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Unit 3: La Comprensión de Lectura y la Cohesión

de Elementos de Transición en el Texto de
la Especialidad.

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Unit 3: La Comprensión de Lectura y la Cohesión
de Elementos de Transición en el Texto de
la Especialidad.

Aprendizajes Esperados Criterios de Evaluación

3.1.- Demuestra comprensión de elementos de cohesión en el 3.1.1.- Identifica palabras o frases de transición, como elementos
texto de la especialidad, a fin de mantener el sentido de la de cohesión, a fin de avanzar en la comprensión de una
lectura del texto en inglés en una versión en español. oración siguiente.
3.1.2.- Comprende palabras de transición variadas en textos de la
especialidad, a fin de localizar información detallada.
3.1.3.- Traduce extractos de textos de la especialidad, a partir del
reconocimiento de léxico especializado y de las
palabras / frases de transición estudiadas.

Contents Cohesion – transitional words and phrases

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Allow the reader to
flow more smoothly TRANSITIONS
from one point to
the next.



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Use of linking words
Traduzca estos párrafos y fundamente el uso de los conectores destacados.

That is ( es decir, esto es). Se usa para decir lo mismo con

otras palabras.
A warning device used for indicating a normal steering power source failure is required. This warning device
shall be visual, and shall be activated by failure of the normal steering power source.
That is, this lamp comes when the oil supply stops due to breakdown in the steering pump or engine.

For example. Ejemplifica para entender la idea anterior.

The place of the distributor is taken by the Motronic electronic engine management system, which directly
controls the individual coils at sub-second speeds.
For example, if the Tiptronic S system requests a smoother transition when changing down, the ignition
system responds immediately with a corresponding change in timing.

However, (sin embargo) Contradice información dada

An allow engine brings advantages and disadvantages. The main advantage is light weight, while the key
disadvantage is high expansion at high operating temperatures. Normally, that is.
However, on the new 911 the main bearing bracket is made of aluminium and in turn reducing mechanical
noise from the engine. Noise encapsulation can be dispensed with, since the problem of noise is tackled at

Therefore, (por lo tanto) concluye con una idea similar a la


The differential is completed by two steering bevel gears which are mounted on the left and right sides of
the bevel pinions. Therefore, each bevel pinion meshes with both steering bevel gears.

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COHESION - transitional words and phrases.
Use of “When” and “As”
Language When often indicates that two actions happen in sequence, i.e. immediately after the other e.g.
When the spark plug ignites, the gases explode.

As often indicates that two actions happen simultaneously, i.e. both at the same time, e.g. As the piston
moves up, it compresses the fuel.

When or as can sometimes be used with the same meaning when it’s difficult to decide if two actions are
simultaneous or in rapid sequence, e.g. When/As the brake pedal is pressed, the piston pushes the oil
along the brake pipe.

EXERCISE 69 Join each group of sentences into a single sentence. Use when / as and which. Do
not use the words in italics.

Example: 1 As the piston moves up, the exhaust valve opens, which lets the burnt gases escape.

1 The piston moves up. At the same time, the exhaust valve opens. This lets the burnt gases
2 The spark plug ignites the fuel. Immediately afterwards, there is an explosion. This makes the
piston move down with great force.
3 The camshaft rotates. Simultaneously, the cam pushes the intake valve downwards. This allows
the fuel to enter the cylinder.
4 The piston moves away from the valves. Immediately after this, it creates a vacuum in the
cylinder. This sucks the fuel in.
5 The piston moves up towards the valves. Soon afterwards, it puts the fuel under high pressure.
This helps the gases to expand rapidly after ignition.
6 The cam pushes the exhaust valve down. At the same time, the piston moves up towards it. This
forces the burnt gases out of the engine.

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Exhaust and Intake Valves.

The steering system of a car
EXERCISE 70 Read the text and label the diagram with the words in bold.

The Steering System of a Car

The steering mechanism is used to link the steering wheel to the road wheels.

Today, rack-and-pinion steering is used for most modern cars with independent front suspension.
The rack is placed in a line between one wheel and the other. The pinion is fixed to the end of the
steering column. When the steering column rotates, the pinion rotates too and engages with the
rack. When the wheel is turned, the rack is moved either to the left or to the right. The rack and
pinion is lubricated at the time of manufacture and needs no further maintenance.

At least one universal joint is fixed into the steering column, which allows it to be assembled more
easily. In addition there is a steering shaft coupling. In the event of an accident, the steering shaft
disengages from the coupling to avoid injuring the driver.

The rack acts as the centre section of a three-piece track rod. Each outer end of the track rod turns
the wheel by means of a track rod ball joint. Ball swivel joints are placed at the outer connection
point of the suspension arms.

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EXERCISE 71 Write sentences from the table that describe the corresponding part . You can use
more than one adjective in a sentence.

Name Shape Noun That Function

1 A steering column is a -------- shaft that allows the car wheel to be turned.

2 A safety coupling is a flat bar separates upon impact.

3 A universal joint is a round joint rotates and engages with the rack.

4 A rack is a long joint in a shaft is rotated by the steering wheel.

5 A pinion is a toothed wheel engages with the pinion and moves

in a sraight line.

6 A track rod ball joint sealed allows rotation when the shaft is
is a not in a straight line.

Example: A steering column is a long round shaft that is rotated by the steering wheel.

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That es una conjunción que pertenece al siguiente grupo (forman oraciones complejas)


After If Though Although

If only Till As In order that
Unless As if Now that Until
As long as Once When As though
Rather than Whenever Because Since
Where Before So that Whereas
Even if Than wherever Even though
That That While

A steering column is a long round shaft that is rotated by the steering wheel.

Independent clause Dependent clause

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Power assisted steering (PAS)
EXERCISE 72 Complete the text with words and phrases from the diagrams. Some are used more
than once.

Power assisted steering (PAS)

The (1) PAS pump___supplies (2)___________________ to a (3)___________________. Movement from

the steering column operates this (4)___________________. When the steering is in a straight –ahead
position (Fig. 1), the (5)___________________ is in the neutral position. (6)___________________ then flows
through the two (7)___________________ to each side of the (8)___________________ in the

When the car is turning, the steering column moves the (10)___________________(Fig. 2) and closes one of
the two (11)___________________ in the control valve. (12)___________________ flows out through the
other (13)___________________, passes to one side of the (14)___________________ and pushes it along
the (15 )___________________.

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Warning system
EXERCISE 73 Complete the description of a parking distance warning system with words or
phrases from the box.

Approximately / at intervals / continuous / less than /

Less than / more rapid / over / shortest

Parking Distance Warning System

The parking distance warning sensor uses four sensors in the rear bumper to determine the
distance between the vehicle and an obstacle. The (1) shortest distance between vehicle and
obstacle is always indicated.

The warning system is activated by selecting reverse gear. An audible signal will sound. This signal
will sound (2) ________________, at a distance of (3) ________________ 1.2 metres (the area A
in the diagram). The signal will become (4) ________________as the vehicle approaches the
obstacle. The warning signal becomes (5) ________________ when this distance is (6)
________________approximately 30 centimetres (area B in the diagram). The system is
deactivated by shifting out of reverse gear. The system does not function at speeds of (7) )
________________ approximately 15 kph.

DO keep the sensors clean and free from snow and ice.
DON’T spray the sensors with a high pressure water jet from a distance of (8 ) ________________
10 cm.

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Control system
EXERCISE 74 Complete the description of a cruise control system with words or phrases from the
box above.

Above / approximately / at the speed / higher / in steps

Less than / more than / more than /the desired speed

Cruise control system

The cruise control system can maintain any speed (1) _____above___about 30 kph, but cannot
keep a constant speed when driving downhill. The system is switched on by moving the switch
A to ON.

When you have reached (2)______________________ , briefly press the switch B to SET. You
can then take your foot off the accelerator. You can increase your speed in the normal way by
means of the accelerator. When you lift your foot off the accelerator, the car will continue
driving (3)______________________ that you set before.

If you drive at (4)______________________ 10 kph higher than the set speed for a period of
(5)______________________ 5 minutes, the cruise control switches off. Then you must store a
new speed again.

If you briefly press the lower part of the rocker switch B, you reduce the speed
(6)______________________. If you press and hold it, you reduce the speed gradually. W hen
you release the rocker switch, the new speed is saved.

If you release the rocker switch B at a speed of (7)______________________ 30 kph, the

memory is cleared. You must then accelerate to a speed (8)______________________ than
(9)______________________30 kph in order to reset a new speed.

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Safety system
EXERCISE 75 Insert one of the phrases from the box in the text where possible. Use each phrase
once only.

that are that is which is which was

Smart Adaptive Cruise Control is a car safety system invented by a team of

engineers at Central Motors. It can be found in all new cars manufactured by Central

Motors. It is an automatic impact-prevention system, designed to maintain a safe

distance between your car and the vehicle in front. It uses a laser sensor mounted on

the front of the vehicle in the upper part of the windscreen.

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Should es usado para dar una recomendación, consejo, y/o aviso .
EXERCISE 76 Read the service schedule and answer the questions below.
Every 60,000 km After 90,000 km, then every 30,000km

Replace air filter element; clean housing Check camshaft drive belt (4-cylinder petrol
engines only)

Replace spark plugs Every 2 years (i.e. for vehicles driven less than
60,000 km in 2 years)
Replace camshaft drive belt and tensioner roller
(diesel engines only)
Replace air filter element; clean housing (for
Check oil level in the final drive for automatic vehicles driven less than 60,000 km in 2 years)

1 A 4- cylinder petrol – engine car is in the grarage for its 120,000 km service. Should the
camshaft drive belt be checked or replaced?

2 A car is two years old and has done 57,000 km. Should it be serviced now? If so, what
work should be carried out?

3 An automatic car has done 120,000 km. What work should be done at this service that is
not done for manual cars?

4 A diesel car has done 120,000. What extra work should be done at this service that is not
done for petrol cars?

5 A manual car with a 4-cylinder petrol engine has done 180,000 km. What parts should be

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Advice checklist

EXERCISE 77 Complete the advice checklist with the expressions in the box. Some alternatives
are possible.

as necessary / at recommended service intervals / before any long journey /every fortnight

fortnightly / once a year / over time / regularly

1 Tyres: Check the tyre pressures at least fortnightly using a garage air line.

2 Engine oil: Check the dipstick at least _________________and ______________________.

3 Engine oil: Have the oil and filter changed _____________________.

4 Water: Check the coolant level_____________________and top up _________________

5 Windscreen wipers: Wipers blade become worn _____________________. Replace them at

least ____________________.

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Current, wire and fuses in a car.
EXERCISE 78 Complete the text with words or phrases from the box and the diagrams.

blade connectors / blown fuse /conductor / current / fuses / higher / lower / overheat /
plastic housing / resistance / signals

Wire: some wires in a car carry very little (1) current ___. They carry (2) _____________from
switches and sensors. Other wires carry a lot of current, for example, to power the starter motor.
Each type of wire has a certain amount of (3) ____________per metre. The longer the wire, the
(4)_________________t he resistance. Automotive wire is made from strands of copper. The finer
the strands, the (5) ________________ the resistance.

Fuses: if too much current goes through a wire, it can (6) _____________and melt. Then the wire
has to be replaced, which is a difficult job. To prevent this from happening, (7) _______________
are included in an electrical circuit. Automotive fuses have two (8)________________ which
complete the circuit. Inside the (9) _____________is the (10) _____________, which carries the
current. The conductor has a lower melting point than the wire of the circuit. If the wire carries too
much current, the heat of the current melts the conductor and “blows” the fuse. A (11) ___________
must be replaced with a good one. Then the electrical circuit will work again.

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Some linking words:
 The words As a result, Therefore (at the beginning of a
So: de modo que sentence) and so, and therefore, and as a result
Since : ya que
(connecting to a previous clause) explain the result.
Therefore: por lo tanto
 The words As , because, since explain the cause of
And as a result: como resultado
Because : porque something.
As: como

Las oraciones dadas a continuación son oraciones compuestas. ¿Por qué? Porque están formadas
por una idea principal y una o más ideas secundarias.

EXERCISE 79 Replace the word(s) in italics with the word(s) in brackets. Make any necessary
changes in punctuation and word order. Use your notebook.

Example: 1 The driver left the headlights on, so the car had a flat battery.

1 The car had a flat battery because the driver left the headlights on. (so)
2 The driver tried the starter motor again and again, and as a result the battery became flat. (since)
3 Since the driver didn’t have a spare fuse, he couldn’t replace the blown fuse. (therefore)
4 The wrong fuse was used and therefore the wire in the circuit melted. (since)
5 The mechanic couldn’t repair the car as he didn’t have a wiring diagram for it. (and as a result)
6 The current in the circuit was too high and as a result the fuse blew. (because)
7 The rear windscreen heater was broken, so the driver couldn’t see out of the rear window (as)

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Bearings use
EXERCISE 80 Match the car components with their properties. (or adjectives)
1 electric cable a) flexible, durable, shock-absorbant
2 leaf-type springs b) fade-resistant, heat-resistant
3 fuel-tank c) flexible, inelastic
4 tyres d) impact-resistant
5 brake-drums e) flexible, fuel-resistant, water-resistant
6 diesel engine f) durable
7 seat belts g) flexible, skid-resistant

EXERCISE 81 Match the descriptions of the bearings with the pictures.

1 In a roller bearing, the wheel hub 4 In taper roller bearings, the roller and the
doesn’t touch the axle. Between them is grooves in which they move are both conical.
a set of rollers in a groove that rotate They are capable of supporting considerable
with the hub. As the wheel moves, the loads. A single roller bearing can only support
rollers rotate and circulate around the thrust in one direction, so a second row with
axle. the taper facing the opposite direction i s
2 Spherical roller bearings rotate in twin 5 If a bush bearing cannot be fitted around a
grooves and can carry greater loads. shaft, then a split bearing must be used. Two
Because the bearing is self-aligning, the halves of a bearing are held together by bolts
shaft in the centre need not be precisely and nuts, or screws.
at 90° to the bearing’s housing.

3 The simplest type of bearing is the plain 6 In a ball bearing, spherical balls are used
bush bearing. A shaft rotates inside a instead of cylindrical rollers. Double-row
sleeve, called a “bush”. When friction bearings of this type can carry heavier loads.
wears away the bush, it can be replaced. Bicycles use ball bearings, not roller bearings.

EXERCISE 82 Answer in Spanish the questions about these descriptions.

1 Which bearings contain cones? 2 Which bearings contain rollers?

3 Which bearings contain balls? 4 Which bearings do not contain moving parts?
5 Which bearings are described as
suitable for bearing heavier loads?

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Types of Bearings
EXERCISE 83 Label the diagrams using the words in bold.

Ball and roller bearings consist of the following

 An inner race which is fixed to the axle.
 An outer race which is fixed to the housing.
 A number of balls or rollers.
 A cage which prevents the balls or rollers
from rubbing against each other, and to
space them around the circumference of
the bearing.
The races and balls (or rollers) are made of a
specially hardened steel, while the cages may
be of aluminum or bronze.

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Heavy machinery
EXERCISE 84 Read the product description of a tracked earthmover and complete the
specification table (A).

1 The aim of the design was to produce a tracked earthmover with greater power than earlier
models. The designers considered the needs of users, for example, construction sites,
quarries and landfill sites.
2 The new design has an 8.8 litre six-cylinder engine, with a top speed of 10 kph in the ‘travel’
mode. The alternative ‘work’ mode allows slower speeds. Independent power is provided to
each track, so the driver can control each track separately and turn the machine easily.
3 The earthmoving bucket has a width of 3.3 m and a capacity of 4.7 m .
4 The powerful engine is located at the rear, and therefore acts as a counterweight. Another
advantage is that the radiator, placed at the rear, is kept clear of earth- moving operations.
The electronic fuel injection system delivers multiple injections of fuel during the engine’s
compression stroke, which improves fuel combustion. The turbocharger, driven by the
exhaust, results in increased power, improved combustion and reduced exhaust emissions.
5 The design uses strong, rigid box-sections, which resist torsional forces. The steel frame
provides flexibility, durability and resistance to high load forces. The multi-purpose bucket
made of high strength, low alloy steel resist dents and damage.
6 The cab is designed for comfort and ease operation. AC and heating are standard features.
The dashboard has two groups of instruments: one with four gauges (fuel l evel, etc) and
another with indicators (low alternator output, etc)
A) Tracked earthmover B) Articulated dump truck
Des ign brief Greater power than earlier More power, carries i ncreased payload (+15%)
Us ers Constructions sites, Qua rri es, landfill sites, forestry i ndustry, construction sites
Key fea tures 2 5.9 l i tre engine; top speed of 50 kph
Ca pa city 3 Ma x pa yl oad: 20 tonnes (12 m 3)
Pa rts a nd Powerful engine at rear 6 forwa rd gears, 3 reverse gears (manual or a utomatic
functi ons opera tion); power- assisted dual braking s ystem; twi n
hydra ulic system for a) s teering and tipping mechanism,
b) bra king a nd s uspension.
Ma teri als 4 Rea r chassis: high tensile s trength s teel, with box-section
rei nforcements.
Properti es 5 Increased ri gidity a nd resistance to l oading forces
Opera tion 6 Reduced noise a nd vi bration; good vi sibility a nd stability; AC
(s ta ndard

Note. Check technical vocabulary below.

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Useful expressions used in heavy machinery
1. Tracked : con oruga; (cuando se indica la característica del objeto se agrega –ed),
ejemplo: wheeled con rueda; doored con puerta; floored con piso; finned: con aletas

“This is a tracked earthmover with greater power than earlier models”.

2. Track: como sustantivo: oruga, carril, como verbo: rastrear, seguir la pista.

“The driver can control each track separetely and turn the machine easily.”

3. Drive: como sustantivo: accionamiento, energía, conducción, propulsión, transmisión,

tracción, impulso, empuje, regulador. Como verbo: conducir, llevar, manejar, impulsar,
Drive shaft: eje motor, eje propulsor, eje de tracción, eje de transmisión.
Drive train: cadena de transmisión
Drive up: potenciar.

“The turbocharger, driven by the exhaust, results in increased power, improved combustion and
reduced exhaust emissions.”

More expressions with drive

Drive clutch: embrague de conduccion
Drive shaft: eje de transmisión
Cardan drive shaft: eje Cardán
Driveline: sistema de transmisión
Drive axle and axle bearings: eje motriz y todos los rodamientos de los ejes
Planetary Drive axle: eje de dirección del planetario.
4x4 (four – wheel drive): tracción en las cuatro ruedas.
FWD (front-wheel drive) : tracción en las ruedas delanteras.
AWD (all wheel-drive) : tracción permanente en las cuatro ruedas.

4. Frame: bastidor, armazón, montura, chassis, carcaza, armadura, esqueleto.

Rigid frame: bastidor rígido.
Rigid box section: sección de caja rígida.
Box section reinforcements: reforzamientos de sección de caja.
“The steel frame provides flexibility, durability, and resistance to high forces.”

5. Steering: dirección, conducción

Steering and tipping mechanism: mecanismo de dirección e inclinación.
Anti-tipping mechanism: Mecanismo anti-vuelco.

6. Power: como sustantivo: potencia, energía, fuerza, capacidad, alimentación, electricidad;

como verbo: alimentar, accionar, impulsar, energizar.
“Independent power is provided to each track”

Power assisted steering: servo dirección, dirección servo asistida

Power steering: dirección asistida.
Power train: tren de fuerza

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