◗ Simple “Opposite End” Allocation Policy ◗ Glare Hold/Release Arbitration Needed (CP Retry: Similar to Handling of other Errors) ❑ Provisions for one-way trunks (fallback) ◗ All IC-SRCHANs in a given IC SPAN may only be Allocated by one of the two CBSCs ◗ Allocation Policy may be “Opposite End” or “Round Robin” ◗ Glare Hold/Release Arbitration Not Required ❑ Detection/Cleanup of IC-SRCHANs in Inconsistent State ◗ Detect and Automatically Recover from “Hung” IC- SRCHANs ➠ Stranded Target CBSC (MM and XC) ➠ Stranded XC State (connection.Inter- CBSC Trunk Group Resource Mgmt. Motorola Confidential Proprietary ICBSC SHO: Call Processing .) ◗ When CP Detects IC-SRCHAN in Inconsistent State ➠ IC-SRCHAN is marked “Unavailable” (removed from future allocation considerations) ➠ Source/Target CP Messaging will force IC-SRCHAN “Unavailable” on Both CBSCs ➠ Source CBSC will Trigger Fault Management IC-SRCHAN “reset” to recover IC-SRCHAN Page 246 of 264 . etc.

Restric- tions ❑ Anchor Handoff Required (except data calls) ❑ SHO Adds may not be performed to “3rd Party” CBSC sectors ❑ Hard Handoffs Blocked while Call is Configured in Inter-CBSC SHO ◗ CDMA to Analog ◗ CDMA to CDMA (except for anchor handoff) Page 247 of 264 . ICBSC SHO: Call Processing .Restrictions Motorola Confidential Proprietary ICBSC SHO: Call Processing .

Initial Conditions Motorola Confidential Proprietary ICBSC SHO: Call Processing .Initial Con- ditions MSC PSTN TERCKT (PCM) CBSC-1 (Full DS0) CBSC-2 MM-1 MM-2 Callproc1 MSCSPAN Callproc1 Src Call S-1 MSCSPAN XC-1 ICSRCHAN XC-2 MSI ICTRKGRP (16kbps subrate) MSI FEP-1-1 XCDR XCDR FEP-2-1 M M S S I I FEP-1-2 FEP-2-2 ICSPANs ICLINKs (Full DS0) M M CPP S S CPP GPROC I I GPROC MSI MSI MSI MSI BTS-1 BTS-2 BTS-202 BTS-201 MS : BTS Control Links / FEP connections omitted for clarity Page 248 of 264 . ICBSC SHO: Call Processing .

Inter-CBSC Initial Soft Add Motorola Confidential Proprietary ICBSC SHO: Call Processing .Inter- CBSC Initial Soft Add MSC PSTN TERCKT (PCM) CBSC-1 (Full DS0) CBSC-2 MM-1 MM-2 Callproc1 MSCSPAN Callproc1 Src Call Target S-1 T-1 MSCSPAN XC-1 ICSRCHAN XC-2 MSI ICTRKGRP (16kbps subrate) MSI FEP-1-1 XCDR XCDR FEP-2-1 M M S S I I FEP-1-2 FEP-2-2 ICSPANs ICLINKs (Full DS0) M M CPP S S CPP GPROC I I GPROC MSI MSI MSI MSI BTS-1 BTS-2 BTS-202 BTS-201 MS : BTS Control Links / FEP connections omitted for clarity Page 249 of 264 . ICBSC SHO: Call Processing .

Inter-CBSC Initial Soft Add Procedure [3] ICP: CDMA IC Initial Handoff Request 1. Allocate Target Call Job 2. reference pilot strength & phase] [2] ICP: CDMA Handoff Recognized [Soft Add] ICBSC SHO: Call Processing . ICsrchan Update-Mark Busy 3. Pilot phases.Inter- [1] RF: Pilot Strength Measurement Message CBSC Initial Soft Add Procedure [Pilot strengths. Allocate MCCce and TCHwc from BTS/Carrier [5] ICP: CDMA XC Connect Call 1. Detects initial IC SHO add event Procedure Unique to Inter-CBSC SHO 2. Path Connect Complete 1. Allocates an ICsrchan] Motorola Confidential Proprietary [4] ICP: CDMA IC Handoff Request Ack 1. SRC_MM TRG_MM SRC_XC TRG_XC ALL_TCH TARG_TCH MS ICBSC SHO: Call Processing . Establish [7] ICP: CDMA Source Inter-CBSC Path Connect XC Direction 2. Establish Target Inter-CBSC Path Connect [6] ICP: CDMA XC Connect Call Ack 1. Add New Active Pilot [8] ICP: CDMA Handoff Channel Assigned [9] ICP: CDMA Forward Channel Transmission Indication Page 250 of 264 [10] RF: Extended Handoff Direction Message 1. Inform mobile of new Active Set [11] RF: Handoff Completion Message [12] RF: Base Station Acknowledgment Order [13] ICP: CDMA Handoff State Change .

Inter-CBSC Subsequent Softer Add Motorola Confidential Proprietary ICBSC SHO: Call Processing . ICBSC SHO: Call Processing .Inter- CBSC Subsequent Softer Add MSC PSTN TERCKT (PCM) CBSC-1 (Full DS0) CBSC-2 MM-1 MM-2 Callproc1 MSCSPAN Callproc1 Src Call Target S-1 T-1 MSCSPAN XC-1 ICSRCHAN XC-2 MSI ICTRKGRP (16kbps subrate) MSI FEP-1-1 XCDR XCDR FEP-2-1 M M S S I I FEP-1-2 FEP-2-2 ICSPANs ICLINKs (Full DS0) M M CPP S S CPP GPROC I I GPROC MSI MSI MSI MSI BTS-1 BTS-2 BTS-202 BTS-201 MS : BTS Control Links / FEP connections omitted for clarity Page 251 of 264 .

Target Dropped & Added MSC PSTN TERCKT (PCM) CBSC-1 (Full DS0) CBSC-2 MM-1 MM-2 Callproc1 MSCSPAN Callproc1 Src Call Target S-1 T-1 MSCSPAN XC-1 ICSRCHAN XC-2 MSI ICTRKGRP (16kbps subrate) MSI FEP-1-1 XCDR XCDR FEP-2-1 M M S S I I FEP-1-2 FEP-2-2 ICSPANs ICLINKs (Full DS0) M M CPP S S CPP GPROC I I GPROC MSI MSI MSI MSI BTS-1 BTS-2 BTS-202 BTS-201 MS : BTS Control Links / FEP connections omitted for clarity Page 252 of 264 .Source Dropped. ICBSC SHO: Call Processing . Target Dropped & Added Motorola Confidential Proprietary ICBSC SHO: Call Processing .Source Dropped.

Pilot phases.Inter-CBSC Initial Soft Last Drop Procedure [1] RF: Pilot Strength Measurement Message [Pilot strengths. Terminate XC Call Job [11] Execute Radio Channel Release Procedure [12] Radio Channel Release Procedure Complete 1.Inter- ICBSC SHO: Call Processing . Deallocate BTS Resource . Disconnect Inter-CBSC Path Connect 2. Initiates Last Drop procedure on Target CBSC Page 253 of 264 [10] ICP: CDMA XC Disconnect Call Procedure Unique to Inter-CBS 1. Remove Inter-CBSC Path Connect 2. Detects remove of last pilot from Target CBSC 2. CBSC Initial Soft Last Drop Procedure SRC_MM TRG_MM SRC_XC TRG_XC ALL_TCH TRG_TCH MS ICBSC SHO: Call Processing . reference pilot strength & phase] [2] ICP: CDMA Handoff Recognized [Soft Drop] [3] ICP: CDMA XC Direction Motorola Confidential Proprietary 1. Remove Pilot from Active Pilot Set [4] ICP: CDMA Handoff State Change [5] RF: Extended Handoff Direction Message [6] RF: Handoff Completion Message [7] RF: Base Station Acknowledgment Order [8] ICP: CDMA Handoff Successful# [9] ICP: CDMA IC Disconnect 1.

Anchor Handoff (CBSC-1 to CBSC-2) Completed MSC PSTN TERCKT (PCM) CBSC-1 (Full DS0) CBSC-2 MM-1 MM-2 Callproc1 MSCSPAN Callproc1 Source S-2 MSCSPAN XC-1 ICSRCHAN XC-2 MSI ICTRKGRP (16kbps subrate) MSI FEP-1-1 XCDR XCDR FEP-2-1 M M S S I I FEP-1-2 FEP-2-2 ICSPANs ICLINKs (Full DS0) M M CPP S S CPP GPROC I I GPROC MSI MSI MSI MSI BTS-1 BTS-2 BTS-202 BTS-201 MS : BTS Control Links / FEP connections omitted for clarity Page 254 of 264 .Anchor Handoff (CBSC-1 to CBSC-2) Completed Motorola Confidential Proprietary ICBSC SHO: Call Processing . ICBSC SHO: Call Processing .

ICLINK) named Consistent with Trunk G ◗ Contained Devices must be Provisioned/Named Symmetrically on Endpoint ❑ Trunk Group Unique ID Unambiguously Identifies Trunk Group ◗ Must be Provisioned Identically on Endpoint CBSCs ◗ ICTRKGRPUid and ICSRCHAN low IDs (ICSPAN-ICDS0-ICSRCHAN) Exchang CBSC-1 ICTRKGRP-1-2 ICTRKGRP-1-1 1 6 ICTRKGRP-4-1 ICTRKGRP-2-1 ICTRKGRP-1-3 CBSC-4 CBSC-2 4 ICTRKGRP-4-2 2 ICTRKGRP-2-2 ICTRKGRP-3-3 ICTRKGRP-4-3 CBSC-3 ICTRKGRP-2-3 3 5 # = ICTRKGRPUid ICTRKGRP-3-2 ICTRKGRP-3-1 Supercell Arc PDS . MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL PROPRIETARY Cellular Infrastructure Group ICBSC SHO: O&M .Configuration Managem ❑ Trunk Groups Named From CBSC Perspective ◗ A Single Trunk Group Typically will have Two Distinct Names ◗ A Single Trunk Group may have the Same Name only if: ➠ The involved CBSCs have the same ID ➠ The involved CBSCs belong to different OMC-R ◗ Child Devices (ICSPAN.255 of 264 MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL PROPRIETARY . ICSRCHAN.

LEGEND: OMC Required Assoc. enforced FRAME Add/Del MM when deleting MMI DEFAULTS CBSC MIB only object Add/Del Add/Del OMCR CBSC Craft only object MMI INROUTE ICBSC SHO. when Provisioned Non-Parental Assoc.Configuration Management Provisioning Hierarchy OUTROUTE Add/Del SERVOPT MMXCLAN Motorola Confidential Proprietary Add/Del Add/Del XASECT XCSECT SERVOPT XASECT MSC XCSECT CBSC Provisioning Hierarchy FEP(R) MSI NCON Add/Del BTS SPAN MSI XCLINK Add/Del BTSSPAN Add/Del BTS BTS (CPP) BTS BTSDS0 Add/Del XCLINK MSC SPAN (OMP) XCLINK Add/Del Add/Del SRCHAN FRAME FEP MSCSPAN CSM BTSLINK C7LINK TERCKT SECTOR RFDS Add/Del Add/Del Add/Del Add/Del CSM C7LINK TERCKT RGLI BTSLINK Page 256 of 264 CARRIER Add/Del MDM MDM Add/Del ICTRKGRP GLI GLI Add/Del Add/Del CARRIER ICTRKGRP Add/Del BBX(R) BBX BDC* TCHwc Add/Del MCC Add MDM or MCC ICSPAN Add CSM MCCCE Add/Del ICLINK ICSPAN .Configuration Managemen ICBSC SHO. when Provisioned Optional Assoc.

257 of 264 MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL PROPRIETARY . OOS ◗ Standard DSM Operations Supported (Enable. Cutover. Disable. INS_SB ➠ First Two ICSPANs in ICTRKGRP Contain Control-Traffic-Carrying ICLINKs ➠ Links are Aligned such that both CBSCs “Agree” on Active/Standby Link Status ➠ Single/Symmetric Active Link Eliminates Message Ordering Issues ◗ ICLINKs on ICSPANs 3 . Uncut) ◗ Link Changeover (Failure/Disable) is Automatic ❑ ICSPAN and Contained ICSRCHANs Managed via ICLINK ◗ Every ICSPAN must contain one and only one ICLINK for Span Monitoring ◗ Status of Span and Availability of its Resources (ICSRCHANs) Follows ICLIN CBSC-1 ICTRKGRP-1-1 ICTRKGRP-2-1 CBSC-2 M M FEP-2-1-1 S ICSPAN-1-1-1 ACTIVE ICSPAN-2-1-1 S FEP-1-1-1 I ICSPAN-1-1-1 ICSPAN-2-1-1 I M M S ICSPAN-1-1-2 STANDBY ICSPAN-2-1-2 S FEP-2-1-2 FEP-1-1-2 I ICSPAN-1-1-2 ICSPAN-2-1-2 I M M S ICSPAN-1-1-3 MONITOR ICSPAN-2-1-3 S FEP-2-1-3 ICSPAN-2-1-3 FEP-1-1-3 I ICSPAN-1-1-3 I FEP-2-1-4 M M S ICSPAN-1-1-N MONITOR ICSPAN-2-1-N S I ICSPAN-1-1-N ICSPAN-2-1-N I Supercell Arc PDS . MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL PROPRIETARY Cellular Infrastructure Group ICBSC SHO: O&M Fault Management .N are for Span Monitoring Purposes Only (INS.ICLINK ❑ ICLINK is Fundamental Fault Managed Device ◗ Control-Traffic-Carrying ICLINKs Managed Active/Standby (INS_ACT.

ICTRKGRP Mgmt. ICBSC SHO: O&M Fault Management . ❑ ICSRCHAN is the “allocatable” Resource Derived from ICTRKGRP ❑ ICSRCHAN Status for ICSPAN Reported via associated ICLINK Status ◗ Reports ICSRCHAN: INS/OOS ◗ Reports ICSRCHAN: BUSY/IDLE/CPUNAVAIL ❑ RESCHAN Command Supported to “Reset” ICSRCHAN ◗ Coordinated by FM between both Affected CBSCs ◗ Attempts to Release Call Associated with ICSRCHAN via CP Clearing ◗ Forces XC Cleanup of ICSRCHAN Connection ◗ Upon Success. Motorola Confidential Proprietary ICBSC SHO: O&M Fault Management - ICTRKGRP Mgmt. Idles ICSRCHAN ❑ RESCHAN Processing may be Initiated by “source” CBSC when ICSRCHAN inconsistency is detected Page 258 of 264 .

not displaye PRE_CUT . PRE_CUT OOS_MAN. PRE_CUT OOS_AUTO. . . . . . PRE_CUT NOT INHIBITED IDLE NULL INS_IDLE INS_CMPN.ICSRCHAN Status Mapping Motorola Confidential Proprietary ICBSC SHO: O&M Fault Management - ICSRCHAN Status Mapping ❑ ICSRCHAN Display Status Mapping ICSRCHAN ICSRCHAN Allo. CAMPON OOS_AUTO S_ACT. ICBSC SHO: O&M Fault Management . NOT INHIBITED IDLE CAMPON OOS OOS_FLTD OOS OOS NON-TRAFFIC . . INS_SBY. NON-TRAFFIC . TRAFFIC INHIBITED . . . OOS OOS_AUTO INS BUSY NULL INS_BUSY CAMPON INS_CMPN CPUNAVAIL NULL OOS_AUTO CAMPON OOS_AUTO Page 259 of 264 . . ICSRCHAN FM ICSRCHAN ICLINK Status Type Inhibit Status cation Status Status Display Statu OT_EQUIPPED . . . NONE OOS_PAR. NONE TRAFFIC INHIBITED . .

--------.00005 00057 INFO:35 “ICLINK Status Response” TELSTATE=INS PROCEDURE=NONE PHYSTATE=NONE HDWRTYPE=None DS0 SUBRATE 0 SUBRATE 1 SUBRATE 2 SUBRATE 3 --.--------.ICSRCHAN Status Command Example tomahawk9-010001 > status iclink-1-2-4 add 010001-00005 COMMAND ACCEPTED ICLINK-1-2-4 97-05-26 07:49:02 tomahawk9 MM-1 D010001. ICSRCHAN Status Command Example ICBSC SHO: O&M Fault Management - ICBSC SHO: O&M Fault Management . --------- 1 NONE NONE NONE NONE 2 NONE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE 3 NONE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE 4 NONE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE 5 NONE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE 6 NONE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE 7 NONE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE 8 NONE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE 9 NONE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE 10 NONE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE 11 NONE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE 12 NONE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE Page 260 of 264 13 NONE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE 14 NONE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE 15 NONE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE 16 NONE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE 17 NONE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE 18 NONE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE 19 NONE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE 20 NONE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE 21 NONE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE 22 NONE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE 23 NONE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE 24 NONE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE INS_IDLE .--------.00005 00057 INFO:3 “Command in Progress” Motorola Confidential Proprietary STATUS=STARTED ICLINK-1-2-4 97-05-26 07:49:03 tomahawk9 MM-1 D010001.

TerCkts) 4. Terminations. Remote CBSCs: FM Camps-on ICSRCHANs and “locally” Releases Calls (target/source) using ICTRKGRP 3.2. After CP Cleanup Completes. Upon completion. callproc1 informs FM of Restart 4. Remote CBSC uncamp-on ICSRCHANs Page 261 of 264 .2 FM camps-on all ICSRCHANs for all IC Trunk Groups 4. CPPs.2. Restarting callproc1 blocks new traffic (Originations. as a “Global Reset” / Restarting CBSC controls ◗ Clear all local Call State and all remote Call State (source/ target) dependent upon local CBSC 1.b. callproc1 restarts 2. remote CBSCs Acknowledge Global Reset 3.2.1 FM sends Go-Ins to XC (XC tears down all call state information) 4. FM on remote CBSCs execute ICSRCHAN Reset for “stuck” ICSRCHANs 3.1 callproc1 cleans up internal resource state (Radio Chnl Release. new traffic allowed 3. ICBSC SHO: O&M Fault Management .2 Upon Go-Ins Complete (acknowledge msg received). Signal Global Reset Complete to other CBSC 3.a FM initiates Global Reset to each ICTRKGRP 4. When local cleanup is complete (step 5 & 7) and a remote CBSC has ack’d. Hard Handins.Global Reset (MM callproc1 Restart) Motorola Confidential Proprietary ICBSC SHO: O&M Fault Management - Global Reset (MM callproc1 Restart) ❑ Procedure Executed when MM callproc1 process restarts ◗ Coordinated by Fault Mgmt.b. IC SHO Handins) 3.

ICBSC SHO: O&M Fault Management .Global Reset Diagram Motorola Confidential Proprietary ICBSC SHO: O&M Fault Management - Global Reset Diagram 2 Block New Calls C process restarts 1 Call callproc Release callproc ICSRCHAN Idled 4a 3 CP informs FM 3c Global TRKGRP Reset 4 FM Camps On ICSrchans 3 8 XC Release 3a Global TRKGRP Reset Ack Radio Channel/ sc_devom sc_devom XC Disconnect XC Release 6 Call adio Channel/ CPP CPP C Disconnect 5 ICSRCHAN ICSRCHAN 5 4b 4c Call Reset Reset Global TRKGRP Reset Complete 7 alls XC XC Release Release Radio Channel Radio Channe Page 262 of 264 .

MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL PROPRIETARY Cellular Infrastructure Group ICBSC SHO: O&M .263 of 264 MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL PROPRIETARY .Performance Managem ❑ Traffic Engineering Measurements: ◗ ICTRKGRP Measurements ➠ Members Equipped ➠ All Channels Busy ➠ Out of Service Times ➠ Total Usage/Attempts/Overflows ➠ Anchor Usage/Attempts/Overflows ➠ Glare/Glare Retry/Glare Retry Success ◗ ICSRCHANs Measurements ➠ Out of Service Times (CP Unavail. Anchor Sector/Carrier. Target Sector/Carrier Level ✓ Initial Req/Attempts/Failures ✓ Subsequent Soft Req/Attempts/Failures ✓ Subsequent Softer Req/Attempts/Failures ✓ Intermediate Soft Drop Attempts/Failures ✓ Intermediate Softer Drop Attempts/Failures ✓ Last Drop Attempt/Failures ✓ IC RF Loss (only at Sector/Carrier level) Supercell Arc PDS . or OOS) ➠ Total Usage/Attempts ➠ Glare ◗ Carrier Site Level ➠ IC Group Usage ◗ Carrier/Sector Level ➠ IC TCHwc Usage/Attempts/Overflows ◗ MCCce Level ➠ IC Usage ❑ Performance Measurements: ◗ Anchor Trunk Group.

Local Source Information (Current Source Sector on Active Set) ✓ Last Target ✓ Initial IC SHO Attempts/call ✓ IC SHO CBSC Interaction count (Number of different CBSCs MS was in IC SHO with) ◗ Cleanup of Some Call Leg Information Fields Page 264 of 264 .Call Detailed Log (CDL) ❑ Call Detail Log (CDL) ◗ Extension to Store Remote CBSC Identifiers for Remote Call Leg Information ➠ ADD MM Sys_ID Number to various fields ➠ ID-10 New Release Event (INIT_MM_REL_EVENT) for IC Target Failure ➠ ID-11 Modified “HO Summary” ➠ ID-12 “Last_HO_BLOCK_Cause” Extended to include IC SHO Blocked causes. ➠ ID-13 (New) “IC SHO Summary Information ✓ Initial SHO Info: Initial external Target (target MM and Sector). ICBSC SHO: O&M .Call Detailed Log (CDL) Motorola Confidential Proprietary ICBSC SHO: O&M . Local Source Information (Current Source Sector on Active Set) ✓ Last SHO Info: external Target (target MM and Sector).

Typically. the information required might include: PN phase measurements from the receiver of the base station (timing of ear- liest arriving ray) to determine RF path distance to base station. Typically. dependent on receiver performance.13.2 Design the frequency seam using natural topological features.13 Description and discussion. In this environment. This method has not been fully investigated. Page 265 of 268 . Motorola Confidential Proprietary 7. This would make the effects of multipath less prevalent. and thus make the RF path distance measurements more accurate. and may vary from subscriber vendor to subscriber vendor.12 Edge Sensing from Dan DeClerck’s taxonomy: 7.13. This method uses whatever information is available to determine if the mobile sta- tion is at the edge of a cell. in this environment (excessive multipath) fading is more prevalent.1 Tune TADD/TDROP/TTDROP to force the mobile into less soft-handoff. mobile station’s Pilot power measurements to get a rough approximation of reverse pathloss in the presence of interference. This would reduce the number of places where the mobile switches reference PN’s. large open tracts of land (less clutter). but there are a number of techniques that can be employed to determine when the mobile has come to the limit of a cell boundary. the mobile station may be constantly changing it’s reference PN. and thus slewing it’s transmit timing. and make the phase measurements more accurate. 7. such as rivers. One of the diffi- culties of using this method is in areas of excessive amounts of multipath and/or non-dominant pilots. To mitigate all these effects. and forward Frame Erasure Rate (FER). This environment of uncertain mobile station transmit timing would negate the ability of the base sta- tion to use PN phase measurements effectively. it is suggested to do the following: 7.

This evaluation covers only timing of Access probes. Presently the final contribution is being proposed to the TIA. The river is chosen to reduce the amount of multipath to make edge sensing more reliable. 7. It depicts a bridge over a river which is the intersection of two Major Trading Areas (MTA). using a natural boundary. A Band MTA CDMA Carrier Domain A River B C Band MTA CDMA carrier domain Figure 3 For sectors A and B.14. al. This contribution is being evaluated (in a minor way) in Release 8 of Super- cell software. The infrastructure equipment would employ scan receivers to determine location of the mobile. 7. The subscriber unit vacates the traffic channel and transmits a fixed duration burst at a pre-defined power level on the alternate frequency. In this contribu- tion. and thus a changing Reference PN). 7. Motorola Confidential Proprietary Figure 3 depicts a deployment of edge-sensing. TADD and TDROP would be set appropriately to bias them toward single-leg traffic channels (reduce the probability of soft handoff.1 Bruckert/Ghosh/ et. developments. Page 266 of 268 .14 E911 techniques which may be used for hard-handoff detection.14. it would negate the use of Probe PN ran- domization (which might not have a negative impact).2 DeClerck/Harris improvements. If we were to permanently use this trial.

Motorola Confidential Proprietary The contributions of Bruckert. and can create grave error. the mobile station would not vacate the traffic channel for edge- detection techniques.al. Ghosh. do not allow for the subscriber units’ transmit timing slew. Dan DeClerck and John Harris are investigating the transfer of the mobiles’ timing slew infor- mation to the base to more accurately determine the round-trip delay of sig- nal. In the DeClerck/Harris proposal. et. Page 267 of 268 . and thus improve estimates of edge detection.

Motorola Confidential Proprietary Page 268 of 268 .

0 Background The following sections provide handoff background information. Page 269 of 270 . Motorola Confidential Proprietary 8.

Motorola Confidential Proprietary Page 270 of 270 .

Motorola Confidential Proprietary

8.1 CDMA Hard Handoff Problems & Solutions
Presentation to DDI 01/23/97 by Barry J. Menich
Text version of a PowerPoint document. See original PowerPoint document for the many
missing pictures
8.1.1 Hard Handoff Topics
• CDMA Basics Regarding Handoff
• The Hard Handoff Problem
• Inter-CBSC and Inter-Carrier Hard Handoff
– Intra-Carrier Hard Handoff
– Associated Problems
– Pilot Beacons
» Deployment & Method
» Optimization
» Idle-mode Handoff Problems & Solutions
• Other Techniques
– Phase Measurements
– DAHO (Database Assisted HandOff)
– Ec/Io Thresholding
– Scan Receivers
8.1.2 IS-95A Pilot Definitions
• Active Set
– Those pilot signals used as phase references for purposes of demodulating forward
traffic channels.
• Candidate Set
– Those pilot signals displaying characteristics such that they have high probability of
being promoted to the Active Set.
• Neighbor Set
– Those pilot signals assigned to adjacent cells and/or sectors.
• Remaining Set

– PN index offsets need to be on PILOT_INC boundaries
8.1.3 Pilot Status Transitions
8.1.4 Pilot Strength Measurement Message
PSMM sent upon solicitation (demand driven) from infrastructure or according to IS-95A
section 6.6.6.2.5.2 (event driven). Requires L2 acknowledgment.

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• Pilot Ec/Io Information
– Ec/Io for active and candidate set pilots.
– Ec/Io for neighbor set pilots not included.
– Ec/Io for remaining set pilots not included.
• Pilot Identification
– PN Index Offset phase measurements (whole chip resolution).
– Identity of active set pilot providing timing reference.
• Event Information
– “Keep” flag for active and candidate pilots.
– Promotion of neighbor/remaining set pilot to candidate status signified by inclusion in
PSMM.
8.1.5 Pilot Scan Algorithm
• Active and candidate set pilots scanned with high priority due to increased probability of
need to demodulate.
Neighbor set pilots scanned in between scans of all active and candidate pilots. Thus,
neighbor scan interval is a function of the number of pilots in the active and candidate
sets.
Remaining set pilot scanned in between scans of all neighbor set pilots. Thus, remaining
set scan interval is a function of the neighbor set scan interval.
• Early scan termination if preliminary integration fails to satisfy threshold.
– Bad delay spread situation may cause fraction of early terminations to decrease, thus
increasing single pilot scan times.
8.1.6 Pilot Scanning Basics
Integration period commensurate with pilot status (ie. “active”, “candidate”, “neighbor”).
More integration for active/candidate, less for neighbor/remaining.
• Filtering of active and candidate set pilot Ec/Io measurements.
– Specifications on filtering accuracy are loose.
– See Chapter 9 of IS-98.
• Qualcomm mobile station defines a “pre-candidate” status for a pilot. Ec/Io > T_ADD
threshold.
8.1.7 Pilot Scan Algorithm Implications
• Scan rate for Neighbor and Remaining set pilots is non-deterministic
– Dependent on number of active and candidate set pilots
– Dependent on number of scan “sweeps” that terminate early
• Pilot scan filter parameters for any make/model subscriber unit are unknown by infra-
structure.

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– Corner frequency
– Skirt
• No restriction on the number of events contained within a PSMM.
• Events are not explicitly conveyed, they must be inferred.
Neighbor-->Candidate set transitions, T_TDROP and T_COMP events are lost with
PSMM rubout on reverse link (check out IS-95A section 6.6.6.2.5.2). Mobile stops trying
after 2 re-tries.
8.1.8 The Hard Handoff Problem
• Solution for current lack of inter-CBSC SHO.
• Multi-carrier needed for system-wide capacity relief.
• “Spot” Capacity Relief.
• Inter-vendor HHO.
• PCS inter-band HHO.
• CDMA to AMPS HHO.

Not much support for HHO in IS-95A and J-STD-008. Limited to frequency agility of sub-
scriber unit and CDMA channel number field in Extended Handoff Direction Message.

No analog to CDMA handoff technology available yet.
8.1.9 Multi-Carrier Handoff (“Wedding Cake” Example)
8.1.10 “Spot Capacity Relief” Example
8.1.11 Hard Handoff Algorithm
(Intra-Carrier and Pilot Beacon Techniques)
• Current algorithm for both “intra” and “inter” carrier HHO.
• Infrastructure examines contents of Pilot Strength Measurement Messages sent by
subscriber unit.
• If candidate set pilot in PSMM is
– Associated with an “external CDMA sector” (XCSECT), and
– T_COMP dB better than all active set pilots represented in PSMM, then
then Handoff to XCSECT is initiated.
• Extended Handoff Direction Message contains RF carrier identity of target.
8.1.12 Intra-Carrier Hard Handoff
• Implemented as bridge to inter-CBSC SHO.
• Inter-cell approach used.

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• Poor performance!
– High FWD FER in HHO areas both before and after HHO.
» Hysteresis scheme (ie. “T_COMP”) exacerbated Ior/Ioc problem.
– “Ping-pong” phenomena only makes audio quality worse.
» Not so bad in areas of “good” coverage.
– Susceptible to non-correlated shadowing between source and target.
» EX_HO_DIR_MSG reliability issue when source is shadowed.
– Success dependent on number of “ping-pongs”
» Always an odd number of HHOs for every seam transition.
» p(success) = (message_reliability)**X
• X = # ping-pongs

8.1.13 Pilot Beacons (Inter-Carrier Hard Handoff)
• Current solution for inter-CBSC handoff.
• Inter-cell handoff (CBSC boundaries don’t cross sector lines).
• Advantages:
– Allows multiple target discrimination.
– Shadowing between target and subscriber unit accounted for in target Ec/Io measure-
ment.
– Many optimization “knobs” relative to intra-carrier HHO.
» Much better hysteresis control.
» Minimizes, or eliminates, “ping-pong” phenomena.
– Many in industry consider this to be the “natural solution” to the HHO problem.
– Minimizes Ior/Ioc performance problems.
» Audio quality at target much better relative to intra-carrier HHO.
• Disadvantages:
– Requires extra spectrum or extra tier of spectrum in implementation area.
» Problem for cellular operators.
– Possible gaps due to reduced beacon footprint
» May require beacon deployment on sectors facing away from CBSC seam or source
cells.
– Requires beacon hardware and associated software and communications links/
resources.
» Possible increase in beacon HW complexity with increased number of carriers.
» Needs frequency agility in idle mode.

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» LPA type (multi-tone) and capacity now a concern.
» Needs GPS signals for downlink synchronization.
– Beacons required everywhere for inter-carrier HHO
» “Spot capacity relief” becomes expensive.
8.1.14 Pilot Beacon Deployment (Inter-CBSC Handoff Example)
8.1.15 Pilot Beacon Deployment (Multi-Carrier Example)
8.1.16 Pilot Beacon Optimization
• Optimization Parameters:
– Serving cell output power
» Extend range of serving pilot(s) into seam.
– Pilot Beacon output power
» Extend range of beacon signal into seam.
– Subscriber unit T_COMP parameter (“hysteresis”)
» Slow fading allowance.
» Message integrity margin.
– Forward Power Control
» Message integrity margin.
– Neighbor Search Window
» Additional hysteresis, but must be mindful of SHO effects on current side of seam.
Don’t play with this unless you have to.
If necessary, simplify to the 2-cell case (one source, one target) by turning off other bea-
cons in surrounding area. Make one case work, then build from that.
Adjust (in decreasing order of desirability) T_COMP, pilot beacon power, or serving cell
power to move handoff location away from an area that’s shadowed wrt to either serving
or target cells.
Use SHO thresholds and Fast Pilot Shuffling to acquire “macrodiversity” state when
going into the seam. Some situations might have multiple shadowing angles. Multiple
paths for the Extended Handoff Direction Message increase probability of successful
message delivery.
8.1.17 Idle Mode Handoff Problems
• Current Pilot Beacon implementation (12/96) has introduced inefficiencies in subscriber
unit System Determination at HHO seam:
Subscriber unit driving out of idle-serving system “A” will not idle HO to sys “B” (other RF
carrier) until loss of sys “A” PCH.
» Momentary lapse of service availability in idle mode.
» Algorithm not specified by J-STD-008.

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» Qualcomm algorithm is unknown.
• Search all “A” PN-space before attempt at another RF carrier?
• Pilot-based or FER-based?
– Subscriber unit may attempt System Determination on Pilot Beacon (“Pilot Beacon
Dwell”).
» Most typical occurrence on HHO RFLOSS.
» What is Qualcomm’s dwell time before abandoning SCH acquisition?
» Search all current carrier PN-space before attempt at another RF carrier?
• Three messages control process
– CDMA Channel List Message
– Extended Neighbor List Message
– Global Service Redirection Message
• No rigorous definitions or procedures in IS-95A or J-STD-008.
Just because Qualcomm will do something in a particular fashion doesn’t guarantee that
Motorola, Oki, Nokia, or Samsung, will do it the same way.
– Probably need to beef up IS-98 and PCS analogue.
8.1.18 Idle Mode Handoff Solutions
• Optimize inefficiency:
– Program subscriber units for limited carrier search.
– Continue to optimize current beacon signals for minimum output power such that sub-
scriber dwell problem is minimized.
• Equip Pilot Beacon sites with SCH and PCH capability:
– Transmit:
8.1.18.1 CDMA Channel List Message:
• Allows mobile knowledge of paging channel RF carrier hosts.
• Need for eventual implementation of “true” multi-carrier hash.
» Global Service Redirection Message:
• Prohibits subscriber unit dwell on pilot only carriers.
• Transmit Extended Neighbor List Message from handout sites:
• Parameterize subscriber unit with alternative RF carrier to scan for Pilot, PCH, and
SCH signals.
CDMA Channel List Message
• Lists all RF carriers at current cell/sector that are transmitting Paging Channels.
• Assumes all RF carriers utilizing same PN index offset as current carrier?
8.1.18.2 Extended Neighbor List Message

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• Non-ESN specific (ie. Motorola Confidential Proprietary • PILOT_PN (current serving site) and PILOT_INC • Neighbor cell/sector: – Search Priorities (not currently supported) » Unknown how Qualcomm interprets this field.1. – Neighbor RF Band Class (ie.18. PCS or cellular) 8. possibly different num.1.20 Additional HHO Solutions Under Study/Consideration • Edge Sensing – Intra-cell handoff – Techniques: – Reverse Link Phase Measurement Technique – Ec/Io thresholding Page 277 of 280 . or PCHs.19 Capacity With Pilot Beacons • Question: What is the capacity degradation due to the pilot beacon implementation for inter-carrier HHO across CBSC seams? Answer: There is none. – Neighbor Paging Channel configuration » (000) Same num. point-to-multipoint) • Serving cell/sector PN index offset • Access Overload Class bit map (“ACCOLC”) • Target RF Band Class (ie. » (010) Different num. of PCHS.1. Why would there be? Since we use another RF carrier on the other side of the seam. • Direct subscriber units to other carrier or other service. » (001) Same num. both FWD and REV other cell interference components (Ioc) are greatly reduced. of RF carriers. PCS or cellular) • Number of CDMA RF carriers • CDMA RF carrier identities 8.3 Global Service Redirection Msg. of RF carriers » (011) Unknown configuration – Neighbor RF carrier » Qualcomm confirms they will scan other RF carrier. however we don’t know details. 8. of RF carriers. same num.

– Always errors on safe side. no firm plans/schedules have been adopted for their deployment.20.20. all edge sensing and scan receiver techniques are still under scientific study.20.1 Edge Sensing (Phase Technique) • Detect subscriber unit proximity to cell “edge” or coverage “edge”.1. – Allows “grading” of incoming originations into carrier coverage at a cell (ie. Handoff is intrinsi- cally intra-cell in nature. – Minimizes.1. Thus. – Target discrimination increases complexity and is non-deterministic. • Disadvantages: – Algorithm complexity increases with need for SHO at border. but unhappy with “wasted” CDMA Erlangs in border cells/sectors. – NLOS conditions may trigger false handoff detect. 8.1. 8. • Seen as potential solution to “spot capacity relief” problem.1. Page 278 of 280 . • Advantages: – Allows load insensitive trigger. • Use reverse link short code PN phase measurement offset (from system time) as trig- ger criteria. Motorola Confidential Proprietary – DAHO • Inter-cell handoff – Scan Receivers NOTE: With the exception of DAHO. use ACH phase measurement). • Current CDMA to AMPS handoff technique for cellular customers: – Customers happy with reliability.3 Phase Technique Example 8. or eliminates.2 Mobile Timing Basics 8.21 Edge Sensing (DAHO) • DAHO = “Database Assisted Handoff” – Perform HHO based on identities of pilots in subscriber unit active set. – Majority coverage by border sector pilots is HHO trigger criteria. need for beacon equipment. • Inter-CBSC HHO would require more than a single cell’s worth of overlap.

absolute measurement is impossible.1.25 CDMA Scan Receivers • General Idea: Use a “locating receiver” as in analog systems to determine suitability for acceptance into target cell.24 Edge Sensing (Ec/Io Thresholding Example) 8. – Timing “slew” suppression implies no soft handoff activity • Interesting: Requires moderate bandwidth connection (recurring expense) to source system which would be orders of magnitude greater than that required for Pilot Beacons (probably lim- ited to fault management & provisioning). – Scan receiver has no a priori knowledge of reverse link noise.23 Edge Sensing (Ec/Io Thresholding) Use mobile station T_DROP and T_TDROP parameters to implement handoff detect at edge of cell on single. Page 279 of 280 . – Needs reference cell PN from source cell. • Advantages: –? • Disadvantages: – Infrastructure does not control subscriber output power (open loop). • Some problems/concerns: – Sector boundaries. • Intra-cell hard handoff. Thus. Motorola Confidential Proprietary » Potential for optimization through lengthening of T_TDROP timer.1. – Implies Phase Technique required for source cell trigger. worst possible handout condition). continue SHO on other carrier.22 DAHO Deployment 8. – Ec/Io coverage collapse proportional to loading and inversely proportional to need! – Needs to be optimized in unloaded case with most benign propagation in cell of inter- est (ie. • Handoff to underlying cell with congruent (or better) coverage. 8.1. This has already been tried in one market with some success.1. remaining active set pilot. – Increasing variance with increasing thermal noise. 8. – Limited detect range (-6 dB to -13 dB). – Minimal impact to current software architecture.

Motorola Confidential Proprietary Page 280 of 280 .

The following list elabo- rates and summarizes each possible type of supported handoff. The MM will determine the handoff type. Handoffs may be triggered by either Mobile Assisted Handoff (MAHO) or Data- base Assisted Handoff (DAHO) techniques. MAHO techniques depend on mea- surements made by the mobile and returned to the BTS. perform target selec- tion and perform channel allocation. The XC will detect the need to handoff. 6. The other type called a “drop” is used to instruct the mobile to exclude an old pilot from its active set. System Functional Specification: Handoff and Power Control 281 /usr/test/adv_sys/cdma/documentation/stolen/hopc/Handover_Detection Motorola Confidential Proprietary . • Inter BTS.1 General Discussion For CDMA systems. Note that there are al- ways two types of soft and softer handoff. handoff detection processing will take place in the XC and in the MM. This term will be used fairly often within the body of the SFS and can be used in a generic way. MAHO techniques may be used to trigger soft. softer and hard handoffs. perform handoff preprocessing and identify events. One type called an “add” is used to in- struct the mobile to include a new pilot in its active set. intra XC Soft Handoff: This handoff type is expected to be the high- est percentage of handoffs in CDMA systems as this type contributes to the greatest amount of reverse channel interference reduction and capacity increase.2 CDMA Handoff Types IS-95 [3] allows for several types of handoff to take place. DAHO techniques depend on information on cell configuration stored in the CBSC/BTS along with the sys- tem’s knowledge of which cells/sectors control a particular call. DAHO techniques may be used to trigger hard handoffs.0 Status: Released C H A P TE R 6 CDMA Handoff Detection and Target Selection 6. Some of the handoff types reflect the implementation of CDMA rather than IS-95. A mobile station has simultaneous connections to two or three cells and receives power control orders (for reverse link closed loop power control) from each cell in the soft handoff.May 13. 1997 Motorola Confidential Proprietary Version 7.

5 Inter-CBSC Soft Handoff (Trunking) Soft and softer handoffs can be performed with a cell under another CBSC by using inter-CBSC soft and softer handoff procedures to connect the target CBSC channel element to the source CBSC transcoder via an inter-CBSC subrate channel.3 Complex Handoffs A complex handoff in a CDMA system is defined as a handoff instruction to the mobile station which makes more than one change to the mobile’s active set. 6. Refer to the SSRR SFS [17] and DBCM SFS [4] for details on inter-CBSC connectivity. database-stored information concerning par- tially or fully overlapping handoff targets must be used to carry out the handoff pro- cess. a change in 1. A call can be in inter-CBSC soft/softer handoff with multiple target CBSCs at the same time. Intra XC Softer Handoff: This handoff type denotes a state where a mobile station maintains connections to multiple sectors all based at the same cellsite location. The BSS will only send RF: Extended Handoff Direction Messages which add or drop a single pilot from a mobile station’s active set.25ms frame offset. MAHO measurements from the mobile station may indicate that it is de- sirable to enter into a state where new connections are supported from both the cur- rent cellsite location (softer handoff) and from another cellsite location (soft handoff). • Inter or Intra BTS Hard Handoff: This handoff type denotes either a change in operating frequency. • Hard Handoff to Analog: This handoff type is used to transition a multi-mode mobile station from CDMA operation to operation on an analog system. 6. using standardized IS-634 procedures. or a handoff in which the intersection of old active set pilots with new active set pilots is the null set.4 Database Assisted Handoff (DAHO) This handoff detection algorithm is used to determine when to transition a mobile station to another frequency band and/or air interface other than CDMA. Since nor- mal CDMA Mobile Assisted Handoff (MAHO) handoff detection methods cannot be used to determine a suitable target. A call enters into inter-CBSC soft handoff when the mobile reports a vi- able candidate pilot that points to an XCSECT (external sector data base) in the Page 282 of 306 . 6. The method of performing inter-CBSC soft/softer handoffs via subrate channels and SCAP links between CBSCs is referred to as the trunking method. which may be implemented in the future. to distin- guish it from the A+ method. Complex Handoffs Motorola Confidential Proprietary • Intra BTS. This type of handoff is not supported by the current system. For example. Inter Sector.

the system will attempt to add that pilot to the mobile station’s active set via a soft or softer handoff. The mobile station will add this pilot to the candidate set and no further TAdd indications will be sent for this pilot. the mobile station will resend the TComp indication for that pilot if the condition persists. a pilot must rise above the TComp threshold before the system attempts to add it to the mobile station active set. The mode defines what triggers the system to add a pilot to the mobile station active set.“TAdd” and “TComp”. At this point the source determines if it should transfer control to a target CBSC via a hard handoff. all procedures and requirements specified for intra-CBSC soft and softer handoffs apply to inter-CBSC soft and softer handoffs. and non-target sectors that are local to the source. 6. This is referred to as a TComp indication. After an RF: Extended Handoff Direction Message which does not include the TComp pilot in the new active set. When operating in the TAdd mode.7 Mobile Station Operation It is assumed that the mobile station operates as follows (from IS-95 [3]): • Any time a neighbor set or remaining set pilot rises above TAdd. However. The source will ignore matches with other neighbors in the remote neighbor lists. the source checks target sectors. separate handoff execution procedures have been specified for inter- CBSC soft handoff (trunking).5dB above any active set pilot. In general. Subsequent inter-CBSC soft and softer handoff operations may occur with pilots that are in the neighbor list of a target CBSC cell. unless otherwise noted. a pilot has risen TComp × 0. any time a pilot rises above the TAdd threshold or the TComp threshold (i. 6.6 Handoff Modes The system is required to support various “handoff modes”. In these ‘remote neighbor lists’. the mobile sta- tion sends an RF: Pilot Strength Measurement Message (PSMM) to the system. Two modes are defined . for matches with candidates reported by the MS.e. This is referred to as a TAdd indication. When operating in the TComp mode.5dB above any active set pilot). Target CBSC neighbor lists are sent back to the source as part of the inter-CBSC soft/softer procedure. the mobile station will remove the pilot for which the handoff drop timer is Page 283 of 306 . • Any time a candidate set pilot rises TComp × 0. Sub- sequent PSMMs will contain strength measurements for this pilot. the mobile station sends a PSMM to the system. The handoff mode de- fines how the handoff detection algorithm and execution procedures operate. The source CBSC remains in control of the call until no source handoff legs remain. and this XCSECT has inter-CBSC soft handoffs via trunking en- abled. • The mobile station removes pilots from the candidate set as follows: 1) when the pilot falls below the TDrop threshold for TTDrop seconds (the handoff drop timer has expired) 2) when the candidate set is full and the mobile station must add another pilot to it. Handoff Modes Motorola Confidential Proprietary source CBSC.

Currently two modes are defined. The system sends this parameter to the mobile station in the RF: Sys- tem Parameters Message. The sys- tem sends this parameter to the mobile station in the RF: System Parameters Message. • HandOffMode . • PilotInc .8 Database Parameters The following are the database parameters which apply to handoff detection. Database Parameters Motorola Confidential Proprietary closest to expiring 3) a candidate pilot is added to the active set • Any pilot which crosses TAdd and TComp thresholds simultaneously is treated as a TComp indication by the mobile station.Pilot Drop Threshold .The threshold which a candidate set pilot strength must rise above an active set pilot to cause the MS to transmit a pilot strength measurement message. Refer to the DBCM SFS [4] for further information and default values. After an RF: Extended Handoff Direction Message which does not remove the TDrop pilot from the new active set.Pilot Detection Threshold . RF: Ex- tended Handoff Direction Message. RF: Extended Handoff Direction Message.The amount of time in seconds the MS will allow an active or candidate set pilot strength to remain below the drop threshold before action is taken to remove the pilot from the active or can- didate set. and the RF: In Traffic System Parameters Message.The threshold above which a pilot must rise in order for the MS to transmit a pilot strength measurement message. • Any time an active set pilot falls below the TDrop threshold for TTDrop sec- onds.Active or Candidate Set Drop Timer . TComp mode tells the system to wait for a pilot to rise above the TComp threshold before it is added to a call. The system sends this parameter to the mobile station in the RF: System Parameters Message. • TComp . TAdd mode and TComp mode. the mobile station sends a PSMM to the system.Specifies to the XC which handoff mode to use. The mobile station only sends one PSMM for that pilot1. and the RF: In Traffic Sys- tem Parameters Message. and the RF: In Traffic System Parameters Message. • TTDrop . • TDrop . 6. RF: Extended Handoff Direction Message. At least this is how Motorola mobiles are understood to operate. It is set to 1. This is referred to as a TDrop indication.Active Versus Candidate Set Comparison Threshold .The threshold below which a pilot strength must drop in order for the MS to transmit a pilot strength measurement mes- sage. The system sends this parameter to the mobile station in the RF: System Parameters Message. RF: Extended Handoff Direction Message. • TAdd .The mobile station uses this field to determine how remaining set pilots should be searched.Pilot PN Sequence Offset Index Increment . TAdd mode tells the system to add a pilot to a call as soon as it crosses the TAdd threshold. Page 284 of 306 . not in the MIB. This data exists in the XC database. and the RF: In Traffic System Parameters Message. the mobile station will resend the TDrop indication for that pilot if the condition persists.

Instead. The list below elaborates on the usefulness of each measurement. no known XCSECT representations in the source CBSC. • Inter-CBSC Soft Handoff Override . on all legs remote). • HandoffMethod . Specific usage of measurements can be found in the procedures sections dealing with handoff and power control. It is checked by both source (in handoff detection) and target procedures. or termination in a border sector. it will not be possible to use the GSM 05. The parameter can be used to keep calls in soft handoff. • NeighborList . the alterna- tive action of either no handoffs or hard handoffs is indicated (no handoffs. The scope of this parameter is per external CDMA sector.this per CBSC parameter indicates the condition upon which trigger the source MM to move a mobile in Inter- CBSC soft handoff from a source (or ‘anchor’) MM to a target MM once all the source legs have been dropped (keep soft.9 RF Measurements Used in CDMA Handoff and Power Control Detection While TDMA systems offer a plethora of RF related measurements to use in hand- off detection. CDMA relies on the mobile station to provide an event to the infrastructure equipment to serve notice that a threshold has been crossed as well as provide MAHO measurements to assist in establishing target suitability.e. no override).Handoff Method . Nevertheless. The scope of this parameter is per inter-CBSC trunk group.DAHO Hysteresis Timer . origination. When override is allowed. • AnchorHoMeth . i.This parameter indicates whether a sector-carrier is near a border and contains neighboring or overlapping sectors operating on an- other frequency and/or non-CDMA signalling scheme.08 al- gorithm to perform handoff detection. The XC must use the same value as is contained in the MIB.DAHO Indicator . soft aplus) to be used to hand the call off to a sector external to the CBSC.RF Measurements Used in CDMA Handoff and Power Control Detection Motorola Confidential Proprietary the largest increment such that the pilots of the neighboring sectors are integer multiples of the increment.This parameter specifies the method (none. soft trunking. CDMA seems to be rather sparse in this regard. Page 285 of 306 . 6. majority border checks will be disabled for a period of time in seconds equal to the value of this parameter.This parameter is used to ‘turn-off’ In- ter-CBSC soft handoffs between two MMs. This data is sent to the mobile station in the RF: Neighbor List Message and the RF: Neighbor List Update Message. This parameter is passed to the XC in both the SCAP: CDMA Update Parameters Message and the SCAP: CDMA XC Chan- nel Assigned Message. hard. there appears to be some latitude for creativity in this area. and to execute a hard handoff when all the legs are remote. After a hard hand-in. • DAHO . Due to the par- ticulars of the CDMA air interface. hard. • DAHOHysTimer .Anchor Handoff Method .This list contains all of the neighbor sector PN offsets for the current call.This parameter is used to prevent ‘ping-pong’ handoffs between two sectors which have been marked with the DAHO flag.Neighbor List . on no source legs. to execute a hard hand- off when there are no source legs in the call.

Note that due to soft handoff. then the fin- ger is dropped from combining. Typically. Thus. or T_DROP thresholds. For fourth and eighth rate frames. This message may be sent by the mobile station either periodically or when a threshold of bad frames has been reached. The message contains PN phase measurements and strengths of the pilots that the mobile station is monitoring. CDMA Cellsite Receive Antenna Selection Motorola Confidential Proprietary For handoff. This is to prevent wasted processing time looking for signals where there are no sector inputs. The RF: Pilot Strength Measurement Message is sent autonomously by the mobile station in response to a particular pilot crossing the T_ADD. Page 286 of 306 . T_COMP.10 CDMA Cellsite Receive Antenna Selection During a call. If the signal drops below another threshold.  10 I 0  where Ec is the received pilot energy per chip and I0 is the total received spectral density (note this results in the higher the value the lower the measurement. This message contains the number of errors detected over a certain number of frames. The message also contains a report of pi- lot strengths for pilots included in the current mobile station active set. Reverse FER is determined after frame selection from all MCCs involved in the call. The pilot strength measurement is actually a chip to noise power ratio whose value is always less than 1. The PN phase measurements are in chip offsets relative to the zero phase pilot offset (i. The MCC is configured to operate in a sectored or omni mode. frame errors or frame quality depending on the frame rate is de- tected by the MCC. pilot strengths and PN phase will be used in tandem both to de- termine the need to handoff as well as choose appropriate targets. frame errors are detected by the mobile station and reported to the base station equipment in the RF: Power Measurement Report Message. the MCC passes the frame CRC pass/fail status and the Viterbi decoder symbol error rate to selector in the uplink STRAU frames. 6. On the reverse link. A frame erasure rate (FER) can be generated in the XC after a sufficient number of frames have been received to begin forming the statistic. the MCC passes only the symbol error rate to the selector. 1% of the frames in error will be tolerated in the system. and vice-versa).e. The selector determines frame erasures from this information. relative to system time).0. and regardless of soft or softer handoff conditions. the reverse FER for a call is not necessarily determined by an individ- ual MCC circuit. The mobile returns a loga- rithmic compression of this measurement equal to Ec – 2 × 10 × log  -----. On the forward link. the main piece of data to contend with is the contents of the pilot strength measurement message. the MCC will need to check for significant reverse channel energy on a per sector basis related to the call (see FIGURE 41 on page 287). When finding a signal with significant ener- gy that exceeds the energy being used by one of the fingers. the MCC shall dedicate a finger to that new signal. For full rate and half rate air interface frames.

(120 sector site example) 6. drops. Page 287 of 306 . These commands are detailed in the CDMA CP SFS [5].11 Maintenance Command Interaction Several maintenance commands are available to the craft which require handoff in- teraction. HOLD maintains the current state of the call by not allowing automatic adds. including CLI interac- tion and resource management. or external handoffs. UNHOLD clears the condition. PDROP performs the opposite function. Also defined in that docu- ment are several requirements pertaining to the execution of those commands. The reader is referred to that document for general requirements. This document will contain specific requirements that impact handoff detection and target selection. Maintenance Command Interaction Motorola Confidential Proprietary FIGURE 41 Simplified Single Channel MCC Reverse Link Diagram Search Processors Demodulator Reverse Link Preselection Search Processors Demodulator Search Processors Demodulator Sector Search Processors Antennas Demodulator Simplified single channel MCC reverse link diagram showing finger management detail. The PADD command is used to add a soft or softer connection to a call.

automatic handoffs will not be allowed. PADD and PDROP may be used on the source CBSC to add or drop a local sector/MCCce. When an drop is specified through the PDROP command. The target of the command must be a local MCCce. Should a SCAP: Handoff Recognized message arrive while a PADD or PDROP command is being processed. A SNAP command performed on a CBSC that is associated with the target side of an inter-CBSC soft handoff (trunk- ing) connection will report an error. Note: Upon release of the HOLD condition (i. including inter-CBSC soft handoff (trunking) target MM allocation. the MM shall initiate the indicated action. When a soft or softer drop is specified through the PDROP command. 6. See the CDMA CP SFS [5] for specific requirements.12 Handoff Detection General Requirements 6. Note target selection may also indicate a specific MCC timeslot (MCCce). Soft and softer handoffs will be initiated through the PADD and PDROP commands. Refer to requirements in the Call Processing Maintenance Commands chapter of the CDMA CP SFS [5]. See the CDMA CP SFS [5] for specific requirements. When an add is specified through the PADD command. There are some caveats for calls that are in inter-CBSC soft handoff (trunking). Handoff type and target selection are determined by parameters in the command. the UNHOLD command is per- formed) it is not required to immediately determine if a handoff to analog should be performed. When maintenance commands display a list of active call legs. HOLD and UNHOLD commands apply to inter-CBSC soft handoff (trunking) when performed on the source (controlling) CBSC. The algorithm assumes that the mobile station Page 288 of 306 . the MM shall initiate the indicated action. inter-CBSC soft handoff (trunking) legs are displayed but are not distinguished from local legs. a target MM call shall re- turn an error. The CDMA CP SFS [5] contains requirements regarding actions to be taken when a PADD or PDROP is requested during handoff execution. Only source MM call jobs will provide a successful response to a maintenance command. Refer to requirements in the Call Processing Maintenance Commands chapter of the CDMA CP SFS [5]. a target MM call shall re- turn an error.13 CBSC Handoff Detection Algorithm FIGURE 42 on page 289 shows control flow for handoff detection. but rather to facilitate understanding. When a soft or softer add is specified through the PADD command. Handoff Detection General Requirements Motorola Confidential Proprietary When a call is in a HOLD state. Handoff type determination is specified by parameters in the command. The partitioning of tasks within this document is not meant as an indication to an implementation.e. A USE command applies only to local CBSC channel elements but on the local CBSC will apply to any type of channel alloca- tion. the message shall be discarded and not acted upon.

1 Procedures The mobile station performs MAHO procedures in accordance with IS-95. FIGURE 42 Handoff Detection Control Flow Pilot Strength Measurement PN Mobile Messages PN Offset Index Offsets Event Station Determination Discriminator Valid Events State Validation & Detection SCAP: Handoff Recognized Messages Handoff Target Handoff Execution Selection Type Type and Determination target info Handoff Detection Process Software Valid Measurement Events: Valid Detection Outputs: TAdd SHO ADD TAdd + TComp SHO DROP TDrop Page 289 of 306 . When the mobile station detects the occurrence of any events (such as the T_ADD thresh- old being exceeded). Upon reception of this message by the XC. CBSC Handoff Detection Algorithm Motorola Confidential Proprietary is already in one of several states. The software algorithm is split between the MM and XC subsystems. This information can then (if desired) be retrieved by MMI or used in addi- tional handoff detection processing. the L3 message is routed to the handoff detection process. Note that the handoff detection process shall store the contents of the last 16 RF: Pilot Strength Measurement Report Mes- sages. it sends an RF: Pilot Strength Measurement Report Message to the base station. 6.13. The diagram also shows valid events and valid decisions that are output by the detection process.

3 Event Discrimination The purpose of event discrimination is to decide what events have caused a mobile station to send an RF: Pilot Strength Measurement Message to the infrastructure equipment. Note: the XC gets the reference pilot PN directly from the RF: Pilot Strength Mea- offset = ( phase + 32 × PilotInc )mod2 15 × PilotInc --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 64 × PilotInc surement Message.2 PN Offset Index Determination The purpose of the PN Offset Index Determination subprocess is to identify the base stations used in the RF: Pilot Strength Measurement Message. the last PN offset should not be used due to overlap between PN off- set 0 and the last PN offset.4.2.× PilotInc 64 × PilotInc where the operator x denotes rounding the real value “x” to the largest integer value less than or equal to x. The mobile station computes pilot PN phase øi = (Ti + 64 × PILOT_PN)mod215. The PN Offset Index Determination subprocess will apply the following equation to each PN phase returned to determine the identity of the base station transmitting the pilot: 15 ( φ i + 32 × PilotInc )mod2 PilotPn i = --------------------------------------------------------------------.13. CBSC Handoff Detection Algorithm Motorola Confidential Proprietary 6. It is assumed that all PN offset indices throughout the CDMA system will be specified in increments of PilotInc and that PilotInc will be sufficiently large (with respect to cell sizes) so as to avoid confusion between cell identities. The PN offset index determination subprocess shall also tag the pilot strength and phases returned in the RF: Pilot Strength Measurement Message as to whether the pilots are currently active or candidate pilots. The XC sub- system performs this function. Ti is the arrival time of pilot i at the mobile station (relative to the mobile’s sense of system time). Changes to the ref- erence pilot are also noted. The algorithm is reproduced here for completeness. Note that PilotPn is constrained to values between 0 and 511 and this is assured because of the way the mobile station calculates øi.13. 6. The algorithm ap- plied shall be the exact algorithm that Qualcomm proposes in their Network Engi- neering Handbook [2]. PilotInc is a parameter supplied to the handoff detec- tion process. Note also that if a PilotInc is used that is not 1. the keep flag associated with each pilot and the reference PN (the pilot that the mobile station is using to gauge system time) shall be perpetuated to the next subprocess.or 8. In addition. Page 290 of 306 . The identity at this point in the control flow is just defined as the PN offset index used by a particular base station. øi is transmitted to the infrastructure equipment in the RF: Pilot Strength Measurement Message. This function is performed by the XC subsystem.

or if their strengths have exceeded the TComp dB of one of these pilots. and TDrop threshold crossed. In the current system. the only valid events are: TAdd threshold crossed. Note also that multiple events may be possible within each message (a complex handoff). This function is performed by the XC. There is a table for both the TAdd and TComp handoff modes Refer to Ta- ble 6: "TAdd Mode State Validation Table" on page 291. Any candidate pilot strength which is greater than or equal to the current TAdd threshold is a TAdd event. not valid indicates that the event is not valid and will not be processed further.e. If a candidate set pilot has equaled or exceeded any active set pilot by TComp × 0. The mobile station active set states are listed as row headings. Events which do not pass the event discrimination tests are not passed along to the State Validation and Detection Process. Pi- lots in the active set can be tagged as drop if their pilot strengths are shown to be below the TDrop threshold. Valid indicates that the received event is valid for the active set state. and TDrop. Pilots not in the active set are scanned to see if their associated strengths have crested over the TAdd threshold. CBSC Handoff Detection Algorithm Motorola Confidential Proprietary In the current system. only a single event will be processed. The tables below shows the allowed events depending on the mobile station’s active set state. the first activity on the part of the event discriminator is to scan the pilot strengths and their associated keep flags to determine which (if any) pilots have truly met the criteria for TDrop. TComp can only be applied to the strength measurements of pilots that are not in the active set.4 State Validation and Detection State validation and detection determines which events are consistent with the mo- bile stations active set state (i. the number of pilots in the active set). the event discriminator shall tag the candidate set pilot as a TComp event. In either case. Essentially. Each event is listed in the column head- ings. This is done by noting which pilot strengths have fallen below TDrop and have their associated keep flags set to zero. and Table 7: "TComp Mode State Validation Table" on page 292. Table 6: TAdd Mode State Validation Table TAdd Event TComp Event TDrop Event Page 291 of 306 . Thus.13. TAdd. event discrimination shall scan the list of pilots and their strengths. The precedence will be TComp. 6. Establishing a TAdd is done by applying the known TAdd threshold to the returned measurements for candidate pilots.5 dB. TComp threshold crossed. The keep flag within the RF: Pilot Strength Measure- ment Message is used to differentiate between those pilot signals that have fallen below the TDrop threshold for TTDrop seconds as opposed to those pilot signals that have momentarily dropped below TDrop at the time the RF: Pilot Strength Measurement Message was sent by the mobile station. the event will be a handoff.

the XC will formulate the SCAP: CDMA Handoff Recognized Message and set the cause field as shown in Table 8: "Handoff Cause Element Coding" on page 292. Table 8: Handoff Cause Element Coding TAdd TComp TComp & TDrop TAdd & TComp & TAdd & events events TAdd events TDrop TDrop TComp & events events events TDrop events 1 Forward SHO add SHO add SHO add SHO add SHO add SHO add Link one cell . one cell one cell one cell one cell TAdd TComp TComp Note: It can be assumed that active set pilots can only have drop events associated with them. CBSC Handoff Detection Algorithm Motorola Confidential Proprietary Table 6: TAdd Mode State Validation Table 1 Forward Link valid valid not valid 2 Forward Links valid valid valid 3 Forward Links valid valid valid Table 7: TComp Mode State Validation Table TAdd Event TComp Event TDrop Event 1 Forward Link not valid valid not valid 2 Forward Links not valid valid valid 3 Forward Links not valid valid valid After determining that there is at least one valid event. one cell one cell . one cell . one cell . Note: In Table 8: "Handoff Cause Element Coding" on page 292. one cell - TAdd TComp TComp TAdd TComp TComp 3 Forward SHO add SHO add SHO add SHO drop SHO drop SHO drop SHO drop Links one cell . one cell . one cell . Page 292 of 306 . one cell . one cell . one cell . one cell . one cell . and that candidate set pilots can only have TAdd or TComp events asso- ciated with them. one cell - TAdd TComp TComp TAdd TComp TComp 2 Forward SHO add SHO add SHO add SHO drop SHO add SHO add SHO add Links one cell . the blank entries correspond to situations which are not possible because they were filtered out by on page 292.

13. If (candidate Ec/Io is a TComp event) or (candidate Ec/Io ≥ TAdd threshold and Ec/Io is > 2 or more active pilots) drop the weakest active pilot. as well as a cause field which specifies the event which triggered the message to be sent. backhauled from a neighbor MM.either soft or softer and add or drop.5 Handoff Type Determination The handoff type determination subprocess is used to determine the type of handoff to be performed . The MM determines if a handoff add or drop is required as specified in Table 9: "Add/Drop Selection" on page 293. Its input is the SCAP: CDMA Handoff Recognized Message from the XC. for active pilots local to the MM. Page 293 of 306 . CBSC Handoff Detection Algorithm Motorola Confidential Proprietary Note: The Service Option List contains the mobile service option list obtained in the Status message or the Status Response message. it must be verified whether a hard handoff to CDMA or analog is warrant- ed. the candidate pilots BTS and sector are determined by searching the neighbor lists of the active pilots. Before this check is done. Table 9: Add/Drop Selection TAdd or TDrop Events TComp Events Only Only 1 Forward Attempt to add Link the (strongest) candidate pilot 2 Forward Attempt to add Drop the Links the (strongest) (weakest) candidate pilot active pilot 3 Forward Check: drop Drop the Links the (weakest) (weakest) active pilot?a active pilot a. For an add case where the call already contains 3 forward links. This message contains the latest pilot strength. It also contains the Keep Pilot Indicator for each active pilot. When set. and the neighbor lists of any active pilots which were dropped after the last add. This list shall be send to the MM if it is available. active set and candidate information from the mobile station. The neighbor lists could be in the local database. This function is performed in the MM. that pilot should not be considered a drop candidate. If an add is determined. a check is made to see if one of the forward links can be dropped so that the candidate pilot can be added (fast pilot shuffle scenario). or they could be remote neighbor lists. 6. for active pilots that are inter-CBSC soft handoff legs.

If either condition is true a drop of the pilot with the weakest Ec/Io should be initi- ated. it is recognized that portions of the system architecture do not allow this to be easily accomplished. External candidates (from a local neighbor list) are given lowest preference as they typically result in a hard handoff or an initial inter- CBSC soft handoff. at the MM level during call setup. irrespective of the type of handoff that the local can- didate requires. Therefore a relaxed minimum set of requirements will apply during call setup which will provide the functionality that is currently perceived to be needed. and the event is associated with a pilot which is in a BTS that currently has two channels assigned to the call. it must be determined if the candidate pilot should replace one of the currently active pilots. otherwise it will attempt a softer handoff add. In particular the detection and initiation of a handoff. and the candi- date’s Ec/Io is greater than at least two of the active pilot’s Ec/Io. and 3 forward links are already active. the MM will attempt a softer handoff drop. and it is an external BTS and sector from the neighbor MMs perspective. and the event is associated with a pilot which is in a BTS that does not currently have a channel assigned to the call. then the add is treated as a local add. 2) the candidate Ec/Io is equal to or greater than the TAdd threshold. Local candidates (from a local neighbor list) get preference as they typically result in local soft/softer adds. After the drop is performed. CBSC Handoff Detection Algorithm Motorola Confidential Proprietary If the candidate pilots BTS and sector are found in a remote neighbor list. Should the pilot strength be equal among two candidates for an add. Because the SCAP: Handoff Recognized Message may contain multiple events. Page 294 of 306 . then a check is done to see if the BTS and sector are actually local to this MM. If an add of a pilot is indicated. or until all events are eliminated due to unavailable resources. or the events are not supported in the current system. is difficult to achieve. the mobile should request another add event. The MM must also determine if a handoff procedure should be soft or softer. Handoff Type Determination may be performed multiple times until either an event can be acted upon. the preference is to process a local candidate. If an add is required. If yes. otherwise it will at- tempt a soft handoff drop. If no. and the stronger candidate pilot should “win out” and be added. this candidate is excluded from further processing. It should replace an active pilot if either of the following conditions are true: 1) the candidate Ec/Io is a TComp event. However. If a drop is required. Handoff Type Determination During Call Setup Ideally the functionality discussed above would apply to a call in progress at any time from call initiation to disconnect. This means of replace- ment is in lieu of complex handoffs and is referred to as “fast pilot shuffling”. The basic functionality required is the ability to add at least one soft or softer local (not inter-CBSC) leg to the call (during setup). Candidates from external neighbor lists are then given preference because they typically result in subsequent icbsc soft/softer adds or local soft/softer adds. the MM will attempt a soft hand- off add.

It should be noted that addition of another leg (the third). Note: Handoff execution procedures may determine other Handoff Nack causes. and issue an exception.g.6.6 DAHO Handoff Detection/Determination 6. However. Note: The XC verifies that pilots with TDrop events are in the active set. Refer to the failure scenarios in the various execution procedures.capable mobile has entered a sector-carrier that is par- tially or completely overlaid by another CDMA carrier or carrier from another sys- tem using a different air interface. execution of. is next in perceived importance. the cause is stored in the CDL LAST_HO_BLOCKED_CAUSE field. Page 295 of 306 . If this situation does occur. it may not be a bad idea to do so. etc. Refer also to the SCAP document [6] for a list of all the Handoff Nack causes. handoff already in progress. SCAP: Handoff Recognized messages received which cannot be immediately pro- cessed (e.1 Introduction The detection algorithm is based upon determining when a multi-band and/or multi-air-interface system . or planned for. If the blocked handoff is a soft/softer add or a hard handoff. Any statistics normally pegged during handoff execution shall be pegged as well. CBSC Handoff Detection Algorithm Motorola Confidential Proprietary From the MM perspective.) should be queued and processed when the call transitions into a stable state. Indications of receiving. Any additional functionality which can be added at this time. this time is from when the channel assignment message is sent (to the XC) to when the response is received (from the XC). is en- couraged. 6.13. or inter-CBSC soft. Note: The XC subsystem does not base any processing on the Handoff N’ACK causes. This is due in part to the hope that inter-CBSC seams will be carefully placed. Refer to the CDMA CP SFS [5]. followed by the dropping of an existing leg. See the CDMA CP SFS [5] (CDL section) for more detail. Note: In Table 9: "Add/Drop Selection" on page 293. handoffs. and completion of. hard handoff indicated. a handoff during call set- up shall be included in the CDL. Immediate MM processing of the response (SCAP: CDMA Handoff Successful) does not det- rimentally affect the handoff and is not a minimum requirement. At a minimum the MM shall send a SCAP: CDMA XC Handoff Direction to the XC. the blank entries correspond to situations which are not possible because they were filtered out by on page 292. the MM will send a SCAP Handoff N’ACK with a de- tailed cause of ‘Handoff not Allowed’.13. while not required at this time. therefore the MM is not explicitly required to verify this. are not perceived as that critical during setup. Hard.

border cells (or sites) exist which pro- vide both CDMA and other carrier/signalling system coverage. mobile origination or mobile termi- nation to a border sector.6. please refer to Barry Menich’s paper.2 Algorithm DAHO handoff detection is performed in the MM. the MM will use the DAHOHysTimer database value to inhibit all subsequent DAHO border checks (as described below) for a fixed length of time. DAHO handoff detection will occur on any of the following events: • soft add or drop • softer add or drop • mobile origination • mobile termination • hard hand-in Upon completion of a successful hard hand-in. whether or not they belong to the same cell site is also taken into account. In the case of mobile origination or termination. Blank entries are impossible cases. In addition. For hard hand-ins. 6. The MM determines if a DAHO handoff is required by analyzing the total number of pilots and the number of pilots that are border cells. Mobiles may be di- rected to handoff to the other system upon entering majority coverage by the border cell(s).13. When one of the DAHO detection triggering events occurs. 1994 [9]. Note some entries can only be reached through previous error or unsuccessful attempts. October 6. originations and terminations will be inhibited in the border cells by making use of the IS-95A Global Service Redirection Message. or immediately upon expiration of the hysteresis timer. this will give the system time to perform any soft or softer adds or drops which might result in the mobile re- maining in that sector-carrier (majority condition not met). This message will indicate to the mobile station it is to acquire the non-CDMA system and not the CDMA system. if there are two active pilots and only one is a border cell. “CDMA to AMPS Handoff Proposal”. CBSC Handoff Detection Algorithm Motorola Confidential Proprietary At the edge of a CDMA carrier’s coverage. the hysteresis timer prevents the call from “ping-ponging” back to the source sector-carrier. as specified in Table 10: "DAHO Handoff Validation Table" on page 297. the MM then checks the sector-carrier associated DAHO flag in the database to determine which active pilots (sectors) are border cells (sectors). and determines whether a hard handoff to another CDMA carrier or signalling system should be attempted. Page 296 of 306 . In the case of dual coverage by a system using an alternate air interface. This helps take advan- tage of the capacity of the border sector-carrier on which the origination or termination occurs. For further details on the issues surrounding DAHO handoffs.

6. There is considerable debate at this point whether or not this should be a “N”. and then subsequently one or more source legs are added. This cov- ers cases where the anchor handoff is not to be performed immediately upon drop- ping the last active source leg. The handoff execution process is entered next.8 Inter-CBSC Soft (Trunking) to Anchor Handoff Transition When in inter-CBSC soft handoff (trunking) and the last source leg is dropped. cases where the last source drop was performed because of fast pilot shuffle. an ‘anchor handoff’ is performed by executing CDMA to CDMA hard handoff procedures.13. an anchor handoff is not performed. Table 10: DAHO Handoff Validation Table 1 Active Pilot 2 Active Pilots 2 Active Pilots 3 Active Pilots Different Sites Same Site 0 DAHO Sector-Carrier Active Pilots N N N N 1 DAHO Sector-Carrier Active Pilot Y N Ya N 2 DAHO Sector-Carrier Active Pilots Y Y Y 3 DAHO Sector-Carrier Active Pilots Y a. then upon each inter-CBSC add and drop. the MM determines the best DAHO sector. Page 297 of 306 . If the MM so determines.13. Target identity information used in the A+: Handoff Required shall be the same as that used in the request to initially set up the target leg (as a soft leg). the MM shall check if an anchor handoff should be performed. Note that if all active source legs are dropped. CBSC Handoff Detection Algorithm Motorola Confidential Proprietary If a DAHO is triggered. the MM checks if the transcoding and control of the call should be moved to a target MM. The MM knows if a hard handoff is allowed for the call by acquiring the hard hand- off flag associated with the service option the call is currently on. which is the source sector with the strongest pilot measurement that has its associated DAHO flag set. It has been decided to allow this to be changed during process initialization via an environment variable.7 Inter-CBSC Soft (A+) to Hard Handoff Transition When in inter-CBSC soft handoff and the last source leg is dropped. This is the “Best Source Sector”. 6. and cases where it is determined to perform an anchor handoff but the handoff fails and the call remains in inter-CBSC soft handoff. a hard handoff to the target is performed. The target selection phase is entered next. While there are no active source legs in the call. This will be removed when the correct setting has been determined. if the service option allows it.

after each local drop that was not initiated be- cause of fast pilot shuffle. the MM checks if there are any source legs left in the call. 6.14 Target Selection Target selection is essentially a database driven process which results in a target. and after each inter-CBSC add or drop performed while there are no source legs. Target Selection Motorola Confidential Proprietary When in inter-CBSC soft handoff. Please refer to the diagram below for reference during the discussion of each handoff type. Page 298 of 306 . This anchor handoff method applies hysteresis to the anchor handoff. then the MM checks if this condition is true. no further checking is done. If the anchor handoff method indicates that the call is to remain in inter-CBSC soft handoff. then no further checking is done. If the anchor handoff method indicates that anchor handoff is to be performed as soon as there are no source legs. being selected. If no. then a target CBSC is selected and CDMA to CDMA hard handoff procedures are initiated. If the anchor handoff method indicates that anchor handoff is to be performed when none of the target CBSC sectors supporting active call legs have a database repre- sentation in the source CBSC. or list of targets. and if it is. and the hard handoff flag associated with the current service option indicates that the call is NOT allowed to be hard handed off. then a target CBSC is selected and CDMA to CDMA hard handoff procedures are initiated.

TACS/AMPS Cell ID CBSC Level CBSC Level Carrier Level 6. .e. The second type occurs when a non-zero ORI is found. . It is the intent to exhaust all handoff candidates. . . .14.ORI = 0 (ORI = 0) DAHO Inputs PNy . This means the neighbor is external to the CBSC. Once a handoff is attempted (i. . The first results from finding a neighbor with an Outward Route Index (ORI) of 0.ORI != 0 Hard Handoff Best Source Sector noPN . . a failure in execution shall result in the next best route being attempted. An intra-CBSC soft or softer add will result. in which case further processing is required.ORI != 0 Inter-CBSC Soft Handoff (ORI != 0) Carrier Level Outward Route Index List Outward Route Number Table Target Info ORI Route List RouteNum Target XCSect XASect MCC MCC MNC MNC LAC Sctr1 Handoff MethodSctr2 Service Option SiteCon . the MAHO list is not used again. . The process is to find the best candidate from the MAHO list reported by the mobile until the handoff can be attempted. If hand- off execution was entered through the outward route traversal process. before ending the search. MaxPL MEM .1 MAHO Target Selection There are two types of MAHO target selection. Failures to attempt a handoff should result in the next best candidate being attempted. the handoff execution process is entered). Cell ID SID LAC . Target Selection Motorola Confidential Proprietary FIGURE 43 Handoff Target Selection Process Neighbor MAHO Inputs Associations PN (via PSMM) Soft/Softer Handoff PNx . Page 299 of 306 . The neighbor is defined as inter- nal or local to the CBSC. . within reason.

Each logical route will produce a pointer to either an exter- nal CDMA sector (XCSECT) or to an external sector operating on another signal- Page 300 of 306 . a configurable. the process allows multiple alternate targets to be specified and attempted.14. If necessary (as in the case of add events). resulting in a list of logical routes.2 External Neighbor (ORI != 0) The handoff type determination process resulted in a pilot PN. 6. The handoff execution process is entered next. The outward route traversal process is now entered.1 Route Selection At this point an Outward Route Index has been chosen and is used to index into the Outward Route (Index) List.2 DAHO Target Selection Input into this process is the best target sector/carrier.1.14. The target selection process shall now use that information to access the neighbor association and obtain the associat- ed Outward Route Index.14.14. If a handoff is not attempted (i. Target selection is an integral part of handoff detection as resource avail- ability is one of the inputs into the handoff type determination process The MAHO target selection process receives handoff types and sector information from the handoff type determination process. target selection makes requests to the resource allocation function (as spec- ified in the Call Processing SFS [5]). target selection will start the determined execution procedure. and (if available) the source PN are inputs to this process. to attempt for the handoff. 6. table-driven process selects the primary target and associated parameters used to initiate a hand- off request to the MSC for a hard handoff. If the requested resources are available. Source sector.1 Internal Neighbor (ORI = 0) The MAHO target selection subprocess is used to verify that the resources neces- sary to perform the handoff specified by the handoff type determination process are available. If resources are unavail- able. 6. 6. The outward route traversal process is now entered. source carrier.3. The Outward Route Index as- sociated with the DAHO event is obtained from the database. in priority order. or to a target MM for inter-CBSC soft handoff (trunking).3 Outward Route Traversal As previously discussed and shown in FIGURE 43. Target Selection Motorola Confidential Proprietary 6. source sector and source carrier found to be an external neighbor. target selection will indicate this to the handoff type determination process where other handoff types or events may be processed. Note that when entering the process via DAHO there is no returning to the handoff type determination process (if no viable candidate was found) because there is no SCAP: CDMA Handoff Rec- ognized message present. and then to start the execution procedure.1.e.14. was blocked for any rea- son). This function is performed in the MM.

and target selection was entered with a MAHO indication. Note that this assumes that a hard handoff route will not be followed by a soft handoff route in the route list. a set of checks must pass before that type of hard handoff will be executed. Other- wise. as a result of target selection. using this list of permissible routes. 2) if the handoff was MAHO initiated its reported signal strength is a TComp event over each of the active pilots.3. Digital to Analog (XASECT) 1) hard handoff is allowed for the service option in effect for the call. 4) the call is not in inter-CBSC soft handoff Page 301 of 306 . Currently. as follows.2 Hard Handoff Route At this point. then non-permissible routes are removed from the route list. 3) the (analog) capability of the mobile is compatible with the target. the process shall return to the handoff type determination process to look for other candidates. Should the route choices be examined and no viable handoff candidate found. These are: 1) analog routes if the MS is not analog capable 2) digital routes that do not support the service option the MS is currently on 3) digital routes for which the handoff method does not indicate hard handoff The MM then proceeds to attempt a hard handoff. the handoff procedure is ended. 2) if the handoff was MAHO initiated its reported signal strength is a TComp event over each of the active pilots. 6. the MM discards that candidate and moves on to the next best candidate. They apply to a digital to analog hard handoff. a digital to analog route. Target Selection Motorola Confidential Proprietary ling system and/or carrier. If a hard handoff is allowed. 3) the call is not in inter-CBSC soft handoff If the checks do not pass. If the checks all pass. only the analog (AMPS or TACS) signalling systems are supported (XASECT). and to a DAHO initiated digital to digital hard handoff. 1) hard handoff is allowed for the service option in effect for the call. The MM first performs some checks to make sure that a hard handoff is allowed for the current call. and this process was entered with a MAHO indication. The net result of the preceding steps is that for each of the hard handoff types. and so a hard handoff will be attempted.14. to a MAHO initiated digital to digi- tal hard handoff. all routes that are not hard handoff routes or are not permissible hard handoff routes are removed from the route list. See the DBCM SFS [4] for further information. a MAHO initi- ated digital to digital route. or a DAHO initiated digital to digital route has been de- termined that maps to a hard handoff target. This results in a list of permissible hard handoff routes to which a hard handoff will be attempted. The checks performed to make sure that a hard handoff is allowed are as follows.

4) the call is not in inter-CBSC soft handoff 6. If the service option currently in use is not compatible with the target. the handoff is not allowed. 2) the target system supports the current service option assigned to the MS. If the handoff is not allowed the MM shall discard that candidate and move on to the next best candidate and continue as described in the previous section. the candidate cell must be verified to be under the control of the other CBSC.14 of the HOPC. The MM must verify the service option capabilities of the target system are com- patible with the service option currently in use. If the call is already in inter-CBSC soft handoff (A+). If an inter-CBSC soft handoff with the target MM does not already exist for this call. and in determination that an inter-CBSC (trunking) add of an external target should be attempted (Handoff Type Determination indicated ‘external target. 6. 4) the handoff method of the target XCSECT indicates hard handoff. If this is true the handoff is initiated.3. 3) the handoff method of the target XCSECT indicates hard handoff. If the handoff is allowed.4 Inter-CBSC Soft (Trunking) Add. the MM allocates an inter-CBSC subrate channel and ex- ecutes the requirements specified in Section 4. the handoff is not allowed. the MM must determine if an inter-CBSC soft handoff with the target MM already exists for this call.14. This is done by examining the MNC and ExtCBSC of the candidate cell and comparing them to the MNC/ExtCB- SC associated with the current portion of the call in inter-CBSC soft handoff (A+). 2) the target system supports the current service option assigned to the MS. Local Trigger Route If a MAHO event resulted in detection of a candidate pilot in a local neighbor list. 5) the call is not in inter-CBSC soft handoff DAHO initiated Digital to Digital (XCSECT) 1) hard handoff is allowed for the service option in effect for the call. If the service option currently in use is not compatible with the target. Page 302 of 306 . the MM must verify an A+ soft handoff to another system is appro- priate. MAHO indi- cation’ and the route maps to an XCSECT with Handoff Method set to Soft Trunk- ing). Target Selection Motorola Confidential Proprietary MAHO initiated Digital to Digital (XCSECT) 1) hard handoff is allowed for the service option in effect for the call. 3) its reported signal strength is a TComp event over each of the active pilots.3. the MM must verify that the service option capabilities of the target system are compatible with the service option currently in use.14.3 Inter-CBSC Soft Handoff (A+) Route If the route maps to an XCSECT with a handoff method indicating inter-CBSC soft handoff (A+)..

the requirements specified in Section 4. inter-CBSC softer add has already been determined by Handoff Type Determination. or an inter-CBSC subrate channel cannot be obtained. If an inter-CBSC handoff with the target MM does not already exist. the MM must determine if an inter-CBSC soft/softer handoff with the target MM already exists for this call. the MM shall try the next route for the candidate.15 General Handoff Detection and Target Selection Requirements Note: The HandOffMode is not required to be recent changeable within the XC. 6. Since detection of the target on an external neighbor list means that an inter-CBSC soft handoff to the target CBSC either currently exists or previously existed for this call. General Handoff Detection and Target Selection Requirements Motorola Confidential Proprietary If the handoff is not allowed. the MM determines if this is a soft or softer add.14 of the HOPC are executed. External Trigger If a MAHO event resulted in detection of a candidate pilot in an external neighbor list. 6.external trigger’). an inter-CBSC sub- rate channel is allocated and the requirements specified in Section 4. If this is a softer add. and in determination that an inter-CBSC (trunking) add of an external target should be attempted (Handoff Detection indicated ‘icbsc add . but this would be desirable.4 MAHO Target Selection. the MM shall try the next route for the candidate. If an inter-CBSC soft handoff with the target MM already exists. If an inter-CBSC soft handoff with the target MM already exists for this call. If a subrate channel could not be allocated.14. the MM shall discard that candidate and move on to the next best candidate.14 of the HOPC are executed. the MM allo- cates an inter-CBSC subrate channel and executes the procedures specified in Sec- tion 4. the requirements specified in Section 4. it can be presumed that the service options are compatible.14 of the HOPC are executed. or if there is no next route. or if there is no next route. an inter-CBSC subrate channel is allocated and the requirements specified in Section 4. and Handoff Type Determination has detected a soft add. If it is a soft add. If this is a softer add. the MM shall discard that candidate and move on to the next best candidate. Inter-CBSC (Trunking) Add. the MM shall discard that candidate and move on to the next best candidate. If a subrate channel cannot be allocated.14 of the HOPC are executed. the MM shall discard that candidate and move on to the next best candidate.14 of the HOPC. as detected by Handoff Type Determination. Page 303 of 306 . Inter-CBSC soft vs. If a sub- rate channel could not be allocated.

used in future decisions on forward link power control. RSSI can be used to determine reverse channel rise which is useful for blocking. Page 304 of 306 . there is no decision on how exactly to use RSSI measurements from the BBX. the pilot strengths reported by the mobile station may not indi- cate handoff. Discarding the message at this point is a rational strategy for the CDMA trial systems. 6. or even what subsystem will be processing these measurements. Error conditions such as database errors also constitute a block. but the FER experienced by the mobile would. the mobile station will not send another RF: Pilot Strength Measurement Message until the relative pilot strengths change and a threshold is crossed. The power control execution process will generate a forward channel gain for each mobile connection at a base station. The former would need to be driven by some criteria for handoff based on a vehicle’s location. Under this condition. there is no other cell (diversity) to enhance the probability of reception on the reverse link. When the XC receives what it determines to be an RF: Pilot Strength Measurement Message containing invalid information. of course. The forward channel power control process could send a message indicating that no more power could be allocated for the current connection. but may also be used by the handoff detection pro- cess. The latter event would probably be a function of an advanced forward channel power control algo- rithm that does not seek to evenly distribute available LPA power. This is especially critical in a hard handoff situation where only one target cell is specified. This might happen because of the adoption of a power control algorithm that adjusts gain as a function of number of users rather than on a need basis. This type of power control. Post Trial Phase 2 Issues Motorola Confidential Proprietary Note: Hard handoffs initiated but blocked by the MSC are considered blocked as well. Unfortu- nately. at what rate they should collected.16 Post Trial Phase 2 Issues Two other events for event discrimination that might be possible are vehicle loca- tion (or distance) and excessive forward channel FER. or even the use of RF: Power Report Measurement Messages is not included in the T1 sys- tem. For example. This information will be useful in determining if a mobile station can close the reverse link on handoff. Currently. This gain is. It is probably a better tactic for commercial systems to query the mobile station as re- gards his pilot measurement status after detection of a flaw in the current RF: Pilot Strength Measurement Message. BBX RSSI measurements are limited to being logged by the diag- nostic monitor for the T1 system. it discards the message. The BBX will be equipped with an RSSI circuit to measure the signal power con- tained in the 1.2288 MHz bandwidth of the frequency to which the BBX is as- signed.

Post Trial Phase 2 Issues Motorola Confidential Proprietary Page 305 of 306 .

Post Trial Phase 2 Issues Motorola Confidential Proprietary Page 306 of 306 .

Motorola Confidential Proprietary 8.2 Moving the Selector The hard handoff is required to move the selector function (the software/hardware that selects the best reverse link VCELP frames to be converted to PCM) from one CBSC to another. Figure 44 shows a mobile in soft handoff between CBSC-A and CBSC-B. As the mobile moves toward CBSC-B. all of the mobile’s voice will be routed through CBSC-B as shown in Figure 45. Page 307 of 310 . The selector function must be moved from CBSC- A to CBSC-B (as shown in Figure 46) which currently requires a hard handoff. CBSC-A does not have adequate soft handoff information to sustain the call. The mobile’s MSC Inter-CBSC CBSC A Trunks CBSC B Selector BTS BTS BTS BTS BTS VCELP Voice PCM Voice Inter-BSC Soft Mobile Handoff Boundary Figure 44: Inter-CBSC Soft Handoff VCELP voice is routed through CBSC-B to CBSC-A’s selector function. If the mobile keeps moving away from CBSC-A. This document describes the optimum methods for performing the hard handoff.

Backhaul Page 308 of 310 . Motorola Confidential Proprietary MSC Inter-CBSC CBSC A Trunks CBSC B Selector BTS BTS BTS BTS BTS Inter-BSC Soft Handoff Boundary Mobile VCELP Voice PCM Voice Figure 45: Inter-CBSC Soft Handoff.

Motorola Confidential Proprietary MSC Inter-CBSC Trunks CBSC B CBSC A Selector BTS BTS BTS BTS BTS Inter-BSC Soft Handoff Boundary VCELP Voice Mobile PCM Voice Figure 46: Inter-CBSC Soft Handoff. After Moving the Selector Page 309 of 310 .

Motorola Confidential Proprietary Page 310 of 310 .

CDMA to analog handoff 9.4 Release 8 9.5 Release 9 inter-CBSC SHO followed by N-Way to N-Way HHO Inter-CBSC SHO with the source CBSC continuously controlling the call. least-load reserved channels for soft handoff 9. Motorola Confidential Proprietary 9.2 Release 6 DAHO.3 Release 7 inter-CBSC SHO followed by N-Way to 1-Way HHO.0 Release Schedule 9.6 Release 10 Page 311 of 312 . MS can not cross a second CBSC boundary until a HHO 9. intra-carrier hard handoff. DAHO HHO are allowed. SC601 support 9.1 Release 5 Pilot Beacon.

Motorola Confidential Proprietary Page 312 of 312 .

0 Competition Page 313 of 314 . Motorola Confidential Proprietary 10.

Motorola Confidential Proprietary Page 314 of 314 .

Motorola Confidential Proprietary Features: -Complex Handoff (swap 1 for 1) -Support 6 Way Handoff -Pilot Shuffle -Pilot Dominance Page 315 of 320 .

Motorola Confidential Proprietary Complex Handoff (swap 1 for 1) Criteria: •Active pilots must be in a “softer” handoff call state •Candidate must be >= to Tadd •Candidate must be associated with the “softer pair” BTS (otherwise. add leg) •Candidate must be > at least one active pilot note: capable of only dropping a single pilot per HDM Motorola plans to have multiple pilot drops per HDM Page 316 of 320 .

3 way soft (3 way) •Maintains 3 way or less 87% of total TCH time Page 317 of 320 . Motorola Confidential Proprietary 6 Way Handoff •Limited to 3 reverse link path Possible maximum handoff combinations: .3 softer pairs (6 way) .1 softer pair and 2 way soft (4 way) .2 softer pairs and 1 way (5 way) .

Motorola Confidential Proprietary Pilot Dominance •Do not add unless candidate > at least one active pilot •Pilot Shuffle must meet the Tcomp and Tadd criteria (prevent adding a pilot when active pilot is relatively strong) •Cannot add if reverse link path is at maximum (3way) Page 318 of 320 .

Motorola Confidential Proprietary Pilot Shuffle •Performs shuffle when in 3 way reverse (unable to add additional leg) •Candidate NOT associated with any of the active BTS (cannot meet complex handoff criteria) •Pilot to be “shuffled in” must meet Tadd and Tcomp (otherwise. ignores PSMM) •No PMRO Page 319 of 320 .

Motorola Confidential Proprietary Page 320 of 320 .

11.Various deployment examples are given below with the preferred method of handoff detection. and DAHO requires at least two base stations overlap past the boundary of the carrier’s coverage.2 N carriers to N-1 carriers handoff (CDMA carrier handoff). If the protocol revision level indicates the mobile does Page 321 of 322 . which would reduce the effectiveness of location ranging/ edge detection tech- niques. and thus. This is preferred for older mobiles (IS-95A and older). if the mobile supports adjacent frequency scanning. The newer mobile will use the Extended Neighbor List Message to determine the larger set of frequencies it may use. It is possible for the older mobiles to co-exist in a system with the newer mobiles. such as water or large open flat land in order to reduce the amount of multipath and or frequent changes in Refer- ence PN (non-dominant pilot scenario). the MOBILE_P_REV field in the Origination Message can indicate the mobiles protocol revision level. 11. since the size of the area would be small. This could be used for very new 800 MHz CDMA deployments.1 CDMA to Analog (AMPS/NAMPS/TACS) handoff.3 Notes on systems that have older non-adjacent frequency scanning mobiles. due to the large amount of multipath and a rapidly changing Reference PN. due to the large number of sub- scriber units which do not have the necessary software upgrades to perform valid location ranging/Edge detection or Subscriber adjacent cell scanning techniques.2.0 Summary From Dan DeClerck’s taxonomy: Each of the previously defined methods for hard handoff detection have various tradeoffs.2. 11. the frequency seam should be chosen with regard to natural topological boundaries. Adjacent frequency scan by subscriber unit is the preferred method. The base station may indicate the ubiquitous frequencies to the mobile in the Channel List Message. DAHO techniques would be difficult. due to the inherent degradation of speech quality in the Subscriber unit adjacent frequency scanning technique. It should be noted that when using Edge Detection. DAHO or pilot beacons are preferred over other techniques. co-located with analog cell sites. same service provider The preferred method would involve beacons. Motorola Confidential Proprietary 11. 11. The reduction of multipath and/or elimination of a rapidly changing Reference PN by the mobile ensures a more stable environment to utilize edge sensing via PN phase measurements. Newer subscriber units (IS-95B) may have functionality to scan adjacent AMPS sig- nalling channels.1 Extra carrier for In-building or tunnel. spot coverage. 11.2 Extra carrier for large scale changes in population density (Urban to subur- ban/ Suburban to Rural) Location ranging/Edge detection. Also.2.

since some other service provider owns the spectrum). DAHO is not practical.3 Intersystem seam (where the Carrier bands do not intersect) In this scenario. The most practical techniques would be: Edge sensing if the topology of the landscape permits it. the mobile can be channel assigned to one of the ubiquitously deployed carriers. Motorola Confidential Proprietary not have this capability. since it requires an overlap of at least two base stations near the edge (which is not possible. nor is it practical to allow the mobile to transmit in this spectrum for handoff detection(E911). Page 322 of 322 . 11. or the employment of the Adjacent Fre- quency scan by subscriber unit. it is not practical to put beacons transmitting in other service pro- vider’s spectrum.

1 Timeline Page 323 of 324 .0 Vision 12. Motorola Confidential Proprietary 12.

Motorola Confidential Proprietary Page 324 of 324 .

Minimal service interruption. Concentrate on reducing the file size. Motorola Confidential Proprietary 13. 8. 7. new CFC or PM reports that measure Anchor HO success rate. 4. Transitioning of inter-carrier seam supported via DAHO to inter-CBSC SHO seam. Some of the items where listed in your kickoff meeting agenda but I wanted to include detail from our perspective. 3.1 Criteria for Successful Feature Deployment and Operations: 1. Sections ending with an asterisk will be covered in this document. Perhaps pipe delimit the data (reduces file size). Specifically. 13. Transitioning of inter-carrier seam supported via pilot beacons to inter-CBSC seam. Page 325 of 328 . 1997 memo titled “Inter-CBSC SHO Deployment Recommmendations: System Engineering”. 2.0 System’s Engineering Recommendations Stolen from Rebecca MacKenzie’s May 14. Must be at least as good as beacon HHO.e. 3. 5.2 New CDL format: 1. 2. Minimum CBSC outage time. We must have a method for tracking the performance . Application note detailing: white paper on operation of ICBSC SHO required database commands hardware/software requirements and implications msc/cbsc/bts requirements troubleshooting and optimization guide rf implications of N-way to 1-way Anchor HO additional sho delay measurements with anchor cbsc specific performance measurement pm reports and cfc’s future enhancements new seam placement (traffic load placement) 6. Fallback strategy for seam transformation. As promised in our discussions regarding the subject matter I have started a list of recommenda- tions Systems Engineering would like to see implemented. Under controlled drives across the HHO seam. this list is developed by the PrimeCo Systems Engineering Group. 13. 9. success rate is 97.5%.i. Include new CFC for Anchor Handoff. Currently. Ability to implement 2nd carrier in hot spot areas along the seam. ICBSC HHO system suc- cess rate is approximately 95%.

Visuals on how the system will be laid out.5 Inter-CBSC Application Note: Information required by the customer for the deployment and maintenance of the inter-CBSC SHO feature.RF related 7. failures/dropped calls on anchor handoff 9. no audio on inter-CBSC calls 2.procedural related 6. adds and drops 13.3 Trouble-Shooting Guide: Step by step guide to debugging of Inter-CBSC SHO features such as: 1. Prior to removing any CFCs distribute the list to Systems Engineering. seam placement rules* 2. How we will track performance. Page 326 of 328 . 1. Present and future release expectations. 13. general seam placement procedures MSC layout CBSC to MSC connects 2. high failure rate on inter-CBSC calls . poor audio on inter-CBSC calls 4. 13. high failure rate of inter-CBSC Soft Handoff 5. no inter-CBSC handoffs 3. MSC trunking rules 13.4 Inter-CBSC Planning Guide: Guide to planning the RF and infrastructure for the support the inter-CBSC feature. 1. 13. poor audio quality after anchor handoff 8.7 Inter-CBSC Customer Presentation: Presentation geared to customer base describing the inter-CBSC SHO feature. increased latency of soft handoffs. high failure rate on inter-CBSC calls . 3. Motorola Confidential Proprietary 4. unexpected usage or blocking of BTS resources 10.6 ATP for the Inter-CBSC SHO: Define the acceptance test plan for the Inter-CBSC SHO feature.

Motorola Confidential Proprietary 4. Page 327 of 328 . General Anchor HO description/function.

Motorola Confidential Proprietary Page 328 of 328 .

Handoff and Power Control System Functional Specification Page 329 of 330 . Motorola Confidential Proprietary 14.0 Bibliography 1. Jim Marocchi’s LPA TEM 2. Dennis Schaeffer’s CDMA design tools 3.

Motorola Confidential Proprietary Page 330 of 330 .

Motorola Confidential Proprietary I Idle Handoff 155 Page 331 of 331 .