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# FISICA

(ONDAS PARTICULS)

. 5m – 16 = 3m – 4 . 3p = 7p - 16

5m – 3m = -4 + 16 3p – 7p = -16

## 2m = 12; m=6 -4p = - 16; p = +4

. 4m = 2(m – 4) . 3(m – 6) = 6

4m = 2m – 8 3m – 18 = 6

2m = -8; m = -4 3m = 24; m = +8

x p 2 1
 (4)(3)  12; x  36   ; p 1
. 3 .3 6 3

96 96
 48; x  2
. x 48 . 14 = 2(b – 7); 14 = 2b – 14; b = 14

1 1 1 6p 6p 6p
  ;  
. R2 = (4)2 + (3)2 = 16 + 9 . 2 p 6 2 p 6

R 2  25 R5 3p = 6 + p; p=3

V PV
R PV  nRT ; T 
. V = IR; I . nR

F
F  ma; a 
. m . s = vt + d; d = s – vt

mv 2 mv 2 2s
F ; FR  mv 2 ; R  a
. R F . s = ½at2; 2s = at2; t2

v 2f  v02 Q2 Q2
2as  v  v ; a 
2
f
2
0 C ; V
. 2s . 2V 2C
1 1 1 mv
  ; R2 R  R1 R  R1 R2 mv  Ft ; t
. R1 R2 R . F

R1 R2 mv
( R1  R2 ) R  R1 R2 ; R t
R1  R2 F

PV PV
1 1
 2 2; 1 1T2  PV
PV 2 2 T1
. mv2  mv1  Ft ; mv2  Ft  mv1 . T1 T2

Ft  mv1 PV
2 2 T1
v2  T2 
m PV
1 1

v = vo + at; v – v0 = at . c 2 = a2 + b2 ; b2 = c2 - a2

v  v0
a
t b  c2  a 2

Let L = 4Lo; Since , the period will be doubled when the length is quadrupled.

## Thus, the period T on the moon would be 2(2.45) or 4.90 s.

. (a) Area = LW = (3.45 x 10-4 m)(9.77 x 10-5 m); Area = 3.37 x 10-8 m2.

Perimeter (P) = 2L + 2W = 2(L + W); P = 2(3.45 x 10-4 + 9.77 x 10-5) = 8.85 x 10-4 m.

## P = 2(9.77 x 10-5) – 3.45 x 10-4 P = -1.50 x 10-4 m.

The area doesn’t change, but the perimeter decreases by 0.150 mm.
-A +60 C charge is placed 60 mm to the left of a +20 C charge. What is the resultant force on a

F13 
(30 x 10-3 m) 2

## (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )(20 x 10-6C)(35 x 10 -6C)

F23 
(30 x 10-3 m) 2 ; F13 = 2.10 x 104 N, directed to right.

FR = F13 + F23 = (-2.10 x 104 N) + (0.700 x 104 N); FR = -1.40 x 104 N, left.

- A point charge of +36 C is placed 80 mm to the left of a second point charge of -22 C. What

## force is exerted on third charge of +10 C located at the midpoint?

80 mm
(9 x 109 N  m 2 /C2 )(36 x 10-6 C)(10 x 10-6C)
F13  +36 C 10 C -22 C
(40 x 10-3m) 2
q1 q3 F1 q2
F13 = 2025 N, directed to the right
F2
(9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )(22 x 10 -6C)(10 x 10-6C)
F23 
(40 x 10-3 m) 2 ; F13 = 1238 N, directed to right.

## FR = F13 + F23 = 2025 N + 1238 N; FR = 3260 N, left.

- For Problem 23-10, what is the resultant force on a third charge of +12 C placed between the

## (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )(36 x 10 -6C)(12 x 10 -6C 80 mm

F13  +36 C q3 = 12 C -22 C
(60 x 10-3m) 2
60 mm q2
q1 F1
(9 x 10 N  m /C )(22 x 10 C)(12 x 10 C)
9 2 2 -6 -6
F2
F23 
(20 x 10-3 m) 2 ;

## Both to right, so FR = F13 + F23 = 1080 N + 5940 N; F = 7020 N, rightward.

- A +6 C charge is 44 mm to the right of a -8 C charge. What is the resultant force on a -2 C

## charge that is 20 mm to the right of the -8 C charge?

44 mm
(9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )(8 x 10-6C)(2 x 10 -6C) -8 C q3 = -2 C 6C
F13  24 mm
(20 x 10-3 m) 2
q2
q1 20 mm F1
(9 x 109 N  m 2 /C2 )(2 x 10-6C)(6 x 10-6C) F2
F23 
(24 x 10-3m) 2 ;

## Both to right, so FR = F13 + F23 = 360 N + 187.5 N; F = 548 N, rightward

. One object contains an excess of 5 x 1014 electrons and another has a deficiency of 4 x 1014

electrons. What is the force each exerts on the other if the objects are 30 mm apart? Is it

## attraction or repulsion? ( 1e = 1.6 x 10-19 C, excess = -, deficiency = +. )

q1 = (5 x 1014 e)(1.6 x 10-19 C/e) = -80 C; q2 = (4 x 1014 e)(1.6 x 10-19 C/e) = +64 C

## (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )(80 x 10-6C)(64 x 10-6C)

F
(30 x 10-3m)2 ; F = 5.12 x 104 N, attraction

## (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C2 )(1 C)(1 C)

F
(1 m) 2 ; F = 9 x 109 N !

## The coulomb is a very large unit for electrostatics applications.

. A –40-nC charge is placed 40 mm to the left of a +6-nC charge. What is the resultant force on a

F1 
(48 x 10-3 m)2

## (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C2 )(6 x 10-9 C)(12 x 10-9C)

F2 
(8 x 10-3m) 2 ;
Both to right, so FR = F1 + F2 = 1.88 mN – 10.1 mN; F = -8.25 mN, leftward

-An positively charged plate is 30 mm above a negatively charged plate, and the electric field

intensity has a magnitude of 6 x 104 N/C. How much work is done BY the electric field

when a +4-C charge is moved from the negative plate to the positive plate?

## Work = Fd = qEd; F opposite to d makes work negative. +

30 mm E F
Work = (4 x 10-6 C)(6 x 104 N/C)(0.030 m) e -
Work = -7.20 x 10-3 J; Work = -7.20 mJ

-In Problem 25-1, how much work is done ON or against the electric field? What is the electric

## potential energy at the positive plate? +

30 mm E Fex
The displacement occurs against the electric force, so that t -

work done ON the field due to outside UP force Fext in same direction as the displacement.

Since the field is in a position to do positive work when at the positive, plate, the electric

## potential energy is positive at that point: Ep = +7.20 mJ.

-The electric field intensity between two parallel plates, separated by 25 mm is 8000 N/C. How

much work is done BY the electric field in moving a –2-C charge from the negative plate

to the positive plate? What is the work done BY the field in moving the same charge back

## to the positive plate? (Electric force with motion) +

25 mm E F
Work done BY field is positive, Fe with displacement. e -
Work = qEd = (2 x 10-6 C)(8000 N/C)(0.025 m) Work done BY = Loss of electric energy.

Work = 4.00 x 10-4 J Now, in coming back electric force opposes motion.

## Work done BY field is negative: Work = - 4.00 x 10-4 J.

-In Problem 25-3, what is the potential energy when the charge is at (a) the positive plate and (b)

## the negative plate? +

25 mm E F
Remember, potential energy represents the work that the e -
electric field can do when electric forces are free to act. When the –2 C charge is at the

positive plate, the E field can do no work, thus with reference to that point, Ep = 0.

## (b) At – plate, the field can do +work: Ep = +4.00 x 10-4 J

-What is the potential energy of a +6 nC charge located 50 mm away from a +80-C charge?

What is the potential energy if the same charge is 50 mm from a –80-C charge?
P
kQq (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )( 80 x 10-6C)(6 x 10 9C)
P.E.  
r 0.050 m 50 mm

## kQq (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )( 80 x 10-6C)(6 x 10 9C)

P.E.  
r 0.050 m ; P.E. = -86.4 mJ

-At what distance from a –7-C charge will a –3-nC charge have a potential energy of 60 mJ?

## kQq kQq (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )( 7 x 10 -6C)(-3 x 10 -6C)

P.E.  ; r 
r P.E. 0.060 J ; r = 3.15 mm

## kQq (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C2 )( 7 x 10-6C)(-3 x 10-9C)

F 
r2 (3.15 x 10-3 ) 2 ; F = 19.0 N, repulsion

P.E.
F
Note: This value can also be obtained from: r
- A +8-nC charge is placed at a point P, 40 mm from a +12-C charge. What is the potential

energy per unit charge at point P in joules per coulomb? Will this change if the 8-nC

charge is removed? P
40 mm
kQq (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )( 12 x 10-6C)(8 x 10 9C)
P.E.  
r 0.040 m +12 C
P.E. = 0.0216 J;

P.E. 0.0270 J
V  ;
q 8 x 10-9 C V = 2.70 x 106 J/C ; No The P.E./q is a property of space.

If another charge were placed there or if no charge were there, the P.E./q is the same.

-A charge of +6 C is 30 mm away from another charge of 16 C. What is the potential energy of

the system?

## kQq (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )( 6 x 10-6 C)(16 x 10 6C)

P.E.  
r 0.030 m ; P.E. = 28.8 J

-In Problem 25-8, what is the change in potential energy if the 6-C charge is moved to a distance

## kQq (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )( 6 x 10-6 C)(16 x 10 6 C)

( P.E.)5  
r 0.005 m ; (P.E.)5 = 173 J

## Change in P.E. = 172. J – 28.8 J; Change = 144 J, increase

-A –3-C charge is placed 6 mm away from a -9-C charge. What is the potential energy? Is it

negative or positive?
kQq (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )(3 x 10-6C)(-9 x 10 6 C)
P.E.  
r 0.006 m ; P.E. = +40.5 J

-What is the change in potential energy when a 3-nC charge is moved from a point 8 cm away

## kQq (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )( 6 x 10-6C)(3 x 10 6 C) A

( P.E.)8   20 cm
r 0.08 m
8 cm
-6 C
(P.E.)8 = -2.025 J, (Negative potential energy)

## (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )( 6 x 10-6C)(3 x 10 6C)

( P.E.) 20 
0.20 m (P.E.)20 = -0.810 J,

Change = final – initial = -0.810 J – (-2.025 J); Change in P.E. = +1.22 J, increase

-. At what distance from a –7-C charge must a charge of –12 nC be placed if the potential energy

is to be 9 x 10-5 J?

## kQq kQq (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )( 7 x 10-6C)(-12 x 10-9C)

P.E.  ; r 
r P.E. 9 x 10-5 J ; r = 8.40 m

-The potential energy of a system consisting of two identical charges is 4.50 mJ when their

## kQq kq 2 r ( P.E.) (0.038 m)(0.0045 J)

P.E.   ; q 
r r k (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 ) ; q = 138 nC

- What is the electric potential at a point that is 6 cm from a 8.40-C charge? What is the

## kQ (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )(8.40 x 10-6C)

V 
r 0.06 m ; V = 1.26 x 106 V
P.E. = qV = (2 x 10-9 C)(1.26 x 106 V); P.E. = 2.52 mJ

-. Calculate the potential at point A that is 50 mm from a –40-C charge. What is the potential

## kQ (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )( 40 x 10-6 C)

V 
r 0.050 m ; V = -7.20 x 106 V

## P.E. = qV = (3 x 10-6 C)(-7.2 x 106); P.E. = -21.6 J

- What is the potential at the midpoint of a line joining a –12-C charge with a +3-C charge

## located 80 mm away from the first charge? +3 C

-12 C
kQ
V  40 mm 40 mm
r (Net potential is algebraic sum)

## kQ (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )(12 x 10-6 C) (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )( 3 x 10-6 C)

V   
r 0.040 m 0.040 m

## V = -2.70 x 106 V + 0.675 x 106 V; V = -2.025 x 106 V; V = -2.02 MV

- A +45-nC charge is 68 mm to the left of a –9-nC charge. What is the potential at a point

## located 40 mm to the left of the –9-nC charge? +45 nC -9 nC

Find potential due to each charge, then add: 28 mm 40 mm

## kQ (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C2 )(45 x 10-9 C) (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )( 9 x 10-9 C)

V   
r 0.028 m 0.040 m

## V = +14.5 x 103 V + (-2.025 x 103 V); V = +12.4 kV

- Points A and B are 68 mm and 26 mm away from a 90-C charge. Calculate the potential

difference between points A and B? How much work is done BY the electric field as a

## -5-C charge moves from A to B? A

B 68 mm
26 mm 90 C
(9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )(90 x 10-6C)
VB 
0.026 m ; VB = 3.115 x 107 V

## (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C2 )(90 x 10-6C)

VA  -5 C
A
- (Cont.) 0.068 m ;

## Note that the potential INCREASES because B is at a higher potential than A

Now for the field: (Work)AB = q(VA - VB) = (-5 x 10-6 C)(1.19 x 107 V – 3.119 x 107 V);

WorkAB = +96.2 mJ; The field does positive work on a negative charge.

- Points A and B are 40 mm and 25 mm away from a +6-C charge. How much work must be

done against the electric field (by external forces) in moving a +5-C charge from point A

to point B? +5 C
A

## (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )(6 x 10-6C)

VA  B
0.040 m ; VA = 1.35 x 106 V 40 mm
25 mm 6C
(9 x 10 N  m /C )(6 x 10 C)
9 2 2 -6
VB 
0.025 m ; VB = 2.16 x 106 V

(Work)AB = q(VA - VB) = (+5 x 10-6 C)(1.35 x 106 V – 2.16 x 106 V); WorkAB = +4.05 J

Note: The work BY the field is negative, because the motion is against the field forces.

-. A +6 C charge is located at x = 0 on the x-axis, and a -2-C charge is located at x = 8 cm. How

much work is done BY the electric field in moving a –3-C charge from the point x = 10

## cm to the point x = 3 cm? +6 C B -2 nC A

3 cm
kQ kQ 5 cm 2 cm
VA   ; VB   x=0
r r
(9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )(6 x 10-6C) (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )( 2 x 10-6 C)
VA  
0.10 m 0.020 m ; VA = -360 kV

- (Cont.) VA = -360 V +6 C B -2 nC A
3 cm
kQ 5 cm 2 cm
VB   x=0
r

## (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )(6 x 10-6C) (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )( 2 x 10-6 C)

VB  
0.030 m 0.050 m ; VB = 1440 kV

(Work)AB = q(VA - VB) = (-3 x 10-6 C)(-360 kV – 1440 kV); WorkAB = +5.40 J

## (3.016 x 10-14 kg)(9.8 m/s 2 )(0.02 m)

V
2(1.6 x 10-19C) ; V = 18.5 kV