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THE PASSIVE VOICE

Formamos la voz pasiva con el verbo To Be en el mismo tiempo verbal que el


verbo activo + el participio del verbo principal

 Forma: BE (como auxiliar) + PARTICIPIO PASADO (del verbo activo)

Cómo transformar una oración activa en


pasiva:

1. Ponemos como sujeto de la oración pasiva el


complemento directo de la oración activa.

2. Añadimos el verbo BE en el mismo tiempo en que


está el verbo principal de la oración activa.

3. Pasamos el sujeto de la oración activa al final de la oración pasiva, precedido


por BY. ( Agent *)

Voz activa
Your little boy has broken the window

Sujeto Verbo activo C. Directo

Voz pasiva

The window has been broken by your little boy.

Sujeto Verbo pasivo Complemento Agente

* Utilizamos BY + AGENTE ( Agent) sólo cuando nos interesa quién o qué


realiza la acción o para añadir nueva información. En la mayoría de las
oraciones pasivas no hay complemento agente, se omite .

- Penicillin was discovered by Fleming.

- We were stopped by a policeman.

FORMACIÓN DE UN TIEMPO VERBAL EN VOZ PASIVA

TO BE ( MISMO TIEMPO QUE EL VERBO PRINCIPAL) + PARTICIPIO PASADO DEL


VERBO PRINCIPAL

VERB TENSES ACTIVE PASSIVE

SIMPLE PRESENT WRITE (S) AM/IS/ARE WRITTEN

PRESENT CONTINUOUS AM/IS/ARE WRITING AM/IS/ARE BEING WRITTEN

PRESENT PERFECT HAVE/HAS WRITTEN HAVE/HAS BEEN WRITTEN

SIMPLE PAST WROTE WAS/WERE WRITTEN


PAST CONTINUOUS WAS/WERE WRITING WAS/WERE BEING WRITTEN

PAST PERFECT HAD WRITTEN HAD BEEN WRITTEN

FUTURE WILL WRITE WILL BE WRITTEN

CONDITIONAL WOULD WRITE WOULD BE WRITTEN

“GOING TO” AM/IS/ARE GOING TO WRITE AM/IS/ARE GOING TO BE WRITTEN

MODAL VERBS

CAN/MAY…. CAN/MAY…WRITE CAN/MAY…BE WRITTEN

USO

Se usan más en inglés que en español y se utilizan cuando queremos hablar de


algo/alguien afectado por una acción poniendo énfasis en la acción y en su objeto.(
The passive voice is used to show interest in the person or object that
experiences an action rather than the person or object that performs the action.
Sometimes we use the passive voice because we don't know or cannot express
who or what performed the action )

The food was cooked quickly

PASIVA DE DOBLE OBJETO

Cuando el verbo activo tiene dos objectos ( objeto directo e indirecto), ambos objectos
se pueden convertir en sujeto de la oración pasiva.

They gave her a lot of money ( OI+OD)

Pasiva 1: She was given a lot of money ( en este caso el objecto indirecto pasa a sujeto
de la oración pasiva, es el más habitual)

Pasiva 2: A lot of money was given to her ( en este caso el objeto directo pasa a sujeto
de la oración pasiva, por lo tanto hay que añadir to delante del objecto indirecto)

NOTA: con los verbos ask y tell no suele usarse la pasiva 2 citada anteriormente

* Error común: A terrible secret was told to me


PASIVA IMPERSONAL

Las construcciones impersonales (se dice, se comenta, etc.) son otro


tipo de pasivas. Esta pasiva se emplea con verbos como believe, know,
think, report, say,…etc con los que podemos formas dos clases
diferentes de estructuras:

TYPE 1:

Active: They say that this monument is emblematic

Passive: It is said that this monument is emblematic.

TYPE 2: subject+ verb ( passive)+ To infinitive

Active: They say that this monument is emblematic

Passive: This monument is said to be emblematic

Active Passive

Simple Present To+infinitive

Present/Past Continuous To be+ verb –ing

Present/Past Perfect To have+ past participle

Simple Past To have+ past participle

Examples:

They believe these documents belonged to an Egyptian king

These documents are believed to have belonged to an Egyptian king

They thought these people were playing football

These people were thought to be playing football


HAVE/GET SOMETHING DONE

Empleamos esta estructura have/get + object+ past participle con un


sentido pasivo para expresar que alguien hace algo para nosotros (you
get somebody else to do something for you)

I´m going to have my hair cut

She´s having her house redecorated

Se puede comparar:

She had her car repaired ( someone repaired her car)

She repaired her car ( the subject repaired her own car)

En algunas situaciones se puede utilizar también esta estructura para


indicar que nos ha sucedido algo no demasiado agradable (we can use
it in situations where something bad has happened to people or
their possessions. This is not something they wanted to happen)

I had my finger bitten during a fight

John had all his money stolen from this hotel bedroom