Está en la página 1de 7

For other uses, see Chile (disambiguation).

Coordinates: 30°S 71°W

Republic of Chile
República de Chile (Spanish)


Coat of arms


 Por la razón o la fuerza

 (English: "By Right or Might") [1]

National Anthem of Chile


Location of Chile (dark green)
in South America (grey)

Capital Santiagoa
and largest city 33°26′S 70°40′W

7% Aymara 0.930.07b Population • 2017 census 17.2% Unspecified Demonym Chilean Government Unitary presidentialconstitutional republic • President Sebastián Piñera • Senate President Carlos Montes Cisternas • President of the Maya Fernández Chamber of Deputies Legislature National Congress • Upper house Senate • Lower house Chamber of Deputies Independence from Spain • Government Junta 18 September 1810 • Declared 12 February 1818 • Recognized 25 April 1844 • Current constitution 11 September 1980 Area • Total 756.003[4] (64th) • Density 24/km2 (62.1% Other 0.096. National language Spanish Ethnic groups(2012[2]) 64% White 30% Mestizo 5% Mapuche 0.2/sq mi) (198th) GDP (PPP) 2018 estimate • Total $472.574.3[3] km2(291.4 sq mi) (37th) • Water (%) 1.425[5] (53rd) GDP (nominal) 2018 estimate .413 billion[5](42nd) • Per capita $25.

250.[10] In the 1960s and 1970s the country experienced severe left- right political polarization and turmoil. Legislature is based in Valparaíso. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández. and is the cultural and political center from which Chile expanded in the late 19th century when it incorporated its northern and southern regions. Argentina to the east. Desventuradas. and features a string of volcanoes and lakes. Bolivia to the northeast. Chile (/ˈtʃɪli/. ending Mapuche resistance in the 1880s and gaining its current northern territory in the War of the Pacific (1879–83) after defeating Peru and Bolivia. headed by Augusto Pinochet.000 people dead or missing.[8] Spanish: [ˈtʃile]).[9] Spain conquered and colonized the region in the mid-16th century.000 square kilometres (480. Salas y Gó a. and the Drake Passage in the far south.224 billion[5] (38th) • Per capita $15. and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile emerged in the 1830s as a relatively stable authoritarian republic. principally copper. Chile also claims about 1.000 square kilometres (480. replacing Inca rule in the north and centre. and islands.793[5] (41st) Gini (2015) 47. Includes Easter Island and Isla Sala y Gómez.847[7] very high · 38th Currency Peso (CLP) Time zone CLT and EASTc(UTC−3 and −5) Drives on the right Calling code +56 ISO 3166 code CL Internet TLD .000 sq mi) of Antarctica. although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty. Chile saw significant economic and territorial growth. is a South American country occupying a long.7[6] high HDI (2015) 0. ended in 1990 after it lost a referendum in 1988 and was succeeded by a center-left coalitionwhich ruled through four presidencies until 2010. The arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile contains great mineral wealth. twisting peninsulas. narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. After declaring its independence from Spain in 1818. . The relatively small central area dominates in terms of population and agricultural resources.[11] The regime. but failing to conquerthe independent Mapuche who inhabited what is now south-central Chile. In the 19th century. does not include 1. officially the Republic of Chile (Spanish: República de Chile (help·info)).250.000 sq mi) of territory claimed in Antarctica. Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands.• Total $265. The southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords. inlets. It borders Peru to the north. canals. b. This development culminated with the 1973 Chilean coup d'état that overthrew Salvador Allende's democratically elected left-wing government and instituted a 16-year-long right-wing military dictatorship that left more than 3.

income per capita. climate.521st century  3Government and politics o 3. Chile is a founding member of the United Nations.1Foreign relations o 3.[14] Chile is a member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).4. competitiveness.1Climate o 5.4Education o 6.2Spanish colonization o 2.2Biodiversity  5. and environment o 5.[11][12] It leads Latin American nations in rankings of human development.1Pinochet era (1973–1990) o 2.2Religion o 6.5Health .3Independence and nation building o 2. state of peace.1Flora and Fauna o 5.4National symbols  4Military  5Geography. joining in 2010. and low perception of corruption. and democratic development.2.4Hydrography  6Demographics o 6.1Early history o 2.420th century  2.3Largest cities and towns o 3. Currently it also has the lowest homicide rate in South America. with a high-income economyand high living standards. economic freedom.2Administrative divisions o 3.[13] It also ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state. globalization.1Ancestry and ethnicity o 6. the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States(CELAC). Chile is today one of South America's most economically and socially stable and prosperous nations. Contents [hide]  1Etymology  2History o 2.3Topography o 5.3Languages o 6.

[24] History Main article: History of Chile . "cold". [16][17] Another theory points to the similarity of the valley of the Aconcagua with that of the Casma Valley in Peru. 7Economy o 7.[22] Another origin attributed to chilli is the onomatopoeic cheele-cheele—the Mapuche imitation of the warble of a bird locally known as trile. According to 17th-century Spanish chronicler Diego de Rosales. who ruled the area at the time of the Incan conquest in the 15th century.[19] Ultimately. after naming the Mapocho valley as such.[18] from the Mapuche word chilli.[17] Other theories say Chile may derive its name from a Native American word meaning either "ends of the earth" or "sea gulls". where there was a town and valley named Chili.4Folklore  9. meaning either "snow"[20][21] or "the deepest point of the Earth".1Mythology o 9.1Agriculture o 7."[19] or from the Quechua chiri.7Cultural heritage  10See also  11References  12Further reading  13External links Etymology There are various theories about the origin of the word Chile.2Tourism  8Infrastructure o 8. Almagro is credited with the universalization of the name Chile.2Literature o 9.2Telecommunications  9Culture o 9.6Sports o 9.1Transport o 8.5Cinema o 9.[19][23] The Spanish conquistadors heard about this name from the Incas.4.[15] the Incas called the valley of the Aconcagua "Chili" by corruption of the name of a Picunche tribal chief ("cacique") called Tili. and the few survivors of Diego de Almagro's first Spanish expedition south from Peru in 1535–36 called themselves the "men of Chilli".1Music and dance o 9.[20] or tchili. which may mean "where the land ends.3Cuisine o 9.[17] The older spelling "Chili" was in use in English until at least 1900 before switching to "Chile".

while attempting to circumnavigate the globe.[27] Spanish colonization Main articles: Conquest of Chile and Colonial Chile Lautaro.Early history Stone tool evidence indicates humans sporadically frequented the Monte Verde valley area as long as 18. Although the Spanish did not find the extensive gold and silver they sought. The Spanish encountered various cultures that supported themselves principally through slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting. migrating indigenous Peoplessettled in fertile valleys and coastal areas of what is present-day Chile.[26] They fought against the Sapa Inca Tupac Yupanqui and his army. Ferdinand Magellan discovered the southern passage now named after him (the Strait of Magellan) thus becoming the first European to set foot on what is now Chile.[27] Pedro de Valdivia. [25] About 10. and Chile became part of the Spanish Empire. Cueva del Milodón and the Pali-Aike Crater's lava tube. Settlement sites from very early human habitation include Monte Verde. one of Francisco Pizarro's lieutenants. The Incas briefly extended their empire into what is now northern Chile.[27] . toqui and hero of the Arauco war In 1520. The result of the bloody three-day confrontation known as the Battle of the Maule was that the Inca conquest of the territories of Chile ended at the Maule river. who came from Peru in 1535 seeking gold. they recognized the agricultural potential of Chile's central valley. despite their lack of state organization.000 years ago. but the Mapuche (or Araucanians as they were known by the Spaniards) successfully resisted many attempts by the Inca Empire to subjugate them. The next Europeans to reach Chile were Diego de Almagro and his band of Spanish conquistadors. who founded the city of Santiago on 12 February 1541.500 years ago. conqueror of Chile The conquest of Chile began in earnest in 1540 and was carried out by Pedro de Valdivia.

The Diocese of Concepción conducted a census in areas south of the Maule rive . it indicated that the population consisted of 259. homogeneous colonies in Spanish America. Francisco Hurtado.[19] The first general census was conducted by the government of Agustín de Jáuregui between 1777 and 1778. conducted a census in 1784 and found the population consisted of 26. especially the British and the Dutch. and the Europeans suffered repeated setbacks. [28] Cut off to the north by desert. the colony found itself with the mission of forestalling encroachment by both the Mapuche and Spain's European enemies.5 percent of whom were natives.8 percent blacks. The abolition of slavery by the Spanish crown in 1683 was done in recognition that enslaving the Mapuche intensified resistance rather than cowing them into submission. 7. Subsequent major insurrections took place in 1598 and in 1655. relations remained strained from continual colonialist interference. Serving as a sort of frontier garrison. 64. to the east by the Andes Mountains. Despite royal prohibitions. as well as a drain on the treasury of the Viceroyalty of Peru. Chile hosted one of the largest standing armies in the Americas. Buccaneers and English adventurers menaced the colony in addition to the Mapuche. 8. making it one of the most militarized of the Spanish possessions. the colony's principal port.5 percent of European descent. Governor of the province of Chiloé.Conquest took place gradually. Each time the Mapuche and other native groups revolted.646 inhabitants: 73.703 inhabitants. A massive Mapuche insurrection that began in 1553 resulted in Valdivia's death and the destruction of many of the colony's principal settlements. to the south by the Mapuche.4 percent of whom were whites and 33. Chile became one of the most centralized.9 percent mestizos. and to the west by the ocean. the southern border of the colony was driven northward. as was shown by Sir Francis Drake's 1578 raid on Valparaíso.6 percent indigenous peoples and 9.

Intereses relacionados