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4/5/2018

Lecture No. 11th

Distribution System Reliability

Course Teacher:
Dr. Muhammad Mohsin Aman
Course Code:
EE-524
Course Title:
Electrical Power Distribution System Engineering -1
Venue:
Department of Electrical Engineering , NED University Karachi.

11th Lecture’s Outline

Dr. Muhammad Mohsin Aman 1

4/5/2018

11th Lecture’s Outline
 Distribution System Reliability
 Common Disturbances In Power Systems
 Power Quality, Reliability and Availability
 Availability and No. of nines ‘9’
 Reliability Indices
 Examples

Distribution System Reliability

Dr. Muhammad Mohsin Aman 2

Muhammad Mohsin Aman 3 . competitive environment where utilities must have accurate information about system performance to ensure that maintenance dollars are spent wisely and that customer expectations are met. subsystems. 4/5/2018 Importance of Reliability ✓Distribution systems account for up to 90% of all customer reliability problems. These reliability include measures of outage duration. and response time. To make effective improvements. a basic understanding of distribution system functions. improving distribution reliability is the key to improving customer reliability. Dr. the electric utility industry has developed several measures of reliability. frequency of outages. equipment. system availability. and operation is required. Importance of Reliability ✓The electric utility industry is moving toward a deregulated. ✓To measure system performance.

Voltage unbalance f. Muhammad Mohsin Aman 4 . Voltage sag b. Transients e. Harmonics g. Momentary interruptions d. Voltage fluctuations Dr. Voltage swell c. 4/5/2018 Common Disturbances In Power Systems Common Disturbances In Power Systems ✓The common disturbances in a power system are a.

The following equipment is most susceptible to these common disturbances: • Programmable logic controllers • Automated data processors • Adjustable speed drives Dr. 4/5/2018 Common Disturbances In Power Systems ✓ Table 1. Muhammad Mohsin Aman 5 .1 describes the characteristics of these electromagnetic disturbances.

1-0. Sags may trigger shutdown process of controllers or computer system crashes. Muhammad Mohsin Aman 6 .9pu at the power frequency for periods ranging from a half cycle to a minute. It is caused by voltage drops due to fault currents or starting of large motors. 4/5/2018 Common Disturbances In Power Systems Short-duration Voltage Variation ✓A voltage sag (dip) is defined as a decrease in the root-mean-square (rms) voltage 0. Dr.

Muhammad Mohsin Aman 7 .5–30 cycles b.1 pu for a period of time not exceeding 1 min. or equipment failures. control malfunctions. Dr. ✓Outage refers to the state of a component in a system that has failed to function as expected and is used to quantify reliability statistics regarding continuity of service. a. Interruptions can be caused by faults. can be classified into three types. Temporary: 3 s–1 min ✓It is helpful to distinguish the term outage used in reliability terminology from sustained interruption when the supply voltage is zero for longer than 1 min.1 and 1. 4/5/2018 Short-duration Voltage Variation ✓A voltage swell is defined as an increase up to a level between 1. and interruptions. Momentary: 30 cycles–3 s c. voltage swells.8 pu in rms voltage at the power frequency for periods ranging from a half cycle to a minute. whereas sustained interruptions as used in monitoring power quality to indicate the absence of voltage for long periods of time. Instantaneous: 0. such as voltage sags. depending on their duration. ✓An interruption occurs when the supply voltage decreases to less than 0. Short-duration Voltage Variation ✓All these types of disturbances.

Dr. they stress computers. These can be caused by switching on a large load or switching off a large capacitor bank. and motors. These are caused by switching off a large load or energizing a capacitor bank. ✓Undervoltages are sometimes due to a deliberate reduction of voltage by the utility to lessen the load during periods of peak demand. Long-duration Voltage Variation ✓Incorrect tap settings on transformers can also cause undervoltages and overvoltages. As these can last several minutes. electronic controllers. Muhammad Mohsin Aman 8 . ✓An overvoltage is an increase in the rms ac voltage to a level greater than 110% at the power frequency for a duration longer than 1 min. 4/5/2018 Long-duration Voltage Variation ✓An undervoltage is a decrease in the rms ac voltage to less than 90% at the power frequency for a duration longer than 1 min. An overvoltage may shorten the life of power system equipment and motors. These are often referred to by the non-technical term brownout.

Dr. From a utility perspective. a power quality problem might be defined as any electric supply condition that causes appliances to malfunction or prevents their use. Reliability and Availability Power Quality. Muhammad Mohsin Aman 9 . a power quality problem might be perceived as noncompliance with various standards such as RMS voltage or harmonics. and formulating a meaningful definition of power quality is difficult. 4/5/2018 Power Quality. power is equal to the instantaneous product of current and voltage. From a customer perspective. Reliability and Availability ✓“Power quality” is an ambiguous term that means many things to many people. ✓In fact.

Power Quality. Utilities have no control over the current drawn by end uses and should be generally unconcerned with current waveforms. Reliability and Availability ✓According to this definition. Dr. (2) they did not generate a large number of customer complaints. Perfect power quality is a perfect sinusoid with constant frequency and amplitude. 4/5/2018 Power Quality. ✓Reliability is primarily concerned with customer interruptions and is. but many utilities have classified momentary interruptions (less than a few minutes) as a power quality issue. and (3) they are difficult to measure. ✓Sustained interruptions (more than a few minutes) have always been categorized as a reliability issue. Less than perfect power quality occurs when a voltage waveform is distorted by transients or harmonics. changes its amplitude. therefore. but voltage is the ultimate measure of power quality. Muhammad Mohsin Aman 10 . Load current can affect voltage as it interacts with system impedances. or deviates in frequency. ✓The reasons are (1) momentary interruptions are the result of intentional operating practices. The best a utility can do is to supply customers a perfect sinusoidal voltage source. Reliability and Availability ✓Power quality is better thought of as voltage quality. ✓Power quality is defined as the absence of deviation from a perfect sinusoidal voltage source. a subset of power quality. customer interruptions are power quality concerns since they are a reduction in voltage magnitude to zero.

is the percentage of time a voltage source in interrupted. Dr. • Power quality deals with any deviation from a perfect sinusoidal voltage source. Therefore. momentary interruptions are an important customer issue and most distribution engineers consider them a reliability issue. Power Quality. • Availability deals with the probability of being in an interrupted state. Reliability and Availability ✓Today. they are classified as a subset of reliability. including momentary interruptions. reliability. ✓Availability is defined as the percentage of time a voltage source is uninterrupted. Reliability and Availability ✓The hierarchy of power quality. most of the literature defines reliability as all aspects of customer interruptions. • Availability is a subset of reliability and reliability is a subset of power quality. 4/5/2018 Power Quality. • Reliability deals with interruptions. Muhammad Mohsin Aman 11 . unavailability. Its complement. ✓Since availability and unavailability deal strictly with interruptions. and availability is shown in Figure .

Muhammad Mohsin Aman 12 . It is the most basic aspect of reliability and is typically measured in percent or per-unit. • Unavailability — the probability of not being energized. 4/5/2018 Availability and No. of ‘9’ ✓Availability is the probability of something being energized. • Availability — the probability of being energized. The complement of availability is unavailability. Dr. of nines ‘9’ Availability and No.

1% = 99. A developing nation may have “one nine” of availability while an internet data center may have “nine nines” of availability for their servers. Availability is equal to 100% . Internet data centers may demand reliability as high as nine nines for their servers—less than two cycles of interrupted power per year. ✓Table shows annual interruption times associated with different levels of availability.9%. Muhammad Mohsin Aman 13 . Power Quality. Reliability and Availability ✓Annual interruption times corresponding to various degrees of availability are shown in Table.” corresponding to an availability of 99.9999%. ✓For example: If a customers experiences 9 hours of interrupted power in a year. it has become common to describe high levels of reliability by the number of nines appearing at the left of availability values. Many manufacturing plants require “six nines.1% (there are 8760 hours in a year). Dr. unavailability is equal to 9 ÷ 8760 = 0. ✓With the growth of ultrasensitive loads. 4/5/2018 Power Quality. Reliability and Availability ✓Unavailability can be computed directly from interruption duration information.0.

or customers. follow the recently adopted IEEE standard 1366-2003. Dr. components.19. Most reliability indices are average values of a particular reliability characteristic for an entire system. operating region. Muhammad Mohsin Aman 14 . where applicable. 4/5/2018 Reliability Indices Reliability Indices ✓Reliability indices are statistical aggregations of reliability data for a well defined set of loads. or feeder. ✓The reliability index definitions provided. substation service territory.

✓Formulae for customer-based indices include (unless otherwise specified. interruptions refer to sustained interruptions): ▪ SAIFI = system average interruption frequency index ▪ SAIDI = system average interruption duration index ▪ CAIDI = customer average interruption duration index ▪ ASAI = average system availability index Dr. Load based indices Customer-Based Reliability Indices ✓The most widely used reliability indices are averages that weight each customer equally. 4/5/2018 Reliability Indices ✓Sustained interruptions are called outages by electric utilities. Muhammad Mohsin Aman 15 . Customer based indices 2. but are generally considered good aggregate measures of reliability and are often used as reliability benchmarks and improvement targets. They have limitations. ✓Two types of indices are commonly reported in literature: 1. Current trends in power quality standards being established are toward describing any interruption of power longer than 1 min as a sustained interruption. Customer-based indices are popular with regulating authorities since a small residential customer has just as much importance as a large industrial customer.

a reduction in SAIDI indicates an improvement in reliability. For a fixed number of customers. SAIDI can be improved by reducing the number of interruptions or by reducing the duration of these interruptions. Customer-Based Reliability Indices ✓SAIDI = system average interruption duration index (hr/year) ✓SAIDI is a measure of how many interruption hours an average customer will experience over the course of a year. the only way to improve SAIFI is to reduce the number of sustained interruptions experienced by customers. 4/5/2018 Customer-Based Reliability Indices ✓SAIFI = system average interruption frequency index (per year) ✓SAIFI is a measure of how many sustained interruptions an average customer will experience over the course of a year. Muhammad Mohsin Aman 16 . Since both of these reflect reliability improvements. Dr. For a fixed number of customers.

CAIDI can be improved by reducing the length of interruptions. Higher ASAI values reflect higher levels of system reliability. Muhammad Mohsin Aman 17 . Dr. Customer-Based Reliability Indices ✓ASAI = average system availability index (pu) ✓ASAI is the customer-weighted availability of the system and provides the same information as SAIDI. but can also be reduced by increasing the number of short interruptions.999. with most US utilities having ASAI greater than 0. a reduction in CAIDI does not necessarily reflect an improvement in reliability. Consequently. and is used as a measure of utility response time to system contingencies. 4/5/2018 Customer-Based Reliability Indices ✓CAIDI = customer average interruption duration index ✓CAIDI is a measure of how long an average interruption lasts.

Formulae for these indices are: Dr. depending on the stage of power system development.0 h. Customer-Based Reliability Indices ✓Some less commonly used reliability indices are not based on the total number of customers served. of course.0 and 3. have reported their experience with utilities in which SAIFI is usually around 0. utility policy. These are simply design targets. Elektrotek Concepts Inc. and actual values can. Muhammad Mohsin Aman 18 .5 and SAIDI is between 2. The Customer Average Interruption Frequency Index (CAIFI) and the Customer Total Average Interruption Duration Index (CTAIDI) are based upon the number of customers that have experienced one or more interruptions in the relevant year. vary significantly from these values. and required reliability in the system. 4/5/2018 Reliability Indices ✓Typical target values for these indices are shown in Table.

Load-Based Reliability Indices ✓Two of the oldest distribution reliability indices weight customers based on connected kVA instead of weighting each customer equally. Improvements in CAIFI do not necessarily correspond to improvements in reliability. ✓CTAIDI has the same difficulties as CAIFI since it can be improved by increasing the number of customers that experience a single interruption. One large difference is that the lowest possible value for SAIFI is zero and the lowest possible value for CAIFI is one. Because of this. CAIFI seems similar to SAIFI. 4/5/2018 Customer-Based Reliability Indices ✓On the surface. ✓Reducing the number of interruptions that a customer experiences from 2 to 1 will improve CAIFI. However. Muhammad Mohsin Aman 19 . reducing the number of interruptions that this same customer experiences from 1 to 0 will make CAIFI worse. the following are referred to as load-based indices: Dr.

ASIFI and ASIDI probably represent better measures of reliability than SAIFI and SAIDI. ✓From a utility perspective. customer information systems (CIS) associate customers with transformers and allow customer based indices to be easily computed. Today. 4/5/2018 Load-Based Reliability Indices ✓The reason for load-based indices predating customer based indices is pragmatic. interrupted transformer kVA was easily determined while interrupted customers required estimation. Larger kVA corresponds to higher revenue and should be considered when making investment decisions. When a protection device operated. ✓In the past. Reliability Indices Examples Dr. utilities knew the size of distribution transformers but did not know how many customers were connected to each transformer. Muhammad Mohsin Aman 20 .

Muhammad Mohsin Aman 21 . Interrupti Customers Duration (in Customer on No.80 Customer-Based Reliability Indices ✓Calculate the SAIDI for the 28th day of a month in minutes.428 minutes on the 28th of the month. Dr. 4/5/2018 Customer-Based Reliability Indices ✓Calculate the following indices in minutes for the 28th day of a month.428min 50000 customers 50000 ✓This says that the average customer was out for 0. ✓The utility has 50.00 5 1 38 0.33 3 2 175 5. no.63 1014 443 356. of customers interrupted and duration in minutes.08  60 customers .000 customers. Customers-hours is calculated from column 3 and 4. Table shows time. SAIDI   Customer Intreuption Durations (hr/yr) Total Number of Customers Served 356. If the SAIDI is calculated for each day.83 4 1 120 2. minutes) Hours 1 10 90 15 2 1000 20 333. the monthly SAIDI is found by summing daily values.min 21408 SAIDI    0.

02 probability of experiencing a power outage.02 50. 4/5/2018 Customer-Based Reliability Indices ✓What is CAIDI for the previous example? CAIDI   Customer Intreuption Durations Total Number of Customers Interuptions ✓The customer-minutes are 21.408 and 1. of Customer Interuptions SAIFI  (per yr) Total Number of Customers Served 1.408 CAIDI   21.1 minutes. SAIFI can also be found by dividing the SAIDI value by the CAIDI value.02 21.104 customers were interrupted on the 28th of the month. Muhammad Mohsin Aman 22 . SAIDI SAIFI  CAIDI ✓With a SAIDI of 0.1 Dr.1 minutes the SAIFI is 0.428 SAIFI   0. the customers at this utility had a 0.014 SAIFI   0. any customer who experienced an outage on the 28th was out of service for 21. Customer-Based Reliability Indices ✓What is SAIFI for the previous example? Total No.000 ✓This says that on the 28th of the month. 21.428 minutes and a CAIDI of 21.014 ✓On average.1min 1.

000 so.005 1.014 ✓This says that the average number of interruptions for a consumer who was interrupted is 0. on 28th there were 1. Dr. Muhammad Mohsin Aman 23 .104 customers interrupted during 5 separate events and the total number of customers served by the utility is 50. 5 CAIFI   0. 4/5/2018 Customer-Based Reliability Indices ✓Calculate the CAIFI for the previous example? ✓From our previous example.005 times.