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MODULE: ARCHITECTURE CONSERVATION

PROJECT 2: PROPOSAL FOR ADAPTIVE REUSE

CASE STUDY: HARBOUR KULI CULTURAL GALLERY

TUTOR: MR. AZIM SULAIMAN

SUMEDHA SINGH 0327555


NUR IMAN JEZDMEEN 0325440
JIJI NG 0904572861
CONTENTS

1. Introduction
2. Preliminary Investigation
3. Dilapidation Survey
4. Adaptive Reuse Proposal
5. References
INTRODUCTION

HARBOUR KULI CULTURAL GALLERY

Like some other sanctuaries and temples in Malacca, Harbor Kuli Culture
Gallery was and is a significant building in Malacca. Situated along Jalan
Kampung Kuli, Coolie Street, its brilliant red exterior making it prominent
among different shophouses that are for the most part in white or dim.

Originated to become an Opium Den, the building was worked to suit the
coolies that escaped from China. Comprising of mostly youths, the people fled
China because of war. They required a place to stay bringing about a
concentrated number of coolies along the road looking for work, subsequently
named "Coolie Street", Jalan Kampung Kuli. The Opium Den goes about as a
rooftop and a space to assemble coolies to ensure their status as they were
very little regarded and acknowledged by the general public.
PRELIMINARY WORKS
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
MALACCA

Malacca is without a moment's delay the name of a state having a place with the
Federation of Malaysia (Negeri Melaka), a region (Bandaraya Melaka) and a port
(Pelabuhan Melaka). It is likewise a name of a tree (Pokok Melaka), a stream (Sungei
Melaka) and a strait (Selat Melaka). At last, it is a name of a fake island (Pulau Melaka).

Malacca was conceived at the intersection of one of the significant business courses ever.
The course was known by three distinct names indicating the wealth that were exchanged
at the time: Ceramic Road, Maritime Silk Road and Spice Route. Exchange and movement
brought intermarriage of dialect, culture and religion. This made a culture kaleidoscope,
which is still especially noticeable in the Malacca of today. This made Malacca an
interesting spot worth finding and protecting.

In spite of the fact that Malacca doesn't have any exceptional landmarks or show-stopper,
it was an extraordinary exchanging place for a considerable length of time, as of not long
ago, a living case of a multi-social customs. This blend of impacts passed on an
inheritance of eminent design and townscape. Hence, UNESCO had proclaimed that
Malacca was recorded as a World Heritage SIte, close by with Penang, the "noteworthy
urban areas of the Straits of Malacca".
HISTORICAL TIMELINE OF MALACCA

1400 1511 1641 1824 1957

The sultanate of Portuguese The Dutch Era Under the British Post
Malacca Settlement (1641-1824) Empire (1824-1957) Independence
(1400-1509) (1511-1641) (1957-2018)
ETHNIC SETTLEMENTS IN MALACCA
LOCAL- Malay, Acehnese, Javanese, INDIAN- Hindus and Muslims, Jains and
Minang, Bugis Sikhs

Malaccas Little India is a commercial area


Many neighbourhoods within the city limits
located at the intersection of Jalan
of Malacca are styled Kampung, and indeed
Bendahara and Jalan Temenggong.
were at one time villages, home to the Malay
community.
The majority of Malaccas Indian are the
children and grandchildren of migrant
Beside the mosque there was often a
workers brought in from South India.
graveyard, as seen in Kampung Tengkera,
and a madrasah , as in Kampung Jawa.The
The Indian Muslims have a surau on Jalan
Javanese were Skilled craftsmen. They also
The Javanese community Banda Kaba, where a woman preacher, Holi-Festival Parade Malacca
provided Malacca with food staples,
Hawa Beewi, is buried.
especially rice.

CHINESE- Hokkien, Hakka, Teochew, Merchants - Baba, Chitty, Serani


Hainanese & Cantonese
They assimilated the local culture in
Malaccas main Chinese temple, the Cheng costume, food, and language, but kept their
Hoon Teng temple , is a fine example of the Chinese religion and cult of the ancestors.
syncretism of the Chinese religions
Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism are Among the earliest settlers in Malacca are
mixed and between them attract the same the Chitty, Hindus who originally came from
fervent following . South India and adopted the Malay
language, dress and food.In the nineteenth
A peculiar tribute to the Chinese presence is century, they moved to Gajah Berang ,
a hill named after them : Bukit Cina, Chinese leaving urban trade for rural life.
The Serani community
Hill.
Chinese hawkers in Jonker
street
COOLIE PEOPLE
The coolies that were accepted are all males. They came The coolies also developed an interesting eating habit where
either alone, with friends or with their family. They live they eat at least five times a day that consist of a small
together in the Opium Den which acts as a roof and an portion of food. The reason being them having to work on
entertainment hub until they get married and start a family. the ship and carrying sacks of rice all day long. The coolies
The coolie will then leave the Opium Den and his spot will be also do not sit on chairs and dine on the table while eating.
taken by another coolie. There are no rules in regarding They rather squat to eat because they believed that this will
status, it was a first come first serve priority. give a better digestion and energy can be produced faster

Coolies smoking opium in the house Coolies squatting down to eat


PRELIMINARY WORKS
BUILDING AND OWNER’S BACKGROUND
HARBOUR KULI CULTURAL GALLERY

Harbor Kuli Cultural Gallery is a place that is very prominent on


Jalan Kampung Kuli. The design is very much kept up to show the
utilization of each space and it is the best portrayal of the way of
life and history of the coolies.

In Chinese architecture, building introduction is intensely


accentuated due to feng shui. The building is inclined to confront
North-East as its believed to bring all the favourable luck and
believe it is the direction of their country, China. The door's
measurement, the amount of pillar and columns, number of steps
all include mysteries and myths of their way of life.
OWNER AND DEVELOPMENT OF HARBOUR KULI CULTURAL GALLERY

The owners of the building were passed around ages of coolies. A great
deal of ages have passed and the names were not recorded down for
history purposes. The present proprietor would be Mr Chan as the building
was passed down to him by his father.

The first name of this building is Hong Shun Tang, which presents the
gathering of coolies in this building. Xie Fa and Long Shan are groups of
coolies that never get along. Consequently, they were joined to frame Xie
Long Shun, where Sun implies accomplishment in Chinese. The name was
then lawfully changed to Feng Shan Gong after the owner chose to
transform it into a temple, which is the present one today.

“feng shan gong” signage.


BUILDING USAGE

The coolies liked to stay in the coolie street area because they needed to
protect and take care of each other. At the Harbour kuli cultural gallery,
they usually gather in any of the rooms that had a bed and spent their
resting hours.

Now, the building is just utilized as a temple and a cultural display


gallery.As the building no longer serves accommodation, there isn't
much activity around. The temple is open for daily prayers at specific
hours. Mr Chan welcomes the guests from around 8am each morning,
after cleaning up the place. In the evening, he lights up the candles and
cleans the temple again followed by closing the place by 4pm.

Additionally, the gallery has numerous seats and tea implements that
are are supplied for function and assembling. Gathering space (courtyard)
PRELIMINARY WORKS
SITE CONTEXT
PHYSICAL CONTEXT

This building is located at Jalan Kampung Kuli (Coolie Street) with


a total ground floor area of 136.75 m2. Although the location of the
building is situated near to Jonker Street, which has the advantage
of being a part of the main attraction for the tourist, Coolie Street
rarely attracts tourists to visit, as it is hard to be noticed due to the
its insignificance of the location. Despite that, some of the famous
landmarks around the area had increased the number of tourists in
Malacca. Therefore, people can be easily directed to this street by
walking around Jonker Walk. The Melaka Street Art in the back
alley, starting from Jalan Hang Kasturi (Hang Kasturi road) to Jalan
Kampung Kuli (Coolie Street), is able to lead the tourists directly to
this building.

The end of the back alley mural art leads to


the site (Harbour Kuli Culture Gallery)
COOLIE (KULI)

Coolie street might not be well-known compared to the other streets


in Jonker Walk, but the spirit itself is never forgotten for the people of
Malacca. Chinese ancestors came into Malacca during the Malacca
Empire during the 15th century. They are attracted by the prospect
of work at that time in this piece of foreign land. The first job for
Malaysian Chinese ancestors that came to Nanyang are mostly
coolie, which also known as the harbour labourers. Malacca was the
concentration port for coolies. A large amount of Chinese coolies ran
away from their home country, China due to the fighting of the
Opium War in 1840s. The encouragement from the British to engage
Chinese coolies to the tin mining industry. Indians who were now
under the British East India Company for rubber plantations in the
Malays states. The immigrants came as free labor or indentured
labor on a credit ticket system.
PRELIMINARY WORKS
SPATIAL PLANNING
DESIGN CONCEPT- THE SHOP HOUSE LAYOUT DIAGRAM
HARBOUR SHIP

It was the parti of the house as it was the primary GROUND FLOOR
concept of imitating the appearance, shape and
spaces of a harbour ship.

The back part of the house is like the bow of the


cargo ship heading towards the harbour.

The front part of the house is the loft of a cargo


ship, a place for the cabin crew to rest.

FIRST FLOOR
GROUND FLOOR

MAIN ENTRANCE

Five foot ways is a customary Malacca shophouses architectural


highlight . It begins from the primary passageway extending the
distance to the road.

The building passageway is decorated with two vast round and hollow
lanterns, and additionally two red traditional lanterns on the outside of
the building.The gallery is confronting the north-east heading , as
indicated by the conviction of Feng Shui.North-East is likewise the
course of China , which was the origin of the Coolies.

MAIN ENTRANCE TO THE KAMPUNG KULI GALLERY


FRONT HALL

The front hall is the principle holy shrine space for the
gallery.Occasionally commemoration of the sanctuary is observed
around .Today, people from everywhere throughout the world would visit
the display and select to state a supplication.

ROOM 1

The primary room contains a bed for coolies to smoke uP and relax.The
wooden bed offers a shallow hiding spot. Coolies used to stow away
underneath when attacked by the police. The proprietor would charge a
little measure of money. This room has staircase paving the way to the
second floor.
ROOM 2

The second room has a greater wooden bed,however it is a false


cover for the concealing spot underneath. The wall is made of
concrete with no escape from underneath and no wellspring of
common light. The owner use to charge more money for this
concealing spot than room 1 as it shrouds the coolies better. Over
the bed, there is an opening on the wall is embedded with a
multi-layered cabinet , one of the principal thoughts of an implicit
cupboard.It has a major window associating room 1 to room 2 .

SECOND HALL

A wide space associated with the air well , it can be utilised as a


social gatherings space for men to rest and eat. Today , the usage
of the second hall continues as before.
AIR WELL

Primary design is to permit natural light to stream in and


furthermore support circulation around the shophouses .A
hexagonal well in the centre is to give clean water for daily
household usage.Later on, a shallow well was worked to store
water. The shophouses were long and terraced , so it is important to
have a focal yard to enable light and ventilation to enter.

STORAGE AREA

At the back of the structure, the storage, is a place for men to cook
for themselves as women aren't discovered frequently in the opium
lair. Today, it is a space utilized for storing the old furnitures of the
coolies. Generally, a washroom is put outside of the house. The
gallery has a little work area ,close to the little curve door which was
utilized as an escape route.
FIRST FLOOR

STAIRCASE

Situated along the edge of the house in room 1, its leading up to


the main floor. There's 13 steps with 2 solid strides at the base , 13
representing to the 13 conditions of China and the 2 solid
advances representing to 2 capitals of China which is Beijing and
Nanjing. It is steeper than usual staircases. It has an entryway with
a peep gap to cover the section to the primary floor.

THIRD HALL

A high-ceilinged corridor provides the view of the exposed roof. It


has an area of clear plastic material that allows natural light into
the room. It is used to separate spaces into smaller rooms for the
coolies to smoke opium and attain some privacy. Originally, it used
to be to a front desk for the coolies to collect their wages for their
diligent work.
BALCONY

A area to the opposite side of the third hall is an overhang,


consisting of the balcony, and furthermore has a little storage
space. Much like the fundamental idea of a harbour ship, the
balcony faces the front of the ship which is the back of the
building. The balcony use to enable the heads to administrate the
back of the house, however the view is obstructed by the
aluminum rooftop.

ROOM 3

This room is set between the corridor and private prayer room .
Earlier, it use to contains beds that were shared among numerous
coolies while they smoked opium. It is the biggest room in the
shophouse. Today , it shows things left by the coolies, for
example, the tobacco pipe , the little devices and pots.The walls
are embellished with green coated clay air vents and casings of
old pictures and recognition papers.
ORIENTATION AND LOCATION IN RELATION TO SITE

Harbour Kuli Culture Gallery is situated along Coolie Street, also known as Jalan Kampung Kuli.

The Opium Den acts like a hub for coolies, most coolies along the street often visits to de-stress.

Due to the strategic location, coolies were able to find jobs easily along the streets therefore making the Harbour
Kuli Culture Gallery a significant building.

The coolies are best represented in this building compared to other buildings.

Although Harbour Kuli Culture Gallery is not located at Jonker Street, it is still surrounded by small cafes and
businesses that were open since the 18th century along Jalan Kampung Kuli.

With Hang Jebats mausoleum along the street, Jalan Kampung Kuli becomes a street filled with history, both past
and present.
DILAPIDATION SURVEY
INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL BUILDING DEFECTS
FLOOR

The Chengal wood remain in good condition until today. This is


because the owner have taken lengths in maintaining its
quality by prevent direct exposure to the extreme weather.
However, there are still some minor damage over the long
period of time as shown in the diagram on the right.

Cracking of Chengal wood

The concrete slab have been reapplied at areas that have


received visible damage throughout the years. Therefore, it
stays in a relatively good condition.

Concrete slab at the entrance


WALLS AND COLUMNS

The brickwork are in good condition under the protection of


plaster, paint and the overall thickness that holds the bricks
together strongly throughout out decades.

Brickwork seen from inside the well


DECORATIVE COLUMNS

While the plaster on most of the building is still in good


condition, there are some examples of damages to the
plaster works. The shape of the original plaster to the column
design is distorted and the corner of the wall shows the
cracks of the plaster.

Distorted plaster of the Decorative


decorative column at the column at the
entrance entrance
FINISHES

Paint work are in fairly good condition for the exterior as


maintenance had been taken. As for the interior, there are
some paint chipping off due to the moisture.

Deteriorated paint shown at the airwell Peeled off paint in room 1

CEILING

The ceiling can be observed to be a modern addition,


given that the use of asbestos as a ceiling material was not
a common practise at the time of the original construction.
Therefore, the ceiling is still in good condition.

Ceiling attached to beam and wall in Ceiling in room 3


room 2
STAIRCASE

The whole structure is in relatively good condition, with minor


defects on the wood. Another layer of wood are attached to
each wooden step to increase its strength and durability.

DOORS

The iron gates are very well maintained due to the paint work
WOODEN DOORS

The wooden doors are in good condition being protected under


paint work.

Wooden door in storage room Wooden door in first floor


hall

EXTERNAL DEFECTS
WINDOWS

The wooden louver is amongst the most durable material and


can be easily treated with varnish or paint when it fades.
Therefore, it still remains in a good condition.

Shutter louvre window in private prayer room


LOUVRE WINDOW

The louvre window is well maintained with little to no defects


observed.

INTERIOR WINDOW

Initially, there are casements attached to the windows. However,


they were taken down for convenience purposes (transcript). The
condition of the remaining structure have been fairly the same
since before.
ADAPTIVE REUSE PROPOSAL
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION TO THE KULI PRODIGY
Adaptive reuse refers to the process of reusing an old site or building for a
purpose other than which it was built or designed for. Harbour Kuli Cultural
Gallery, Jalan Kampung Kuli, is a part of town that is just run down, and it
was sandwiched between two busy streets. It’s a very small and unpopular
neighborhood, but was well known in olden days as the residential area of
Kuli’s.

The former Opium Den is located at the corner site, hence, has good
visibility and great accessibility, making it a great location for a restaurant.
Instead of the locality as the anchor of social life, those people and tourists
are eager for more alternatives and options of places where they can be
social, and learn about the culture and history of Malacca. Hence, for them
to experience the essence of a Harbour life, and their culture and daily
activity, we suggest converting the Gallery into a Gallery cum Restaurant.
This will be beneficial not only for the gallery but also for the street,
Kampung Kuli itself, attracting tourists to the site.

While, keeping the historical sense of the building intact, we want to provide
people with an experience of the Kuli’s life and give them an idea of how
the Opium Den was originally utilised. By including, a eatery and a Shisha
lounge, a depiction of opium smoking.
ADAPTIVE REUSE PROPOSAL
PRECEDENT STUDY
DANISH NATIONAL MARITIME MUSEUM

The museum is an adaptive reuse of dry dock which resembles


the long ship. The building applied spatial ordering through
gradation to convert an abandoned anachronism into a lively
modern courtyard. It break the rules of uniformity with every floors
are gently sloped to create an aesthetic appeal. The bridges
create a dramatic connection with the emptied dry dock, which
makes the dock the heart of the museum.
ADAPTIVE REUSE PROPOSAL
SUMMARY
SUMMARY

The idea of adaptive reuse for the Harbour Kuli Cultural Gallery, Kampung Kuli
into a culture experiencing event house, is to commemorate the Harbour Gallery
to the original residents of the space, which is the Kuli people.
The concept a shisha lounge is to let people relive the essence of the opium den
as a shisha lounge. The first floor or the gallery area is a restricted area which
provides the visitor with the experience of the olden days when the Kuli’s were
present in that particular place. Visitors have to dress up as Kuli’s (attire which
would be provided by the restaurant) to proceed to the first floor from room 1 to
enjoy the shisha lounge and the music provided around. The space portrays the
experience of the daily activities carried around in the Opium den by the residents.
The food provided in the restaurant is very simple and basic, relating to the simple
food consumed by the Kuli’s. The restaurant also provides Chinese cuisine,
bringing in the Traditional factor into the building other than the Harbour culture
itself. The place is to be named The Kuli Prodigy, as its a replication of the Kuli
culture where the visitors feel and experience with an essence of the fled off
Chinese Kuli’s.

Coolie attire
ADAPTIVE REUSE PROPOSAL
SPATIAL CONFIGURATION
OPEN KITCHEN
Coolies have developed sensible practice of small diet. In
order to increase the sentiment of eating small portion of food,
the open kitchen are designed to catch the attention of visitors
on the traditional food preparation process. They are able to
experience the humble conviction of the coolies during the
underprivileged period.
CHINESE DINING ROOM
The dining sets that mimic the shape of Chinese treasure ship
deck are designed to cater the self-serving services and different
age groups. It marked the specific seating order of Chinese
customs, sorting the adults and children. The need for close
interaction among family members is considered through the
design following the outline of ship deck.
MUSICAL PERFORMANCE STAGE
Coolies have heavy inclination towards entertainment in the past.
In order to sensibly exhibit this trait of behaviour, the dining
spaces are to be aligned with the musical stage as the heart of
the coolie house. Visitors are able to participate in the musical
movement during the play.
Indoor dining area

Outdoor dining area


Toilet

Cashier counter

Waiting area
ADAPTIVE REUSE PROPOSAL
PROGRAMMING
LOW-GRADE FOOD
In order to revive low-grade food culture of Chinese as a
remembrance of the coolies, deep fried dough stick, congee,
steam bun, soymilk and tea are introduced. These food plays
various roles in daily life, belief and socioeconomics. Low-grade
food culture became one of the major attraction because the food
being served are the common food for Chinese. These help the
Chinese visitors to express their social status. It also conveyed
the closeness of relationship among Chinese visitors, thereby
able to re-establish the relationship among them. For example,
porridge holds the traditional order which elders and young to be
firstly served.
TRADITIONAL UTENSILS
The traditional Chinese eating utensils are used for custom
and etiquette purposes. For example, dishes are shared
communally by using the traditional Chinese plates, which
carry the Chinese etiquettes of passing the serving dishes
among visitors. Besides that, the usage of Chinese
chopsticks and tea sets is the dominant customs that
deepen the family relationship among Chinese visitors. The
usage of traditional Chinese cooking utensils embraced the
observing visitors with the Chinese cooking philosophy,
which is to achieve harmony, balance and joy.
SOCIAL SENTIMENT
The Chinese musicians are hired to perform and revive the coolie
house as an entertainment hub. They built-up the aesthetical and
harmonic values of the cafe. The traditional music encourage the
cultural awareness of the place and create a mode of sociability
for the Chinese family.
LOCAL EXPERIENCE
The cafe charges the visitors of wearing coolie attire when they
going to the gallery. Throughout the visit, they are able to be
deeply induced by the working atmosphere of coolie in the past.
The visitors are also provided with sheesha-s at the gallery which
generate the unique experiences on the historical sentiment of
opium den.
REFERENCES
https://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2013/11/25/247166284/a-history-of-indentured-labor-gives-coolie-its-sting

https://edition.cnn.com/2013/12/30/living/aj-gas-station-restaurants-irpt/index.html

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352618115000657

https://hubpages.com/food/Chinese-Cooking-Harmony-Balance-Joy

https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1Ljf8Lr7bieFFaJWvRcK4GayubVly8yuq?sort=13&direction=a
ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS
Key Plan Location Plan
Level 3
7050

Level 2
3050

Main + 20 Level
250
Main Level
150
Before Gate
0

Hide Out
-550
Level 3
7050

Level 2
3050

Main + 20 Level
250
Main Level
150
Before Gate
0

Hide Out
-550