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Industrial Crops & Products 111 (2018) 8–10

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Research paper

A high-Oil castor cultivar developed through recurrent selection T
a,⁎ a a b a
Grace Q. Chen , Kumiko Johnson , Eva Morales , Ana M. Ibáñez , Jiann-Tsyh Lin
Western Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture,800 Buchanan St., Albany, CA, 94710, USA
Plant Sciences Department, University of California Davis, Davis, CA, 95616, USA


Keywords: Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) seed oil has unique characteristics and can be used as feedstock for many
Ricinus communis biobased products. Under greenhouse conditions, a previous recurrent selection for high-oil castor seeds from a
Single seed base population resulted in a new population with an increased mean oil content from 50.33 to 54.47% dry
Field study weight, average single seed weight from 0.44 to 0.54 g, and correlation between oil content and weight from
Oil content
moderate (r = 0.43, p < 0.0001) to strong (r = 0.77, p < 0.0001). Here, we describe field trials to evaluate
Seed weight
the oil content and seed weight of the new (Test), and base (Control) populations. Duplicated Tests and Controls
were planted and the trials were repeated for two consecutive years. From planting to seed harvesting, no
difference in growth pattern was observed in either of the populations. Test seeds had a mean oil contents of
54.01% dry weight, an average single seed weight of 0.54 g, and strong correlations between oil content and
weight (r = 0.71 to 0.72, p < 0.0001), similar to the new population obtained from the greenhouse study.
Correspondingly, Control seeds had a mean oil content of 50.5% dry weight, an average single seed weight of
0.44 g, and moderate correlation between oil content and weight (r = 0.43 to 0.44, p < 0.0001), comparable to
previous data on the base population. The frequency distribution of oil content and seed weight in field- and
greenhouse-grown castor seeds were similar. Our results confirm that recurrent selection for high-oil content
seeds is an effective approach to increase the mean oil content of a castor population.

1. Introduction weight also increased from moderate in Cycle 0 (r = 0.43,
p < 0.0001) to strong in Cycle 2 (r = 0.77, p < 0.0001). This study
Castor (Ricinus communis) seed oil is the only commercial source of evaluates the oil content and weight of field-grown seeds produced
hydroxy fatty acid (12-hydroxyoleic acid, 18:1OH), which is used in from the new population of Impala.
industrial products such as lubricants, coatings, plastics and cosmetics
(Caupin, 1997; Mutlu and Meier, 2010). Several favorable features of 2. Materials and methods
this non-edible crop like high oil content (37–60% of seed dry weight)
(Wang et al., 2010), an oil rich in 18:1OH (80–90% of total seed fatty 2.1. Field conditions
acids) (Wang et al., 2011), and high oil yield (1250–2500 L ha−1)
(Severino et al., 2012) make castor an attractive industrial oilseed. Seed Field trials were conducted in a research field at the University of
oil content contributes to oil yield. We previously screened and selected California, Davis, in Davis, CA (DMS latitude: 38° 32′ 41.7” N, long-
high-oil seeds from a base population of castor cultivar Impala (Chen itude: 121° 44′ 25.9” W). The field was maintained by hand-weeding
et al., 2016a,b, 2017). Impala was chosen because it is a dwarf cultivar, and surface irrigation weekly with complete fertilizer (20:20:20 of
easy to manage in greenhouse and field, and Impala seeds were com- N:P:K) at soil electrical conductivity of two to three mS/cm. The field
mercially available. Through two cycles of recurrent selection of seeds, trial was duplicated in two years (Year 1, 2011and Year 2, 2012).
the average oil content of the Impala cv. increased from 50.33% dry Detailed weather information regarding 2011 and 2012 in Davis, CA, is
weight (Cycle 0) to 54.47% dry weight (Cycle 2) (Chen et al., 2016a,b). documented at
The Cycle 2 Impala population scores in the top 1% of 1103 castor lines historic?month=8&year=2011. In 2011, the daily mean tempera-
at the US Department of Agriculture (Wang et al., 2010). Single seed tures were 21 °C in June, 23 °C from July to September, and 17 °C in
weight increased from an average 0.44 g (Cycle 0) to 0.54 g (Cycle 2) October and in 2012, the daily mean temperatures were 22 °C in June,
(Chen et al., 2016a,b, 2017). Correlation between oil percentage and 24 °C in July and August, 22 °C in September, and 18 °C in October. No

Corresponding author.
E-mail address: (G.Q. Chen).
Received 12 June 2017; Received in revised form 25 September 2017; Accepted 28 September 2017
Available online 07 October 2017
0926-6690/ Published by Elsevier B.V.

2014). no difference in growth for developing populations in different cycles was described in detail pattern was noticed between control and test plants.5 m between rows and 0. The plots were in 2011 and 22–24 °C in 2012.b.05 0.. 2016a.63 0. between Tests A and B.11 0.56 0.44 ± 0. The mini-spec was calibrated by linear regression of NMR signals to weighed samples of pure castor oil following a general protocol provided by the manu- facturer.33–0. The method seeds to mature.b.45–58. was minimized to allow direct comparison of the previous 59..36 0. both Control and Test plants initiated their Experiments were conducted on Control seeds.45–57. also comparable to the mean oil content of 54. 2016a.26–59. 2016a.b.5 m tall with a ∼0. Therefore.13 to if any.31–0.55 0. Cycle 2 seeds (Chen et al. 2010).71 n = number of seeds. Houston. During the entire season.0001) Year 1 Control A 3027 50..06 0. Seedling germination rates in all plots and both years were weather/usa/davis/climate).38–56. measured as days from planting to 50% of first raceme initiation and can vary among varieties.57 ± 1.74 30.2. duplicates ± SD.06 0. Each 400-seed plot was planted in seed mature) (Severino and Auld. cemes and some secondary racemes) in each plot were covered with There was no significant difference in the data obtained between white cloth bags. maximum (max). Results and discussion precipitation ( < 0. weight.43 ± 0. This indicates that selection of high-oil seeds does not affect seed viability.87 0. All seeds were hand-planted in the first week of our previous study of strain PI215769 castor grown at a mean tem- June.. Test seeds had oil contents from 30..b. indicating that selection for oil seeds as the Cycle 0 base population of Impala (Chen et al.95 MHz and was maintained at 40 °C. high.85 30. placed in the NMR tube and then measured against the calibration curve to determine the oil content. Plant materials Some extra-early (26 days) and late varieties (120 days) are known (Anjani.01 31. perature of 23 °C (Chen et al. Population n Oil content (% dry weight) Seed weight (g) r mean ± SD min–max mean ± SD min–max (p < 0.13% dry weight to a seed weight. 2014).43 Control B 3104 50. Control and Test plants took an additional 60–65 days for developing creased average oil content (Chen et al.59 0. with an average of 50.84 30. The seeds represent samples from over 350 individual maximum of 57. most primary racemes and some secondary racemes (Table 1.62–57.13–57.43 Test A 3124 53. the percentage of oil in a castor seed was determined with a mini-spec mq10 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyzer (Bruker Optics Inc. Briefly. 2017) were also similar to Cycle 0 seeds. Over 3000 mature seeds from the covered racemes in seeds are pooled for a succinct description here.34–0. and correlation (r) between oil content and weight. 2017) and this field study.84 32. Oil content analysis Single-seed oil content and weight were determined as described (Chen et al. Each measurement took 15 s.6 m spread..07 ± 2.5% dry weight. were excluded from analysis. 2017).b. 1 and Fig.32–0. Similar days to maturation was found in spaced 10 rows apart. About 120–139 days after planting (late September Controls A and B.88 ± 2. Impala is a dwarf cultivar and grows to fluences seed maturation time (days from flowering or pollination to ∼1. 9 .71 Test B 3087 54. Comparison of frequency distribution of seed oil content.01% dry weight.45 ± 0. TX.41% dry weight.b). Chen et al.timeanddate. 2004).12 ± 1.95 ± 1. 2016a. data from Control seeds or Test were mature.36 ± 1. at 98–100%.3. 2. The mini-spec was operated at a resonance frequency of 9.53 ± 0. Fig.94 0.b. 2016a.04 0.05 0. 2).com/ planting.05 0. variety Brigham (Severino and Auld.62 0.54 ± 0. Each single castor seed was weighed. which had an average of 50. 2016a.64 0.77 ± 1. standard deviation (SD). The oil content of each plot were randomly harvested and measured for oil content and Control seeds ranged from a minimum of 30.72 Year 2 Control A 3054 50. which is greenhouse study (Chen et al. plants in each plot.47% dry weight in Cycle 2.71 Test B 3231 54.04 35..G. To maintain the genetic castor seed maturation study using a degree-days approach with the purity of seeds to be produced.9 m between maturation of the most primary racemes of Control and Test plants plants.. Our results also agree with a cemes bearing both male and female flowers. Very light 3.41 0. Mature Impala plants produce monoecious inflorescences or ra.94 33. 1. The general monthly weather in 2011 and 2012 was similar to the annual Impala seedlings emerged from the soil one to two weeks after weather averages at Davis. with an average of 54. After flowering. (Chen et al.61 0. 2017).59% dry weight. Industrial Crops & Products 111 (2018) 8–10 Table 1 Average seed oil content.04 0.06 0. In each year.41 0.58 0. precipitation occurred from June to September in either year. All data are average of aborted while immature. CA (https://www. Temperature in- (Chen et al. minimum (min).31–0.45 ± 2.44 Control B 3206 50. Defective seeds with light seed coat color that Fig. Calibration standards and seed samples were tempered at 40 °C for two hrs before NMR measurement.1 inch) occurred in October of both years.05 0.13–58.3% dry weight harvested mainly from primary racemes.34–0. content did not influence time of flowering.13–59. Two control replicate plots (Control A and Control B) and two occurred under a mean temperature from August to September of 23 °C replicate test plots (Test A and Test B) were planted.53 ± 0. both 2017) and Test seeds are the Cycle 2 Impala population with an in. therefore seed position effect. 2017). Flowering time.44 Test A 3115 53.33–0.45 ± 0. the same batch of first racemes 60–74 days after planting. 2016a. The observed 60–65 days to five rows with spacing of 1.57 0.06 30. USA). over 400 racemes (mostly primary ra.33–0. or between Years 1 and 2 and early October).54 ± 0..Q.

P. 244–249...S. Frey CheN. Products from castor oil: past. Mary Lou Mendum for her critical 2 seeds (Chen et al. 2016a. Comparison of frequency distribution of single seed weight. F. 2016a.D... Rapid development of notion that seed oil concentration is a heritable trait in castor. 94.. D. seed maturation time. Plant Genet.. 10–30. R.. Industrial Crops & Products 111 (2018) 8–10 observed no adverse effects on seed germination and plant growth (Chen et al...L. which can include selfing or out- crossing (Chen et al.. Milani.. Increased oil content was accompanied by decreased oil yield in sweet corn (Rosulj et al. Morris. 2012. Department of Agriculture germplasm collection... J. yield components (number of racemes.0001) (Chen et al.). Technol. Pantalone.. Mielke.. we allowed selected 30 individuals to produce new generation fatty acid composition for optimum biodiesel production... Johnson. Lin. 2012). K..S. G. He. 1) and seed weight (Fig. seed weight and seed-coat colour on the United States new genetic resource for increasing the oil yield of this important crop. Johnson. we observed no significant differences be. J. B. 2013. Department of Agriculture does not constitute an Control and Test seeds remained the same as those of Cycle 0 (0. centration and seed weight provides basic assurance for the next gen. T.. Conway. Castor oil as a renewable resource for the chemical in- different years (Anastasi et al.. H. Padley. Heritability of variations in oil content of individual corn kernels. 35.. addition. M. Crops Prod. B. D. 449–461.. T. Morales. J. Science 139. monstrated in other crops (Bauman et al. eration’s viability.. p < 0. Tonnis. Crop Sci. Navas.. 103.). 52–60. Feng.A.F. There products.F.Q. 229–231. respectively (Chen et al. Mackey. Mol.. Crusciol. S.-T. S. 2010. M. Sofiatti. Our studies using greenhouse dustry.. Aust.B. L. Crosby. Fig.. p < 0.. or between Test seeds (r = 0. 39. Plant Prod.and greenhouse-grown castor seed in oil content and seed T. J.) synthetics. 2017).P..b. locations. Moose. He. and plant morphology. Zanotto. Crops Prod.. Pederson.S. C.. Machado.R.B.L. Holland. Lin.72. Bauman. 2002. The seed and oil yields of this new Impala population are currently under investigation. 63–69. tween field. 586–588. 104. Oil Chem. 31.. Seed oil and other masses are important reserves for supporting of castor. Frey. 2) resembled the corre. 2016b.. 2017) and field (this paper) were in different Rosulj. New York. Narrow row spacing and high plant population to short height castor genotypes in two cropping seasons. Food Chem.b. Souza-Schlick.31 to 0. 1963.. we 10 . 2017). 2S albumin gene expression in castor plant (Ricinus communis L.b. Mention of a specific product with an average of 0. J.D... All data are average of Acknowledgement duplicates ± SD..54 g. mary racemes and were based on two consecutive years at one field Severino. Lucas et al. H. Castor seed oil content was not affected by planting 110 cycles of selection for seed protein and oil concentration in maize.. K. development of a cultivar with enhanced oil content provides a survey of the castor oil content. oil content and thus seed weight in castor.A.D. A detailed study on castor oil Products 94 586–588].. W.. P. D.J. Seed yield and oil quality of perennial castor bean in a Mediterranean environment.. G. Miller. 2016a. 2013). Ind.43 or 0.b.E.P.. 2016b..)..L. 2. Davis.64 g. Watson.. Recurrent selection involves a small population and could result in Wang. Int.. C. 2017). J. but the studies were conducted under similar water and Severino.71 or 0.... B. J. Corrigendum to Rapid development of a castor cultivar with increased oil content [Ind. V.58 g. In Anjani.B. Davis. Genet. J.J. (Eds. Burton.77. D.. The temperature during castor growth in the field irrigation. density (Soratto et al. V.D.A. Trifunovic.D. unwanted inbreeding depression. 2016a... G. the frequency distribution of Control seeds and Test seeds for Ind. and Cycle 2 (r = 0. K. D.. D. 2016a. Lakshmamma. Nine cycles of mass selection for increasing oil content in two maize (Zea mays L. G. 25.J. Raymer. Zanotto. Extra-early maturing germplasm for utilization in castor improvement.R. 2013. S. H.b. G. 498–499.. (Chen et al. USDA is an 0. Pederson. Marcel Dekker.J. as de. M. 867–872. the average single-seed weight of name by the U. In this study. Crops Prod. number of seeds per raceme. 99–116.b. Am. The authors appreciate Dr. M. Single seed weight from reading of the manuscript. T.... Soares. M. 2011. Nine cycles of recurrent selection for increased groat-oil environmental changes by adjusting the number of racemes and seeds content in oat. M.L. J.L.31 to 0.0001) References (Table 1) and Cycle 0 (r = 0. Baldanzi. Patanè.43. M.44 g. Under greenhouse conditions. Test seeds had single-seed weights ranging from 0. 139–144. Crop Sci .A.A. C. L. Lipid Technologies and Applications.W.. 2012.44.. Liao.L.. Resour. 2017).L. Genomic changes in response to Auld. 2014.. 2015. In addition. A. 2017). through screening single seeds is an effective method to improve seed Chen. J. 2017). J. Lavanya.B.A. Chen et al. Carter Jr. U. Zhao. a castor cultivar with increased oil content.. Screening of the entire USDA castor germplasm collection for oil content and pression. This study was supported by USDA Current Control populations ranged from 0.A.. E. Pinnow.. J.. D. Schneerman..A. C. Crop Sci. M. Ind..G.. L. M. Lipid Sci. seeds through open pollination. Husic.L. 4.. 81. X. Auld.Q. nor by growing the same population in Mutlu. T. G..0001) (Chen et al.. Morse. 1636–1641. L. 2013). were no significant differences in correlations between oil content and seed weight between Control seeds (r = 0. Soc. O. 49.L. L. respectively. 1997. Agron. Chen. 2016a. per plant. Eur. O. but barely changed seed oil content and weight (Severino and Lucas.. p < 0. Taken together. H... K. Study on the effect of air temperature on seed devel- opment and determination of the base temperature for seed growth in castor (Ricinus described above. Raymer. X. G.C.. Our studies also support the Chen. present and future. Thus. Pinnow. 2016a. sponding Cycle 0 and Cycle 2 populations (Chen et al. Biol. E. P. In: Gunstone. Wang... M. The results support our previous study that recurrent selection pp. 59... McKeon. Conclusions The high oil content of a population selected using the method of single seed recurrent selection was confirmed under field conditions.B. and seed oil content) indicated that castor adapted to with testcross evaluation for increased oil content in soybean.S.. Tests and Controls are comparable in seed germination.b. Morris. 2010. Cosentino.. L. Seed Genomics 217–236.. Seed yield and yield components of castor influenced by fertilizer conditions... Auld. 9250–9256.-T. in these two years was also similar to the greenhouse temperature as Severino. Fernandes.. Zieler. Caupin.. Mackey.J.44 g) endorsement and does not imply a recommendation over other suitable and Cycle 2 (0. A value. 2016a. 1999.. Meier.M.. 9. Soratto. 2010. the studies used seeds mostly from pri- communis L.T. 112. 2016a.. 1963. Ind Crops Prod. S. Morris. Negative side effects of recurrent selection have been reported. Crops and Holland. 290–295. Cândido.Q..54 g). flowering time. J. 853–880. 101. Feng et al. Auld. 2002) and grain yield in oat (Frey and Holland.. 787–795. with an averages of Research Information System Project 2030-21410-020-00D. 44. Recurrent half-Sib selection seed weight. J. location. A review on the challenges for increased production weight. Ind. 1999. 2004. 2017). 2015).: Characterisation Utilisation 8. J. 2004.0001) (Table 1) Anastasi. F.. Agric.. Sortino. A.. Morales. 8. To avoid possible inbreeding de.. equal opportunity provider and employer. As castor oil is the primary product with economic Wang.D. Tan. 2004. M.. seed germination and seedling growth: strong inheritance of oil con.P. Crops Prod. 1999). I. 2017.. oil content (Fig. p < 0.Q. S.