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WIRE - ROPES

Introduction
• Wire-rope is a flexible element, like belt and
chain, used for transmitting large amount of
power from one pulley to another pulley when
their centre distance is very long of about 500 m
to 2000 m
• Hoisting machineries such as mine hoists, lifts
and material handling equipments like cranes,
conveyors, elevators etc
• Used for people to travel between two
mountains by means of cable cars and winches
Components of rope-drive
• Wire-ropes are manufactured from steel wires of
ultimate strength ranging from 1200 to 2000
MPa and diameters from 0.2 to 3 mm. the wire is
drawn cold and given heat treatment as well as
chemical treatment.
• Main components are steel-rope, rope drum,
pulleys and hooks etc
Construction of wire-rope
• First, separate steel wires are twisted into one
round unit called as strand and then many such
strands are twisted about a core, made of hemp
or asbestos, to form the required round rope.
Wire-ropes are built into the ropes of 6 strands
or 8 strands and each strand contains 7, 19 or 37
wires. Sometimes core made of softer steel also
• Cross or regular lay ropes
• Parallel or lang lay ropes
• Composite or reverse laid ropes
Construction of wire-rope
Designation of wire-ropes
• Steel wire-ropes are designated by the number
of strands followed by the number of wires in
each strand.
• Ex: a wire-rope having six strands and nineteen
wires in each strand is designated as 6 x 19 rope.
• In practice, the ropes of 6x7, 6x19,6x37 and 8x19
are employed for engineering purposes
Classification of wire-ropes
• Wire ropes are classified based on
• Number of strands and number of wires in each
strand as 6x7, 6x19,6x37 and 8x19 ropes
• Direction of twist of wires and strands as
cross-lay ropes, parallel lay ropes and composite
lay ropes
• direction of strand bending
right-hand lay (strand bend round to the right
side)
Left-hand lay( strand bend round to the left side)
advantages of wire-ropes
• Lighter in weight
• Operations are silent and smooth
• Withstand heavy shock loads
• Can transmit power for very long distances
• Employed as fastening elements as used in
suspension bridges and load carrying devices as
used in cranes and hoists etc.
• Do not fail suddenly due to its complicated self-
winding
• Operated at different speeds, pliable in all
directions
• Have long, reliable service life and more efficient.
disadvantages of wire-ropes
• The wire ropes can not be employed for low
power transmission and also for short centre
distance
• Need careful maintenance
• Cost of manufacturing of wire-ropes is high
• Should be kept away from electrical power
connections in order to safeguard the wire-ropes
from current leakage to them
failures of wire-ropes
• Incorrect winding on the drum
• Incorrect selection of the ratio between the
diameters of drum and rope
• Work at overloads
• Extensively high dynamic impacts
• Abrasive wear and corrosion due to poor
maintenance.
Selection of wire-ropes
• Dead weight ( known given weight)
• Additional loads caused by sudden starts and stops
• Shock loads
• Sheave bearing friction
for safe operation, total above loads should be for less
than ultimate strength of rope
The other factors affect selection
1. Type of duty
2. Operating speed
3. Place of applications
Type of duty
All types of cranes and hoists are classified into four
groups
1. Light duty (L)
2. Medium duty (M)
3. Heavy duty (H)
4. Very heavy duty (VH)
nature of duty L M H VH
Approximate no. of 60 120 240 300-720
Switching on
Operation per hour
• The normal operating speeds of cranes are given
as
1. Hoisting speed – 25 to 30 m/min
2. Trolly travel speed - 35 to 50 m/min
3. Bridge travel speed - 100 to 120 m/min
• Stresses in Hoisting ropes:
1. Direct tensile stress due to hoisting load and
weight of the rope
2. Bending stress due to bending of ropes over the
sheaves or drum
3. Stress due to acceleration or change of speed
including stops
4. Stresses due to starting