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FISICA

(ONDAS PARTICULS)

. 5m – 16 = 3m – 4 . 3p = 7p - 16

5m – 3m = -4 + 16 3p – 7p = -16

2m = 12; m=6 -4p = - 16; p = +4

. 4m = 2(m – 4) . 3(m – 6) = 6

4m = 2m – 8 3m – 18 = 6

2m = -8; m = -4 3m = 24; m = +8

x p 2 1
 (4)(3)  12; x  36   ; p 1
. 3 .3 6 3

96 96
 48; x  2
. x 48 . 14 = 2(b – 7); 14 = 2b – 14; b = 14

1 1 1 6p 6p 6p
  ;  
. R2 = (4)2 + (3)2 = 16 + 9 . 2 p 6 2 p 6

R 2  25 R5 3p = 6 + p; p=3

V PV
R PV  nRT ; T 
. V = IR; I . nR

F
F  ma; a 
. m . s = vt + d; d = s – vt

mv 2 mv 2 2s
F ; FR  mv 2 ; R  a
. R F . s = ½at2; 2s = at2; t2

v 2f  v02 Q2 Q2
2as  v  v ; a 
2
f
2
0 C ; V
. 2s . 2V 2C
1 1 1 mv
  ; R2 R  R1 R  R1 R2 mv  Ft ; t
. R1 R2 R . F

R1 R2 mv
( R1  R2 ) R  R1 R2 ; R t
R1  R2 F

PV PV
1 1
 2 2; 1 1T2  PV
PV 2 2 T1
. mv2  mv1  Ft ; mv2  Ft  mv1 . T1 T2

Ft  mv1 PV
2 2 T1
v2  T2 
m PV
1 1

v = vo + at; v – v0 = at . c 2 = a2 + b2 ; b2 = c2 - a2

v  v0
a
t b  c2  a 2

Let L = 4Lo; Since , the period will be doubled when the length is quadrupled.

Let gm = ge /6, Then, T would be changed by a factor of

Thus, the period T on the moon would be 2(2.45) or 4.90 s.

. (a) Area = LW = (3.45 x 10-4 m)(9.77 x 10-5 m); Area = 3.37 x 10-8 m2.

Perimeter (P) = 2L + 2W = 2(L + W); P = 2(3.45 x 10-4 + 9.77 x 10-5) = 8.85 x 10-4 m.

(b) L = L0/2 and W = 2W0: A = (L0/2)(2W0) = L0W0; No change in area.

P – P0 = [2(L0/2) + 2(2W0)] - [2L0 + 2W0] = 2W0 – L0

P = 2(9.77 x 10-5) – 3.45 x 10-4 P = -1.50 x 10-4 m.

The area doesn’t change, but the perimeter decreases by 0.150 mm.
-A +60 C charge is placed 60 mm to the left of a +20 C charge. What is the resultant force on a

-35 C charge placed midway between the two charges?

(9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )(60 x 10 -6C)(35 x 10-6C)


F13 
(30 x 10-3 m) 2

F13 = 2.10 x 104 N, directed to the left

(9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )(20 x 10-6C)(35 x 10 -6C)


F23 
(30 x 10-3 m) 2 ; F13 = 2.10 x 104 N, directed to right.

FR = F13 + F23 = (-2.10 x 104 N) + (0.700 x 104 N); FR = -1.40 x 104 N, left.

- A point charge of +36 C is placed 80 mm to the left of a second point charge of -22 C. What

force is exerted on third charge of +10 C located at the midpoint?

80 mm
(9 x 109 N  m 2 /C2 )(36 x 10-6 C)(10 x 10-6C)
F13  +36 C 10 C -22 C
(40 x 10-3m) 2
q1 q3 F1 q2
F13 = 2025 N, directed to the right
F2
(9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )(22 x 10 -6C)(10 x 10-6C)
F23 
(40 x 10-3 m) 2 ; F13 = 1238 N, directed to right.

FR = F13 + F23 = 2025 N + 1238 N; FR = 3260 N, left.

- For Problem 23-10, what is the resultant force on a third charge of +12 C placed between the

other charges and located 60 mm from the +36 C charge?

(9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )(36 x 10 -6C)(12 x 10 -6C 80 mm


F13  +36 C q3 = 12 C -22 C
(60 x 10-3m) 2
60 mm q2
q1 F1
(9 x 10 N  m /C )(22 x 10 C)(12 x 10 C)
9 2 2 -6 -6
F2
F23 
(20 x 10-3 m) 2 ;

Both to right, so FR = F13 + F23 = 1080 N + 5940 N; F = 7020 N, rightward.


- A +6 C charge is 44 mm to the right of a -8 C charge. What is the resultant force on a -2 C

charge that is 20 mm to the right of the -8 C charge?


44 mm
(9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )(8 x 10-6C)(2 x 10 -6C) -8 C q3 = -2 C 6C
F13  24 mm
(20 x 10-3 m) 2
q2
q1 20 mm F1
(9 x 109 N  m 2 /C2 )(2 x 10-6C)(6 x 10-6C) F2
F23 
(24 x 10-3m) 2 ;

Both to right, so FR = F13 + F23 = 360 N + 187.5 N; F = 548 N, rightward

. One object contains an excess of 5 x 1014 electrons and another has a deficiency of 4 x 1014

electrons. What is the force each exerts on the other if the objects are 30 mm apart? Is it

attraction or repulsion? ( 1e = 1.6 x 10-19 C, excess = -, deficiency = +. )

q1 = (5 x 1014 e)(1.6 x 10-19 C/e) = -80 C; q2 = (4 x 1014 e)(1.6 x 10-19 C/e) = +64 C

(9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )(80 x 10-6C)(64 x 10-6C)


F
(30 x 10-3m)2 ; F = 5.12 x 104 N, attraction

- If it were possible to put 1 C of charge on each of two spheres separated by a distance of 1 m,

what would be the repulsive force in newtons.

(9 x 109 N  m 2 /C2 )(1 C)(1 C)


F
(1 m) 2 ; F = 9 x 109 N !

The coulomb is a very large unit for electrostatics applications.

. A –40-nC charge is placed 40 mm to the left of a +6-nC charge. What is the resultant force on a

–12-nC charge place 8 mm to the right of the +6-nC charge?

(9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )(40 x 10-9C)(12 x 10-9C)


F1 
(48 x 10-3 m)2

(9 x 109 N  m 2 /C2 )(6 x 10-9 C)(12 x 10-9C)


F2 
(8 x 10-3m) 2 ;
Both to right, so FR = F1 + F2 = 1.88 mN – 10.1 mN; F = -8.25 mN, leftward

-An positively charged plate is 30 mm above a negatively charged plate, and the electric field

intensity has a magnitude of 6 x 104 N/C. How much work is done BY the electric field

when a +4-C charge is moved from the negative plate to the positive plate?

Work = Fd = qEd; F opposite to d makes work negative. +


30 mm E F
Work = (4 x 10-6 C)(6 x 104 N/C)(0.030 m) e -
Work = -7.20 x 10-3 J; Work = -7.20 mJ

-In Problem 25-1, how much work is done ON or against the electric field? What is the electric

potential energy at the positive plate? +


30 mm E Fex
The displacement occurs against the electric force, so that t -

work done ON the field due to outside UP force Fext in same direction as the displacement.

Since the field is in a position to do positive work when at the positive, plate, the electric

potential energy is positive at that point: Ep = +7.20 mJ.

-The electric field intensity between two parallel plates, separated by 25 mm is 8000 N/C. How

much work is done BY the electric field in moving a –2-C charge from the negative plate

to the positive plate? What is the work done BY the field in moving the same charge back

to the positive plate? (Electric force with motion) +


25 mm E F
Work done BY field is positive, Fe with displacement. e -
Work = qEd = (2 x 10-6 C)(8000 N/C)(0.025 m) Work done BY = Loss of electric energy.

Work = 4.00 x 10-4 J Now, in coming back electric force opposes motion.

Work done BY field is negative: Work = - 4.00 x 10-4 J.


-In Problem 25-3, what is the potential energy when the charge is at (a) the positive plate and (b)

the negative plate? +


25 mm E F
Remember, potential energy represents the work that the e -
electric field can do when electric forces are free to act. When the –2 C charge is at the

positive plate, the E field can do no work, thus with reference to that point, Ep = 0.

(a) At + plate: Ep = 0 No work can be done by the electric field.

(b) At – plate, the field can do +work: Ep = +4.00 x 10-4 J

-What is the potential energy of a +6 nC charge located 50 mm away from a +80-C charge?

What is the potential energy if the same charge is 50 mm from a –80-C charge?
P
kQq (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )( 80 x 10-6C)(6 x 10 9C)
P.E.  
r 0.050 m 50 mm

P.E. = 86.4 mJ ±80 C

kQq (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )( 80 x 10-6C)(6 x 10 9C)


P.E.  
r 0.050 m ; P.E. = -86.4 mJ

-At what distance from a –7-C charge will a –3-nC charge have a potential energy of 60 mJ?

What initial force will the –3-nC charge experience?

kQq kQq (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )( 7 x 10 -6C)(-3 x 10 -6C)


P.E.  ; r 
r P.E. 0.060 J ; r = 3.15 mm

kQq (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C2 )( 7 x 10-6C)(-3 x 10-9C)


F 
r2 (3.15 x 10-3 ) 2 ; F = 19.0 N, repulsion

P.E.
F
Note: This value can also be obtained from: r
- A +8-nC charge is placed at a point P, 40 mm from a +12-C charge. What is the potential

energy per unit charge at point P in joules per coulomb? Will this change if the 8-nC

charge is removed? P
40 mm
kQq (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )( 12 x 10-6C)(8 x 10 9C)
P.E.  
r 0.040 m +12 C
P.E. = 0.0216 J;

P.E. 0.0270 J
V  ;
q 8 x 10-9 C V = 2.70 x 106 J/C ; No The P.E./q is a property of space.

If another charge were placed there or if no charge were there, the P.E./q is the same.

-A charge of +6 C is 30 mm away from another charge of 16 C. What is the potential energy of

the system?

kQq (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )( 6 x 10-6 C)(16 x 10 6C)


P.E.  
r 0.030 m ; P.E. = 28.8 J

-In Problem 25-8, what is the change in potential energy if the 6-C charge is moved to a distance

of only 5 mm? Is this an increase or decrease in potential energy?

(P.E.)30 = 28.8 J from previous example. Now assume charge is moved.

kQq (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )( 6 x 10-6 C)(16 x 10 6 C)


( P.E.)5  
r 0.005 m ; (P.E.)5 = 173 J

Change in P.E. = 172. J – 28.8 J; Change = 144 J, increase

-A –3-C charge is placed 6 mm away from a -9-C charge. What is the potential energy? Is it

negative or positive?
kQq (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )(3 x 10-6C)(-9 x 10 6 C)
P.E.  
r 0.006 m ; P.E. = +40.5 J

-What is the change in potential energy when a 3-nC charge is moved from a point 8 cm away

from a –6-C charge to a point that is 20 cm away? Is this an increase or decrease of

potential energy? (Moves from A to B on figure.) B

kQq (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )( 6 x 10-6C)(3 x 10 6 C) A


( P.E.)8   20 cm
r 0.08 m
8 cm
-6 C
(P.E.)8 = -2.025 J, (Negative potential energy)

(9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )( 6 x 10-6C)(3 x 10 6C)


( P.E.) 20 
0.20 m (P.E.)20 = -0.810 J,

Change = final – initial = -0.810 J – (-2.025 J); Change in P.E. = +1.22 J, increase

-. At what distance from a –7-C charge must a charge of –12 nC be placed if the potential energy

is to be 9 x 10-5 J?

kQq kQq (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )( 7 x 10-6C)(-12 x 10-9C)


P.E.  ; r 
r P.E. 9 x 10-5 J ; r = 8.40 m

-The potential energy of a system consisting of two identical charges is 4.50 mJ when their

separation is 38 mm. What is the magnitude of each charge?

kQq kq 2 r ( P.E.) (0.038 m)(0.0045 J)


P.E.   ; q 
r r k (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 ) ; q = 138 nC

- What is the electric potential at a point that is 6 cm from a 8.40-C charge? What is the

potential energy of a 2 nC charge placed at that point?

kQ (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )(8.40 x 10-6C)


V 
r 0.06 m ; V = 1.26 x 106 V
P.E. = qV = (2 x 10-9 C)(1.26 x 106 V); P.E. = 2.52 mJ

-. Calculate the potential at point A that is 50 mm from a –40-C charge. What is the potential

energy if a +3-C charge is placed at point A?

kQ (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )( 40 x 10-6 C)


V 
r 0.050 m ; V = -7.20 x 106 V

P.E. = qV = (3 x 10-6 C)(-7.2 x 106); P.E. = -21.6 J

- What is the potential at the midpoint of a line joining a –12-C charge with a +3-C charge

located 80 mm away from the first charge? +3 C


-12 C
kQ
V  40 mm 40 mm
r (Net potential is algebraic sum)

kQ (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )(12 x 10-6 C) (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )( 3 x 10-6 C)


V   
r 0.040 m 0.040 m

V = -2.70 x 106 V + 0.675 x 106 V; V = -2.025 x 106 V; V = -2.02 MV

- A +45-nC charge is 68 mm to the left of a –9-nC charge. What is the potential at a point

located 40 mm to the left of the –9-nC charge? +45 nC -9 nC


Find potential due to each charge, then add: 28 mm 40 mm

kQ (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C2 )(45 x 10-9 C) (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )( 9 x 10-9 C)


V   
r 0.028 m 0.040 m

V = +14.5 x 103 V + (-2.025 x 103 V); V = +12.4 kV

- Points A and B are 68 mm and 26 mm away from a 90-C charge. Calculate the potential

difference between points A and B? How much work is done BY the electric field as a

-5-C charge moves from A to B? A

B 68 mm
26 mm 90 C
(9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )(90 x 10-6C)
VB 
0.026 m ; VB = 3.115 x 107 V

(9 x 109 N  m 2 /C2 )(90 x 10-6C)


VA  -5 C
A
- (Cont.) 0.068 m ;

VA = 1.19 x 107 V; VB = 3.115 x 107 V B 68 mm

VB – VA = 3.115 x 107 V – 1.19 x 107 V; V = 1.92 x 107 V 26 mm 90 C

Note that the potential INCREASES because B is at a higher potential than A

Now for the field: (Work)AB = q(VA - VB) = (-5 x 10-6 C)(1.19 x 107 V – 3.119 x 107 V);

WorkAB = +96.2 mJ; The field does positive work on a negative charge.

- Points A and B are 40 mm and 25 mm away from a +6-C charge. How much work must be

done against the electric field (by external forces) in moving a +5-C charge from point A

to point B? +5 C
A

(9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )(6 x 10-6C)


VA  B
0.040 m ; VA = 1.35 x 106 V 40 mm
25 mm 6C
(9 x 10 N  m /C )(6 x 10 C)
9 2 2 -6
VB 
0.025 m ; VB = 2.16 x 106 V

(Work)AB = q(VA - VB) = (+5 x 10-6 C)(1.35 x 106 V – 2.16 x 106 V); WorkAB = +4.05 J

Note: The work BY the field is negative, because the motion is against the field forces.

-. A +6 C charge is located at x = 0 on the x-axis, and a -2-C charge is located at x = 8 cm. How

much work is done BY the electric field in moving a –3-C charge from the point x = 10

cm to the point x = 3 cm? +6 C B -2 nC A


3 cm
kQ kQ 5 cm 2 cm
VA   ; VB   x=0
r r
(9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )(6 x 10-6C) (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )( 2 x 10-6 C)
VA  
0.10 m 0.020 m ; VA = -360 kV

- (Cont.) VA = -360 V +6 C B -2 nC A
3 cm
kQ 5 cm 2 cm
VB   x=0
r

(9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )(6 x 10-6C) (9 x 109 N  m 2 /C 2 )( 2 x 10-6 C)


VB  
0.030 m 0.050 m ; VB = 1440 kV

(Work)AB = q(VA - VB) = (-3 x 10-6 C)(-360 kV – 1440 kV); WorkAB = +5.40 J

(3.016 x 10-14 kg)(9.8 m/s 2 )(0.02 m)


V
2(1.6 x 10-19C) ; V = 18.5 kV