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(邪気) JAKI - energía maléfica, energía negativa, energía estancada

En Sanscrito: "yaksa"

邪: Torcido, maléfico, injusticia, injusto, equivocado


気: Espíritu; mente, corazón, naturaleza; disposición, motivación; intención, humor,
sentimientos, atmósfera, esencia.

En los libros clásicos, se dice que el JAKI (邪 気) es referido como una tensión palpable y
dolorosa que se manifiesta como "mala energía."
El JAKI es una unión de O-KETSU (sangre congestionada/deteriorada) con el Doku (veneno
fisiológico tóxico/acumulación de toxinas) y energías emocionales estancadas que irradian
una energía maléfica hacia los meridianos y también para las áreas abdominales (órganos
y vísceras)

El Shiatsu ve la enfermedad como el resultado de una acumulación de JAKI (energía


negativa detenida) en los canales por los que fluye el KI (energía de vida).

Cuando existe una acumulación excesiva de JAKI (energía negativa detenida) en algún lugar
del cuerpo, la energía vital o KI que fluye por los canales de esa zona comienza a estancarse,
surgiendo luego los síntomas. Si el desequilibrio persiste, los síntomas van en
aumento, conformando un complejo resultado de dolores y malestares en diversas áreas
del cuerpo, pero todos relacionados entre sí.

De acuerdo a tradiciones japonesas antiguas dentro del Shintoismo y budismo, los "Oni"
(Demonios) y otros espíritus interfieren en el cuerpo humano a través de puntos en el
área cervical y occipital.

El Shiatsu actual está basado en los principios de la antigua medicina Oriental y en las
técnicas médicas traídas de occidente; Este arte de sanación utiliza técnicas especiales
para estimular los TSUBOS (puntos de presión) sobre la superficie de la piel, estimulando
la capacidad natural que tiene el cuerpo para sanar.

Cuando estos puntos son estimulados, liberan la tensión muscular, lo que facilita la
circulación de energía y sangre (KI-KETSU).

Esta es la finalidad de la terapia SHIATSU.


"En los libros clásicos, se dice que el Jaki (邪 気) es referido como tensión abdominal palpable
y dolorosa que se manifiesta como "mala energía."
El Jaki es una unión de O-KETSU (sangre congestionada/deteriorada) con el Doku (veneno
fisiológico tóxico/acumulación de tóxinas) y energías emocionales estancadas que irradian una
energía maléfica hacia los meridianos y también para las áreas abdominales.
(邪気) JAKI - energía maléfica, energía estancada. En Sanscrito: "yaksa"
Se creía antiguamente que los espíritus malignos dañan a los seres humanos y obstaculizan
la enseñanza budista.
Por lo general, aparecen en las esculturas como pequeñas figuras aplastadas bajo los pies de
* shitenno 四 天王.
Los primeros ejemplos como los de Houryuuji 法 隆 era Nara (6-7c) muestran al jaki agachado
en cuatro patas que sostienen la estatua. Esta postura cambió en el período Tenpyou; el jaki
sufre una posición de mentira incómoda, con el rey guardián pisoteando su hombro, espalda,
estómago o cabeza con ambos pies. Buenos ejemplos son los 8c Shitennou en Toudaiji 東大
寺, Nara. La figura de * Tobatsu Bishamonten 兜 跋 毘 天 天 se muestra a veces con dos jaki,
Niranba 尼 藍 婆 y Biranba 毘 藍 Bi, a sus pies.
Estos son excepcionales, ya que generalmente se los considera demonios benevolentes. Se
pueden ver ejemplos debajo de la figura * Bishamonten 毘 in in en Touj 東 寺 (Kyouougokokuji
教 王 護国寺), Kyoto (8-9c).
Los Shitennō son protectores budistas de las cuatro direcciones. Ellos protegen al mal,
protegen a la nación y protegen al mundo de los espíritus malignos,
The Shitennō are Buddhist protectors of the four directions. They ward off evil, guard the
nation, and protect the world from malicious spirits,
Sk: yaksa. Evil spirits believed to harm human beings and hinder Buddhist teaching. Usually
appear in sculptures as small figures being crushed under the feet of *shitennou 四天王. Early
examples like those in Houryuuji 法隆寺 Nara (6-7c) show the jaki crouching squarely on all
fours supporting the statue. This posture changed in the Tenpyou period ; the jaki suffers an
uncomfortable lying position, with the guardian king trampling his shoulder, back, stomach or
head with both feet. Good examples are the 8c Shitennou in Toudaiji 東大寺, Nara. The figure
of *Tobatsu Bishamonten 兜跋毘沙門天 is sometimes shown with two jaki , Niranba 尼藍婆 and
Biranba 毘藍婆, at his feet. These are exceptional, as they are usually considered to be
benevolent demons. Examples can be seen under the *Bishamonten 毘沙門天 figure in Touj 東
寺 (Kyouougokokuji 教王護国寺), Kyoto ( 8-9c).

Shitenno - Four Heavenly Kings


SHITENNŌ = Four Heavenly Kings
SHITENNŌ = Lit. Four Heavenly Kings. Guardians of the Four Compass Directions,
Four Celestial Guardians, 4 Protectors of the Nation, 4 Lords of Dharma (Buddhist Law),
Four Keepers of the World (Gose Shitennō), Members of the Tenbu (Skt. = Deva)
ORIGIN: Pre-Buddhist Deities from India
CLICK ANY IMAGE TO JUMP TO THAT PAGE
OVERVIEW: The Shitennō are Buddhist protectors of the four directions. They ward off evil,
guard the nation, and protect the world from malicious spirits, hence the Japanese term Gose
Shitennō 護世四天王, literally “four world-protecting deva kings.” Each represents a direction,
season, color, virtue, and element (see below chart). They originated in India as deva generals
protecting Lord Indra, but were later adopted into the Buddhist pantheon in China and Japan.
Each dwells in and protects one of the four continents surrounding Mt. Shumisen 須弥山 (Skt.
= Mt. Sumeru), the mythical home of the Historical Buddha and other Buddhist deities. In China
and Japan, they are venerated as temple guardians and protectors of the nation. In China,
statues of the four are often placed near temple entrances, but in Japan, effigies of the four are
more commonly placed around the central deity on the main altar (the main dais is befittingly
called the Shumidan 須弥壇). The four are commanded by Taishakuten (Skt. Indra), Lord of the
Center. They are nearly always dressed in armor (yoroi 鎧), looking ferocious (funnusō 忿怒相
), and carrying weapons or objects (jimotsu 持物) said to eliminate evil influences and suppress
the enemies of Buddhism. They are also typically shown standing atop evil spirits (known as
Jaki in Japan), symbolizing their power to repel and defeat evil. Sometimes they are depicted
with a fiery halo behind them. Their attributes, however, are not rigidly prescribed and thus
differ among Buddhist nations. Shitennō iconography is related to the Four Celestial Emblems
(dragon, red bird, tiger, turtle) of China, who also guard the four cardinal directions. In
Japanese statuary, the Shitennō are almost always portrayed in animated warrior poses rather
than static postures of ease or meditation. Among the four, Tamonten (aka Bishamonten) is
considered the most powerful, and over time, supplanted the other three in importance. Indeed,
Bishamonten is the only member of the four worshipped independently in Japan, both as
protector of Buddhist faith and as one of Japan’s Seven Lucky Gods -- one who brings wealth
and prosperity. Bishamonten also supplanted Taishakuten (Lord of the Center) as an object of
worship, but Taishakuten never enjoyed great status in Japan.

SHITENNŌ 四天王 = Four Heavenly Kings


Guardians of the Four Compass Directions
Jikokuten 持國天 (Japanese)
East, Spring, Water, Strength, Blue (White in India/China).
Rules over the Gandharvas & Piśācas.
Skt = Dhṛtarāṣṭra, Dhrtarasta, Dhritarashtra
C = Chíguó Tiān, Ch'ih-kuo T'ien
K = 지국천, Jiguk cheon, Chiguk ch'ŏn
Vietnam = Trì quốc thiên
Jikokuten - Japanese spelling
Jikokuten
King of the East, Guardian of the Nation.
Keeper of the Kingdom.
Zōchōten 增長天 (Japanese)
South, Summer, Fire, Prosperity, Red (Blue in India/China).
Rules over the Kumbhāṇḍa 鳩槃荼.
Skt = Virūḍhaka, Virudhaka
C = Zēngcháng Tiān, Tseng-ch'ang T'ien
K = 증장천, Jeungjang Cheon, Chŭngjang Ch'ŏn
Zouchoten - Japanese spelling
Zōchōten, Zouchoten, Zochoten
King of the South, Lord of Spiritual Growth.
One Who Expands Wisdom & Moderation.
Kōmokuten 廣目天 (Japanese)
Lord of Limitless Vision (has third “all-seeing” eye).
West, Fall, Metal, Awareness, White (Red in India/China).
Rules over the Nāga 龍 and Pūtana 富單那.
Skt = Virūpākṣa, Virupaksa, Virupaksha
C = Guǎngmùtiān, Kuang-mu-t'ien
K = 광목천, Gwangmokcheon, Kwangmokch'ŏn
Vietnam = Quảng mục thiên
Komokuten - Japanese spelling
Kōmokuten, Koumokuten, Komokuten
King of the West, Sees through evil.
Discerns / punishes badness.
Encourages aspirations for enlightenment.
Tamonten 多聞天 (Japanese)
North, Winter, Earth, Wealth, Black (Yellow in India/China).
Rules over the Yakṣas 夜叉 and Rākṣasas.
Skt = Vaiśravaṇa, Vaisravana, Vaishravana, Dhanada
C = Duōwén Tiān, Tuo-wen T'ien
K = 다문천, Damun Cheon, Tamun Ch'ŏn
Vietnam = Đa văn thiên
Manifestation of Kuvera (Hindu God of Wealth)
Tamonten - Japanese spelling; same god as Bishamonten
Tamonten (aka Bishamonten)
King of the North. All-Knowing.
Hears all, always listening.
One of Japan’s Seven Lucky Gods.
Well-versed in Buddha’s teachings.
Taishakuten 帝釈天 (Japanese)
Lord of the Center.
Commands the Shitennō.
Skt. = Indra
Japanese spelling for Taishakuten
Taishakuten or Taishaku
Lord of the Heaven of 33 Gods
Shitennōten 四天王天 (Japanese)
Lit. = Four Heavens of Four Kings
Skt = Catur-maharāja-kāyikas
C = Sì tiānwáng tiān, Ssu t'ien-wang-t'ien
K = 사천왕천, Sa cheonwang cheon, Sa ch'ŏnwang ch'ŏn
V = Tứ thiên vương thiên
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Says the Digital Dictionary of Buddhism (sign in with user name “guest): “The four are said to
have appeared to 不空 Amogha in a temple in Xianfu (China), sometime between 742-6 AD,
and in consequence he introduced their worship to China as guardians of the monasteries,
where their images are seen in the hall at the entrance, which is sometimes called the 天王堂
(Hall of the Deva Kings). See 四天王經 or 倶舍論 T 1559.29.198a29; other sources Muller,
Soothill, Hirakawa.
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Historical Notes
Guardians of the Four Directions, Protectors of Buddhist Law, Protectors of Human Kind,
Protectors of the Bosatsu and Nyorai. Most often found standing at the corners of alters.
Ferocious looking, sometimes with fiery halo behind them, often stepping on demons called
Jyaki. They protect the Buddhist realm for Taishakuten (Skt. Indra), serving as his generals to
guard the territories inhabited by humans. Originally from Hindu mythology, and later
incorporated into Buddhism. In the Lotus Sutra, they vow to protect those who believe in the
Dharma (Buddhist teachings). In Japanese artwork, especially in the mandala form, the four
typically appear in a set order, starting with Jikokuten (East), followed by Zōchōten (South),
Kōmokuten (West), and Tamonten (North). All four are described in Sanskrit, Chinese and
Japanese texts, but their attributes, colors, and names often vary.
Click any image to jump to that deity's stand-alone page.
Four Heavenly Kings, the Shitennō. Click any image to jump to deity page.
At Hase Dera in Kamakura (life-size metal statues, modern)
From Left: Tamonten, Jikokuten, Kōmokuten, Zōchōten
Dressed in armor & trampling the Jaki (or Tentōki / Ryūtōki)
All four are depicted as warriors, and usually shown holding weapons, but there is no “hard”
rule for the objects in their hands, and variations are common. Nevertheless, the objects they
carry are always tools to eliminate evil influences and suppress the enemies of Buddhism. All
four are Deva (Sanskrit), celestial beings who occupy the realm just above humans and just
below the enlightened Bodhisattva. See Six Realms for details.
The Shitennō live halfway down the four sides of Mt. Shumisen 須弥山 (Skt. = Mt. Sumeru or
Mt. Meru), the mythical home of Shakya Nyorai (Historical Buddha). According to Buddhist
lore, Mt. Sumeru is located at the center of the universe, surrounded by eight mountain ranges,
and in the ocean between the 7th and 8th there are four continents inhabited by humans.
These four continents are protected by the Shitennō, with each leading an army of
supernatural creatures to keep the fighting Ashura at bay. On the top of Mt. Sumeru is the
heavenly palace of Shakya Nyorai, and the abode of the Trayastrimsha (33 Gods) ruled by
Taishakuten, who commands the Shitennō.
Shitennō symbolism and artwork in Japan reflects not only its Hindu origins, but also its
association with the four mythical Chinese creatures -- the dragon, red bird, tiger, and tortoise.
These four creatures, known as the Celestial Emblems of the Chinese Emperor, are also
guardians of the four compass directions, and appear prominently in artwork in China. Each
has a corresponding season, color, element, and virtue -- so do each of the Shitennō. But in
Japan, the four Chinese creatures are mostly supplanted by their Buddhist equivalents, the
Shitennō. (Note: In Japan, there are statues of various followers of the Shitennō referred to as
the Shitennō Kenzoku 四天王眷属.
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Jaki or Jyaki 邪鬼 or Amano Jyaku 天邪鬼
Tentōki 天燈鬼 and Ryūtōki 龍燈鬼
Jaki is the name of the tiny creatures the four kings stand upon. Classified as members of the
Yaksha in Japan; also referred to as the Amano Jyaku (Heaven Jyaku). In a tradition unique to
Japan, the Jaki demons are sometimes represented by two creatures known as Tentōki
(Tentoki) 天燈鬼 and Ryūtōki (Ryutoki) 龍燈鬼, which translate literally as Celestial-Lamp
Demon and Dragon-Lamp Demon. Japanese legends say these two creatures were originally
evil, but after getting trampled by the Shitennō, they repented, were saved, and now carry
lanterns as offerings of light to the Buddha, or to light up the road in front of the Shaka Nyorai
(Historical Buddha). The Jaki and Tentōki / Ryūtoki symbolize the power of the Shitennō to
repel and defeat evil. Two wonderful sculptures of Tentōki and Ryutōki can be found at
Kōfukuji Temple in Nara
Yasha 夜叉
Skt. = Yaksha
12 Yasha Warriors are typically shown protecting Yakushi Nyorai, the Medicine Buddha.
Warriors of fierce stance, these protectors of Buddha’s teachings are the guardian spirits of
nature. In earliest Hindu records, they converted to Buddhism after listening to the Historical
Buddha present his teachings at Vultures Peak. In the Mahabharatha text of India, Yama, the
Lord of the Dead, assumes the form of a Yaksha to question his son.