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ASPECTS OF MUSICAL LANGUAGE IN GYORGY LIGETI'S

TEN PIECES FOR WIND QUINTET (1968)

by

CHARLES DOUGLAS MORRISON

B.Mus., The U n i v e r s i t y of M a n i t o b a , 1981

A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF

THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF

MASTER OF ARTS

in

THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES

(Department o f M u s i c )

We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g

to the r e q u i r e d standard

THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA

September 1983

© C h a r l e s Douglas M o r r i s o n , 1983
In p r e s e n t i n g this thesis in partial f u l f i l m e n t of the
r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y
of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make
it freely available f o r reference and study. I further
agree that permission f o rextensive copying o f t h i s thesis
for s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my
d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It is
understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of this thesis
for financial gain shall n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my written
permission.

Department o f MU^Kl

The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia
1956 Main Mall
V a n c o u v e r , Canada
V6T 1Y3

Date OCTOBER S, 1 ^ 8 3

)E-6 (3/81)
ABSTRACT

Gyorgy L i g e t i ' s Ten Pieces for Wind Quintet (1968) i s a work

r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of his style i n the middle sixties; i t illustrates many

compositional procedures i n a medium c o n s i d e r a b l y m o r e " c o m p a c t " than that

o f many o f h i s other works. Moreover, refinements of techniques from

earlier pieces are apparent throughout the quintet. The first chapter

traces the development of Ligeti's compositional style from h i s early period

i n Hungary to h i s more m a t u r e p e r i o d , the style of which began to evolve in

1956 with h i s move t o V i e n n a . Major works a r e cited, excerpts given, and

stylistic features defined and substantiated, o f t e n by Ligeti's own

characterizations of h i s changing musical language.

Chapter II isolates c e r t a i n musical parameters—form, texture, rhythm,

and pitch—and discusses them independently of each other, defining details

of their s t r u c t u r e s and illustrating them i n excerpts from pieces 2 to 9 of

the quintet. Concerning aspects of form, subgroupings of pieces within the

quintet as a whole a r e suggested, while delineating factors within individual

pieces are discussed i n the light of the parameters effecting such segment-

ation. The section dealing with texture identifies two prevalent

arrangements i n the work, i . e . , " e n s e m b l e " and "soloistic," and outlines

general and specific t e x t u r a l aspects of each type (e.g., modes o f instrument

interaction). Rhythmic principles are discussed next, and the r o l e s of meter

and other rhythmic groupings are defined and illustrated. And finally, the

section on pitch organization treats linear and harmonic details separately.

Regarding the f o r m e r , v a r i o u s means o f linear connection and pitch-class

unfolding are exposed, while i n the latter, harmonic structures are

i i
i i i

classified and related according to a derived system of consonance-

dissonance factors. Chapter I I , through the examination procedures outlined

above, p r o v i d e s a basic understanding of techniques and devices in

preparation f o r the detailed analyses which f o l l o w i n Chapters I I I and IV.

Chapters I I I and IV deal e x c l u s i v e l y and extensively with the first

and last pieces respectively. Again, musical parameters are studied

individually, and many c o n c e p t s introduced i n Chapter II are further

discussed. T h e s e and other concepts (the latter being introduced with

specific reference to the first and/or last pieces) are a l s o approached on

a larger scale, providing a comprehensive view of the pieces' overall

musical structures. Instances of interaction between parameters are

referred to in this regard. In a d d i t i o n , these two detailed analyses

include aspects of connection between the first and third pieces of the

quintet, and between the n i n t h and tenth.

In C h a p t e r V, conclusions are given which p e r t a i n to the quintet as

r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of Ligeti's music of this period, as evidenced in findings

resulting from the a n a l y s i s .


TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT i i

L I S T OF EXAMPLES v i i

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS x i

E D I T O R I A L NOTES x i i

Chapter
I. INTRODUCTION 1

II. ASPECTS OF MUSICAL LANGUAGE I N GYORGY LIGETI'S


TEN PIECES FOR WIND QUINTET 23

Introduction 23
Formal Organization o f t h e Work a s a W h o l e 24
Aspects of Textural Structure 25
T e x t u r a l d e t a i l s i n ensemble p i e c e s 26
Textural d e t a i l s i n s o l o i s t i c pieces 32
Summary 39
P r i n c i p l e s o f Rhythmic and M e t r i c D e s i g n 40
Summary 64
Modes o f P i t c h O r g a n i z a t i o n 66
Linear details 66
Summary 85
Harmonic d e t a i l s 86
Summary 103
Summary 104

III. ANALYSIS OF P I E C E NO. 1 105

Introduction 105
Delineating Factors of Formal Segmentation 105
Summary 106
Aspects of Textural Structure 107
Textural quality 107
T e x t u r a l space 110
Summary 112

iv
V

P r i n c i p l e s o f Rhythmic and M e t r i c D e s i g n 112


Element-rhythms 113
Rhythm o f i m p u l s e - d e n s i t y f l u c t u a t i o n 113
Rhythm o f d y n a m i c a l l y exposed p i t c h - p a i r groups ... 116
Rhythm o f t e x t u r a l - d e n s i t y f l u c t u a t i o n 119
Rhythm o f t e x t u r a l q u a l i t y f l u c t u a t i o n 119
Rhythm o f h a r m o n i c - d e n s i t y f l u c t u a t i o n 120
Rhythm o f tempo change 120
I n t e r a c t i o n o f element-rhythms 120
Summary 123
Modes o f P i t c h O r g a n i z a t i o n . . . . . 124
Linear d e t a i l s 124
Outer-voice prolongation 124
Linear progressions involving l a t e r a l voice crossing . 133
Timbral connections 134
C o n n e c t i o n t h r o u g h dynamic exposure 134
Connection through a r t i c u l a t i o n a f t e r a r e s t . . . . 136
C o n n e c t i o n s between d y n a m i c a l l y exposed p i t c h - p a i r s . 140
Summary 144
Harmonic d e t a i l s 144
Measures 1-12 145
Measures 13-15 ( t h e t r a n s i t i o n ) and t h e ' b ' - s e c t i o n . 151
Summary 154
C o n n e c t i v e F a c t o r s Between t h e F i r s t and T h i r d P i e c e s
and I n t e r r u p t i v e A s p e c t s o f t h e Second 155
Summary 158
Summary 158

IV. ANALYSIS OF PIECE NO. 10 160

Introduction 160
D e l i n e a t i n g F a c t o r s o f Formal Segmentation 160
Summary 161
Aspects of T e x t u r a l S t r u c t u r e 162
Formal s t r u c t u r e as d e f i n e d by t e x t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s . . . 163
T e x t u r a l p r o g r e s s i o n s as m a n i f e s t i n d e n s i t y and
spatial fluctuations 167
Textural-density ., 167
T e x t u r a l space 171
Summary 172
P r i n c i p l e s o f Rhythmic and M e t r i c D e s i g n 173
Summary 178
Modes o f P i t c h O r g a n i z a t i o n 179
Linear d e t a i l s 179
Linear r e g i s t r a l connections 179
PC u n f o l d i n g 188
Summary 193
Harmonic d e t a i l s 194
Consonance-dissonance q u a l i t y o f c o l o r a t i o n s 194
S p e c i f i c placement and c o n t e n t o f c o l o r a t i o n s . . . . 198
S p e c i f i c placement o f o c t a v e and u n i s o n d o u b l i n g s . . 200
Summary 201
C o n n e c t i v e F a c t o r s Between t h e N i n t h and Tenth P i e c e s '. . . 201
Summary 203
Summary 204

V. CONCLUSION 205

WORKS CITED 209

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 210


L I S T OF EXAMPLES

1. Atmospheres, measures 1-6, s h o w i n g static, chromatic


s o u n d mass 4

2. Atmospheres, measures 30-34, showing gradually

transforming sonorities 7

3. Atmospheres, measures 52-53, showing m i c r o p o l y p h o n y . . . . . 10

4. Volumina, r e h e a r s a l n o s . 1 t o 2, s h o w i n g static,
c h r o m a t i c sound mass 12
5. Requiem, s e c o n d movement, m e a s u r e s 67-72, showing
micropolyphony 14

6. Apparitions, s e c o n d movement, m e a s u r e s 10-17, showing


a rapid succession of disparate textures 16

7. Aventures, m e a s u r e s 1-11, s h o w i n g a rapid succession


of d i s p a r a t e t e x t u r e s 18

8. Double Concerto, first movement, m e a s u r e s 68-74, showing

a more t r a n s p a r e n t polyphony with i n d e p e n d e n t components . . 21

9. Instrumentation-density and s u b g r o u p i n g o f t h e t e n p i e c e s . . 24

10. Piece No. 5, m e a s u r e s 1-5, s h o w i n g a single textural

element , 28

11. Piece No. 9, m e a s u r e s 8-13, s h o w i n g one t e x t u r a l element . . . 29

12. P i e c e No. 3, m e a s u r e s 7-10, s h o w i n g a s u b g r o u p i n g o f


components i n t h e t r a n s i t i o n a l p a s s a g e 30
13. P i e c e No. 7, m e a s u r e s 3-8 a n d 4 0 - 4 1 , s h o w i n g d i s p a r a t e

textures c h a r a c t e r i z i n g adjacent formal sections 31

14. Piece No. 2, m e a s u r e s 1-4, s h o w i n g a two-element texture . . . 33

15. Piece No. 6, m e a s u r e s 1-4, s h o w i n g a two-element texture . . . 34

16. P i e c e No. 8, m e a s u r e s 1, 2, 5, 10, a n d 12, s h o w i n g a n


" e n s e m b l e - l i k e " t e x t u r e as an accompanimental element . . . 36
17. P i e c e No. 2, m e a s u r e s 12-15, s h o w i n g o n e t e x t u r a l e l e m e n t
w i t h one p r i m a r y and f o u r s e c o n d a r y components 37

vii
viii

18. P i e c e No. 4, measures 1-4, showing one t e x t u r a l element

w i t h one p r i m a r y and two secondary components 38

19. P i e c e No. 8, measures 1-16, i m p u l s e - d e n s i t y graph 43

20. P i e c e No. 8, measures 12-16 (horn p a r t o n l y ) , showing


low-level metric units 45
21. P i e c e No. 8, measures 1 ( b e a t s 1-2) and 10 ( b e a t s 3-4),

showing p o t e n t i a l p u l s e d e f i n i t i o n 47

22. P i e c e No. 8, measure 5, showing r h y t h m i c and l i n e a r p a t t e r n s . 48

23. P i e c e No. 4, i m p u l s e - d e n s i t y g r a p h 50

24. P i e c e No. 4, l a r g e - s c a l e i m p u l s e - d e n s i t y u n i t s 52

25. P i e c e No. 3, i m p u l s e - d e n s i t y g r a p h 53

26. P i e c e No. 3, m e t r i c u n i t s 55

27. P i e c e No. 3, measures 10-12, r h y t h m i c and m e t r i c d e s i g n ... 57

28. P i e c e No. 5, i m p u l s e - d e n s i t y g r a p h 58

29. P i e c e No. 7, measures 38-44, i m p u l s e - d e n s i t y graph 60

30. P i e c e No. 2, l o c a l a r r i v a l p o i n t s (measures 9-12 and 23-24) . 62

31. P i e c e No. 6, l o c a l a r r i v a l / d e p a r t u r e p o i n t s (measures 8-9


and 10-11) 63
32. P i e c e No. 8, measures 26-32, showing c o n s e c u t i v e d i s p a r a t e

musical ideas 65

33. P i e c e No. 2, measures 12-15, two s i m u l t a n e o u s l i n e a r i z a t i o n s . 68

34. P i e c e No. 2, measures 21-22 and 29, two s i m u l t a n e o u s

linearizations 68

35. P i e c e No. 4, measures 1-8, s i m u l t a n e o u s l i n e a r c o n n e c t i o n s . . 71

36. P i e c e No. 7, measures 38-44, l i n e a r p r o g r e s s i o n of t r i t o n e s . 73

37. P i e c e No. 5, PC o r d e r i n g s , showing PC p a i r and IC o r d e r i n g

relationships 74

38. P i e c e s 5 and 6, PC p a i r and IC o r d e r i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s .... 75

39. P i e c e s 9, 5, and 6, p a t t e r n s o f PC u n f o l d i n g 77

40. PC c o n n e c t i o n between t h e f i f t h and s i x t h p i e c e s 79

41. P i e c e No. 8, measures 1-12, wedge-patterned l i n e a r i z a t i o n s . 80


ix

42. P i e c e No. 8, m e a s u r e s 1-12, patterned pitch unfolding


as compared t o r h y t h m i c a c t i v i t y 80

43. Piece No. 3, m e a s u r e s 1-8, linear components through

unison t r a n s f e r and pitch interchange 83

44. P i e c e No. 3, measures'1-8, harmonic complexes 88

45. P i e c e No. 3, m e a s u r e s 1-8, c o n s o n a n c e - d i s s o n a n c e criteria


and h a r m o n i c q u a l i t y f l u c t u a t i o n 89
46. P i e c e No. 5, m e a s u r e s 1-8, l i n e - g r a p h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of
l i n e a r and h a r m o n i c expansion 92

47. Piece No. 9, measures 8-15, line-graph representation of


linear and harmonic expansion 94

48. Piece No. 2, m e a s u r e s 12-13; a n d p i e c e No. 4, measure 1,


harmonic interval fluctuation through v o i c e leading . . . . 97

49. P i e c e No. 4, measures 7-9 and 23-26, h a r m o n i c interval

fluctuation through v o i c e leading 98

50. P i e c e No. 2, harmonic organization 101

51. P i e c e No. 7, m e a s u r e s 1-38, harmonic organization 101

52. L i n e - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of textural components, showing

textural quality 109

53. T e x t u r a l spaces of formal segments I l l

54. Two levels of impulse-density fluctuation 115

55. Units of dynamically exposed pitch-pair groups 118

56. I n t e r a c t i o n of s i x element-rhythms 122

57. Outer-voice prolongation i n measures 1-16 126

58. L i n e a r s t r u c t u r e o f t h e ' b ' - s e c t i o n and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p


to the ' a ' - s e c t i o n 132
59. Two i n s t a n c e s o f t i m b r a l c o n n e c t i o n i n l a t e r a l v o i c e -

crossing events 135

60. One i n s t a n c e of connection t h r o u g h dynamic exposure 135

61. One i n s t a n c e of connection through a r t i c u l a t i o n after a rest . 136

Examples 52-67 (incl.) p e r t a i n t o p i e c e No. 1.


X

62. Linear progressions involving lateral voice crossing


i n m e a s u r e s 1-12 139

63. Connections through dynamically exposed pitch-pairs

i n measures 1-14 142

64. Harmonic structure 147

65. Consonance-dissonance c r i t e r i a a n d C-D factors 149

66. Recurring sets of equal harmonic quality i n units of

dynamically exposed pitch-pairs 153

67. P i t c h r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e f i r s t and t h i r d pieces . . . . 157

c
68. Line-graph representaion 165

69. F o u r modes of textural-density fluctuation 170

70. Impulse-number proportions o f p h r a s e f r a g m e n t s and

impulse-density graph 176

71. Motivic d e f i n i t i o n of r e g i s t e r s i and i i 180

72. First and second l e v e l s of l i n e a r p i t c h structure 183

73. Third and f o u r t h l e v e l s of l i n e a r p i t c h structure 187

74. Motivic organization in registers i , ii, and i i i 188

75. PC c o n t e n t of formal segments 191

76. Consonance-dissonance f a c t o r s of c o l o r a t i o n v e r t i c a l i t i e s . . 197

77. L i n e a r p r o g r e s s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e n i n t h
and t e n t h p i e c e s ..' .' 202
78. Twelve-note aggregate completion from the n i n t h to
the t e n t h piece 203

Examples 68-78 (incl.) pertain to piece No. 10.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

For permission to use copyrighted materials, the following publishers

are gratefully acknowledged: European American Music Distributors, sole

Canadian agent f o r B. S c h o t t ' s Soehne; C. F . P e t e r s Corporation, New Y o r k ;

and Universal E d i t i o n A.G., W i e n .

I would like t o e x p r e s s my u t m o s t gratitude t o Dr. Wallace Berry for

his c a r e f u l s u p e r v i s i o n and i n v a l u a b l e suggestions throughout the course of

this project. Also, I wish t o e x t e n d my t h a n k s to Dr. Gregory B u t l e r f o r

his reading o f t h e p a p e r a n d h e l p f u l comments. To D r . W i l l i a m Benjamin,

for h i sguidance i n t h e e a r l y stages of this project and f o r h i s r e a d i n g o f

the thesis, 1 offer my appreciation.

xi
EDITORIAL NOTES

Subheadings of t h e s e c t i o n s w i t h i n c h a p t e r s of t h i s paper a r e

r a n k - o r d e r e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner:

F i r s t - L e v e l Subheading

Second-Level Subheading

Third-level subheading

Fourth-level subheading

R e g i s t r a l l y s p e c i f i c pitches are designated according to the

f o l l o w i n g octave c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s :

c 1
c 2
c 3
c 4
c 5
c 6
c 7

^Y. ) z
-/ ° — (V •)
J.
i -e-

Upper-case l e t t e r s w i t h s u p e r s c r i p t numbers thus denote r e g i s t r a l l y s p e c i f i c


4 3

p i t c h e s , e.g., E , D , e t c . P i t c h - c l a s s e s ( i . e . , r e g i s t r a l l y non-specific

p i t c h e s ) a r e i n d i c a t e d by upper-case l e t t e r s , e.g., D, F//, e t c .

PC s t a n d s f o r p i t c h - c l a s s , IC f o r i n t e r v a l - c l a s s , and C-D f a c t o r f o r

consonance-dissonance f a c t o r ( e x p l a i n e d at the appropriate point i n the text).

xii
CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

The year 1956 may be c o n s i d e r e d a major t u r n i n g p o i n t i n Gyorgy

L i g e t i ' s l i f e , f o r i t was the move from Hungary ( h i s p l a c e of b i r t h i n

1923) t o V i e n n a i n t h a t y e a r w h i c h put him i n c o n t a c t w i t h s e v e r a l l e a d i n g

European a v a n t - g a r d e composers such as E i m e r t , K o e n i g , and Stockhausen. ^"

The r e s u l t of t h i s exposure was a marked change i n L i g e t i ' s c o m p o s i t i o n a l

style.

L i g e t i ' s works p r i o r t o 1956 may be d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s m a l l e r

groups. H i s e a r l i e s t works, composed between 1938 and 1942, c o n s i s t m a i n l y


2
of u n p u b l i s h e d p i a n o p i e c e s , chamber works, and songs. From the m i d d l e t o
l a t e f o r t i e s , however, the p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n l a r g e l y r e s t r i c t e d the
3

c o m p o s i t i o n of new music t o mere f o l k s o n g arrangements. And f i n a l l y , i n

t h e e a r l y f i f t i e s , when the r e s t r i c t i o n s were somewhat r e l a x e d , L i g e t i

began t o d e v e l o p a new s t y l e :
About 1950 I r e a l i z e d t h a t f u r t h e r development i n t h e p o s t - B a r t o k
s t y l e i n w h i c h I had been composing was not t h e way f o r w a r d f o r
me. . . . I n 1951 I s t a r t e d t o experiment w i t h s i m p l e s t r u c t u r e s
of rhythm and sound i n o r d e r , i n a manner of s p e a k i n g , t o b u i l d
up a new music from n o t h i n g . . . . I asked m y s e l f : what can I do
w i t h a s i n g l e note? what can I do w i t h i t s o c t a v e ? what w i t h
one i n t e r v a l ? what w i t h two i n t e r v a l s ? what w i t h d e f i n i t e
r h y t h m i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s which c o u l d form t h e f o u n d a t i o n s of a
whole based on rhythm and i n t e r v a l ? I n t h i s way s e v e r a l s m a l l

*0ve N o r d w a l l , " L i g e t i , Gyorgy," The New Grove Dictionary of Music


and Musicians, e d i t e d by S t a n l e y S a d i e , v o l . 10, p.854.

2
Ibid.

^Ibid.

1
, 2

p i e c e s were composed, c h i e f l y f o r t h e p i a n o .

His Musica ricercata (11 P i e c e s f o r P i a n o , 1951-53) was composed i n

the wake of t h e s e questions."' W h i l e t h i s work c o n t a i n s some of t h e seeds

of L i g e t i ' s new s t y l e , a f r e e l y t o n a l language remains prominent i n t h e

B a r t o k - i n f l u e n c e d S t r i n g Q u a r t e t No. 1 - Metamorphoses nocturnes (1953-54),

and Ejszaka, Reggel (1955) f o r c h o r u s .

In 1956, w i t h t h e move to V i e n n a , L i g e t i developed t h e s t y l e which

brought him i n t e r n a t i o n a l a c c l a i m — a s t y l e w h i c h he m a i n t a i n e d f o r about a

decade. Apparitions (1958-59) and Atmospheres (1961), b o t h f o r o r c h e s t r a ,

are t h e works which were l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s immediate widespread

recognition. Atmospheres i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e use of s t a t i c , c h r o m a t i c

sound masses, g r a d u a l l y t r a n s f o r m i n g s o n o r i t i e s , and m i c r o p o l y p h o n y . The

f i r s t of t h e s e t h r e e t e x t u r e s , as i l l u s t r a t e d i n Example 1, i s d e f i n e d as

a sustained chromatic c l u s t e r . I n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r e x c e r p t , t h e sound b l o c k

i n c l u d e s e v e r y p i t c h from ^ - t o
jyfr* except CJ. ^ , sustained

6 - T
7
"ametrically" as though suspended i n space.

4
Gyorgy L i g e t i , quoted i n Ove N o r d w a l l , l i n e r n o t e s f o r Musica
ricercata ( 1 9 5 1 - 5 3 ) , on Duo Pohjola (Grammofonfirma BIS 18, recorded i n
W. Germany, 1974). G i v e n t h e u n a v a i l a b i l i t y of p u b l i s h e d s o u r c e s by L i g e t i ,
of s o u r c e s w h i c h quote L i g e t i , i n f o r m a t i o n g l e a n e d from l i n e r n o t e s such as
t h i s has proved i n v a l u a b l e i n a s c e r t a i n i n g L i g e t i ' s own c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s
of t h e t e c h n i q u e s of h i s m u s i c a l language.
5
Ibid.
6
T h i s s u s t a i n e d sound mass may be c o n s i d e r e d " a m e t r i c " because of
the absence of p e r c e i v a b l e , a c c e n t - d e l i n e a t e d m e t r i c u n i t s ; t h e 4 t i m e
s i g n a t u r e and n o t a t e d b a r l i n e s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y n o t a t i o n a l c o n v e n i e n c e s .
7
My c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of t h e s e measures i s c o r r o b o r a t e d by Thomas
C l i f t o n i n h i s r e c e n t book, Music as Heard (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y
P r e s s , 1983), pp. 155-56. C l i f t o n s t a t e s :
"The most e l e m e n t a l k i n d s of s u r f a c e o c c u r under t h r e e c o n d i t i o n s :
the f i r s t r e q u i r e s t h e absence of movement; t h e second, t h e absence
of any c o n t r a s t i n dynamics; and the t h i r d , an absence of t i m b r a l
c o m p l e x i t y . The opening measures of L i g e t i ' s Atmospheres r e v e a l the
3

Example 1. Atmospheres, measures 1-6, s h o w i n g static, chromatic


sound mass.
unmerklich einsetzen / imperceptible ottack
die Tremoli so dicht wie moglich / the tremolos as thick as possible

1) without the hair of the bow


2) scarcely audible

0 1 9 6 3 by Universal Edition A . G .
Reprint with permission of Universal Edition Wien
5

Example 2, a l s o from Atmospheres, i l l u s t r a t e s a t e x t u r e which

c o n s i s t s o f g r a d u a l l y changing s o n o r i t i e s . I n t h i s p r o c e s s , each member


g

of an e s t a b l i s h e d v e r t i c a l s o n o r i t y moves i n d e p e n d e n t l y of others until

a new v e r t i c a l i t y has e v o l v e d . This p a r t i c u l a r excerpt f e a t u r e s the

i n t e r a c t i o n o f s e v e r a l sound b l o c k s , each o f w h i c h goes through t h e


metamorphic p r o c e s s d e s c r i b e d above. F o r i n s t a n c e , i n measure 30, t h e
-) — 9
second v i o l i n s a r e s u s t a i n i n g ^ 0 » > t n e
p i t c h e s o f w h i c h move one

by one u n t i l -s 1
i s formed i n b a r 32 and s u b s e q u e n t l y : s u s t a i n e d .

O c c u r r i n g r h y t h m i c a l l y independent o f , but n e v e r t h e l e s s c o n c u r r e n t with,

the second v i o l i n s ' t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s a p r o g r e s s i o n from to


f
i n t h e v i o l a s , e f f e c t e d through t h e same p r o c e s s . The p i c c o l o s ,

oboes, c l a r i n e t s , trumpets, f i r s t v i o l i n s , and c e l l o s a r e a l s o engaged i n

independent s o n o r i t y t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s throughout t h e s e measures.

"Micropolyphony," as i l l u s t r a t e d i n Example 3, i s d e f i n e d by L i g e t i a s :

. . . a t e c h n i q u e by w h i c h i n s t r u m e n t a l p a r t s a r e i n t e r w o v e n and crowded
t o g e t h e r i n t o a dense c o n t r a p u n t a l t e x t u r e . There a r e so many p a r t s ,
and t h e i r p o l y p h o n i c i n t e r w e a v i n g i s so complex, t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l
p a r t s a r e c o m p l e t e l y submerged i n t o a m i c r o p o l y p h o n i c web, and t h e
o v e r a l l m u s i c a l p a t t e r n which emerges from t h i s t e c h n i q u e imposes a
f o r m a l shape on t h e w o r k . ^ u

f i r s t two o f t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s . W i t h i n t h e s e m e a s u r e s — I t h i n k
p a r t i c u l a r l y of the f i r s t s i x — o n e experiences very l i t t l e sensation of
change. W i t h o u t change, w h i c h i s c o n s t i t u t i v e o f rhythm, time i t s e l f
i s suspended. . . . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e t e x t u r e o f t h e opening measures o f
Atmospheres can be d e s c r i b e d a s s y n t h e t i c , i n t h e sense t h a t i n d i v i d u a l
elements a r e absorbed i n t o t h i s amorphous mass o f sound."
g
An " e s t a b l i s h e d v e r t i c a l s o n o r i t y " i s one w h i c h has sounded l o n g
enough, w i t h o u t i n t e r n a l p i t c h change, t o be r e c o g n i z e d as a s t a t i c
verticality.
9
The b l a c k v e r t i c a l b a r i n d i c a t e s a c h r o m a t i c cluster, i.e., a l l
p i t c h e s between and i n c l u d i n g t h e two i n d i c a t e d .

^ G y o r g y L i g e t i , l i n e r n o t e s f o r Ligeti: Melodien for Orchestra


(Decca H e a d l i n e , Head 12, 1976).
6

E x a m p l e 2. Atmospheres, m e a s u r e s 30-34, showing g r a d u a l l y


transforming sonorities.
8

The denseness of t h e p o l y p h o n i c i n t e r w e a v i n g i n Example 3 i s the


:ne r
ree ss uu ll tt of
or

the complex composite rhythm o f , and r e l a t i v e l y narrow ambitus,

over which t h e f o r t y - e i g h t independent l i n e a r events o p e r a t e . The overall

e f f e c t u n d o u b t e d l y outweighs t h a t of any one of i t s components.

S t a t i c sound b l o c k s , g r a d u a l s o n o r i t y t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s , and

m i c r o p o l y p h o n y a r e t h e main t e x t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of o t h e r works i n the

e a r l y t o m i d d l e s i x t i e s , as e v i d e n c e d i n Volumina (1961-62) f o r organ,

movements one and two of t h e Requiem (1963-65) f o r two c h o r u s e s and

o r c h e s t r a , t h e f i r s t movement of t h e Cello Concerto ( 1 9 6 6 ) , Lux aeterna

(1966) f o r c h o r u s , and Lontano (1967) f o r l a r g e o r c h e s t r a , t h r e e of w h i c h

(Volumina, Cello Concerto, and Requiem) a r e d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l below-.-

Example 4 c o n s i s t s of t h e opening of Volumina, which g r a p h i c a l l y

i l l u s t r a t e s t h e concept of s t a t i c sound mass. Notice i n t h i s excerpt that,

a l t h o u g h t h e dynamics f l u c t u a t e as a r e s u l t of r e g i s t r a t i o n changes, pitch

c o n t e n t remains s t a t i c t h r o u g h o u t . The opening movement of the Cello

Concerto t y p i f i e s a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t a p p l i c a t i o n of s l o w l y changing

s o n o r i t i e s from t h a t of t h e b l o c k - l i k e c l u s t e r s of Atmospheres. Here, a

mode of l i n e a r e x p a n s i o n may be d i s c e r n e d . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e u n i s o n E^ of

measure 11 g r a d u a l l y expands t o more complex v e r t i c a l i t i e s , p i t c h e s b e i n g

added i n the f o l l o w i n g o r d e r : Km. 11 m. 17 m. 26 m. 28 .

f 1
' & faW

The second movement of the Requiem c o n t a i n s p o r t i o n s e x h i b i t i n g complex

m i c r o p o l y p h o n i c t e x t u r e s such as t h e e x c e r p t g i v e n as Example 5. Here, as

i n t h e e x c e r p t from Atmospheres, t h e complex i n t e r w e a v i n g of l i n e a r

components o c c u r s w i t h i n a narrow r a n g e , s p e c i f i c a l l y from O l to


~)
^ # . L i n e a r independence i s c o n s e q u e n t l y r e n d e r e d s u b o r d i n a t e t o
9

Example 3. Atmospheres, m e a s u r e s 52-53, showing m i c r o p o l y p h o n y .


1) scorcely audible
2) scraps
3) stop suddenly
@1963 by Universal Edition A.G.
Reprint with permission of Universal Edition Wien
11

Example 4. Volumina, r e h e a r s a l n o s . 1 t o 2, showing static, chromatic


sound mass.
r
(dCt ?if{ti-«
btzCeHcn ttch
imf die- btc^t-

ti)
le-jttn Anm tr-
ie u.n.g

„ //// Remitter - e L i t n i n i t e n <to (wJe Cm M<LMU«.0.

W Unker Fuij

A.
13

the effect o f t h e whole.

Apparitions, the other work u n d e r l y i n g Ligeti's immediate r e c o g n i t i o n

in the late fifties, i s somewhat different from t h e p i e c e s illustrated above.

Rather than a continuous sound structure of slowly transforming textures, i t

features a succession o f a b r u p t l y changing textures (one o f w h i c h i s

micropolyphony). This "fragmented" quality i s also discernible i n several

of L i g e t i ' s other pieces from the middle sixties s u c h a s Aventures (1964) and

Nouvelles Aventures (1964) f o r t h r e e solo voices and seven instruments, the

third movement o f t h e Requiem, a n d s e c o n d movement o f t h e Cello Concerto.

Example 6 i s an e x c e r p t f r o m Apparitions, and Example 7, f r o m Aventures, both

of which illustrate t h i s more d i s j u n c t style.

In the f i r s t of these (from Apparitions) a change o f m u s i c a l element

occurs on a l m o s t every beat, each element being defined by different

orchestration, register, rhythmic design, length, melodic shape, dynamics,

and articulation. Notice that by measure 16 t h e i n d e p e n d e n t elements begin

to overlap, transforming the former "patch-work" t e x t u r e (i.e., one o f

juxtaposition) t o one o f c o m p l e x superimposition of disparate musical ideas.

The excerpt f r o m Aventures also reveals s u c c e s s i v e and superimposed,

contrasting elements often involving non-traditional vocal techniques.

Around 1965 L i g e t i began t o a l t e r h i s musical style once more:

S i n c e about t h e m i d d l e s i x t i e s I have g r a d u a l l y been t r a n s f o r m i n g t h e


t e c h n i q u e o f m i c r o p o l y p h o n y , a i m i n g t o make t h e s e p a r a t e l i n e s c l e a r e r
and m o r e i n d i v i d u a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e . T h e p o l y p h o n i c p a t t e r n i s s t i l l
complex, but t h e p o l y p h o n y i t s e l f i s l e s s " m i c r o " i n t h a t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y
now e x i s t s o f d e s i g n i n g a u t o n o m o u s , d i v e r g e n t , m u t u a l l y c o n t r a s t e d

''''''Two o b s e r v a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h i s e x a m p l e a r e n o t e w o r t h y , t h e f i r s t
of which i s t h e f a c t that the v o i c e p a r t s a r e doubled i n the s t r i n g s ; three
c h o r a l s e c t i o n s — s o p r a n o , mezzo, and a l t o — a r e i n o p e r a t i o n . The second
d e t a i l concerns the texture i t s e l f . W i t h i n each s e c t i o n , micropolyphony i s
e f f e c t e d through a f o u r - v o i c e canon. Although these canons a r e not
rhythmically s t r i c t , the succession (i.e., unfolding) of pitches i s the
same i n e a c h c a s e .
14

Example 5. Requiem, s e c o n d movement, m e a s u r e s 67-72, showing


micro polyphony.

© 1966 by Henry L i t o l f f ' s Verlag


Reprint with permission of C.F.Peters
Music Publishers Frankfurt
15

Example 6. Apparitions, s e c o n d movement, m e a s u r e s 10-17, showing


a rapid succession of disparate textures.
* Sie»*« Efklo'ufg "* Sa-ta 14 / Sea eoienct on ** o" peg* 14
II (harsh/ oudbia)
2) from rhe b'-dgedownwa'di over m«fince*fceo'dT-a nointr of tt'o>ei J 3oc3«^ata. **" Siehe FMI6rung $*,<« 14 / See e«Dlonoior *" on poge I*
3l conpVely sont.cello *" "nge'nagei del G'rtf-nge'i ouf die So.ta dtuc*en./• - Pill.; Presi noil ol the (e-t-hond-finoer on rhe (tring.
1) fno' flvtter-tonguel
21 bowed
3] S'fott dekoielv end continually ove> the Hio witn b'uiH,
4) g'oduollyJul totto
51 iul tgsto, grodoofiy.-* to porvictllo
61 groduoNyul toito
7) bowed

* Fc'i «*'ne VK'ccpe vo'handen ;it, sp.ele men d.,' ti no 8*ey i avovabfe. play 0.
H no'Sfy oudb'e

3l w n
ti
1 on *fe edge of m
2 a ikin
d-umit'CK
4| bo*«d
5i g'odajiiy completely iul pom calto
61 JU! fci'O, grodi<3:!v-*ord.
7) T ha lymbt* ot l"0*a» :»t oppronmo'e. Wl^out •'O'f.

© 1 9 6 4 by Universal Edition A.G.


Reprint with permission of Universal Edition Wien
17

E x a m p l e 7. Aventures, m e a s u r e s 1-11, showing a r a p i d succession


of disparate textures.
01964 by Henry L i t o l f f ' s Verlag
Reprint with permission of C.F.Peters
Music Publishers Frankfurt
19

melodic p r o c e s s e s , which lead an independent existence within the


overriding contrapuntal network.^

T h i s newly established, more t r a n s p a r e n t texture i sa distinguishing feature

of s u c h w o r k s a s t h e Ten Pieces for Wind Quintet ( 1 9 6 8 ) , Chamber Concerto

(1968-70), Melodien (1971) f o r o r c h e s t r a , Double Concerto (1972) f o r flute,

oboe, and o r c h e s t r a , a n d San Fransisco Polyphony (1973-74) f o r o r c h e s t r a .

An e x a m p l e o f t h e more p e r s p i c u o u s t e x t u r e , still rhythmically complex b u t

with lines exhibiting increased independence and d i r e c t i o n , i s found i n the

first movement o f t h e Double Concerto, an e x c e r p t from which i s given i n

E x a m p l e 8.

It s h o u l d be c l e a r from t h i s example that, although the rhythmic


3 . . . . 5
structure i sstill complex (e.g., | [ | against | | | | against || | | J),

each o f t h e l i n e a r components reveals independence i n terms of melodic

direction and g o a l o f motion. For instance, the f i r s t viola moves f r o m A^

to by measure 70, w h i l e t h e t h i r d viola travels from its initial B - 1


in

bar 68 t o by measure 72, a n d so o n . Although the " t o t a l i t y " of the

resulting complex p o l y p h o n i c web i s a n i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t , so t o o a r e t h e

individual components which comprise theoverall texture.

Other aspects of m u s i c a l language of this second phase of Ligeti's

mature p e r i o d are disclosed i n the following quotation:

The m u s i c a l l a n g u a g e o f t h i s w o r k [chamber Concerto], as i n t h e case


i n a l l my c o m p o s i t i o n s s i n c e t h e m i d d l e s i x t i e s , i s n e i t h e r t o n a l n o r
atonal. T h e r e a r e no t o n a l c e n t r e s , n o r a r e t h e r e a n y h a r m o n i c
c o m b i n a t i o n s o r p r o g r e s s i o n s which c a n be f u n c t i o n a l l y a n a l y z e d ; on
the o t h e r hand t h e t w e l v e n o t e s o f t h e c h r o m a t i c s c a l e a r e n o t t r e a t e d
as n o t e s o f e q u a l importance, a s i n a t o n a l and s e r i a l m u s i c . There
are s p e c i f i c predominant arrangements o f i n t e r v a l s , which determine
the c o u r s e o f t h e music and t h e development o f t h e form. The complex
p o l y p h o n y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l p a r t s i s embodied i n a h a r m o n i c - m u s i c a l
flow, i n which t h e harmonies ( i . e . , t h e v e r t i c a l combinations of
i n t e r v a l s ) do n o t c h a n g e s u d d e n l y , b u t m e r g e i n t o o n e a n o t h e r ; o n e
c l e a r l y d i s c e r n i b l e i n t e r v a l c o m b i n a t i o n i s g r a d u a l l y b l u r r e d , and

12
Ligeti, liner notes f o r Melodien.
20

Example 8. Double Concerto, f i r s t movement, m e a s u r e s 68-74, s h o w i n g


a more t r a n s p a r e n t p o l y p h o n y w i t h i n d e p e n d e n t components.
21

J = 80 (Piu mosso)

„ Accelerando poco a poco


SOLO
OBOE

al
P® <to

Oar..

spiel

Cel.

Arpa

. "Ftpr .
1
- err, -

fif- con fuoco i/rn rirt Roaenmetturf


. , c o r l l r v * to ? w n a f >wi

-73T-- - t~ Iw

Vcl.

0 1974 B. Schott's Soehne, Mainz


A l l rights reserved
Used by permission of B. Schott's Soehne Mainz
22

from t h i s cloudiness i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d i s c e r n a new interval


1 o
combination gradually taking shape.
14

Ligeti's Ten Pieces for Wind Quintet, the subject of this paper,

adheres to the compositional procedures s t a t e d above to a considerable

degree (as w i l l become a p p a r e n t ) , although the q u o t a t i o n was made with

specific reference to the Chamber Concerto. In fact, the wind quintet offers

an extremely diverse selection of techniques representative of Ligeti's works

from the middle to late sixties, some o f the techniques being refinements of

those found in earlier works. Also, the quintet, being a chamber w o r k , is

more a c c e s s i b l e t h a n the l a r g e r o r c h e s t r a l works f o r the type of a n a l y s i s

presented here.

In Chapter I I , aspects of m u s i c a l language i n the quintet-§form,

texture, rhythm, and pitch—will be examined individually, with inter-

r e l a t i o n s h i p s noted where a p p l i c a b l e . D e t a i l e d s t u d i e s of a l l ten pieces

would have been a t a s k too great for this paper; consequently, the first and

last p i e c e s were c h o s e n to be analyzed in detail because each r e p r e s e n t s one

of the two prevalent textural c o n f i g u r a t i o n s found i n the work. These

detailed analyses are found i n Chapters I I I ( p i e c e No. 1) and IV (No. 10)

and, like Chapter I I , approach the v a r i o u s musical parameters individually.

Specific details p e r t a i n i n g to these particular pieces will be d i s c l o s e d ,

as w i l l extended a p p l i c a t i o n s of concepts introduced i n Chapter II. A

summary o f conclusions will f o l l o w i n Chapter V.

The Ten Pieces for Wind Quintet i s , henceforth, referred to as


"the quintet."
CHAPTER I I

A S P E C T S OF MUSICAL LANGUAGE I N GYORGY L I G E T I ' S

TEN PIECES FOR WIND QUINTET

Introduction

The intent of this chapter i s to define and e x e m p l i f y certain

aspects of musical language i n the ten pieces, thus providing a basis f o r

the d e t a i l e d analyses i n Chapters I I I and IV. The main sections of this

chapter a r e as f o l l o w s :

Formal Organization o f t h e Work a s a Whole

Aspects of T e x t u r a l Structure

Principles o f Rhythmic and M e t r i c Design

Modes o f P i t c h O r g a n i z a t i o n
Linear Details
Harmonic D e t a i l s

Summary.

Many o f t h e c o n c e p t s d i s c u s s e d in this chapter a r e of general significance

in t h e work, p e r t a i n i n g t o s e v e r a l pieces or sections within pieces, while

others expose techniques o f more l i m i t e d application. Because t h e f i r s t

and last pieces of the quintet are the subjects of Chapters ITT and IV,

respectively, present references t o them a r e m i n i m a l .

23
24

Formal Organization of t h e Work a s a Whole

P e r h a p s t h e most significant formal aspect of the work as a whole

is the r e g u l a r a l t e r n a t i o n between "ensemble" and "soloistic" pieces.''

Specifically, the odd-numbered pieces are of the ensemble t y p e , while the

even-numbered ones are soloistic. The order of the featured instruments

in the soloistic pieces i s as f o l l o w s : No. 2 - clarinet, No. 4 - flute,

No. 6 - o b o e , No. 8 - horn, and No. 10 - bassoon. Fluctuations in

instrumentation-density (i.e., t h e number o f instruments sounding) from

piece to p i e c e , as w e l l as v a r i a n c e s in actual instrumentation, suggest

subgroupings w i t h i n the quintet. I n Example 9, the instrumentation-

density of each piece (and each section within a p i e c e — t o be explained

below) i s given with the suggested subgroupings i n d i c a t e d by brackets.

E x a m p l e 9. Instrumentation-density and subgrouping of the ten pieces.

P i e c e No.: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Instrumentat i o n -
density: 5 5 5 3 4 5 5-4 3-4-53 4-5

Subgroupings: I I I I I 1 I I
I I I I

Concerning fluctuations in instrumentation-density and instrumentation,

several details are noteworthy. The alto flute i s used i n the first three

pieces, r e s e r v i n g the flute for i t s soloistic treatment i n the fourth piece.

A l t h o u g h t h e s e two c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a r e d e f i n e d i n d e t a i l i n t h e n e x t
s e c t i o n , they r e f e r e s s e n t i a l l y to pieces i n which a l l of the scored
i n s t r u m e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e e q u a l l y ( e n s e m b l e ) and t h o s e i n w h i c h one p a r t i c u l a r
instrument i s featured ( s o l o i s t i c ) .

2
O t h e r s u b g r o u p i n g s o f p i e c e s may b e i n t e r p r e t e d a c c o r d i n g t o f a c t o r s
o t h e r t h a n i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n - d e n s i t y and i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n . These, however, a r e
d i s c l o s e d i n t h e l i g h t of the s p e c i f i c parameters e f f e c t i n g such c o n n e c t i o n s .
25

The e n g l i s h horn appears i n the first two pieces, the oboe d' amore in the

third, and neither i n the f o u r t h and fifth; the oboe i s saved f o r No. 6

where i t i s the featured instrument. Internal fluctuations in

instrumentation-density indicated in pieces 7 to 10 are based on conditions

similar to those listed above. In the second formal section of the seventh

piece, f o r example, the horn is silent in preparation f o r No. 8 where it is

featured. A good p o r t i o n o f the eighth piece, however, occurs without the

horn; i t s entry, along with that of the oboe l a t e r i n the piece, is

responsible f o r the "stepped" density i n d i c a t e d i n Example 9. The bassoon

does not p a r t i c i p a t e i n the ninth piece, again in preparation for i t s

soloistic treatment .(in the final piece). Finally, although the last piece

is scored for five instruments, only on one sixteenth-note i n the entire

piece do they a c t u a l l y sound together (specifically, at the culmination

point of the main body o f the piece i n bar 15).

Other aspects o f o r g a n i z a t i o n and f a c t o r s of large-scale grouping

are defined i n subsequent s e c t i o n s of this chapter, as w e l l as in Chapters

III and IV. D e t a i l s of formal structuring within individual pieces are

examined i n the light of the v a r i o u s parameters (e.g., texture, rhythm,

etc.) which e f f e c t the formal delineations.

Aspects of Textural Structure

As stated i n the previous s e c t i o n , the quintet i s organized in

alternating e n s e m b l e and soloistic pieces. Texture plays a most decisive

role i n d e f i n i n g these types. Although each p i e c e explores a u n i q u e mode

of textural characterization (i.e., unique in detail), there exist several

aspects of texture which have w i d e s p r e a d s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the ensemble

pieces, and others, of equal importance, which are specific to the soloistic

pieces. T h e s e two types of pieces and corresponding textural details will


26

now be discussed in detail.

Textural D e t a i l s i n Ensemble Pieces

Essentially two textural configurations are found i n the ensemble

pieces: one which c o n s i s t s of only one t e x t u r a l element throughout, and

one which features several consecutive elements. O n l y on one occasion

are two disparate t e x t u r a l elements sounded simultaneously (this departure

to be discussed shortly). Texture, the parameter which best differentiates

e n s e m b l e and soloistic pieces, is also an important factor in the

delineation of form w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l ensemble p i e c e s . Successive t e x t u r a l


4

elements, in fact, most often correspond to main formal sections, i n which

case they u s u a l l y i n v o l v e a l l of the instruments f o r which the piece is

scored, as well as to transitional p a s s a g e s , w h i c h may feature a reduction

in the number of components.^

The fifth and ninth pieces are each comprised of one, continuous

textural element which involves a l l of the scored instruments throughout.


"A t e x t u r a l e l e m e n t i s a h o m o g e n e o u s mode o f i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n
i n s t r u m e n t s , as i n a p o l y p h o n i c or homophonic t e x t u r e . The i n d i v i d u a l
p a r t s i n s u c h a t e x t u r a l element a r e r e f e r r e d t o as " s o u n d i n g components"
o r simply, "components." A t e x t u r a l e l e m e n t may a l s o be c o m p r i s e d o f o n l y
one component a s i n a s i n g l e - l i n e m e l o d y . The t e x t u r e o f a p i e c e a t a n y
g i v e n t i m e may c o n s i s t o f one o r m o r e t e x t u r a l e l e m e n t s , e a c h h a v i n g one
o r more c o m p o n e n t s £e.g., v e r t i c a l t h r e e - n o t e c h o r d s ( o n e e l e m e n t , t h r e e
c o m p o n e n t s ) , w i t h a s i n g l e - l i n e m e l o d y (one e l e m e n t , one c o m p o n e n t ) } .
T h i s mode o f t e x t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n i s i n f l u e n c e d i n p a r t by W a l l a c e
Berry's views. See i n t h i s r e g a r d h i s Structural Functions in Music
( E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1 9 7 6 ) , Ch. 2.

4
The c o n t r a r y , however, i s n o t a l w a y s t r u e . In o t h e r words, a
p i e c e w h i c h f e a t u r e s one c o n t i n u o u s t e x t u r a l e l e m e n t may h a v e s e v e r a l
f o r m a l s e c t i o n s d e l i n e a t e d by v a r i a n c e s i n o t h e r p a r a m e t e r s .

^Where s u c h a r e d u c t i o n o c c u r s , h o w e v e r , t h e components left


s o u n d i n g c o n t r i b u t e t o o n l y one t e x t u r a l e l e m e n t .
27

The t e x t u r e of t h e f i f t h p i e c e i s one o f polyphony, w h i l e t h a t of t h e

n i n t h i s a three-part canon. 7
In the l a t t e r , the t e x t u r a l c o n t i n u i t y

c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e u n i s e c t i o n a l form, w h i l e i n t h e f o r m e r , d e s p i t e i t s

continuous t e x t u r e , f o r m a l segmentation o c c u r s t h r o u g h v a r i a n c e s i n o t h e r

parameters such a s t e x t u r a l space and r h y t h m i c i n t e n s i t y (each o f which i s

discussed l a t e r ) . Examples 10 and 11 c o n s i s t o f e x c e r p t s from No. 5 and

No. 9 , r e s p e c t i v e l y , each r e v e a l i n g a s i n g l e t e x t u r a l element.

Of t h e r e m a i n i n g ensemble p i e c e s , each of which c o n t a i n s s e v e r a l

s u c c e s s i v e t e x t u r a l elements, t h e f i r s t p i e c e i s d e t a i l e d i n t h e next

chapter. Measures 1-7 o f p i e c e No. 3, however, p r o v i d e a n o t h e r example

of a t e x t u r a l element w h i c h f e a t u r e s equal and t o t a l involvement o f t h e


g

instruments f o r which i t i s s c o r e d . The t h i r d p i e c e a l s o p r o v i d e s t h e

one i n s t a n c e o f simultaneous t e x t u r a l elements i n an ensemble p i e c e . In

measures 10-12, t h e octave-doubled theme r e p r e s e n t s one t e x t u r a l element,


9
while the t r i l l ( c l a r i n e t ) and s u s t a i n e d n o t e (horn) r e p r e s e n t the other.

"The components o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p o l y p h o n i c t e x t u r e a r e e x t r e m e l y
" a r t i c u l a t e " i n t h e i r use o f r e p e a t e d staccatissimo notes. The i m p l i c a t i o n s
of t h i s s u r f a c e d e t a i l w i t h r e s p e c t t o r h y t h m i c d e s i g n a r e d e a l t w i t h i n t h e
next s e c t i o n . A l s o , t h e s p e c i f i c mode o f p i t c h o r g a n i z a t i o n o p e r a t i v e i n
t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p o l y p h o n i c element i s e x p l a i n e d i n t h e f i n a l s e c t i o n o f t h i s
chapter.

7
The c a n o n i c treatment employed here i s a prime example o f l i n e a r
independence w i t h i n a p o l y p h o n i c t e x t u r e . That i s , a p a r t from c o n t r i b u t i n g
to t h e e f f e c t o f t h e whole, t h e i n d i v i d u a l components e x h i b i t a c o n s i d e r a b l e
degree o f independence and d i r e c t i o n . As n o t e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r ,
t h i s i n c r e a s e d independence i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f many o f t h e p o l y p h o n i c
t e x t u r e s i n L i g e t i ' s music o f t h e l a t e s i x t i e s .
g
The d e t a i l s o f t h e l i n e a r s t r u c t u r e i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t e x t u r a l
element w i l l be examined i n t h e s e c t i o n on p i t c h o r g a n i z a t i o n . A l s o , i t
might be n o t e d t h a t t h i s t e x t u r a l element comprises a l m o s t h a l f t h e p i e c e .
I t i s , i n f a c t , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e ensemble p i e c e s t h a t a t e x t u r a l
element, once e s t a b l i s h e d , c o n t i n u e s t o o p e r a t e over a s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n
of t h e p i e c e .
9
The d o u b l i n g o f t h e "theme" i n o c t a v e s i n t h i s s e c t i o n n e g a t e s any
soloistic implication.
28

E x a m p l e 10. P i e c e No. 5, m e a s u r e s 1-5, showing a single


textural element.

/5 =fe i £ \
•) 5 (1, t £ £ e,c.) bedeutet: Tonrepetition
*; ^ \o, o, m, 0. ere.) means: repeated
Staccatissimo (JjJJJmm e:c.) so schncll wie m o g l i c h .
tones staccatissimo (JjJJJjJ etc.) as fast as possible.
Die n o i i e r t e n Dauerwerte werden mit solchen stacca-
The given note-values are filled with these staccatissimo
l i s s i m o - T o n f o l g e n ausgeftillt, w o b e i jedes I n s t r u m e n t ,
repeated tones; each instrument plays as fast a staccato
von den anderen I n s i r u m e n i e n unabhangig u n d ohne
as its technique and register permit, independently of
RLicksicht auf die T a k l e i n t e i l u n g , so schnell stacca -
the other instruments and with no regard for subdivi-
tiert, wie das seine technische Eigenart u n d die Lage,
sion of bars Single tonguing, double tonguing. Flute
in der es spielt, zulaUt. E i n f a c h e r b z w . d o p p e l t e r , bei
triple tonguing ad lib. So fluttertongue! Distinct,
der Klote ad l i b . dreifacher Zungenstofi. K c i n e F l a t -
separated attacks throughout.
terzungel Steis d i s t i n k t e . gesonderte A t t a e k e n .
Z u m R h y t h m i s c h e n : Wahrend die Einsatze u n d A b - Rhythm: Entries and cut- offs are indicated precisely;
satze exakt angegeben s i n d , ist die innere D i c h t e der the density of the staccato sequences, however, is rhyth-
staccato-Folgen rhythmisch frei. mically free.

*) D y n a m i s c h e Balance = s/jp a n n a h e r n d gleich in alien **y Balance of dynamics: sjp approximately equal in all
Instrumenten. instruments.

@1969 B. Schott's Soehne, Mainz


A l l rights reserved
Used by permission of European American Music Distributors
Corporation, sole Canadian agent for B. Schott's Soehne.
29

© 1969 B. Schott's Soehne, Mainz


A l l rights reserved
Used by permission of European American Music Distributors
Corporation, sole Canadian agent for B. Schott's Soehne.

The two texturally defined formal s e c t i o n s o u t l i n e d above (i.e., measures

1-7 and 10-12) a r e b r i d g e d by a r h y t h m i c a l l y i n t e n s i f i e d polyphonic element

which diminishes i n d e n s i t y from four to three components, and descends in

register, culminating on t h e t r i l l i n bar 9 ( o n e o f t h e two simultaneous

textural elements of the second section). This transitional element,

featuring a r e d u c t i o n or s u b g r o u p i n g o f components i s given as Example 12.


30

Example 12. P i e c e No. 3, measures 7-10, showing a subgrouping o f components


i n t h e t r a n s i t i o n a l passage.

end of first section-\ transition-


8

Ft.Sol

+J
c
CJ —
s
OJ
•H q
OJ OJ
c
0
&
E
/ 3
0
' +J 0
OJ SH
+J 3
O
OJ Ms
0

© 1969 B. S c h o t t ' s Soehne, Mainz


A l l r i g h t s reserved
Used by p e r m i s s i o n of European American Music D i s t r i b u t o r s
C o r p o r a t i o n , s o l e Canadian agent f o r B. S c h o t t ' s Soehne.

The s e v e n t h p i e c e i s perhaps t h e most e x p l i c i t example of c o n s e c u t i v e ,

d i s p a r a t e t e x t u r a l elements c h a r a c t e r i z i n g adjacent formal s e c t i o n s . ^ The

^ T h e s p e c i f i c t e x t u r a l elements a r e e x t r e m e l y c o n s i s t e n t throughout
each s e c t i o n , a g a i n r e v e a l i n g t h e a t t r i b u t e o f t e x t u r a l c o n t i n u i t y .
vertical homorhythmic s o n o r i t i e s of the 'a'-section (measures 1-37) feature

equal involvement of a l l the instruments. Although the clarinet sustains a

n o t e out of the vertical complex i n bar 6, a l l the instruments w i l l have

followed suit by the c l o s e of the section (cf. bars 12, 15, and 34). The

'b'-section ( m e a s u r e s 38 to the end), initiated without a transition,

features four of the five instruments in a contrasting polyphonic texture

(the horn being silent in preparation f o r the eighth piece). These diverse

textural configurations are illustrated i n the two excerpts i n Example 13.

Example 13. Piece No. 7, m e a s u r e s 3-8 and 40-41, showing d i s p a r a t e textures


characterizing adjacent formal sections.

Clarinctto
in Si t

Corno
in l a

Fagotto

ri.

Ob.

Cl.$i\>

Cor. Fa

Fag.

© 1969 B. Schott's Soehne, Mainz


A l l rights reserved
Used by permission of European American Music Distributors
Corporation, sole Canadian agent for B. Schott's Soehne.
32

Textural Details in Soloistic Pieces

Although i t i s somewhat more d i f f i c u l t to g e n e r a l i z e about the

soloistic pieces,.because each instrument i s featured i n a much different

way, two modes o f textural s t r u c t u r e may nevertheless be discerned. One

involves the establishment of an accompanimental textural element comprising

all of the instruments (or a l l but the featured one), out of which (or over

which) the featured instrument asserts itself in a distinct, second textural

character. In some c a s e s the accompanimental element resembles a particular

ensemble t e x t u r e found elsewhere i n the quintet. In the second piece

(featuring the clarinet), f o r example, a l l f i v e instruments contribute to

the accompanimental five-note vertical sonorities (e.g., measures 1-11, 15,

and 20-21). These v e r t i c a l i t i e s are separated by rests, some o f w h i c h are

partially filled by the linearizations of the clarinet (these being the

second textural element). Note, however, that the accompanimental vertical

complexes are similar in effect (and harmonic q u a l i t y ) to those of the

seventh piece ('a'-section only). The opening f o u r measures of the second

piece, illustrating the two-element texture are given as Example 14.

The accompanimental element of the sixth piece ( f e a t u r i n g the oboe)

is a second example o f a texture borrowed from another piece. In this case

the accompaniment (bars 1-8) i s comparable to the whole o f the preceding

ensemble p i e c e i n s e v e r a l ways: i t involves the same f o u r instruments, the

tempo i s the average of the two i n the previous p i e c e , and the performance

instructions regarding articulation are the same.'''''' The oboe is isolated

''"'''Regarding p e r f o r m a n c e i n s t r u c t i o n s s e e G y o r g y L i g e t i , Ten Pieces


for Wind Quintet ( M a i n z : B. S c h o t t ' s S o e h n e , 1 9 6 9 ) , pp. 18 a n d 20. Also,
i t was n o t e d i n t h e s e c t i o n on f o r m a l a s p e c t s t h a t s u b g r o u p i n g s o f p i e c e s
occur through a v a r i e t y of parametric v a r i a n c e s ( i n a d d i t i o n to those
i n v o l v i n g i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n - d e n s i t y and a c t u a l i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n ) . The fifth
a n d s i x t h p i e c e s may b e c o n s i d e r e d one s u c h s u b g r o u p , w i t h t h e t h r e e
33

Example 14. P i e c e No. 2, m e a s u r e s 1-4, showing a two-element texture.

Prestissimo minaccioso e burlesco**

•) A u l i e r d e n sff u n d - A k z e n t e n stels gleichmaftig *) Play very evenly, except for the sff and sfaccen.
s p i e l e n , so daft e i n e T a k t e i n t c i l u n g n i c h t w a h r n e h m b a r ruations, so that the subdivision into bars is not
w i r d . D i e T a k l e u n d T a k t e i n t e i l u n g e n d i e n e n als O r i e n - perceptible. Bar lines serve as a means of orienta -
l i e r u n g , e i n e m e t r i s c h e P u l s a t i o n g i b t es n i c h t . tton; there is no metrical pulsation.

© 1969 B. S c h o t t ' s Soehne, Mainz


A l l r i g h t s reserved
Used by p e r m i s s i o n of European American Music D i s t r i b u t o r s
C o r p o r a t i o n , s o l e Canadian agent f o r B. S c h o t t ' s Soehne.

from the accompanimental texture t h r o u g h dynamic exposure, articulative

differentiation, and timbral quality, as shown i n Example 15.

c r i t e r i a a l r e a d y s t a t e d a s c o n n e c t i v e f a c t o r s ( i . e . , i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n , tempo,
and a r t i c u l a t i o n ) . S e v e r a l a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s may be a d d e d t o t h e l i s t , one
o f w h i c h i s t h e attacca i n d i c a t i o n a t t h e end o f t h e f i f t h p i e c e . Other
c o n n e c t i v e f a c t o r s , w h i c h i n v o l v e l i n e a r p i t c h - c l a s s c o n n e c t i o n s , w i l l be
disclosed i n d e t a i l later i n this chapter.
34

Example 15. P i e c e No. 6, m e a s u r e s 1-4, s h o w i n g a t w o -


element t e x t u r e .

Presto staccatissimo e leggiero

ffpp

*) £ = T o n r e p e t i t i o n staccatissimo, wie in Satz S *) ~£ = staccatissimo repeated tones as in Movement 5


•) T o n r e p e t i t i o n bei der O b o e : staccatissimo, sehr d i - **) Repeated tones in the Oboe staccatissimo. very di-
s t i n k t , so schnell wie m o g l i c h . Die Spielart ist iden- stinct, as fast as possible. The manner of playing is
tisch m i t der 3. notierten Spielart der Ubrigen Instru- identical to the manner of playing notated £ in the

mente ( etc. ). Die andersgeartete Notation other instruments ( , e^, etc. ). The different no-
bezieht sich lediglich a u f die K h y t h m i k : bei der N o - tation refers only to the rhythm: in the notation £
tation eP ist die Dauer der T o n f o l g e gegeben, die the duration of the sequence is fixed, but the numbei
A n z a h l der Schlage j e d o c h f r e i , bei der N o t a t i o n
of the attacks is free; in the notation fJjJJ the
ist die A n z a h l der Schlage festgelegt, die number of the attacks is fixed but the duration of tht
Dauer der T o n f o l g e j e d o c h frei (so k u r z wie m o g l i c h , sequence is free (as short as possible, since the tones
da T o n r e p e t i t i o n so raseh wie m b g l i c h ) . Bei der N u - are repeated as fast as possible). In the notation
tation ist der Kinsatz des ersten Tones i^J ^1 J fl the entrance of the first tone is metrically
metrisch festgelegt (fixierter l J latz tm T a k t d u r c h
fixed by the rests preceding it, whereupon the tones
vorangehende Pausen), darauf folgt d i e T o n r e p e t i t i o n
are repeated independently of the metre. The rests in
unabhangig v o m M e t r u m . Die 1'ausen in K l a m m e r n
brackets are the imaginary completion of the metre,
sind eine imaginare met rise he Krganzung der N o t a - and will be absorbed in part by the repeated tones.
t i o n , s i e werden z u m 'I'eil v o n der T o n r e p e t i t i o n
For example, y 1 [7] means: attack the third
verschlungen; z. B. bedeulet 7 7 1*2 [i\ : einselzen quaver of the triplet; the rest [V] is the virtual com -
im dritten T r i o l e n a c h l e l , die Pause [7] ist eine virtu- pletion of the triplet.
elle E r g a n z u n g .

© 1969 B. Schott's Soehne, Mainz


A l l rights reserved
Used by permission of European American Music Distributors
Corporation, sole Canadian agent for B. Schott's Soehne.
The accompaniment of the first s i x t e e n measures of the eighth piece,

although not suggestive of any other texture i n the quintet, nevertheless

features the flute, clarinet, and bassoon i n what could very well be an

ensemble t e x t u r e , according to the criteria outlined i n the ensemble pieces.

That i s to say, the three instruments interact within a continuous

polyphonic texture i n w h i c h no particular instrument predominates, the main

effect being that of the whole. It i s , in fact, only when t h e horn enters

in bar 12 with a contrasting sustained q u a l i t y that the i m p l i c a t i o n of a

soloistic texture is realized. The "ensemble-like" texture and eventual

horn entry are illustrated i n the excerpt given as Example 16.

It was noted earlier that two modes o f t e x t u r a l s t r u c t u r e may be

discerned i n the soloistic pieces. T'tue s e c o n d mode i s one i n which only

one t e x t u r a l element i s in operation, the featured instrument generally

being t h e most continuous and dynamically exposed of a l l the components

involved. The accompanying components, taken separately, fail to define

a t e x t u r a l element with enough i n d e p e n d e n c e and c o n t i n u i t y to be considered

separate from the featured component. Rather, the components interact with

the featured instrument i n ways w h i c h suggest one overall textural element

with one p r i m a r y and several secondary components. Two examples w i l l serve

to illustrate t h i s mode o f textural structure.

Measures 12-15 of the second piece reveal a continuous clarinet line

with numerous p o l y p h o n i c fragments contributed by the remaining four

12

instruments. Again, these fragmented " o v e r l a y s " do not comprise a

textural element of their own, but are, rather, integral to the single
12
T h i s type of component i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n a s i n g l e t e x t u r a l
e l e m e n t i s one o f two t o be d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r s I I I a n d I V a s f a c t o r s o f
"textural quality."
Example 16. P i e c e No. 8, m e a s u r e s 1, 2, 5, 10, a n d 12, s h o w i n g a n " e n s e m b l e - l i k e " texture as an
accompanimental element.

Allegro COn delicatezza (sehr gleichmafiig, ohne jede Betonung der Takte bzw. Taktunterteilungen.)
(J 72) (very evenly, without any accentuation of the bars or their subdivisions.)
1 *) fliefiend, alle neuen Einsfitze sehr weich / fluently, every new entry very SOJI
x s s 1
5 ~l2 e_

') fliefiend, alle neuen Einsfitze sehr weich / fluently, every new entry very soft r

£ S I
Clarinetto
in Sit
PP sivtUU
*) fliefiend, alle neuen Einsatze sehr weich / fluently, every new entry very soft

Fagotto

PP 3

) Dynamische Balance: pp gleich in F16te, Klarinette, *J Balance of dynamics: pp equal in Flute, Clarinet
Fagott. Klarinette verhalthismafcig etwas starker Bassoon. Play the clarinet somewhat louder in rela-
blasen. tion.
**) Fagott, con sordino: Ein Tuch, in die Schalltiffnung * * ; Bassoon,con sordino: a cloth stuffed into the upper
gestopft. joint. _

Fl.

Fl.
Cl.Siv

Cl.$i\>

Cor.Fa
Fag.

Fag.

© 1969 B. Schott's Soehne, Mainz


A l l rights reserved
Used by permission of European American Music Distributors
Corporation, sole Canadian agent for B. Schott's Soehne.
37

13
overall texture i n which the clarinet i s primary. This i s illustrated

in E x a m p l e 17.

Example 17. P i e c e No. 2, m e a s u r e s 12-15, s h o w i n g o n e


t e x t u r a l element w i t h one p r i m a r y and f o u r
secondary components.

Foco meno mosso


, 12 CJ = 144)
Fl.Sol

C.Ing.

Cl.Siv

Cor.Fa

Fag;

Fl.Sol

C.Ing.

Ct.$i\>

Cor.Fa

Fag.

PPrpossibile

© 1 9 6 9 B. Schott's Soehne, Mainz


A l l rights reserved
Used by permission of European American Music Distributors
Corporation, sole Canadian agent for B. Schott's Soehne.

T h i s i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y c l e a r example o f f o r m a l d e l i n e a t i o n t h r o u g h
textural diversity. T h e o p e n i n g o f t h e s e c o n d p i e c e was shown e a r l i e r t o
c o n s i s t o f two s i m u l t a n e o u s , d i s p a r a t e t e x t u r a l e l e m e n t s w h i l e i n t h e
passage j u s t d i s c u s s e d and i l l u s t r a t e d a b o v e — a second f o r m a l s e c t i o n - —
o n l y one e l e m e n t o p e r a t e s . T h e s e f o r m a l s e g m e n t s a r e f u r t h e r d e f i n e d ".
t h r o u g h v a r i a n c e s i n tempo a n d d y n a m i c s .
38

The f o u r t h p i e c e f e a t u r e s a s i n g l e p o l y p h o n i c t e x t u r e i n w h i c h t h e

f l u t e i s d y n a m i c a l l y , r e g i s t r a l l y , and r h y t h m i c a l l y exposed r e l a t i v e t o

t h e o t h e r two components. The c l a r i n e t and bassoon ( t h e l a t t e r b e i n g

c o n s i d e r a b l y more fragmented than t h e o t h e r two i n s t r u m e n t a l p a r t s )

c o n t r i b u t e more t o t h e o v e r a l l polyphony than t o a d i s p a r a t e t e x t u r a l

element. An e x c e r p t from No. 4 i s g i v e n as Example 18 .

Example 18. P i e c e No. 4, measures 1-4, showing one t e x t u r a l


element w i t h one p r i m a r y and two secondary
components.

© 1969 B. Schott's Soehne, Mainz


A l l rights reserved
Used by permission of European American Music Distributors
Corporation, sole Canadian agent for B. Schott's Soehne.
In both instances outlined above (i.e., t h e second and f o u r t h

pieces), the primacy of the featured instrument and s u g g e s t i o n of a single-

element (but multi-component) texture a r e r e i n f o r c e d by s t r o n g harmonic

affiliation between t h e p r i m a r y and s e c o n d a r y components—a detail which

will be d e a l t with i n the f i n a l section of this chapter.

Concerning textural structure, a p a r a l l e l i s m between Ligeti's

earlier works (mentioned i n Chapter I ) and t h e p i e c e s of t h e quintet may b e

drawn. The ensemble p i e c e s were s a i d e a r l i e r to possess a c e r t a i n degree

of textural continuity, the individual textures often consisting of slowly

changing sonorities. In this regard they are suggestive of e a r l i e r pieces

of w h i c h Atmospheres i s representative. The s o l o i s t i c pieces, texturally

differentiated from t h e ensemble p i e c e s , also contrast with the l a t t e r i n

that they feature frequent and, o f t e n , abrupt texture changes. The second,

sixth, eighth, and t e n t h pieces, f o r example, each contain from four to s i x

texture changes, o f t e n accompanied by changes i n tempo, n o t a t e d meter,

dynamics, r e g i s t e r , d e n s i t y , and g e n e r a l "mood." In this sense they a r e

suggestive o f t h e s t y l e o f Apparitions a n d Aventures. Although the scale

of the quintet pieces i s much s m a l l e r than that of the aforementioned

related pieces, the parallel mode o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s of significance i n

the characterization of textures i n the quintet.

Summary

Texture h a s been cited h e r e asa'^major f a c t o r , i n t h e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n

of "ensemble" and " s o l o i s t i c " pieces. While ensemble p i e c e s were shown t o

involve e s s e n t i a l l y one t e x t u r a l e l e m e n t at a time ( e i t h e r throughput a

complete piece or at l e a s t a formal s e c t i o n ) , one i n s t a n c e of simultaneous,

disparate t e x t u r a l e l e m e n t s was n o t e d i n the third piece. Two configurations


40

were said to c h a r a c t e r i z e the s o l o i s t i c p i e c e s : o n e i n w h i c h two

simultaneous, contrasting textural elements occur, the featured instrument

providing o n e o f them; a n d o n e i n w h i c h only a single element i s apparent,

with t h e featured instrument emerging as primary through dynamic and/or

registral exposure, as-well as continuity of structure. Finally, the

ensemble p i e c e s were l i k e n e d t o a group o f L i g e t i ' s earlier works of which

Atmospheres i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , and t h e s o l o i s t i c p i e c e s t o a group typified

b y Apparitions and Aventures.

Principles of Rhythmic and M e t r i c Design

While i t i s not the intention here t o attempt to explicate

completely the rhythmic structures of a l l t e n pieces, several aspects of

rhythmic and m e t r i c design are accessible, noteworthy, and n e c e s s a r y f o r

even a moderate u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the musical l a n g u a g e o f t h e work. The

most u n i v e r s a l and, perhaps, most significant aspect o f rhythm i n a l l of

the pieces i s the rarity o f o p e r a t i v e meter a t t h e l e v e l of t h e notated

measure.

Meter i n the present context refers t o one p a r t i c u l a r mode o f

14

rhythm —specifically, one i n which impulse groupings a r e d e f i n e d by

patterns of a c c e n t e d ^ and u n a c c e n t e d beats. These p a t t e r n e d groupings,

called measures, represent the lowest-level metric unit. Meter, then,

d e p e n d s on a c c e n t ; metric units a r e d e l i n e a t e d by a c c e n t e d impulses. In

saying, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t meter i s h a r d l y ever operative at the l e v e l of


14
Other " e l e m e n t - r h y t h m s " w i l l be d e f i n e d i n Chapter I I I with
specific reference to the f i r s t piece.

^ A p a r t i c u l a r a r t i c u l a t i o n o r i m p u l s e may b e a c c e n t e d through
r e g i s t r a l and/or dynamic exposure, a r t i c u l a t i v e a c c e n t s ( e . g . , - - ,
>, , e t c . ) , a n d / o r e x t e n d e d d u r a t i o n r e l a t i v e t o s u r r o u n d i n g
A
impulses.
In s h o r t , a c c e n t here r e f e r s t o emphasis i n h e r e n t i n t h e music, n o t
imposed by t h e p e r f o r m e r .
t h e n o t a t e d measure i n t h e p i e c e s , t h e s u g g e s t i o n i s t h a t p a t t e r n e d u n i t s

of s t r o n g and weak b e a t s a r e r a r e l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n a way t h a t makes

n o t a t e d , apparent m e t r i c u n i t s p e r c e i v a b l e as such. The i m p l i c a t i o n s of

t h i s phenomenon a r e c o n s i d e r a b l y d i f f e r e n t i n p i e c e s or s e c t i o n s i n which

t h e n o t a t e d meter i s c o n s t a n t , as compared to t h o s e i n which i t i s

fluctuant. I n t h e former, b a r l i n e s appear p r i m a r i l y f o r ease o f r e a d i n g ;

t h e s e p i e c e s (or s e c t i o n s ) may be c o n s i d e r e d " a m e t r i c " a t t h e l e v e l of t h e

n o t a t e d measure (because of t h e l a c k o f a c c e n t - d e l i n e a t e d m e t r i c u n i t s o f

that s i z e ) . H i g h e r - l e v e l impulse g r o u p i n g s (not n e c e s s a r i l y large-scale

m e t r i c u n i t s i n t h e sense o f a c c e n t - a r t i c u l a t e d g r o u p i n g s ) may, however,

be d i s c e r n e d . For i n s t a n c e , l a r g e r phrases w i t h o u t i n t e r n a l m e t r i c

s u b d i v i s i o n s ( a t t h e l e v e l o f t h e measure) may be f e l t as c o n t i n u o u s

g e s t u r e s which d i s p l a y p a r t i c u l a r r h y t h m i c s t r u c t u r e s ( t o be specified

below). The l o w e s t - l e v e l impulse u n i t , t h e n , becomes t h e phrase itself,

not t h e n o t a t e d b a r .

Most o f t e n t h e s e c o n t i n u o u s g e s t u r e s or phrases a r e not single-line

m e l o d i e s , but r a t h e r t e x t u r a l elements c o n s i s t i n g of s e v e r a l sounding

components. We may, f o r example, speak of a "homophonic p h r a s e , " i n which

a l l of t h e components move i n s t r i c t v e r t i c a l a l i g n m e n t , o r a " p o l y p h o n i c

p h r a s e , " i n w h i c h t h e components a r e engaged i n a complex i n t e r w e a v i n g

c o n s i d e r e d t o g e t h e r as a s i n g l e g e s t u r e of f l u c t u a t i n g r h y t h m i c interaction.

In t h e case o f t h e more common p o l y p h o n i c phrase, one fundamental a s p e c t of

r h y t h m i c d e s i g n concerns t h e p r o p e r t i e s of " p r o g r e s s i o n " and " r e c e s s i o n " ' ^

i n the l e v e l of r h y t h m i c a c t i v i t y of t h e t e x t u r a l element as a whole.

A l t h o u g h such c o n t i n u o u s p o l y p h o n i c phrases a r e found most f r e q u e n t l y

16
" P r o g r e s s i o n " and " r e c e s s i o n " a r e terms and c o n c e p t s used
e x t e n s i v e l y by W a l l a c e B e r r y . See h i s Structural Functions, Chapters 2 and 3..
42

i n ensemble p i e c e s (because, as n o t e d e a r l i e r , t h e y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y

f e a t u r e o n l y one t e x t u r a l element at a t i m e ) , s e v e r a l s o l o i s t i c pieces

o f f e r examples. The accompanimental element ( i . e . , f l u t e , c l a r i n e t , and

bassoon) of t h e f i r s t s i x t e e n measures of p i e c e No. 8, f o r i n s t a n c e ,

o f f e r s an e x c e l l e n t example of r h y t h m i c p r o g r e s s i o n and r e c e s s i o n w i t h i n

a s i n g l e , continuous polyphonic phrase. Example 19 c o n s i s t s of a graphic

r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e a c t i v i t y l e v e l i n t h i s s e c t i o n (accompanimental

element o n l y ) as t o the number of impulses per q u a r t e r - n o t e i n the

composite rhythm ( h e n c e f o r t h termed "impulse-density").^

I g n o r i n g t h e horn p a r t f o r now, the g r a p h r e v e a l s a l a r g e - s c a l e

p r o g r e s s i o n and r e c e s s i o n of r h y t h m i c a c t i v i t y which peaks i n bar 11

(22 i m p u l s e s/ J ) f o l l o w e d by an abrupt d e c l i n e i n a c t i v i t y commencing i n

bar 14. These, t h e n , r e p r e s e n t two l a r g e - s c a l e impulse u n i t s which

consider " q u a n t i t a t i v e " aspects of r h y t h m i c d e s i g n (i.e., activity levels

e x h i b i t i n g growth and d e c l i n e ) , r a t h e r than s p e c i f i c p a t t e r n s of a c c e n t

and unaccent ( i . e . , " q u a l i t a t i v e " a s p e c t s i n connection with specific

metric u n i t s ) . W h i l e the "downbeat" d e l i n e a t e s m e t r i c u n i t s , we might

speak of a " t u r n - a r o u n d p o i n t " as b e i n g a d e l i n e a t o r of impulse-density

units. Such a j u n c t u r e may be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as the p o i n t at w h i c h t h e

r h y t h m i c p r o g r e s s i o n ceases and the r e c e s s i o n b e g i n s (as i n t h i s

p a r t i c u l a r case) o r v i c e v e r s a . In t h i s piece the turn-around point occurs

on the t h i r d beat of measure 14 as i n d i c a t e d i n Example 19.

The accompanimental element, t h e r e f o r e , r e v e a l s i t s own mode of

l a r g e - s c a l e rhythmic s t r u c t u r e — o n e which may a l s o be seen t o i n t e r a c t

w i t h t h e horn p a r t ( t h e second d i s t i n c t t e x t u r a l e l e m e n t ) . This i n t e r a c t i o n

^ I f more than one instrument sounds i n s t r i c t v e r t i c a l a l i g n m e n t , i t


counts as one impulse o n l y f o r the purposes of t h e i m p u l s e - d e n s i t y graph.
43

Example 19. P i e c e No. 8, m e a s u r e s 1-16, i m p u l s e - d e n s i t y graph.

measure no.

results from several conditions. First, the latter e n t e r s when t h e f o r m e r

is a t i t s maximum level of activity ( i . e . , 22 i m p u l s e s / J, measure 12). In

a sense the opening rhythmic p r o g r e s s i o n i n t h e accompaniment may b e heard

to function anacrustically t o t h e horn entry (although the l a t t e r does n o t

occur in a registrally or dynamically exposed manner), w h i l e retaining the

c o n t i n u i t y w i t h i n i t s own t e x t u r a l element. Second, t h e maintenance o f

peak a c t i v i t y i n t h e accompaniment lasts f o r twelve quarter-notes, roughly

coincident with the opening s u s t a i n e d and d y n a m i c a l l y intensifying pitch


44

in t h e horn. The f i r s t p i t c h change i n t h e horn (measure 1 4 ) , marked

poco in relievo i s , curiously, the point at which t h e d e c l i n e in activity

in t h e accompaniment begins (i.e., t h e turn-around point). And t h i r d ,

as t h e graph reveals, the a c t i v i t y curve of t h e horn part i s itself a

small-scale version of that o f t h e accompaniment, both c o i n c i d i n g just

prior to the zero-activity level i n bar 16.

Apart from these interactive features, t h e horn part exhibits i t s

own l o w e r - l e v e l m e t r i c units, defined n o t by t h e n o t a t e d measures o f t h e

score, but a f l u c t u a t i n g meter based on t h e lowest common d e n o m i n a t o r o f

the rhythmic d i v i s i o n s i n operation (i.e., | | I* | I ! I x


FI 1 I I = 6 0 / J ) . " ^

Example 2 0 c o n s i s t s o f t h e horn part (measures 12-16) i n the metric

configuration found i n the score (bottom staff o f example), and a r e - m e t e r e d

version, p e r h a p s more indicative of the perceived accent pattern. Three

suggested levels of metric structure a r e represented by t h e a r r o w s depicting

u p b e a t s and downbeats.

The criteria f o r t h e downbeat characterizations at level (a) i n c l u d e

aspects of duration and r e g i s t e r p r i m a r i l y . The f i r s t A ^ may b e considered

a local downbeat simply because i t i s the f i r s t p i t c h of the l i n e (although

its entry, as noted earlier, i s somewhat o v e r p o w e r e d by t h e accompaniment),

and there a r e no o t h e r patterned impulses t o suggest otherwise. The

dynamic culmination on t h e change o f p i t c h t o B ^ contributes to i t s

downbeat characterization, while register (i.e., the highest pitch i n the

line) and l i n e a r approach (i.e., a f t e r the delay of progression t o D^5)

gives t h e E^-* a l o c a l downbeat quality. The l e a p f r o m B^, s t e p w i s e approach

18 i
By c o n s i d e r i n g t h e p u l s e u n i t t o b e 6 0 / 4, a n y i m p u l s e w i t h i n t h e
metric configurations involving I I 3 I, I I I I , and I l l I I , t h e t h r e e
5

o p e r a t i v e i n t h e p i e c e , may q u a l i f y a s a d o w n b e a t , o n c o n d i t i o n t h a t i t i s :

a c c e n t - d e f i n e d through r e g i s t e r , dynamics, d u r a t i o n , e t c .
Example 20. P i e c e No. 8, m e a s u r e s 12-16 ( h o r n p a r t o n l y ) , showing l o w - l e v e l m e t r i c units.

t (t) 1

(») t 1 f (!) I
W I 1 1 1
re-
metered 11% r 'MM' IMJ IJ-
(no. of 6 0 ths
) (50) (42) (24) (39) (15)(15X39)

mm. 12
from over the delay of p r o g r e s s i o n ) , and longer duration are factors

which emphasize the —also a downbeat a t this particular level. Finally,

the G^, having been a p p r o a c h e d linearly from the sustained G^, has the

feel of an arrival point aided, i n p a r t , by the termination of activity in

19

the other three components.

At the level of t h e u n i t s d e l i n e a t e d by the local downbeats specified

above [i.'.e'. , l e v e l (b) on E x a m p l e 2u] , two impulses continue to emerge as

downbeats o r arrival points. The B^ is felt as such because of the

approaching dynamic intensification which culminates with i t s articulation.

The final G^ i s the only other downbeat o f any structural value and, in

fact, i s the arrival point of the whole l i n e as suggested in level (c).

Again the cessation of rhythmic activity i n the accompanying components is

a prime f a c t o r i n the accentual significance attributed to the final G^.

While the first section of the eighth piece provides a clear example

of rhythmic progression and recession in a continuous phrase (e.g., in the

accompaniment), as w e l l as one of the few instances of low-level metric

subdivision (e.g., the horn part), one a d d i t i o n a l aspect of rhythmic design

in this s e c t i o n i s noteworthy. Specifically, the accompanimental element

comes c l o s e r t h a n any section i n the quintet to d e f i n i n g a r e g u l a r Cif


20

undifferentiated by accent) pulse. As i n d i c a t e d i n Example 21, measures

1 (beats 1-2) and 10 (beats 3-4) of the piece, the three instrumental parts

c o i n c i d e o n e a c h q u a r t e r - n o t e , w h i l e i n t e r a c t i n g i n a c o m p l e x way during
19
The h a r m o n i c s t r u c t u r e w h i c h o c c u r s a c r o s s b a r s 15-16 i s a B major
c h o r d w i t h an a d d e d s e c o n d ; t h e r e l a t i v e c o n s o n a n c e o f t h i s s o n o r i t y p l a y s
an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e a r r i v a l - p o i n t q u a l i t y o f t h e s u s t a i n e d p i t c h e s ( i n
both t e x t u r a l elements).
20
L i g e t i does, however, s p e c i f y i n t h e s c o r e : " v e r y e v e n l y , without
any a c c e n t u a t i o n o f t h e b a r s o r t h e i r s u b d i v i s i o n s . " See L i g e t i , Ten
Pieces, p. 27.
47

t h e b a l a n c e o f each beat. Even w i t h o u t any performer-imposed s t r e s s , t h e

q u a r t e r s a r e marked t h r o u g h t h e concurrence of a r t i c u l a t i o n .

Example 21. P i e c e No. 8, measures 1 ( b e a t s 1-2) and 10 ( b e a t s 3 - 4 ) ,


showing p o t e n t i a l p u l s e d e f i n i t i o n .

BSN

As t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n s becomes more complex

and, e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e l i g h t of t h e l i n e a r p i t c h p a t t e r n s w h i c h occur o u t -

of-phase w i t h t h e rhythmic p a t t e r n s , t h e quarter-note pulse i s e f f e c t i v e l y


21

obscured i n f a v o r o f t h r e e r h y t h m i c a l l y independent l i n e a r events.

Example 22(a) c o n s i s t s of measure 5 o f t h e s c o r e w i t h t h e aforementioned

l i n e a r p a t t e r n s marked w i t h s l u r s . T h i s c l e a r l y r e v e a l s t h e l a c k of

s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n between r h y t h m i c and l i n e a r p a t t e r n s .

I n (b) o f Example 22, t h e f i r s t n o t e s of t h e l i n e a r p a t t e r n s i n

each i n s t r u m e n t a r e i n d i c a t e d by noteheads w i t h t h i c k stems, a l l of which

a r e connected by a t h i c k beam. The stems between t h e beamed n o t e s


21
These t h r e e e v e n t s , however, a r e s t i l l components of t h e one
t e x t u r a l element i n o p e r a t i o n a t t h i s p o i n t .
48

represent the rhythmic c o n f i g u r a t i o n s of each p a r t , thereby showing the

distances between p a t t e r n recurrences. Not only i s the lack of

synchronization b e t w e e n r h y t h m i c and linear patterns, apparent in system

(a), further illustrated, but an element-rhythm other than meter i s , here,

revealed—the rhythm of linear pattern recurrence. Three distinct rhythms

are in operation (one i n each instrument), the interaction of which

obscures the quarter-note pulse, as indicated earlier, and reinforces the

rhythmically progressive and recessive qualities of the texture as a whole.

E x a m p l e 22. Piece No. 8, m e a s u r e 5, showing rhythmic and linear patterns.


P i e c e No. 4, f e a t u r i n g the flute, i s notated completely i n ^ (the

22

meter b e i n g essentially non-functional as to perceived effect ) , and i s

texturally structured so t h a t the flute i s engaged i n two continuous

phrases w i t h t h e accompanying instruments providing the (often fragmented)

counterpoint. The r e s u l t i n g single textural element i s one o f p s e u d o -

polyphony effected by t h e rhythmic "phasing" of the f l u t e with the

clarinet and bassoon. That i s , t h e accompanying i n s t r u m e n t s move i n a n d

out of rhythmic synchronization with the flute, a p p e a r i n g more independent


23

than they a c t u a l l y are. The p h a s i n g i s , however, i n part r e s p o n s i b l e

for the l o c a l p r o g r e s s i v e and r e c e s s i v e tendencies i n the piece, both

phrases of which r e v e a l an o v e r a l l move f r o m an a c t i v e t o an inactive

state. E x a m p l e 23 c o n s i s t s o f a g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e r h y t h m i c

activity (i.e., impulse-density o f t h e composite rhythm) o f t h e f o u r t h

piece.

The general rhythmic recession in the f i r s t phrase (measures 1-9)

is obvious from t h e graph. The second phrase, however, i sconsiderably

more complex as i t c o n t a i n s s e v e r a l interruptions, one o f which alters

the o v e r a l l flow of rhythmic activity (e.g., the fermata over the rest i n

bar 18). The f l u t e i s silent during the other interruptions, which f e a t u r e

abrupt changes in register and dynamics i n the clarinet and b a s s o o n (e.g.,.

measures 11-12, 16, a n d 1 7 ) ; i t i s , t h e r e f o r e , only the rhythmic flow of

the f l u t e part which i s affected. The f l u t e resumes i t s level of a c t i v i t y

i m m e d i a t e l y upon r e - e n t e r i n g .
22
L i g e t i u n d e r s c o r e s t h i s by t h e p e r f o r m a n c e n o t e s i n t h e s c o r e ;
"Apart from t h e i n d i c a t e d a c c e n t s , always p l a y v e r y e v e n l y and without
a c c e n t u a t i o n , so t h a t t h e s u b d i v i s i o n s i n t o b a r s d o e s n o t become
perceptible." S e e L i g e t i , Ten Pieces, p . 15.
23
T h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e f l u t e l i n e w i l l become more a p p a r e n t
in the next s e c t i o n .
E x a m p l e 23. P i e c e No. 4, impulse-density graph.

measure
51

Rhythmic structure of the flute part i n t h e second phrase i s

"frustrated" as a r e s u l t of recurring i n t e r r u p t i o n s noted above. Even

the final r e c e s s i o n o f rhythmic activity i n measures 19 t o t h e e n d ( b o t h

in the flute alone, as w e l l as i n t h e t r i o ) , seems somewhat d i v o r c e d from

the p r e v i o u s measures because of t h e abrupt "breaking o f f " of the flute

line, concurrent with t h e extreme r e g i s t e r and dynamic shift i n the other

parts. Although the overall rhythmic drive i s brought convincingly to a

close, one g e t s the impression that the flute i s left i n a state of

24

unfulfillment back i n b a r 19.

Although i n the fourth piece the notated measure i s not .operative as

a metric unit, large-scale units of impulse-density, not u n l i k e those noted

in connection with t h e e i g h t h p i e c e , may b e d i s c e r n e d h e r e as w e l l . In t h e

first phrase, f o r example, the first s i x b a r s may be d e f i n e d a s a

progressive unit with the turn-around p o i n t o c c u r r i n g on t h e f i r s t beat o f

bar 7. The c r i t e r i a forthis interpretation are threefold: f i r s t , the

maximum impulse-density o f t h e phrase occurs on t h e l a s t beat of bar 6

(e.g., a d e n s i t y o f 6 ) ; second, the flute itself offers a local rhythmic

intensification towards that p o i n t , c u l m i n a t i n g w i t h the f i r s t quintuplet

in the piece (i.e., r"T~| f^f\ Ij I I I J )» a n t


* third, the a c t i v i t y level drops

considerably with t h e absence o f t h e f l u t e commencing on t h e f i r s t beat o f

bar 7. The r e c e s s i v e u n i t spans measures 7-9, w h e r e u p o n t h e r h y t h m i c

tension i s completely relaxed with the sustained v e r t i c a l dyad C^-D^. The

first phrase, a s two l a r g e - s c a l e u n i t s of impulse-density (one p r o g r e s s i v e

and one r e c e s s i v e ) might b e d e p i c t e d a s i n E x a m p l e 24.

24
I f o n e c o m p a r e s t h e " r e c e s s i o n " i n t h e two p h r a s e s , o n e n o t i c e s
t h a t , i n t h e f i r s t , t h e f l u t e changes r e g i s t e r smoothly and without inter-
r u p t i o n ( e . g . , b a r 2 ) . I n t h e second p h r a s e , t h e f l u t e s t o p s s u d d e n l y and
r e s t s b e f o r e r e - e n t e r i n g a t t h e lower r e g i s t e r and dynamic l e v e l ( e . g . ,
bar 19).
52

Example 24. P i e c e No. 4, l a r g e - s c a l e impulse-density


units.

large-scale progressive unit large-scale recessive unit

The second p h r a s e i s more d i f f i c u l t t o c h a r a c t e r i z e as t o u n i t s o f

rhythmic progression and r e c e s s i o n . However, because t h e o v e r a l l r h y t h m i c

flow i s e s s e n t i a l l y unaffected by t h e i n t e r r u p t i o n s ( a p a r t from t h e r e s t i n

bar 18), the l a r g e - s c a l e progressive u n i t might a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d unaffected.

Even t h e r e s t i n b a r 18 might be f e l t t o h e i g h t e n t h e t e n s i o n because i t i s

not approached by an a p p r e c i a b l e d e c l i n e i n rhythmic a c t i v i t y . The problem

lies i n f i n d i n g t h e turn-around point. I n c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e impulse-

d e n s i t y curve (Example 2 3 ) , one i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o r such a p o i n t i s measure

21—the beginning of the f i n a l rhythmic recession. I f , on t h e o t h e r hand,

one t a k e s i n t o account t e n s i o n t h r o u g h r e g i s t r a l and dynamic exposure, t h e

second beat o f b a r 19 might be more p e r s u a s i v e . After a l l , the f i r s t beat

of b a r 19 i s u n q u e s t i o n a b l y t h e r e g i s t r a l and dynamic c l i m a x point of the

p i e c e , w h i l e t h e second beat i n i t i a t e s a r e l a x i n g t r e n d w i t h i n t h o s e same

parameters ( b u t n o t w i t h i n t h e parameter o f rhythm). I n any c a s e , t h e f o u r t h

p i e c e does e x h i b i t t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n as t o l a r g e - s c a l e u n i t s

of impulse-density w i t h i n a rhythmic s t r u c t u r e of p r o g r e s s i v e and r e c e s s i v e

qualities.

The t h i r d piece (an ensemble type) p r o v i d e s an example o f l a r g e - s c a l e


53

r h y t h m i c p r o g r e s s i o n and r e c e s s i o n w i t h i n an extended p o l y p h o n i c p h r a s e

which spans t h e e n t i r e p i e c e . Example 25 c o n s i s t s o f t h e i m p u l s e - d e n s i t y

c u r v e o f t h e p i e c e and, a l t h o u g h i t s shape i s g e n e r a l l y s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f

t h e e x c e r p t from t h e e i g h t h p i e c e c i t e d e a r l i e r (even t h e emergence o f a

s i m u l t a n e o u s second t e x t u r a l element o c c u r s i n b o t h ) , No. 3 i s d i f f e r e n -

t i a t e d by one i m p o r t a n t s t r u c t u r a l f a c t o r . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the single,

c o n t i n u o u s t e x t u r a l element, i n d i c a t e d on t h e graph, i s composed o f f o u r

c o n s e c u t i v e t e x t u r a l elements. Three of t h e s e c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e l a r g e -

s c a l e p r o g r e s s i o n (measures 1-8, 8-9, and 9-13), and one c o m p r i s e s t h e

r e c e s s i o n (measures 14 t o t h e end). (The r h y t h m i c i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e

o c t a v e - d o u b l e d theme i n b a r s 1 0 - 1 2 — i . e . , t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s second textural

e l e m e n t — w i l l be d e a l t w i t h s h o r t l y . )

Example 25. • P i e c e No. 3, i m p u l s e - d e n s i t y graph.

turn-around point

tr.H

1
15
measure no.
54

The d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e l e v e l s of o v e r a l l a c t i v i t y i n the t h r e e

s t a g e s of p r o g r e s s i o n a r e l a r g e l y the r e s u l t of r h y t h m i c and textural

p a r t i c u l a r s ( i . e . , s u r f a c e d e t a i l s ) o f the i n d i v i d u a l components of each

c o n s e c u t i v e p o l y p h o n i c element. For example, i n measures 1-8, the


25

components move r e l a t i v e l y s l o w l y and i n a fragmented f a s h i o n ; the

i n c r e a s i n g c o m p l e x i t y of i n t e r a c t i o n between components p r o v i d e s the

o v e r a l l rhythmic progression. I n t h e second s t a g e , b a r s 8-9, each p a r t

moves more c o n t i n u o u s l y and i n smaller note values. The i n t e r a c t i o n of

components, each of w h i c h undergoes a r h y t h m i c intensification, yields

t h e sharp i n c r e a s e i n t o t a l r h y t h m i c a c t i v i t y r e p r e s e n t e d on t h e graph
26

by the almost v e r t i c a l l i n e . The t h i r d s t a g e of p r o g r e s s i o n i s e f f e c t e d

by t h e c l a r i n e t t r i l l ( e . g . , an i n d e f i n i t e number of impulses per q u a r t e r -

note) .

The b e g i n n i n g of each of the t h r e e s t a g e s o f r h y t h m i c progression

( d e f i n e d above) as w e l l as t h a t of t h e r e c e s s i v e g e s t u r e i s marked by a

concurrence of a r t i c u l a t i o n . I n c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h i s d e t a i l , one may wish

to a t t r i b u t e m e t r i c accentual s i g n i f i c a n c e to these p a r t i c u l a r impulses,

t h e r e b y q u a l i f y i n g t h e f o u r c o n s e c u t i v e elements as m e t r i c u n i t s — u n i t s

which a r e l a r g e r than the n o t a t e d measure but s m a l l e r than t h e u n i t s of

i m p u l s e - d e n s i t y t o be exposed l a t e r . These a r e i n d i c a t e d i n Example 26 and,

once a g a i n , i n o r d e r t h a t i m p u l s e s — n o t a t e d " o f f - t h e - b e a t " i n the score—be

c o n s i d e r e d l o c a l downbeats, t h e m e t r i c i n d i c a t i o n s must be based on a p u l s e


25
The c o n t i n u i t y i n h e r e n t i n the l i n e a r components of t h i s
p a r t i c u l a r t e x t u r a l element, d e s p i t e t h e apparent f r a g m e n t a t i o n of the
i n s t r u m e n t a l p a r t s , i s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e next s e c t i o n on l i n e a r d e t a i l s
of p i t c h o r g a n i z a t i o n .
26
T h i s sharp i n c r e a s e i n r h y t h m i c a c t i v i t y , c o n c u r r e n t w i t h t h e
i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n - d e n s i t y r e d u c t i o n , was r e f e r r e d t o e a r l i e r as a t r a n s i t i o n a l
s e c t i o n between t h e two main f o r m a l s e c t i o n s of t h e p i e c e .
55

r a t e which w i l l accommodate such characterizations.

E x a m p l e 26. P i e c e No. 3, m e t r i c units.

mm. 1 7 8 9 14 16

Taken as one continuous statement, the piece (not yet considering

the octave-doubled theme) may be v i e w e d as a l a r g e - s c a l e u n i t of rhythmic

progression f o l l o w e d by one of rhythmic recession, the turn-around point

occurring at the b e g i n n i n g o f measure 14 (as i n d i c a t e d i n Example 25).

With r e s p e c t to t h i s particular mode o f r h y t h m i c structure, the overall

design (i.e., at the h i g h e s t l e v e l ) i s not completely unlike that of the

excerpt from No. 8 cited earlier. Also similar t o t h e No. 8 excerpt i s

t h e emergence of a simultaneous, second textural element at the peak o f

rhythmic activity. The rhythmically progressive portion of the continuous

t e x t u r e may be felt as anacrustic to the octave-doubled theme, while


56
27
retaining the c o n t i n u i t y within i t s own large-scale structure.

Apart from the interaction b e t w e e n t h e two simultaneous elements,

the octave-doubled theme may be heard to r e v e a l i t s own low-level metric

28

structure (again, not unlike that of the horn line i n No. 8). By

definition, metric units require accent-differentiated impulses which are

defined here, as i n p i e c e No. 8, by registral and/or dynamic exposure,

linear approach, d u r a t i o n , and/or notated a r t i c u l a t i v e markings. Ignoring

the n o t a t e d meter s i g n a t u r e , one might conceive the E at the end of bar 10

a s an accented, local downbeat because of i t s d u r a t i o n and linear approach

(refer to Example 27). The next pitch of comparable d u r a t i o n a l exposure,

the F of bar 11, may also be heard as a local arrival point, especially in
29

view of the l e a p which approaches i t . Although the C of bars 11-12 is

comparable i n d u r a t i o n and has added emphasis through registral exposure,

it comes t o o soon after t h e F t o be heard as a metric downbeat—that i s ,

one which a r t i c u l a t e s t h e b e g i n n i n g of a m e t r i c u n i t at a level comparable

to that of the previous unit. I t i s t h e r e f o r e considered subordinate to

t h e p r e v i o u s E and F i n terms of m e t r i c strength. Finally, the A i n bar 12


"'It i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e c o n t i n u o u s s t a t e m e n t w o u l d seem
to d r i f t i n and o u t o f t e x t u r a l " p r i m a c y . " I n o t h e r words, t h e t h r e e s t a g e s
of r h y t h m i c p r o g r e s s i o n a r e t h e p r i m a r y t e x t u r e s i n t h e o p e n i n g s e c t i o n
(they are the only ones). As t h e r h y t h m i c a c t i v i t y r e a c h e s i t s p e a k ( i . e . ,
t h e t r i l l ) , however, t h e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n - d e n s i t y d e c r e a s e s and t h e r e g i s t e r
a n d d y n a m i c s become l e s s i n t e n s e , r e d u c i n g t h e s t a t u s o f t h a t p a r t i c u l a r
t e x t u r a l element ( i . e . , the t r i l l ) . T h e o c t a v e - d o u b l e d theme w h i c h e m e r g e s
o v e r t h e l a t t e r i s c o n s i d e r e d p r i m a r y u n t i l i t d i s s o l v e s i n b a r 12, w h e r e -
upon t h e r e c e s s i v e g e s t u r e ( w i t h i n t h e l a r g e c o n t i n u o u s s t a t e m e n t ) emerges
as primary.

28
An a d d i t i o n a l g e n e r a l s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n p i e c e No. 3 a n d t h e
e x c e r p t f r o m No. 8 may be d i s c e r n e d : t h e r h y t h m i c a c t i v i t y c u r v e o f t h e
e m e r g i n g theme, i n e a c h c a s e , m i r r o r s on a s m a l l e r s c a l e t h a t o f t h e
l a r g e r c o n t i n u o u s element.

Note a l s o the h i g h e r - l e v e l stepwise approach from the E of bar 11.


57

may be heard as t h e u l t i m a t e a r r i v a l p o i n t of t h e theme ( i t i s the last

p i t c h t o be doubled i n o c t a v e s ) and i s , t h e r e f o r e , c o n s i d e r e d t o be of

a c c e n t u a l and m e t r i c significance.

Because o f t h e l a c k of e x p l i c i t l y a r t i c u l a t e d p u l s e — e s p e c i a l l y

one which concurs w i t h t h e t h r e e downbeats d e f i n e d a b o v e — a p u l s e f a c t o r

d e r i v e d from t h e r h y t h m i c d i v i s i o n s of t h e theme i t s e l f may be assumed f o r


&

the purpose of d e t e r m i n i n g t h e m e t r i c i n d i c a t i o n s . I f a pulse of 111111


i s used, f o r example, two e q u a l m e t r i c u n i t s of 1 7 ^ a r e d e l i n e a t e d by the

E, F, and A, w i t h the accented C f a l l i n g w i t h i n t h e second u n i t ( e . g . , a

"syncopation" of s o r t s ) . This rhythmic/metric configuration i s illustrated

i n Example 27.

Example 27. P i e c e No. 3, measures 10-12, r h y t h m i c and m e t r i c d e s i g n .

mm. 10 11 12

BSN.II')- ~

T 6
| 17x^
17x1 | 17x| I

re-
metered

A g a i n , l o w e r - l e v e l m e t r i c o r g a n i z a t i o n i s r e v e a l e d w i t h i n a l a r g e r , more

continuous rhythmic statement, t h e l a t t e r e x h i b i t i n g impulse groupings

c o n s i d e r a b l y l a r g e r than the a s s e r t e d m e t r i c u n i t s o f the theme i t s e l f .


58

W h i l e the f i f t h , seventh, and n i n t h p i e c e s ( a l l b e i n g of t h e

ensemble type) a l s o r e v e a l c o n t i n u o u s rhythmic statements, some i n v o l v i n g

p r o g r e s s i o n and r e c e s s i o n , t h e statements l a c k the presence of explicit

turn-around p o i n t s comparable t o t h o s e exposed i n t h e p i e c e s d i s c u s s e d

thus f a r . In the f i f t h piece, f o r instance, four s e c t i o n s are d e l i n e a t e d

by a l t e r n a t i n g t e m p i and dynamics ( e . g . , J= 120 J= 132 J= 120 J= 132).


sfz ff sfz ff
4 3
4 4

The i m p u l s e - d e n s i t y curve o f t h i s p i e c e i s g i v e n in; Example 28. In t h i s

p a r t i c u l a r p i e c e , because the mode of a r t i c u l a t i o n throughout i s one of

repeated staccatissimo n o t e s , the i m p u l s e - d e n s i t y i s a c t u a l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e

o f t h e rhythm.'.of p i t c h change. The i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s d e t a i l w i l l soon

become c l e a r .

Example 28. P i e c e No. 5, i m p u l s e - d e n s i t y graph.


59

W i t h i n the f i r s t s e c t i o n ( J = 120, measures 1-8), the a c t i v i t y

l e v e l of t h e h i g h l y a r t i c u l a t e polyphonic texture i s r e l a t i v e l y constant,

s u g g e s t i n g n e i t h e r p r o g r e s s i o n nor r e c e s s i o n . The second s e c t i o n i s

i n t e n s i f i e d t h r o u g h t h e abrupt tempo change ( i . e . , to J = 132) and

m a r g i n a l i n c r e a s e i n i m p u l s e - d e n s i t y , w h i l e t h e t h i r d s e c t i o n (back t o

J = 120) i n v o l v e s a rhythmic r e c e s s i o n to the o r i g i n a l l e v e l of a c t i v i t y

and beyond t o 0 i m p u l s e s / J f o r s e v e r a l c o n s e c u t i v e beats i n bar 11. While

t h e j u n c t u r e s a t w h i c h r h y t h m i c a c t i v i t y changes d i r e c t i o n £i.e., from one

o f p r o g r e s s i o n to one o f r e c e s s i o n ( e . g . , measure 9), o r v i c e v e r s a (.e.g.,

measure 12)J might be viewed as t u r n - a r o u n d p o i n t s , the d i f f e r e n c e i n

magnitude of i m p u l s e - d e n s i t y i s h a r d l y enough to warrant such a


30

characterization. The effect o f an i n c r e a s e i n i m p u l s e - d e n s i t y from 2 t o

4/J , f o r example, i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y overpowered by t h e mode of articulation

( i . e . , the continuous, arhythmic note r e p e t i t i o n s ) . The staccatissimo

reiterations, i n f a c t , prevent a f e e l i n g of r h y t h m i c r e p o s e even when t h e

p i t c h e s a r e kept c o n s t a n t ( e . g . , i n measure 11).

The r h y t h m i c intensification i n t h e second s e c t i o n o f t h e seventh

piece (bars 3 8 - 4 4 ) — e s s e n t i a l l y a s i n g l e s e c t i o n which i s " t o r n o f f " a t the

peak of i t s r h y t h m i c a c t i v i t y — r e s u l t s from g r a d u a l independence o f the

f o u r sounding components. Each time a component e n t e r s , i t does so i n

rhythmic unison w i t h a part already i n progress. Soon a f t e r e n t r y , however,

t h e new component branches o f f on i t s own rhythmic course ( e . g . , oboe and

clarinet i n measure 39, and bassoon i n bar 40), thus i n t e n s i f y i n g the

interaction between p a r t s and u l t i m a t e l y the l e v e l of t h e composite

30
In t h i s p i e c e t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e most a c t i v e and i n a c t i v e
s t a t e s i s o n l y 4 i m p u l s e s / J ; compare t h i s w i t h 22 i n No. 8, 8 i n No. 4,
and a t l e a s t 15 i n No. 3 ("at l e a s t " because o f t h e i n d e f i n i t e number
p r o v i d e d by t h e t r i l l ) .
60

rhythmic activity. E x a m p l e 29 offers a graphic representation of rhythmic

activity as to impulse-density.

E x a m p l e 29. Piece No. 7, m e a s u r e s 38-44, impulse-density graph.

38 39 40 41 42 43 44
measure no.

Although the ninth piece c o n s i s t s of one, continuous t e x t u r a l element

throughout (i.e., the three-part canon mentioned earlier), a graphic

representation of the impulse-density of i t s composite rhythm would reveal a

rather uninteresting oscillation between 0 and 2 impulses per quarter-note—

c l e a r l y not the most significant aspect of rhythmic structure i n the piece.

In fact, pitch unfolding and registral ascent are more important factors of

progression i n the piece than rhythmic intensification. Rhythm does,

however, p l a y a vital r o l e i n the independence of the canonic components.

Each of the three p a r t s moves i n m u l t i p l e s of a different durational unit:


61

5 3
piccolo - | | | | , oboe - | I | I I , and c l a r i n e t - | 1 I . This d e t a i l i n

rhythmic design prevents the imitation from becoming too regular (or s t r i c t ) .

At the beginning of the present section on r h y t h m i c aspects, i t was

noted that t h e consequences of non-operative meter at the level of the

notated measure a r e d i f f e r e n t i n pieces with constant n o t a t e d meter from

those with fluctuating meter. In consideration of the l a t t e r type

(specifically, four of the f i v e soloistic pieces) a number o f e x a m p l e s

exist where t h e b a r l i n e s would appear t o be s t r a t e g i c a l l y placed to

heighten t h e downbeat quality of certain points (be they arrival and/or

departure points), a l r e a d y exposed through o t h e r means o f a c c e n t u a t i o n

(e.g., i n c r e a s e d dynamics, a r t i c u l a t i v e markings, etc.). The second piece

offers two i n s t a n c e s o f e x p l i c i t l y d e f i n e d downbeats a s a r r i v a l points.

The first occurs i n bar 1 1 , approached from bar 9 , while t h e second takes

p l a c e on t h e downbeat of bar 2 4 , approached from the last beat of the

p r e v i o u s measure. These excerpts are given i n E x a m p l e 30 ( a ) a n d ( b )

respectively. Given t h e r h y t h m i c a l l y complex environment i n which these

two downbeats o c c u r , their placement would seem t o b e o f s t r u c t u r a l

significance. The f i r s t o n e may b e h e a r d t o c l o s e o f f t h e opening section,

the continuation i n the clarinet (bar 1 1 ) serving as a connection to the

next formal section ( J = 1 4 4 , poco meno mosso). The downbeat of bar2 4

would appear t o end t h e m a i n body o f t h e p i e c e , w h i l e eliding with the

connecting link t o t h e coda (i.e., measures 2 8 to the end).


62

Example 30. Piece No. 2, local arrival points.

(a) m e a s u r e s 9-11

(b) m e a s u r e s 23-24

© 1969 B. Schott's Soehne, Mainz


A l l rights reserved
Used by permission of European American Music Distributor;
Corporation, sole Canadian agent for B. Schott's Soehne.
63

Two instances of local downbeats i n the sixth piece are of

significance. Each i s approached by a cadenza-like passage i n t h e oboe

(the featured instrument), marked senza tempo, a n d e a c h f u n c t i o n s a s a n

elided downbeat—that i s , a simultaneous arrival and d e p a r t u r e point.

E x a m p l e 31 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e two p o i n t s i n question.

Example 31. P i e c e No. 6, l o c a l arrival/departure points,

(a) m e a s u r e s 8-9 ^
Tempo:
Poco sostenuto.legato dolcissimo
8 senza tempo (Presto)
J A 9 v-JSL
Fl.

Ob.

Cl.SH,

Cor.Fa

Fag.

(b) m e a s u r e s 10-11

j 0 senza tempo: Prestiss., staccatiss. Poco sostenuto

Fl.

prestissimo possibile

Ob.
—LL. — j —
= ==
—f- —f- — — T T r«|*TT"rtl*"rtf tartyluil'gkjr' -

crescenao motto -

Cl.Si\> tr * -
s
i u ;
±^L±J

A-^V senza sord.\aa


Cor. Fa.

•1'
pp moito calmo

Jig rT\
Fag.

© 1 9 6 9 B. Schott's Soehne, Mainz


A l l rights reserved
Used by permission of European American Music Distributors
Corporation, sole Canadian agent for B. Schott's Soehne.
64

A second f u n c t i o n o f t h e b a r l i n e s and m e t r i c i n d i c a t i o n s may be one

of r h y t h m i c g r o u p i n g w i t h o u t a c c e n t - d e l i n e a t i o n . I n o t h e r words, a m u s i c a l

i d e a may r e q u i r e t h e time-span of f i v e q u a r t e r - n o t e s a t a g i v e n tempo so i t

would be l a b e l l e d as 4 w i t h o u t any m e t r i c ( i . e . , accent) i m p l i c a t i o n such


> >
as^r*p|*|* or
> >
f f |* |* f
' ^- would appear t o be the s i t u a t i o n i n
Tn S

p a r t s of t h e e i g h t h p i e c e . I n measures 26-32, f o r i n s t a n c e , f i v e d i s p a r a t e

m u s i c a l ideas are presented i n s u c c e s s i o n , each r e q u i r i n g a d i f f e r e n t time-

span (not n e c e s s a r i l y a d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n of accented and unaccented p u l s e s ) .

Example 32 c o n s i s t s of t h e s e seven measures from t h e s c o r e . Notation i n

s t r a i g h t ^ would be next t o i m p o s s i b l e and would, almost c e r t a i n l y , undermine


31
the d r a m a t i c impact of the d i s p a r a t e m u s i c a l i d e a s p r e s e n t e d i n the excerpt.

Summary

Concerning r h y t h m i c and m e t r i c d e s i g n , t h r e e main p r i n c i p l e s were

found to be of s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e q u i n t e t . The f i r s t involves the

f l u c t u a t i o n i n composite r h y t h m i c a c t i v i t y , termed " i m p u l s e - d e n s i t y , " and

i t s v i t a l i n f l u e n c e on p r o g r e s s i v e and r e c e s s i v e t e n d e n c i e s i n s e c t i o n s and

p i e c e s c o n s i s t i n g p r i m a r i l y of p o l y p h o n i c t e x t u r e s . The second p r i n c i p l e

concerns t h e f a c t t h a t n o t a t e d meter i s l a r g e l y i n o p e r a t i v e i n the p i e c e s

and, i n f a c t , a c c e n t - a r t i c u l a t e d u n i t s a t t h e l e v e l of t h e n o t a t e d measure

were judged t o be e s s e n t i a l l y i r r e l e v a n t . However, l o w - l e v e l m e t r i c u n i t s

( d e l i n e a t e d by f a c t o r s o t h e r than n o t a t e d b a r l i n e s ) were s a i d t o o p e r a t e i n

the horn p a r t o f p i e c e No. 8 and the octave-doubled theme o f No. 3. The

t h i r d p r i n c i p l e s t a t e d t h a t , i n p i e c e s w i t h a c o n s t a n t n o t a t e d meter,

b a r l i n e s were found t o be n o t a t i o n a l conveniences. In pieces e x h i b i t i n g

31
The e a r l i e r p a r a l l e l drawn between t h e s o l o i s t i c p i e c e s o f the
q u i n t e t and t h e l a r g e r p i e c e s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e s t y l e of Apparitions
and Aventures i s e x e m p l i f i e d i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r e x c e r p t .
Example 32. P i e c e No. 8, m e a s u r e s 26-32, showing consecutive disparate musical ideas.

Agitato capriccioso "

as

@ 1969 B. Schott's Soehne, Mainz


A l l rights reserved
Used by permission of European American Music Distributors
Corporation, sole Canadian agent for B. Schott's Soehne.
66

fluctuating, n o t a t e d m e t e r , however, f a c t o r s o f downbeat characterization

and time-span c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of d i s p a r a t e m u s i c a l i d e a s were f o u n d to be

relevant in addition to that of n o t a t i o n a l convenience.

While other details, and principles o f g r e a t e r c o n s e q u e n c e , may be

found to operate within the rhythmic and metric design of these pieces,

it i s hoped that the issues discussed in this section will serve as a point

from which a g r e a t e r understanding of this musical l a n g u a g e may be

developed.

Modes o f P i t c h Organization

Linear Details

The linear details of pitch o r g a n i z a t i o n , f o r the purposes of this

study, refer to (predominantly) stepwise p a t t e r n s of r e g i s t r a l l y specific

32

p i t c h e s and/or pitch-classes (PC's). As one might expect to f i n d many

such linear p a t t e r n s i n music of this language, our concern will focus on

linear connections which tend t o move t o w a r d and/or away f r o m specific

structural p o i n t s i n the pieces, thereby suggesting elements of progression

and recession.

Two aspects of linear connection t o be s t u d i e d a r e modes o f pitch/

PC structuring w i t h i n t h e v a r i o u s p i e c e s , and large-scale connections

33

between pieces. In the former, the connections may be found to occur in

one p a r t i c u l a r i n s t r u m e n t ( i . e . , one component w i t h i n a l a r g e r t e x t u r a l


32
A c c o r d i n g t o E d w a r d Cone, s t e p w i s e c o n n e c t i o n s a r e v i t a l t o t h e
p e r c e p t i o n of l i n e a r s t r u c t u r e as "the ear w i l l n a t u r a l l y connect each
tone with those nearest i t i n p i t c h . The a d j a c e n t p i t c h e s may be d i a t o n i c
o r t h e y may be c h r o m a t i c ; t h e y may be a c t u a l l y a d j a c e n t o r d i s p l a c e d b y
one o r m o r e o c t a v e s ; t h e y may be p r e s e n t b y i m p l i c a t i o n o n l y . " See
" A n a l y s i s T o d a y , " The Musical Quarterly ( A p r i l 1 9 6 0 ) : 177-78.
33
R e g a r d i n g t h e l a t t e r , s u c h i n s t a n c e s may be c o n s i d e r e d a d d i t i o n a l
modes o f l a r g e - s c a l e c o n n e c t i o n o r p i e c e s u b g r o u p i n g , s e v e r a l o f w h i c h
were o u t l i n e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r .
67

element), or t h e y may be the r e s u l t of the interaction of components (the

linearizations, themselves, being a d d i t i o n a l components of sorts).

Although significant linear c o n n e c t i o n s may be found i n a l l of the

pieces, the structural details or p a r t i c u l a r s of l i n e a r i z a t i o n are often

different from piece to piece. The second piece, f o r example, reveals

two linearizations effected by the a r p e g g i a t i o n design of the clarinet

part. In the 'b'-section, measures 12-15, t h e u p p e r and lower pitches of

the successive arpeggios create simultaneous, different linear

34

continuities. In both ascending events, the f i n a l p i t c h e s a r e marked

by the leap of a t h i r d which i s further displaced by an octave. These

connective p a t t e r n s , which provide l i n e a r direction to the four measures

at hand, a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n Example 33.

A second linear event resulting from a similar arpeggio design may

be d i s c e r n e d i n m e a s u r e s 21-22 and continued i n bar 29. The upper notes

of the c o n s e c u t i v e two and three-note patterns ( i . e . , oscillations and

arpeggios) c r e a t e an ascending line from D^-> t o G^-* ( b a r s 21-22) which

is continued from A^ to A ^ i n bar 29. The lower notes contribute to a

simultaneously ascending l i n e from t o B-> a n d an overlapping descending

line from t o D^-\ E x a m p l e 34 portrays these interacting linear events.

While continued l i n e a r i z a t i o n of t h e lower notes does not occur i n the

final measure, t h e resumption of the ascending line i n the upper part is

responsible f o r the d i r e c t e d tendency towards the h i g h e s t p i t c h of the

piece (A * ).
1 6

34
While the " i n n e r " p a r t s o f t h e a r p e g g i o s may a l s o r e v e a l l i n e a r
relationships, the " o u t e r " v o i c e s a r e most r e a d i l y p e r c e i v e d a t t h e
operative tempo,J = 144.
Example 3 3 . P i e c e No. 2, m e a s u r e s 12-15, two simultaneous linearizations.

mm. 12 13 14 15

41
CL
(inC),
%
y M f=±=z

5 5 6
111 I IIiff
6
51?
6
^ E J LLLU Uill 11 Bf ^L^L3Z^^L^L^0 iX^Li^EJ

ON
oo

Example 34. P i e c e No. 2, measuresv2I-22 a n d 29, two simultaneous linearizations.

mm. 21 22 29
69

Much o f t h e f l u t e part i n the fourth piece i s constructed of

successive, two-note o s c i l l a t i o n s , the upper and lower notes of which may

be heard to d e f i n e independent linearizations, not unlike those of the

second piece. Although the c l a r i n e t part ( i n No. 4) opens in a relatively

stepwise fashion, i t also exhibits a bi-linear structure from the middle

of bar 2 to bar 8. Example 35 shows t h e f l u t e and clarinet parts from

the score with the suggested linearizations i n the f l u t e (above the

s c o r e ) and i n the c l a r i n e t (below).

Although the connections are self-explanatory, two details are

noteworthy. First, regarding r e g i s t r a l space, i t is significant that the

point of o r i g i n of the flute's top linear event, (bar 1), i s the arrival

point of i t s lower ascending line ( i n measure 2 ) . The dotted l i n e connects

t h e two, suggesting a conjoined l i n e a r i z a t i o n of E^ t o F#6 through

prolongation of the C^. Second, the b i - l i n e a r structure of the f l u t e part,

which terminates a b r u p t l y at the end of bar 6, may be heard to continue i n

the clarinet part, as suggested by the arrow from bars 6-7. The linear-

progressive tendencies, i n i t i a t e d i n the f l u t e and clarinet at the onset

of the piece, a r e brought to a convincing close i n measures 7-8 by the

clarinet and bassoon, the a r r i v a l p o i n t s on and coinciding with the

35

aforementioned rhythmic repose.

In the 'b'-section of the seventh p i e c e (measures 38 to the end),

a linear event may be discerned which r e s u l t s from dynamic, durational,

and registral exposure, as w e l l as m o t i v i c r e c u r r e n c e . The peaks of the

recurring dynamic "swells" are often concurrent with a sustained pitch

which has been a p p r o a c h e d by an ascending arpeggio and, more immediately,


35
The s e n s e o f c a d e n c e a t t h i s p o i n t i n t h e p i e c e a l s o results
from a p a r t i c u l a r h a r m o n i c d e t a i l t o be e x p l a i n e d l a t e r .
70

E x a m p l e 35. P i e c e No. 4, m e a s u r e s 1-8, simultaneous linear connections..


71
by a tritone (ascending or descending). The linear pattern in question

involves the progression of the recurring tritones (although, in this

3 6
particular e x a m p l e , movement by step i s exceeded). The top staff of

E x a m p l e 36 r e v e a l s the tritones exposed t h r o u g h t h e means d e s c r i b e d above.

37

System (b) illustrates the v a r i o u s "inversion" and interlocking relation-

ships inherent i n the succession of tritones, while system (c) shows the

derived linear progression. I n t e r v a l - c l a s s e s (IC's) between contiguous

tritones of the progression are i n d i c a t e d below system ( c ) , the "-"

representing a descent, and "+" an ascent. The t r a n s p o s i t i o n and near-

inversion relationship between t h e o p e n i n g and closing t r i t o n e s of the

linearization are summarized on systems (d) and (e). Once a g a i n a complete

formal s e c t i o n i s t r a v e r s e d by a linear event, the stepwise ascending

structure of which c o n t r i b u t e s to a " d i r e c t e d " tendency towards i t s

conclusion.

The opening of the 'b'-section (of the seventh piece) i s noteworthy

for reasons of pitch/PC organization other than those involving linear

connections. It i s an example o f a carefully controlled u n f o l d i n g of PC

content; the twelve PC's are sounded once b e f o r e any are repeated. Although

the twelve-note ordering i s not further treated transpositionally of

inversionally, as an a c t u a l twelve-tone "row," i t does represent one mode o f

PC o r g a n i z a t i o n which i s operative in other pieces of the quintet.

The PC content of p i e c e No. 5, f o r example, u n f o l d s according to four

different twelve-note orderings, concurrent, f o r t h e most part, with the

3 6
B o t h t h e r e c u r r i n g l i n e a r t r i t o n e s and g e n e r a l arpeggio approaches
to s u s t a i n e d p i t c h e s may be c o n s i d e r e d m o t i v i c .
37
Inversion relationship r e f e r s to the v e r t i c a l order of the t r i t o n e
members ( e v e n t h o u g h a t r i t o n e , as such, i s not i n v e r t i b l e w i t h respect to
actual IC).
73

Example 36. P i e c e No. 7, m e a s u r e s 38-44, linear progression of tritones.


74

f o u r s e c t i o n s o f t h e p i e c e ( a s d e l i n e a t e d t h r o u g h o t h e r parameters already-

mentioned) . I n t h e f i r s t and t h i r d s e c t i o n s some PC's a r e r e p e a t e d before

a l l t w e l v e have sounded, t h e t w e l f t h PC s i g n i f y i n g t h e end o f t h e f i r s t


38

s e c t i o n and, i n t h e l a t t e r case, t h e b e g i n n i n g of the fourth. The second

and f o u r t h s e c t i o n s c o n t a i n no such r e p e t i t i o n s ; once t h e t w e l v e PC's have

sounded i n each c a s e , t h e s e c t i o n i s o v e r . A l t h o u g h " t h e f o u r PC o r d e r i n g s

a r e not t r a n s p o s i t i o n a l l y o r i n v e r s i o n a l l y r e l a t e d , many i n t e r n a l PC p a i r s

are r e t a i n e d ( b r a c k e t e d i n Example 3 7 ) , as i s one p a r t i c u l a r I C o r d e r i n g

("boxed" i n Example 3 7 ) .
Example 37. P i e c e No. 5, PC o r d e r i n g s , showing PC p a i r
and IC o r d e r i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s .

I (mm.l-8.8fp1 DE^CD^EFBB*

II (mm.8-9.ff) E

III (mm.9-12.sfp) C D B* B

BE (mm.12-14,ff)

The c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e t h i r d PC o r d e r i n g ( i . e . , t h e E ^ ) c o i n c i d e s
w i t h t h e f i r s t n o t e o f t h e f i n a l s e c t i o n ( a s d e f i n e d by tempo and d y n a m i c s ) .
The f i n a l s e c t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , c o n t a i n s t h i r t e e n n o t e s : The E ^ from t h e end
of t h e t h i r d o r d e r i n g and t h e t w e l v e n o t e s o f i t s own o r d e r i n g , w h i c h a l s o
ends on E K
75

The b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s i x t h p i e c e c o n t i n u e s t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l concept

of t h e t w e l v e - n o t e o r d e r i n g but, u n l i k e i n t h e f i f t h p i e c e , o n l y one ordered

u n f o l d i n g o c c u r s , a f t e r which t h e PC's do n o t appear t o be arranged i n

specific patterns. The i n i t i a l o r d e r i n g i s , however, o f i n t e r e s t as i t

r e t a i n s some o f t h e PC p a i r s and t h e r e c u r r e n t I C o r d e r i n g from t h e PC

p a t t e r n s used i n t h e p r e v i o u s p i e c e . Example 38 r e v e a l s t h e PC p a i r

r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e f i r s t o r d e r i n g o f t h e s i x t h - p i e c e and t h e f i r s t

and l a s t of t h e f i f t h piece (bracketed i n t h e example), as w e l l as t h e

r e c u r r i n g IC o r d e r i n g (boxed i n t h e example).

Example 38. P i e c e s 5 and 6, PC p a i r and IC o r d e r i n g


relat ionships.

No. 5, I

No. 6 C Br*D E ^ | A * A » G G ^ E F

No. 5, 3 E O ^ C B ^ B A G ^ F E E ^

F i n a l l y , w i t h r e g a r d t o o r d e r e d PC u n f o l d i n g , t h e n i n t h p i e c e

d e s e r v e s mention. The whole p i e c e c o n s i s t s o f one, n i n e - n o t e ordering

w h i c h u n f o l d s c a n o n i c a l l y i n t h e p i c c o l o , oboe, and c l a r i n e t . Although

t h e u n i s o n E^ i s r e p e a t e d i n the opening, the remaining PC's o f t h e

o r d e r i n g a r e a r t i c u l a t e d o n l y once ( i . e . , once p e r i n s t r u m e n t ) .
• 76 ;

An important aspect of progressive (i.e., directed) linear connection

may be associated with the orderings of the three pieces just examined.

Apart from c o n t r o l l i n g the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f PC's, the actual patterns of

unfolding reveal linear and wedge-like continuities, the latter consisting

of simultaneously ascending and descending linearizations. In Example 39

the orderings of the n i n t h , f i f t h , and sixth pieces are notated as PC's,

registrally arranged to illustrate the linear a n d / o r wedge p a t t e r n s inherent

in their orderings.

The pattern i n the n i n t h piece (top staff of Example 39) is, in fact,

the registral c o n f i g u r a t i o n of the canonic theme, a p a r t from the C^ which

actually sounds an octave higher (as i n d i c a t e d by the black note in

parentheses). The ascending f o u r t h E^6 to A ^ , the asserted linear

progression i n the p i e c e , has added significance in the light of the linear

details of the final piece—a connective f e a t u r e which w i l l be dealt with

in Chapter IV.

In the case of the first and third s e c t i o n s of p i e c e No. 5, the PC

patterns i n E x a m p l e 39 are also the registrally specific p i t c h e s of the

piece, apart from those with a black note above or below. (In the latter

cases, the black notes are the a c t u a l sounding registers of the notes.)

The p i t c h e s of the second and f o u r t h s e c t i o n s , however, a r e registrally

dispersed over f o u r and one-half octaves; the linear patterns illustrated

in E x a m p l e 39 are, t h e r e f o r e , more p r o b l e m a t i c as "stepwise" events.

Apart from revealing internal linear patterns, the orderings of the

fifth piece exhibit interrelated directive tendencies. The wedge-like

"spatial" expansion of the opening section i s preparatory f o r the extremely

wide coverage of the registrally dispersed second s e c t i o n , and in this

sense tends to " p o i n t " towards i t . The energy generated i n the latter is
77

E x a m p l e 39. Pieces 9, 5, and 6, patterns of PC unfolding.


78

somewhat d i s s i p a t e d by the registrally compact linearity of the third

section—a linear descent which a l s o tends to recede towards a point of

repose, a s s i s t e d by the decline in rhythmic activity noted earlier. The

explosive fourth s e c t i o n would appear to i n t e r r u p t the linear descent,

w h i c h may be seen to continue with the final four pitches of the piece.

The condition most responsible f o r the suggestion of such a continuation

is the PC and registral e q u a l i t y of the final f o u r members o f the third

and fourth orderings.

Concerning registral equality, a detail alluded to earlier is

noteworthy. While the G^, F^, and of the third ordering occur early

in the third section, the final occurs an octave l o w e r and as the first

pitch of the final section (as defined by tempo a n d dynamics). This may

be i n d i c a t i v e of an averted linear descent, the intended connection coming

at the end of the fourth s e c t i o n where t h e r e g i s t e r of the final E^ is

consistent with the preceding three pitches.

Despite the continuation of the linearization, as suggested above,

the piece would appear to conclude i n an "open" f a s h i o n with respect to PC

39 u
unfolding. Several conditions r e i n f o r c e the notion that D 4
would qualify

as a final arrival point: first, the piece opens w i t h an emphatic D^

(reiterated in unison); second, the fourth section begins on D5 and

progresses through a descending seventh; and third, the final four pitches

of the fourth section point linearly to, but fall short of, D4.

This apparently "incomplete" c l o s e may, however, have functional

significance. Although the unfolding of pitches i n the opening of the

sixth piece does not conform to the registral configuration of the wedge

39
T h i s i s f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e d by t h e note i n the score: "stop as
though t o r n o f f . " See L i g e t i , Ten Pieces, p. 19.
p a t t e r n noted on t h e bottom s t a f f o f Example 39, i t i s r e s p o n s i b l e , i n PC
40

terms, f o r an aspect o f c o n n e c t i o n between t h e two p i e c e s . F o r example,

w h i l e t h e end o f t h e f i f t h p i e c e approaches D from above ( i . e . , G^, F, E,

E&), t h e opening o f t h e s i x t h p i e c e approaches i t from below ( i . e . , A#, B,

C, C#, t h e a c t u a l o r d e r b e i n g B, C#, C, A#). The D ( f i f t h PC o f t h e

o r d e r i n g ) i s t h e f e a t u r e d oboe's f i r s t n o t e . The d i f f e r e n c e i n t i m b r e as

w e l l as a r t i c u l a t i o n (as s p e c i f i e d i n t h e s c o r e ) , render t h e long-awaited

D more emphatic. The PC c o n n e c t i o n between t h e f i f t h and s i x t h p i e c e s i s

summarized i n Example 40.

Example 40. PC c o n n e c t i o n between t h e f i f t h and s i x t h


pieces.

No. 5 No. 6
mm. 13 1 _/oboe \
registrally
specific
pitches

itch-
classes

B e f o r e l e a v i n g t h e concept o f l i n e a r wedge-patterns, t h e opening

t w e l v e measures o f t h e e i g h t h p i e c e s h o u l d be examined. Although twelve-

note o r d e r i n g s a r e n o t i n o p e r a t i o n h e r e , t h e expansion and c o n t r a c t i o n o f

the "outer v o i c e s " c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e d i r e c t i v e q u a l i t y which p o i n t s t o t h e

horn e n t r y i n b a r 12. "Outer v o i c e s , " h e r e , r e f e r t o t h e h i g h e s t and l o w e s t

p i t c h e s o f t h e o v e r a l l r e g i s t r a l space c r e a t e d by t h e i n t e r a c t i o n of the

40
Other a s p e c t s c i t e d e a r l i e r i n c l u d e tempo, a r t i c u l a t i o n ,
i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n , and t h e attacca i n d i c a t i o n a t t h e end of t h e f i f t h p i e c e .
80

three instruments. Example 41 summarizes t h e s e p i t c h e x t r e m i t i e s and

r e v e a l s t h e aforementioned w e d g e - l i k e p a t t e r n of l i n e a r i z a t i o n .

Example 41. P i e c e No. 8, measures 1-12, wedge-patterned


linearizations.

mm. 1 2 3 4 7 7 8 10 11 12

The horn e n t r y i s marked by t h e c o n t r a c t i o n t o t h e minor second,

i n t h e accompanimental element. The i n t e r a c t i o n between p i t c h

and r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n s i n t h e s e opening t w e l v e measures i s noteworthy. In

t h e s e c t i o n on rhythm, the horn e n t r y was s a i d to be marked by t h e maximum

i n composite r h y t h m i c a c t i v i t y . During t h i s steady i n c r e a s e i n impulse-

d e n s i t y , t h e p i t c h s t r u c t u r e has r e v e a l e d a t w o f o l d wedge p a t t e r n . The

i n t e r a c t i o n of b o t h p a t t e r n s ( i . e . , rhythm and p i t c h ) may be r e p r e s e n t e d

as i n Example 42.

Example 42. P i e c e No. 8, measures 1-12, p a t t e r n e d p i t c h


u n f o l d i n g as compared to r h y t h m i c a c t i v i t y .

pitch unfolding:

rhythmic a c t i v i t y :
(impulse-density)
81

A unique mode o f linear c o n n e c t i o n may be discerned i n the opening

eight measures of the third piece. Although a l l five instruments contribute

to the polyphonic textural element, o n l y t h r e e components a r e actually

present i n the f i r s t f o u r measures. In bars 5-7 t h e number o f components

increases to four and, finally, five. The continuous linear components, as

distinct from the often fragmented i n s t r u m e n t a l p a r t s of the score, are

illustrated i n Example 43.

The components indicated i n the example a r e c r e a t e d t h r o u g h the use

of a d e v i c e I have termed "unison transfer." Essentially i t refers to the

connection of two fragments of a single linear component through an

overlapping unison i n t h e two instruments involved i n the t r a n s f e r . In the

second measure (refer to the s c o r e ) , f o r example, the a l t o flute sounds a

C# , 5
concurrent with the horn entry, also on C#5. Once t h e h o r n has assumed

the p i t c h , the f l u t e drops out. The linear component has, here, been

transferred from the f l u t e to the horn v i a the u n i s o n o v e r l a p (refer to

Example 43).

As i n the incident cited above, i n s t r u m e n t s a r e most o f t e n silent

immediately b e f o r e and after presenting a portion of a p a r t i c u l a r linear

41

component. On o c c a s i o n , however, b o t h i n s t r u m e n t s c o n t i n u e t o sound after

a transfer has occurred. This i s the case i n bar 5, f o r example, where the

clarinet c o n t i n u e s t o sound i t s E^ (and the r e s t of i t s component) after

the l a t t e r has been assumed by the f l u t e . Here, the unison t r a n s f e r may be

said t o h a v e spawned a f o u r t h component, thereby a f f e c t i n g the textural-


41
One p a r t i c u l a r d e p a r t u r e f r o m t h i s s t a n d a r d p r o c e d u r e o c c u r s i n
b a r 5. The oboe d' amore c o n t i n u e s i t s a f t e r t h a t p i t c h i s a s s u m e d by
t h e b a s s o o n , a n d o n l y when i t r e a c h e s D^5, s e v e r a l b e a t s l a t e r , d o e s i t
r e s t , a f t e r the i iS )t u r n , p i c k e d up by t h e h o r n .
n This exception
may be s e e n a s a n " e x t e n d e d " o v e r l a p .
82

Example 43. P i e c e No. 3, m e a s u r e s 1-8, l i n e a r c o m p o n e n t s through


u n i s o n t r a n s f e r and p i t c h i n t e r c h a n g e .
83

*These brackets indicate the span over which a particular instrument sounds; the dotted portion
at the end of each indicates the point of "unison transfer" and the other instrument involved.
'These diagonal lines indicate instances of "pitch interchange. "
84

density.

Unison t r a n s f e r i s a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i n n i n g t h e t e x t u r e . In

bar 7, t h e horn 's G# 4


i s assumed by t h e bassoon ( a l r e a d y sounding a linear

component), a f t e r which t h e horn drops o u t , t h e r e b y ending one component.

An example o f an i n c o m p l e t e u n i s o n t r a n s f e r accounts f o r t h e b r i e f fragment

B -A
4 4
i n t h e f l u t e , measures 4-5. The i n i t i a l B i n t h e f l u t e does n o t come

from an e x i s t i n g B i n another i n s t r u m e n t , as i n t h e normal t r a n s f e r s . In

t h i s respect the t r a n s f e r i s incomplete. The c l o s i n g A, however, i s assumed

by t h e bassoon w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c u n i s o n o v e r l a p .

" P i t c h i n t e r c h a n g e " i s a second v o i c e - l e a d i n g d e v i c e employed i n t h i s

p a r t i c u l a r s e c t i o n of the piece. W h i l e components u s u a l l y move i n d e p e n d e n t l y

of one a n o t h e r , t h e r h y t h m i c d i v i s i o n s o f two components engaged i n a p i t c h

interchange a r e i d e n t i c a l . This p a r t i c u l a r device u s u a l l y involves the

exchange o f p i t c h e s between two d i s p a r a t e components (and n o t an exchange o f

the a c t u a l components t h e m s e l v e s ) , and i s o c c a s i o n a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e

g e n e r a t i o n and t e r m i n a t i o n o f l i n e a r components (not u n l i k e u n i s o n transfer),

thereby a s s i s t i n g i n the c o n t r o l of t e x t u r a l - d e n s i t y . Referring again to

Example 43, p i t c h i n t e r c h a n g e i s used i n measure 7 t o spawn a new component.

The F 4 a n d $k Q f ^
t e bassoon a r e i n t e r c h a n g e d w i t h t h e A ^ 4
and F 4
of the

flute. J u s t as t h e i n i t i a l t h r e e components o f t h e p i e c e were engaged i n

p i t c h i n t e r c h a n g e s a t t h e i r o n s e t , so t h e t e c h n i q u e i s employed here t o

introduce a f i f t h component. O c c u r r i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y t o t h e emergence o f

the l i n e j u s t mentioned, i s t h e t e r m i n a t i o n o f an a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g one,

e f f e c t e d through p i t c h i n t e r c h a n g e . I n measure 7, t h e components i n t h e

c l a r i n e t and oboe d' amore a r e i n v o l v e d i n a p i t c h i n t e r c h a n g e a f t e r w h i c h

t h e oboe c o n t i n u e s b u t t h e c l a r i n e t d r o p s o u t .

W h i l e t h e t e c h n i q u e s o f u n i s o n t r a n s f e r and p i t c h i n t e r c h a n g e may be
85

important factors in linear pitch organization i n t h e components of these

opening measures, t h e sense o f p r o g r e s s i o n towards b a r 6 and t h e f e e l i n g o f

climax i n that measure a r e l a r g e l y the result o f t h e expanding registral

42

boundaries dictated by t h e l i n e a r components t h e m s e l v e s . The a s c e n d i n g

and descending linearizations which outline the progressive wedge-pattern

are indicated on system ( b ) o f E x a m p l e 43.

Summary

S e v e r a l modes o f l i n e a r pitch a n d PC c o n n e c t i o n h a v e b e e n f o u n d t o

43

operate i n the pieces of the quintet. I n t h e second and f o u r t h pieces,

for example, t h e f e a t u r e d i n s t r u m e n t s were n o t e d as consisting of

linearizations involving t h e upper and lower pitches of successive

arpeggios. In the f i f t h , sixth, seventh, and n i n t h pieces, specific

orderings (most o f t e n twelve-note s u c c e s s i o n s ) were f o u n d to control the

introduction o f PC c o n t e n t . Many o f t h e o r d e r i n g s w e r e shown t o c o n t a i n

common PC p a i r s and one p a r t i c u l a r IC ordering, although the successions

are not t r a n s p o s i t i o n a l l y or inversionally related. Apart from the control

of PC c o n t e n t , t h e p a t t e r n s o f PC u n f o l d i n g were seen to reveal directed

linearizations, some i n t h e f o r m of wedge-like expansions and c o n t r a c t i o n s .

Finally, a wedge-pattern was a l s o found i n the third piece; i t was suggested

that t h e components o f t h i s pattern result from the techniques of unison

transfer and p i t c h interchange. One a t t r i b u t e , common :to a l l o f t h e l i n e a r

events noted above, r e g a r d l e s s o f v a r y i n g d e t a i l s of structure, i s the

sense of directed activity and c o n t i n u i t y which they effect.

42 r
T h e c l i m a x i s f o r m e d b y t h e h i g h e s t p i t c h i n t h e s e c t i o n , G- , a s 5

w e l l as t h e widest r e g i s t r a l space which accompanies i t , F -G^. 4

43
Others c e r t a i n l y e x i s t , s e v e r a l o f which w i l l be e x e m p l i f i e d i n
t h e n e x t two c h a p t e r s .
86

Harmonic Details

Two central issues of harmonic organization i n the quintet are

consonance and dissonance in v e r t i c a l i t i e s , and functional relationships

between sonorities. Such characterizations and relationships, however,

depend largely on t h e t e x t u r a l environment i n which they occur. For example,

a most prevalent textural condition was noted e a r l i e r as t h e single,

polyphonic element consisting of from three to f i v e components. In this

particular situation, the v e r t i c a l sonorities are slowly, but continuously,

changing (often one n o t e a t a t i m e ) , resulting i n a continuum of consonance-

dissonance fluctuation.

The opening seven measures of the t h i r d piece, just examined i n the

light of linear organization, exemplify such harmonic fluctuation. System

(a) o f Example 44 consists of the l i n e a r components, as stated earlier,

while system (b) i n d i c a t e s the harmonic changes, delineated by t h e vertical

lines through both systems. V e r t i c a l i t i e s may be classified as consonant

44

or dissonant according to t h e i r s e m i t o n e and whole-tone content as

indicated on t h e l e f t o f Example 45 ( s e e page 8 9). These a r e then plotted

on the graph (Example 45) revealing the f l u c t u a t i o n i n harmonic quality.

(The numbers f r o m 1-25 on t h e graph c o r r e s p o n d to t h e complexes o f Ex. 44.)

" T h e c r i t e r i o n of semitone content i s a suggested " f i r s t step"


towards t h e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f consonance and d i s s o n a n c e i n v e r t i c a l i t i e s .
In t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e f i r s t p i e c e ( C h a p t e r I I I ) t h i s i n i t i a l s t e p s e r v e s
as a p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e f o r a m o r e d e t a i l e d s e t o f c r i t e r i a u s e d t o
d i f f e r e n t i a t e c o n s o n a n t and d i s s o n a n t s o n o r i t i e s i n t h e o p e n i n g p o l y p h o n i c
section. I t i s c l e a r , however, t h a t i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r m u s i c a l l a n g u a g e
the r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s f o r v e r t i c a l c o n s o n a n c e and d i s s o n a n c e a r e r a d i c a l l y
d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e of t r i a d i c music. A w h o l e - t o n e may t a k e o n t h e r o l e
of a consonance i n r e l a t i o n t o semitone s t r u c t u r e s . P e r h a p s t h e most
b l a t a n t e x a m p l e o f t h i s comes a t t h e e n d o f t h e t h i r d p i e c e . The
s i m u l t a n e o u s , b u t o u t - o f - p h a s e , o s c i l l a t i o n b e t w e e n A^ a n d B ^ r e s u l t s i n
a r e i t e r a t e d minor second. T h e f i n a l m a j o r s e c o n d , A^-B-^, s o u n d s
extremely c o n v i n c i n g as a p o i n t of r e s o l u t i o n ; i t s s t a t u s as a consonance
can h a r d l y be d i s p u t e d .
87

Example 44. P i e c e No. 3, m e a s u r e s 1-8, harmonic complexes.


88
Example 45. Piece No. 3, m e a s u r e s 1-8, consonance-dissonance c r i t e r i a and h a r m o n i c quality fluctuation.

i
; I

diss. vertical complexes as to Example No. 44.


90

It must be remembered, h o w e v e r , t h a t these vertical complexes are

essentially points along a c o n t i n u u m and, while their individual consonance-

dissonance q u a l i t i e s may be perceived in isolation, i t i s , perhaps, their

contributions to the large-scale progression of harmonic q u a l i t y which is

more s i g n i f i c a n t here. The higher-level progression from consonance >•

dissonance >• c o n s o n a n c e , suggested by the curve above the graph on

E x a m p l e 45, for instance, i s analogous i n dimension to the level of rhythmic

45
and metric c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n noted earlier.

The harmonic s t r u c t u r e of the fifth and ninth pieces, like that of

the third, reveal continuously changing v e r t i c a l i t i e s and, hence,

fluctuating consonance-dissonance quality. Rather than staff notation, the

first s e c t i o n of the fifth piece and measures 7-15 of the n i n t h are, here,

represented by line-graphs, given as Examples 46 and 47. The increase in

spatial density (see below) of the harmonic complexes (representative of

consonance-dissonance f l u c t u a t i o n ) i s e f f e c t i v e l y portrayed through this

means.

The expansion in registral space, which r e s u l t s from the previously

established wedge-pattern of pitch unfolding, is a primary factor in the

46

perceived dissonance of the sonority. The continuously expanding

registral boundaries i n these two pieces represent in this sense a gradual

reduction in perceived dissonance—a pattern w h i c h may, again, be considered

the highest, most g e n e r a l , structural level of harmonic quality fluctuation.


45
In the f o r e g o i n g s e c t i o n s of t h i s chapter, these seven measures
w e r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d a s one c o n t i n u o u s g e s t u r e w i t h r e s p e c t t o r h y t h m i c
i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n , m e t r i c s t r u c t u r e , and l i n e a r o r g a n i z a t i o n . The l a r g e - s c a l e
p r o g r e s s i o n of harmonic q u a l i t y i s congruent w i t h the span of f u n c t i o n a l
u n i t y s u g g e s t e d by t h e s e p a r a m e t r i c c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s .
46
F o r e x a m p l e , v e r t i c a l i t i e s may c o n s i s t o f s e v e r a l o c c u r r e n c e s of
I C 1, b u t i n compound f o r m s ( e . g . , m i n o r n i n t h , e t c . ) . In these instances,
t h e p e r c e i v e d d i s s o n a n c e o f t h e I C 1 i s p r e s u m a b l y somewhat r e d u c e d .
91

Example 46. P i e c e No. 5, m e a s u r e s 1-8, l i n e - g r a p h representation of


l i n e a r and harmonic expansion.
91

E-
D-
C-
A«-
G«-
F*-
E—
D- •
C-
A«-
G*-
F*
E-
D-
C-
A*

E-
D-
C-
i r i r 1 T

measure no.
flute / / * /
clarinet
horn *
bassoon —
93

Example 47. P i e c e No. 9, m e a s u r e s 8-15, l i n e - g r a p h representation


l i n e a r and h a r m o n i c e x p a n s i o n .
9+

(unison
toendK^

a
B
FLUTE

OBOE
A
CLARINET
G

F - | 1 1 h ' -f=i
E
H 1 _J

_ l

unison to this point)

8 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
measure no.
It was a s s e r t e d at the beginning of this section on harmonic details

that textural environment i n f l u e n c e s the approach to harmonic classifications

47

and functional relationships. In the second, fourth, and tenth pieces, a

second textural situation is prevalent—one i n which a primary line interacts

with secondary components, the latter o c c u r r i n g i n a fragmented c a p a c i t y at

times. Revealing aspects of harmonic o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h i s textural

environment c e n t r e around relationships between t h e primary and secondary

components. In the three pieces cited, the tempo and rhythmic activity

render the individual harmonic r e l a t i o n s h i p s too fleeting to be of

significance, the linearity of the t e x t u r e , once a g a i n , being the focal

point. The harmonic quality which i s p e r c e i v e d on a more g l o b a l level,

however, i s the r e s u l t of the d e t a i l e d relationships along the way.

Example 48 consists of two e x c e r p t s , measures 12 and 13 of the second

piece, and measure 1 of the fourth, both of which are n o t a t e d without stems

and beams f o r e a s e o f reading. The groups of p i t c h e s w h i c h sound together


48

are boxed, numbered, and detailed on the second system of each excerpt.

As the details i n the example r e v e a l , affiliations between n o t e s of the

primary and secondary components u s u a l l y involves dissonance followed by

relative consonance.

Concerning the aforementioned affiliation, a concept of consonance-

d i s s o n a n c e r e l a t i o n s may b e p o s i t e d . I n m e a s u r e 13 o f the second piece,


47
The t e n t h p i e c e i s d e a l t w i t h i n C h a p t e r I V .
48
The s c o r e s h o u l d b e c o n s u l t e d f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e r h y t h m i c
c o n f i g u r a t i o n s of the v e r t i c a l i t i e s . O f t e n , f o r example, a s u b t l e r h y t h m i c
v a r i a t i o n between components w i l l p r o d u c e c o n s e c u t i v e v e r t i c a l i t i e s . In
the rhythmic c o n f i g u r a t i o n • — - J ^ f o r i n s t a n c e , two v e r t i c a l i t i e s
n n
sound, although very briefly.
96

Example 48. P i e c e No. 2, m e a s u r e s 12-13, a n d p i e c e No. 4, m e a s u r e 1,


harmonic i n t e r v a l f l u c t u a t i o n through v o i c e l e a d i n g .
one textural e l e m e n t

ma
3
ft
<
0)

0)
w
</>
(0
(0 ro

I
co

"<g>
Wr -
I

co

I
98

for example, a relativity principle allows that the whole-tone is considered

as a consonance or a dissonance, depending on the interval which proceeds or

follows i t , an idea already a l l u d e d to in connection with the end of the

third piece. This concept i s a l s o r e l e v a n t to the ends o f the two phrases

which comprise the fourth piece. Here, the rhythmic activity has relaxed

sufficiently to allow perception of the fluctuating harmonic quality. The

two instances in question are shown i n E x a m p l e 49. The ultimate arrival

point on the whole-tone (from the "dissonant" semitone) r e i n f o r c e s the

concept of r e l a t i v i t y and also raises the possibility of this particular

relationship being considered as a r e s o l u t i v e cadential device.

E x a m p l e 49. P i e c e No. 4, m e a s u r e s 7-9 and 23-26, h a r m o n i c interval


f l u c t u a t i o n through voice leading.

mm. 7 8

finC)
1 - 2 - 1 - 2 - 2 - 1 - 2 1 - 2

BSN.

mm. 23 24 25 26

FL
1 J JJ [) ill J\ .0 ^

»•*!
- 1 - 1 - 2 - 1

CL
(inC) IvA J Ik J_e_ 1
99

P a r t s of t h e second and seventh p i e c e s f e a t u r e v e r t i c a l i t i e s , the

component p a r t s of w h i c h a r e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a r t i c u l a t e d ( i . e . , they occur

in s t r i c t v e r t i c a l alignment). I n t h i s t e x t u r a l environment t h e harmonic

a s p e c t i s p r i m a r y , w i t h t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of d e r i v e d l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,

r a t h e r than t h e o t h e r way around. I n t h e second p i e c e , the v e r t i c a l .•:

s o n o r i t i e s comprise t h e secondary t e x t u r a l element i n t h e opening s e c t i o n ,

over which t h e c l a r i n e t i s f e a t u r e d . F i v e v e r t i c a l complexes a r e sounded

i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s e c t i o n (measures 1-11), t h e f i r s t t h r e e c o n s i s t i n g

e n t i r e l y o f a d j a c e n t semitones. The l a s t two f e a t u r e semitone and whole-

tone c o n t e n t — a s u b t l e , yet i m p l i c a t i v e d e p a r t u r e from t h e opening

sonority.

The f i v e - n o t e v e r t i c a l i t i e s appear l a t e r i n t h e p i e c e ( e . g . , b a r s

15, 20, and 21) and s e r v e t o r e c a l l t h e opening s e c t i o n . In these three

r e c u r r e n c e s , the content i s e x a c t l y t h a t of t h e t h i r d complex o f t h e p i e c e

( i . e . , c o n s e c u t i v e semitones from t o G//3—a t r a n s p o s i t i o n of t h e f i r s t

complex i n t h e p i e c e ) . I n t h i s sense t h e y r e s o l v e the harmonic d e p a r t u r e

of t h e s o n o r i t i e s which end t h e opening s e c t i o n . F i n a l l y , i n b a r 29, a

v e r t i c a l i t y o c c u r s which r e c a l l s PC's D#, E, and F from t h e opening

s o n o r i t y (where t h e y appear as t h e l o w e s t t h r e e p i t c h e s ) , t h e r e b y p r o v i d i n g

a degree o f PC c l o s u r e . These harmonic complexes a r e i n d i c a t e d on t h e

second s t a f f o f Example 50 ( a l l t h e p i t c h e s w i t h i n each box sounding

together). The o u t e r i n t e r v a l of each s i m u l t a n e i t y ( v a r i e d t h r o u g h

i n t e r n a l c o m b i n a t i o n s of semitones and whole-tones) i s g i v e n on t h e t h i r d

system.

Three a d d i t i o n a l d e t a i l s i n Example 50 a r e worth n o t i n g . First,

the t h r e e harmonies w h i c h c o n c l u d e the p i e c e e x h i b i t a n o t h e r i n s t a n c e o f

f u n c t i o n a l consonance-dissonance r e l a t i o n , as p o s i t e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h
100

t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h p i e c e s . The t h r e e s o n o r i t i e s i n q u e s t i o n , along

w i t h t h e I C ' s of t h e consonance >>• d i s s o n a n c e progressions are also


49

i n c l u d e d on t h e second s t a f f of Example 50. Second, a l i n e a r p a t t e r n

may be imposed on t h e complexes i n d i c a t e d on t h e second s t a f f ( i . e . , the

complexes w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e ' a ' - s e c t i o n and subsequent a l l u s i o n s t o

it). The p a t t e r n i n v o l v e s t h e c o n n e c t i o n o f PC's w h i c h r e p r e s e n t pitch

e x t r e m i t i e s of each complex, t h e upper a s c e n d i n g l i n e c o n t r i b u t i n g to the

o v e r a l l PC p r o g r e s s i o n , and t h e lower l i n e p r o v i d i n g a d e p a r t u r e from,

and r e t u r n t o , t h e PC r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e l o w e s t p i t c h of t h e opening

sonority. These l i n e a r events a r e i n d i c a t e d on t h e t o p s t a f f o f Example

5 0 . A n d f i n a l l y , t h e upper a s c e n d i n g l i n e a r c o n n e c t i o n j u s t mentioned

is, i n a sense, "summarized" by t h e s o n o r i t i e s which c l o s e t h e p i e c e .

T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s n o t e d on t h e t h i r d s t a f f o f t h e example.

The i n t e r v a l make-up o f t h e r e c u r r i n g v e r t i c a l i t i e s found a t t h e

beginning of t h e seventh p i e c e i s t h e same as t h a t o f t h e o p e n i n g s o n o r i t y

of t h e second p i e c e . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e y a r e comprised o f f i v e adjacent

semitones, f i r s t , from G^ t o (measures 1-23), and t h e n from D t o F#

( r e g i s t r a l l y dispersed) i n b a r s 30 and 34. Variety i n the reiterated

s o n o r i t i e s based on G^ i s p r o v i d e d by t h e v a r i o u s i n s t r u m e n t a l v o i c i n g s

i n which i t occurs. ( R e f e r t o Example 51.)

W h i l e t h e r e i t e r a t e d harmonies remain based on G^, t h e s u s t a i n e d

s o n o r i t i e s w h i c h grow o u t of them a r e v a r i e d and, i n t h e m s e l v e s , e x h i b i t


49
Here i s another i n s t a n c e t o r e i n f o r c e t h e n o t i o n o f t h e semitone
t o whole-tone " r e s o l u t i o n " f u n c t i o n i n g as a c a d e n t i a l d e v i c e .
~^As " s t e p w i s e " e v e n t s t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r l i n e a r i z a t i o n s a r e
a d m i t t e d l y more p r o b l e m a t i c (than p r e v i o u s examples) because of t h e .
r e g i s t r a l d i s p e r s i o n o f t h e i r members. L i n e a r e v e n t s i n v o l v i n g such
o c t a v e - d i s p l a c e d " s t e p s , " however, may be viewed as an important aspect
of l i n e a r o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h i s m u s i c a l language.
Example 50. Piece No. 2, h a r m o n i c organization.

n — 1 J
„ 1
— J
— — — i J
* , 1

mm. 1,2 3 4 11 15,20,21 29

^*±±-±— ufsh =—^=f=i 1V \fy V


1 T-j ' (ic: 2 - 3 1 - 2 )

rrrr—n -H-r^—r* . , y^±J^%: ^"*T> \


j *. xJ. l_!Li \t*—JL. —a jil j »
ic: 4 4 6 5 4

Example 51. Piece No. 7, m e a s u r e s 1-38, h a r m o n i c organization.

sustained sonorities
^ * s
mm. 1-12 12-15 15-19 23 30,34
102

a directed fluctuation. For instance, the f i r s t sustained element i s the

B* 74
(measures 6 ff.), followed by t h e t r i c h o r d G -A -B'
4 4 7 4
(bars 12 f f . ) ,

and finally the four-note s o n o r i t y G// -A -A# -B


4 4 4 4
(bars 15 f f . ) — t h e t o p

four pitches of the o r i g i n a l f i v e - n o t e complex. The t e x t u r a l thickening

of the sustained sonorities provides direction towards t h e emphatic display

of the five-note v e r t i c a l i t i e s i n bar 23."^ The change o f s o n o r i t y t o t h e

five-note complex built on D i s a l s o marked by t h e r e g i s t r a l l y dispersed

spacing of the chord. B e t w e e n t h e two v e r t i c a l i t i e s — o n e based o n G, t h e

other on D — a l l PC's f r o m D t o B a r e r e p r e s e n t e d . Although t h e harmonic

aspects i n this particular s e c t i o n a r e c o n s i d e r a b l y more straightforward,

compared to those o f t h e second piece, i t i s interesting that they both

use, as a "harmonic reference," a five-note verticality which consists of

adjacent semitones. Also, both exhibit departures from, and r e v e r s i o n s t o ,

the all-semitone complex.

The final harmonic detail t o be examined i n this chapter concerns

the use of unison and o c t a v e doubling. The w i d e s p r e a d use of h i g h l y -

chromatic sonorities and complex rhythmic i n t e r a c t i o n s c r e a t e s an

environment i n which the least expected musical event i s a motive o r theme

which i s doubled i n unison or octaves. T h e u s e o f t h i s mode o f d o u b l i n g

in the pieces of the quintet (and i t occurs i n a l l but the fourth) thus

has an extremely potent effect. While t h e f u n c t i o n and o c c u r r e n c e o f such

doubling i n the f i r s t and l a s t pieces will be d e a l t w i t h i n t h e next two

chapters, instances i n other pieces a r e noteworthy here.

Most of the motives and themes involving unison and/or octaves

have, i n fact, been mentioned i n connection with other aspects of the

^Notice i n the successive v e r t i c a l i t i e s o f bar 23 that pitch


content remains t h e same; o n l y the instrumental distribution varies.
103

m u s i c a l language. The t h r e e - n o t e , o c t a v e - d o u b l e d m o t i v e i n the second

p i e c e (bar 2 3 ) , f o r example, was i n t r o d u c e d e a r l i e r a s l e a d i n g i n t o one

o f the few a u r a l l y p e r c e i v e d downbeats i n t h e p i e c e . The octave-doubled

theme i n the m i d d l e o f the t h i r d p i e c e (measures 10-12) was c h a r a c t e r i z e d

as one of the two s i m u l t a n e o u s l y sounding t e x t u r a l elements i n t h e p i e c e —

t h e o n l y o c c u r r e n c e of such a t e x t u r e i n a p a r t i c u l a r ensemble p i e c e . The

f i f t h and n i n t h p i e c e s open w i t h a r e i t e r a t e d and sustained unison,

r e s p e c t i v e l y , each f u n c t i o n i n g as a d e p a r t u r e p o i n t f o r a wedge-patterned

u n f o l d i n g of p i t c h content. The n i n t h p i e c e a l s o concludes on a u n i s o n .

In the s i x t h p i e c e , a b r i e f theme which opens i n u n i s o n and c o n c l u d e s in

octaves i n t r o d u c e s t h e coda; see measures 11-14 i n t h i s regard. The unison

treatment i n the seventh p i e c e has a l s o been a l l u d e d to e a r l i e r . In the

' b ' - s e c t i o n ( b a r s 38 to the end) each l i n e a r component, upon e n t e r i n g ,

doubles an e x i s t i n g p a r t a t t h e u n i s o n , a f t e r which i t g a i n s independence

b o t h l i n e a r l y and r h y t h m i c a l l y . F i n a l l y , i n the e i g h t h p i e c e t h e s u s t a i n e d

o c t a v e B^ (measures 23-26), t h e b r i e f o c t a v e m o t i v e (measure 2 9 ) , and the

u n i s o n m o t i v e .(measure 30) r e p r e s e n t t h e d i s p a r a t e m u s i c a l i d e a s noted

e a r l i e r a s b e i n g i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e s t y l e of Apparitions and Aventures.

The i n t e n s e u n i s o n m o t i v e i n bar 30 p r o v i d e s a d r a m a t i c introduction to

t h e s u s t a i n e d s o n o r i t i e s of the calm f i n a l s e c t i o n .

Summary

In the f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n of harmonic d e t a i l s , consonance and

dissonance i n v e r t i c a l i t i e s , and f u n c t i o n a l harmonic r e l a t i o n s h i p s were

s t a t e d as b e i n g t h e two main i s s u e s . T e x t u r a l environment was a s s e r t e d a s

i n f l u e n c i n g such c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s . Three t e x t u r e s were examined:

polyphony, pseudo-polyphony ( i n which one component i s p r i m a r y ) , and

homophony. Regarding t h e f i r s t o f t h e s e , t h e t h i r d , f i f t h , and n i n t h


104

p i e c e s were seen to consist o f a continuum of fluctuating vertical

consonance and d i s s o n a n c e . Specifically, t h e s o n o r i t i e s were n o t e d a s

involving s u b t l e changes i n semitone and whole-tone content. In connection

with t h e second t e x t u r e , t h e harmonic affiliations between p r i m a r y and

secondary components were examined, and a c o n c e p t of consonance-dissonance

relations posited. The second and f o u r t h p i e c e s were c i t e d i nthis regard.

The homorhythmic v e r t i c a l i t i e s of thethird t e x t u r e , as found i n t h e second

and seventh pieces, also revealed a consonance-dissonance fluctuation

involving semitone and whole-tone c o n t e n t . Finally, t h e u s e o f u n i s o n and

octave d o u b l i n g was f o u n d t o be o f d r a m a t i c import i n a l l but the f o u r t h

piece.

Summary

This chapter aims t o e s t a b l i s h a basis for understanding the

musical language of Ligeti's Ten Pieces for Wind Quintet v i a the definition

and illustration o f g e n e r a l and s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s o f form, t e x t u r e , rhythm,

meter, and l i n e a r and harmonic pitch organization. Concepts introduced i n

c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e examples studied w i l l serve as a b a s i s for detailed

analyses of the f i r s t and l a s t pieces of the quintet, subjects of the

next two c h a p t e r s .
CHAPTER I I I

ANALYSIS OF P I E C E NO. 1

Introduction

The following a n a l y s i s of piece No. 1 resembles, i n format, the

previous chapter on aspects of Ligeti's musical language. That i s , each

parameter i s dealt with separately with i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s noted where

applicable. The main sections of this chapter are as follows:

Delineating Factors of Formal Segmentation

Aspects of Textural Structure

Principles of R h y t h m i c and Metric Design

Modes o f P i t c h O r g a n i z a t i o n
Linear Details
Harmonic D e t a i l s

Connective Factors Between the First and Third Pieces and


Interruptive A s p e c t s of the Second

Summary.

Some c o n c e p t s introduced i n Chapter II will be shown t o have a p p l i c a t i o n

in the first piece. Often, however, d e t a i l s o f parametric organization

are specific to piece No. 1; these w i l l also receive close attention.

Delineating Factors of Formal Segmentation

The first piece exhibits a clearly defined two-part formal structure,

measures 1-16 comprising the 'a'-section, and 16-22, t h e 'b'-section. A

brief t r a n s i t i o n in bars 15-16 bridges the two m a i n d i v i s i o n s and an "echo"

of the 'a'-section ( t o be explained l a t e r ) occurs at the end of the piece

(i.e., measures 22-24). A brief summary o f d e l i n e a t i n g f a c t o r s of formal

105
106

segmentation i s given below, a l l o f which a r e dealt with i ngreater detail

later i n the chapter.

Concerning aspects of texture, the 'a'-section features complex

1
polyphony operating over t h e range >y • - , dynamically from pianissimo

t o mezzoforte. The l a t t e r portion of the piece (i.e., measures 16-22)

consists of paired e n t r i e s a t fff, less i n t e r a c t i o n between p a r t s , and

a contrasting r e g i s t e r and t e x t u r a l space, e.g., ) f • . A legato

character a n d molto sostenuto e calmo, dolcissimo marking accompany t h e

opening section, while a r e i t e r a t i v e quality (marked tutta la forza)

distinguishes the 'b'-section. I n terms o f rhythmic definition, the

activity level i nthe 'a'-section i s much h i g h e r than that df the 'b'-

section, and instruments i n t h e former u t i l i z e t h e rhythmic divisions


3 _ S 3
| | 1, I I I I, a n d | | | | |, w h i l e i n thel a t t e r , only | | land

| | I 1 a r e found. With respect t o tempo, t h e two s e c t i o n s are marked

J = 40 a n d J = 4 8 , r e s p e c t i v e l y . The f i n a l tempo c h a n g e b a c k t o J = 4 0

in b a r 22, a l o n g with t h e quasi eco i n d i c a t i o n and r e t u r n to pianissimo

axe f a c t o r s which suggest an a l l u s i o n to t h e 'a'-section.^

Summary

The aforementioned factors of delineation contribute to a clearly

defined formal structure i n thef i r s t piece. Some d e t a i l s a r e s t r a i g h t -

forward, s u c h a s tempo a n d d y n a m i c s , w h i l e o t h e r s a r e more complex, e.g.,

levels of rhythmic activity and t e x t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A l l factors,

however, w i l l be d e a l t with i nd e t a i l i n subsequent sections.

The PC c o n t e n t o f t h e f i n a l d y a d , C a n d D, i s a n o t h e r a s p e c t
s u g g e s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e ' a ' - s e c t i o n ; t h i s , however, w i l l r e c e i v e
closer attention i n thesection dealing with linear d e t a i l s of pitch
organization.
107

Aspects of Textural Structure

Textural characteristics o f p i e c e No. 1 a r e g e n e r a l l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h

those defined i n the previous chapter as s p e c i f i c t o ensemble p i e c e s . The

first p i e c e , f o r example, f e a t u r e s o n l y one t e x t u r a l element a t a time, and

is comprised of essentially two c o n s e c u t i v e textures corresponding tothe

main f o r m a l sections. Also consistent i s the transition which f e a t u r e s a

reduction in textural-density t o t h r e e components (yielding one t e x t u r a l

element). In approaching the textural s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p i e c e , two a s p e c t s

will be c o n s i d e r e d : textural quality and t e x t u r a l space.

Textural Quality

Texture, a s a d e l i n e a t o r o f f o r m , must first be u n d e r s t o o d t o account

for t h e ways i n w h i c h instruments interact i n music. Sections of a given

p i e c e may t h e n be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from each other by t h e i r specific

characteristics of instrument interaction. A fundamental aspect of

interaction concerns t h e rhythmic structure of the individual instrumental

parts. Instruments ( o r components) moving in strict vertical alignment,

for i n s t a n c e , may b e c o n s i d e r e d interdependent, while those moving i n non-


3

alignment a r e independent. Such c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are "qualitative"; we may

therefore s p e a k o f i n d e p e n d e n c e among c o m p o n e n t s a s o n e t e x t u r a l quality

and interdependence among c o m p o n e n t s a s a n o t h e r . Where s u b g r o u p i n g s of

parts occur, v a r i o u s degrees of independence/interdependence may result,

depending on t h e t e x t u r a l quality of each subgroup.

I n E x a m p l e 52 a q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s i s a p p l i e d t o t h e t e x t u r a l
2
Instrument i n t e r a c t i o n i s t h e primary f a c t o r i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n
of t e x t u r a l elements which i n t u r n d e f i n e o v e r a l l t e x t u r e .
3
The t e r m s " i n d e p e n d e n t " a n d " i n t e r d e p e n d e n t , " i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e
i n t e r a c t i o n o f components, a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e work o f W a l l a c e B e r r y .
See h i s Structural Functions, Ch. 2.
108

Example 52. Line-representation of textural components, showing


textural quality.

TE = textural element

ITC = interdependent component

IDC = independent component


109

'a'-section transition 'b'-section a-sect. (echo)

mm. 1 5 10 15 20 25
( i i L _i_ J L J l_ J I L » j i ; i L l J L J i i

I
FL —
EH.—
C L -

'•I I
HRN.—

BSN.—

1 TE
4 1 TE 1 TE 1 TE
^

0 0
TEXTURAL
QUALITY 2ITC-»»2IDC 2ITC
>2ITC
5 IDC

CI
>3 IDC V3ITC-»6IDC
2ITC

OVERALL
QUALITY V independent independent/interdependent . interdependent
110

components of t h e f i r s t p i e c e . The ' a ' - s e c t i o n and t r a n s i t i o n a r e

c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a t e x t u r a l q u a l i t y of independence ( i . e . , polyphony),

the t r a n s i t i o n a l s o f e a t u r i n g t h e d e n s i t y r e d u c t i o n noted e a r l i e r . The

' b ' - s e c t i o n i s t e x t u r a l l y c o n t r a s t e d i n t h a t i t i s comprised of subgroups,

the components of which move i n d e p e n d e n t l y a t t i m e s , and i n t e r d e p e n d e n t l y

at other times. The subgroups themselves ( s p e c i f i c a l l y a t p o i n t s of

i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e of components) e n t e r i n d e p e n d e n t l y of one a n o t h e r .

F i n a l l y , components of t h e c l o s i n g dyad e n t e r i n t e r d e p e n d e n t l y . T h i s

p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e o f v e r t i c a l a l i g n m e n t i s p r e p a r e d by t h e i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e

of components w i t h i n t h e p r e v i o u s subgroups. The s h i f t from total

independence t o i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e i s noted i n Example 52 below t h e l i n e -

r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t e x t u r a l components.

T e x t u r a l Space

For t h e purposes of t h i s paper, t e x t u r a l space r e f e r s t o t h e i n t e r -

v a l l i c d i s t a n c e between outermost r e g i s t r a l l y s p e c i f i c p i t c h e s of a

p a r t i c u l a r f o r m a l s e c t i o n o r o t h e r s t r u c t u r a l segment. I n comparing

t e x t u r a l spaces o f two s e c t i o n s (be they c o n s e c u t i v e o r n o t ) , r e g i s t e r i s

of secondary c o n c e r n ; a f t e r a l l , any p e r f e c t f i f t h i s l a r g e r than any

major t h i r d , e t c . , r e g a r d l e s s o f r e g i s t e r . The r e g i s t r a l placement of a

s e c t i o n ' s t e x t u r a l space i s , however, of s i g n i f i c a n c e on a more g l o b a l

l e v e l , e.g., t h a t of t h e whole p i e c e .

In t h e p i e c e under d i s c u s s i o n , f o u r t e x t u r a l spaces may be d i s c e r n e d ,

as i n d i c a t e d i n Example 53. Below t h e s p a t i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s a r e

i n t e r v a l l i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s r e v e a l i n g an o v e r a l l p a t t e r n of s p a t i a l expansion

f o l l o w e d by c o n t r a c t i o n . F o r example, t h e e x p a n s i o n from t h e 'a' t o 'b'-

s e c t i o n £i.e., t h e minor s e v e n t h (D^-C^) t o t h e o c t a v e (B^-B^)] i s

r e i n f o r c e d by t h e more l o c a l e x p a n s i o n o f t h e t r a n s i t i o n ' s minor third


Ill

E x a m p l e 53. Textural spaces of formal


segments.

mm. 1-14 15-16 17-21 22-24

(inv.)

to the 'b -section's


1
major third (here independent of the octave doubling,

B^/B ) . S i m i l a r l y , the general contraction from t h e 'b'-section (with or

without t h e o c t a v e B)j t o t h e f i n a l dyad i s reinforced by t h e l a r g e - s c a l e

contraction from t h e 'a'-section's minor seventh. In this latter instance

the two a r e i n v e r s i o n a l l y r e l a t e d ; e.g., t h e minor s e v e n t h D-^-C , when


4

inverted, becomes t h e m a j o r second C-^-D-* ( d i s p l a c e d by an o c t a v e ) . (The

implications of t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n are extremely important and w i l l be

explained in detail later i n t h e chapter.) Regarding registral placement

of the successive spatial fields, the large-scale progression i s one o f

ascent, t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f which w i l l be e x p l a i n e d i n the final section

of t h i s chapter (on r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e f i r s t and t h i r d pieces).

4
A more immediate e x p a n s i o n i s d i s c e r n i b l e w i t h i n t h e ' b ' - s e c t i o n
i t s e l f , s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t h e p r o g r e s s i o n f r o m t h e o p e n i n g u n i s o n C//^ t o
B4
and E^5.
112

Summary

Two a s p e c t s o f t e x t u r a l s t r u c t u r e have been d e a l t w i t h in this

section: t e x t u r a l q u a l i t y and t e x t u r a l space. The f o r m e r , defined by

independent and/or interdependent modes o f i n t e r a c t i o n between t e x t u r a l

c o m p o n e n t s , was f o u n d to f u n c t i o n as a formal delineator i n addition to

its role as a basis f o r i t s own p a r t i c u l a r mode o f p r o g r e s s i o n . Textural

s p a c e was r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e s p a c e d e f i n e d by p i t c h extremities i n various

formal segments o f t h e p i e c e . This aspect o f t e x t u r a l s t r u c t u r e was a l s o

shown t o p r o v i d e small and l a r g e - s c a l e p a t t e r n s resulting i n an a d d i t i o n a l

mode o f d i r e c t i o n within the piece, specifically, one o f s p a t i a l expansion

followed by c o n t r a c t i o n . Registrally, the f i r s t piece reveals a large-

scale a s c e n t — a detail which w i l l gain significance later i n this chapter.

Principles o f Rhythmic and M e t r i c Design

The first piece i s consistent with the other ensemble p i e c e s with

regard t o meter. That i s , the notated 4 i s essentially undefined by

patterned strong a n d weak b e a t s ; rather, i t i s solely a notational

convenience. M e t e r was d e f i n e d earlier a s o n e p a r t i c u l a r mode o f r h y t h m i c

grouping--specifically, one which g r o u p s r h y t h m i c impulses according t o

accent and u n a c c e n t — a n d , while this type o f rhythmic unit i s not operative

in the f i r s t piece, other element-rhythms c o n t r i b u t e significantly to the

progressive and r e c e s s i v e t e n d e n c i e s inherent i n t h e music. To quote

Wallace Berry:

A l l element-processes a r e rhythmic. I n an i m p o r t a n t sense, t h e study


of rhythm i s t h e study o f a l l m u s i c a l elements, t h e a c t i o n s , o f those
elements producing t h e e f f e c t s of pace, p a t t e r n , and grouping which
c o n s t i t u t e rhythm.-*

^Berry, Structural Functions, p. 301.


113

For our purposes, an e l e m e n t - r h y t h m may be thought of as a pattern

of recurrence with respect t o an event within a particular element, or a

pattern of r e c u r r i n g changes w i t h i n a c e r t a i n element.^ In the previous

chapter, f o r example, a particular e l e m e n t - r h y t h m was said to operate in

the first sixteen bars of the eighth piece. Specifically, the recurrence

of brief linear patterns i n the flute, clarinet, and b a s s o o n were said to

result in three disparate rhythms. Any given p i e c e may be heard to consist

o f many s u c h e l e m e n t - r h y t h m s interacting with one another in varying degrees

of complexity. Occasionally, structural s i g n i f i c a n c e may be a t t r i b u t e d to

specific points w h i c h a r e marked by the concurrence of several different

rhythms. The f o l l o w i n g examination of the first piece will expose rhythmic

units based on six different elements or parameters: impulse-density,

dynamics, t e x t u r a l - d e n s i t y , t e x t u r a l q u a l i t y , harmonic-density, and tempo.

Element-Rhythms

Rhythm o f impulse-density fluctuation

In the previous chapter, impulse-density was said to define widespread

units of rhythmic progression and recession delineated by a "turn-around

point." Units of comparable design and dimension are also discernible in the

first piece, as i n d i c a t e d above the g r a p h on system (a) of Example 54 (see

"large-scale units"). These u n i t s (particularly the progressive one) may be

seen to c o n s i s t of underlying "stepped" increases and decreases in rhythmic

activity, each p l a t e a u being delineated by a change i n magnitude in the

I n t h e f o r m e r , t h e r e c u r r i n g e v e n t i s t h e same. For example, meter


i s one s p e c i f i c e l e m e n t - r h y t h m — o n e w h i c h r e l i e s on r e c u r r i n g a c c e n t -
delineated patterns. A p a t t e r n o f r e c u r r i n g c h a n g e w o u l d be, f o r i n s t a n c e ,
a fluctuation in instrumentation-density. The r e c u r r e n t e v e n t ( i . e . , a
f l u c t u a t i o n ) i s d i f f e r e n t e a c h t i m e ; sometimes i t i s an i n c r e a s e i n d e n s i t y ,
at o t h e r t i m e s i t i s a d e c r e a s e . I n e i t h e r c a s e , a s w i l l be e x p l a i n e d , a
r h y t h m r e l i e s on a r e c u r r e n c e o f some k i n d .
114

E x a m p l e 54. Two levels of impulse-density fluctuation.


us

measure no.
116

progressive d i r e c t i o n and, after t h eturn-around point, i n the recessive

direction £see s y s t e m (b) o f E x a m p l e 54^]. Such r e c u r r e n t c h a n g e s may b e

perceived as establishing a "rhythm" (according to thecriteria stated

earlier), theindividual plateaus representing small-scale units o f impulse-

density fluctuation. This p a r t i c u l a r element-rhythm, then, may b e v i e w e d a s

having two l e v e l s a n d two s t a n d a r d s o f measurement, thelow-level units

marked by magnitude changes, and t h e h i g h e r - l e v e l units by t h e turn-around

point (or change i n d i r e c t i o n ) .

Rhythm o f d y n a m i c a l l y exposed pitch-pair groups

In thef i r s t twelve measures o f p i e c e No. 1 e a c h instrumental part

consists of a succession of linear pitch-pairs separated by r e s t s . The

initial pitch of each p a i r b e g i n s a t pianissimo and g r a d u a l l y intensifies

dynamically. A t or just b e f o r e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f t h e second pitch, the

dynamic increase p e a k s a t mezzoforte, a t which point a diminuendo begins.

This pattern repeats itself with each subsequent pitch-pair. Although the

peaks o f dynamic i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n and c o r r e s p o n d i n g pitch changes i n the

five instruments occur independently o f each other, t h e y n e v e r t h e l e s s do

so i nrelatively close proximity. The r e s u l t i s a "group" o f dynamically

exposed pitch-pairs. The next occurrence o f mezzoforte pitch changes i n

close proximity constitutes another group, a n d so o n . These recurring

groups of d y n a m i c a l l y intensified pitch-pairs create an o v e r a l l , slow

pulsation—a rhythm o f s o r t s . The f i r s t mezzoforte pitch change o f each

g r o u p may b e h e a r d to articulate units of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r rhythm.

E x a m p l e 55 c o n s i s t s of a graphic representation o f the dynamically

exposed pitch-pair groups i nthef i r s t twelve measures. The outer systems

of t h egraph indicate groups o f p i t c h - p a i r s occurring i n close proximity

and, a t t h e same t i m e , units o f o v e r a l l dynamic fluctuation. Two s y s t e m s


117

E x a m p l e 55. U n i t s of dynamically exposed pitch-pair groups.


118
119

have been employed because o f t h e o v e r l a p p i n g o f groups; t h e graph i s t o

be r e a d by a l t e r n a t i n g between t h e t o p and bottom systems. The d i a g o n a l

arrows above and below t h e c e n t r e l i n e i n d i c a t e t h e dynamic i n c r e a s e

towards t h e i n i t i a l mezzoforte p i t c h change o f each group, t h e d u r a t i o n

of p i t c h changes a t mezzoforte ( i . e . , t h e h o r i z o n t a l p o r t i o n ) , and t h e

overall diminuendo (after the last mezzoforte p i t c h change). The c e n t r e

l i n e i t s e l f shows o n l y t h e i n i t i a l mezzoforte p o i n t o f each group.

These p a r t i c u l a r j u n c t u r e s may be heard t o d e l i n e a t e recurring units of

d y n a m i c a l l y exposed p i t c h - p a i r s — a second element-rhythm d i s c e r n i b l e i n

the p i e c e . I n c i d e n t a l l y , a p r o g r e s s i v e tendency i s r e v e a l e d i n t h e

diminishing l e n g t h s o f dynamic u n i t s commencing i n b a r 9 — a tendency

which complements t h e i n c r e a s e i n i m p u l s e - d e n s i t y n o t e d earlier.^

Rhythm o f t e x t u r a l - d e n s i t y fluctuation

W h i l e t e x t u r a l independence and i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e , d i s c u s s e d earlier,

are q u a l i t a t i v e features, a mode o f g r o u p i n g i s d e f i n e d by t h e a s p e c t o f

textural-density fluctuation—a quantitative feature. Specifically,

abrupt changes i n d e n s i t y a r t i c u l a t e a p a r t i c u l a r rhythm, a l b e i t an

i r r e g u l a r one. System (c) on Example 56 (p. 122)' c o n s i s t s o f t h e l i n e -

r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t e x t u r a l components used i n Example 52. The rhythm o f

density f l u c t u a t i o n i s i n d i c a t e d by t h e v e r t i c a l l i n e s m a r k i n g changes i n

the number o f sounding components.

Rhythm o f t e x t u r a l q u a l i t y fluctuation

The concept o f t e x t u r a l q u a l i t y was d i s c u s s e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s

section. As a p a r t i c u l a r mode o f r h y t h m i c g r o u p i n g , however, o v e r a l l

^Because each mezzoforte marks a p i t c h change, t h e c l o s e p r o x i m i t y


of t h e i n d i v i d u a l dynamic peaks r e p r e s e n t s a r h y t h m i c i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n
r e f l e c t e d on t h e i m p u l s e - d e n s i t y graph.
120

q u a l i t a t i v e changes f u n c t i o n as r e c u r r i n g events w h i c h d e l i n e a t e s p e c i f i c

units. These u n i t s a r e i n d i c a t e d on system (d) o f Example 56.

Rhythm o f h a r m o n i c - d e n s i t y fluctuation

I n t h e ' a ' - s e c t i o n and t r a n s i t i o n , h a r m o n i c - d e n s i t y ( i . e . , the

number o f v e r t i c a l p i t c h e s sounding) i s e s s e n t i a l l y t i e d t o t e x t u r a l -
g

d e n s i t y ; t h e number o f sounding components e q u a l s t h e number o f p i t c h e s .

The ' b ' - s e c t i o n i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n t h a t t h e t e x t u r a l and harmonic d e n s i t i e s

do n o t c o r r e s p o n d . D e s p i t e a five-component t e x t u r e , t h e harmonic-density

begins w i t h a unison C#-* and g r a d u a l l y expands t o a t e t r a c h o r d by measure

21. Each new p i t c h e n t r y marks a growth i n h a r m o n i c - d e n s i t y {within the

s t a t i c t e x t u r a l - d e n s i t y ) , thereby generating i t s own mode o f r h y t h m i c

grouping. (The i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e s e two d e n s i t i e s i s i l l u s t r a t e d

g r a p h i c a l l y i n Example 56, t o be i n t r o d u c e d shortly.)

Rhythm o f tempo change

Tempo change i s a n o t h e r event which r e c u r s i n t h e p i e c e and, as

noted e a r l i e r , tends t o c o i n c i d e w i t h changes i n t h e f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e .

I t n e v e r t h e l e s s a r t i c u l a t e s a w i d e s p r e a d r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n , t o be r e v e a l e d

i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h those a l r e a d y defined.

I n t e r a c t i o n o f element-rhythms

Example 56 i s a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e s i x element-rhythms d e f i n e d

above. I n t h e case o f i m p u l s e - d e n s i t y , only the l a r g e - s c a l e progressive

and r e c e s s i v e u n i t s a r e noted and a r e i n d i c a t e d h e r e as s t r a i g h t l i n e s

g
Two v e r t i c a l i t i e s i n measure 12 r e p r e s e n t b r i e f d e p a r t u r e s from
t h i s norm. I n t h e s e i n s t a n c e s , t o be d i s c l o s e d i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n , t h e
f i v e i n s t r u m e n t s sound a f o u r - n o t e s o n o r i t y .
121

E x a m p l e 56. Interaction of s i x element-rhythms.


122

mm.1

(a) rhythm of
impulse-density
fluctuation

(b) rhythm of
dynamically exposed mf mf mf mf
pitch-pair
mf mf
~f 1
mf
I I. I \
groups mf mf

FL.
(c) rhythm of E.H.
textural-density CL-
fluctuation HRN.
BSN.

(d) rhythm of
textural quality independent , independent/interdependent , interdependent .
fluctuation — —>H +

(e) rhythm of ^ 4-
harmonic-density g 3-
fluctuation "2 2-
o I-

y-4o J.-48

4-
(f) rhythm of J . 4 0

tempo change

formal segmentation "a'-section . transition. *b'-section 'a*- echo

-4- —f— —r-


mm. 10 15 20 25
123

omitting the d e t a i l e d fluctuations and lower-level units included in

E x a m p l e 54. The rhythm o f d y n a m i c a l l y exposed pitch-pair groups is

also simplified here as only the initial mezzoforte pitch change o f each

group i s indicated (these being the unit delineators taken from the centre

line o f Example 55).

Two p o i n t s of significant concurrence among e l e m e n t - r h y t h m s a r e i n

measures 16 and 22. These j u n c t u r e s , o f c o u r s e , mark t h e main formal

sections. Of lesser formal import i s the t r a n s i t i o n (measures 15-16),

a l s o marked by c o i n c i d e n c e of rhythms: the rhythms of t e x t u r a l and

harmonic densities.

Summary

It was found that the first piece i s consistent with the other

ensemble p i e c e s i n t h e quintet with regard to metric structure; specifi-

cally, the notated 4


does not signify metric groupings as such, but i s ,

rather, a notational convenience. The concept of element-rhythms (other

than meter), h o w e v e r , was found t o be of great significance i n the pacing,

progression, recession, and formal delineation of the piece. The rhythms

examined involve the parameters (elements) of impulse-density, dynamics,

textural-density, textural quality, harmonic-density, and tempo.

Substantial concurrence among t h e s e was noted at s t r u c t u r a l points i n the

piece, namely, the beginnings of formal sections. The transition, a formal

segment o f l e s s e r importance, was also noted a s b e i n g d e f i n e d by the

9
T h i s i s m e r e l y f o r c l a r i t y ; a s w i l l be shown, s i g n i f i c a n t
i n t e r a c t i o n occurs only at the turn-around point, adequately represented
by t h i s l e s s - d e t a i l e d v e r s i o n .
124

10
simultaneous reduction i n t e x t u r a l and harmonic d e n s i t i e s . The rhythmic

structure o f p i e c e No. 1, d e s p i t e a l a c k o f m e t r i c definition, i s one o f

considerable complexity, as manifest i n the interaction o f element-rhythms

exemplified above.

Modes o f P i t c h Organization

Linear Details

As i n t h e examples c i t e d i n the previous chapter, the linear details

of pitch organization i n the f i r s t piece involve stepwise patterns of p i t c h

a n d / o r PC c o n n e c t i o n s . Three specific modes o f l i n e a r connection will be

examined. The f i r s t involves outer-voice prolongation i n the 'a'-section,

as w e l l a s t h e PC c o n n e c t i o n t o , and two-voice structure of, the 'b'-section.

The s e c o n d mode c o n s i d e r s linear progressions which, through l a t e r a l voice

crossing, connect pitch extremities i n the 'a'-section (the l a t t e r being

the pitches prolonged i n the outer voices r e f e r r e d to above). Linearizations

comprised of dynamically accented pitch-pairs define the third mode o f l i n e a r

connection.

Outer-voice prolongation

The (five-component) texture of the 'a'-section's first twelve bars

yields a continuum o f changing five-note vertical s o n o r i t i e s spanning a

On system (a) o f Example 57 e a c h v e r t i c a l stem

(above t h e t o p s t a f f ) i n the f i r s t t w e l v e m e a s u r e s m a r k s a new h a r m o n i c

complex. The p i t c h e s a r e o r g a n i z e d such that the highest pitch o f each

verticality (regardless of instrumentation) appears on t h e t o p s t a f f , t h e

second highest on t h e second staff, etc. The " h i g h e s t " pitches are

^ A l o n g w i t h t h e r e d u c t i o n i n t e x t u r a l and harmonic d e n s i t i e s i n
the t r a n s i t i o n i s a decrease i n t e x t u r a l space (e.g., from a minor seventh
t o a m i n o r t h i r d ) a n d d y n a m i c s ( t o a c o n s t a n t pianissimo level).
125

Example 57. Outer-voice prolongation i n measures 1-16.

e.p. = embellishing pattern

l.n. = lower neighbour

u.n. = upper neighbour

m.m.u.n. = major-minor upper neighbour

m.m.l.n. = major-minor lower neighbour

i.m.m.u.n. = incomplete major-minor upper neighbour

ant. = anticipation
126

mf mf

oo
in
a>
a
E
CO
X
LU

• C
O

TJ
0)
D
C
+->
c
o
o

i.m.mxi.n
127

c o n s i d e r e d l i n e a r l y t o form a " v o i c e " as d i s t i n c t from t h e a c t u a l

instrumental parts. The same h o l d s t r u e f o r t h e second h i g h e s t p i t c h e s ,

and so on. The f i v e " v o i c e s , " t h e n , a r e t h e r e s u l t o f c o n s t a n t p i t c h and

f r e q u e n t p o s i t i o n changes w i t h i n s u c c e s s i v e v e r t i c a l complexes. Each

i n s t r u m e n t a l p a r t moves from one v o i c e t o another depending on t h e p o s i t i o n

of i t s p i t c h i n t h e v e r t i c a l i t y . P i t c h e s of a given i n s t r u m e n t a l part a r e

connected by h o r i z o n t a l and d i a g o n a l l i n e s and a r r o w s , r e v e a l i n g t h e m o t i o n

a c r o s s v o i c e s as d e s c r i b e d above. F o r example, i f a l i n e connects two

p i t c h e s on t h e same s t a f f , i t means they a r e sounded by t h e same instrument

and t h e second p i t c h r e t a i n s i t s v o i c e p o s i t i o n i n t h e v e r t i c a l complex. A

r e s t s e p a r a t e s t h e two p i t c h e s i f t h e l i n e i s n o t a t e d w i t h a p a r a l l e l slash,

e.g., " /• a
— . Where a d i a g o n a l l i n e connects two, l i k e p i t c h e s on

s e p a r a t e s t a v e s , i t s v o i c e p o s i t i o n has changed ( b u t n o t i t s i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n )

as a r e s u l t o f a p i t c h change elsewhere i n t h e v e r t i c a l i t y . F i n a l l y , where

a d i a g o n a l arrow connects two d i f f e r e n t p i t c h e s on s e p a r a t e s t a v e s , i t

i n d i c a t e s a p i t c h and p o s i t i o n change ( w i t h i n t h e same i n s t r u m e n t ) , a g a i n ,

s e p a r a t e d by a r e s t i f t h e arrow has a p a r a l l e l s l a s h through i t , e.g.,

2
Our f o c u s on t h e o u t e r v o i c e s i n p a r t i c u l a r as one mode o f l i n e a r

connection i s f o r three r e a s o n s . ^ F i r s t , they a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y t h e

most r e a d i l y p e r c e i v e d . Second, they r e v e a l p r o l o n g a t i o n s o f D3 and C 4

( t h e p i t c h e x t r e m i t i e s ) and, hence, c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e d e l i n e a t i o n o f form.

And t h i r d , t h e PC's C and D have f u n c t i o n a l import i n t h e l a r g e - s c a l e

l i n e a r s t r u c t u r e of the p i e c e . Concerning t h e second c o n d i t i o n , r e f e r t o

^ M e a s u r e s 13-16 as r e p r e s e n t e d on system (a) o f Example 57 w i l l


be d e a l t w i t h l a t e r .
128

system (b) o f E x a m p l e 57, where a l l p i t c h e s i n the outer v o i c e s are

indicated. The extremities, and C^, are notated as open n o t e s which

are stemmed, beamed, a n d slurred together. Neighbour notes to these

pitches are a l s o stemmed but are indicated by black notes. Embellishing

12
patterns, also n o t a t e d as black notes, are stemmed to the slur which

of a

labelled
"major" and

MMUN o r MMLN
"minor" second

(major-minor
are notated

upper
thus:

neighbour
V
n f
*—r-
Pf
or major-minor
1
J ,

lower
and

neighbour).

Once t h e and extremities are reached i n bars 5 and 7,

respectively, they are prolonged in a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d manner a s indicated

on system (b). One particular detail i s noteworthy however. It concerns

the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between " p r i m a r y " and "secondary" instances of the

pitch extremities. N o t i c e , f o r example, that occurrences of i n bars

7, 9, 11, and 13 are adjacent to those of the lower e x t r e m i t y , D3, while

in bars 5, 8, 11 (first b e a t ) , and 13 they are without such concurrence.

Given the function of and C^ as the outermost pitches and, hence, form

delineators of t h e 'a'-section, reiterated instances of adjacent

e x t r e m i t i e s would seem t o be of "primary" importance, with the intervening

occurrences of C^, "secondary." System ( c ) r e p r e s e n t s t h i s mode o f

distinction by including only adjacent, corroborating ( i . e . , primary)

instances of and C^ (as open n o t e s ) . The initial C^, notated


as a

black note, may be heard as an anticipation of the f i r s t primary

appearing i n measure 7. The initial "incomplete" major-minor upper

12
An e m b e l l i s h i n g p a t t e r n , i n t h i s c o n t e x t , r e f e r s t o s t e p w i s e
m o t i o n ( b e y o n d a m a j o r s e c o n d ) away f r o m , and b a c k t o , a p a r t i c u l a r
s t r u c t u r a l note. I t may a l s o c o n s i s t o f a l e a p away f r o m t h e m a i n n o t e
and s t e p w i s e m o t i o n b a c k , o r v i c e v e r s a .
• 129

neighbour (IMMUN) a p p r o a c h to D3 i s also indicated in black notes on

system (c).

On system (a) of Example 57, the end of the 'a'-section (measures

13-15), and t r a n s i t i o n (measures 15-16), are notated differently from the

preceding bars i n that the instrumental parts of the score are given.

Rhythmic intensification, here, renders individual verticalities difficult

to isolate; rather, the linear c o n t i n u i t y of each instrumental part is

more a p p a r e n t as a focus of attention. The i n t e r a c t i o n of the instruments,

nevertheless, c a r r i e s the previously established outer-voice prolongations

by close reiteration of and C ,


4
and linear embellishment not unlike

that of measures 1-12. On system (a), pitches with brackets above (e.g.,

measures 13-14) c o n t r i b u t e to the upper-voice prolongation, while those

with brackets below e f f e c t the lower-voice maintenance, both of which are

indicated on system (b) and the h i g h e r - l e v e l system (c). Incidentally,

the linearization from C 4


to F^ on system (b) (bar 14) suggests that,

during these transitional measures, the underlying upper v o i c e prolongs

•5 o 13

F J
(the lower remaining on D )
J
as an interim basis. This lower-level

detail, however, i s not included on system ( c ) ; D3 and C 4


remain the

primary r e g i s t r a l reference points for the 'a'-section.

In Example 58, system (a) consists of the 'b'-section (measures

16-22) i n s c o r e form. Systems (b) and (c) begin with identical summaries

of system (c) from Example 57 (i.e., measures 1-16), but offer two

different i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s f o r the structure of the 'b'-section and its

relationship to the previously prolonged and C .


4
The first views the

13
This i s the reduction i n t e x t u r a l space noted earlier.
130

prolonged as a "pitch-class (PC) neighbour," functioning with C# 5


of

bar 16 a s an incomplete major-minor lower neighbour to the f i n a l D^, the

E^-> of bar 21 being i t s incomplete upper neighbour. of t h e ' a ' - s e c t i o n

is then viewed c o n v e r s e l y as a PC neighbour with C//5


as ah incomplete

major-minor upper neighbour to the f i n a l C^, t h e B^ of bar 20 being i t s

incomplete lower neighbour. In the second interpretation {system (c)] ,

C^ i s considered a "PC r e p r e s e n t a t i v e " of the f i n a l C^, with 0 f bar

16 a n d B^ of bar 20 functioning, respectively, as complete u p p e r and lower

neighbours. D-^ f r o m the 'a'-section i s treated here as a PC r e p r e s e n t a t i v e

of the final D ,
5
with C# 5
(bar 16) and E* 7 5
( b a r 21) functioning,

respectively, as complete lower and upper neighbours.

In short, the first interpretation i n v o l v e s two, simultaneous

incomplete major-minor neighbours, C/C# t o D and D/D^ to C, while the

second r e c o g n i z e s two l a r g e - s c a l e PC p r o l o n g a t i o n s , one of C (involving

C^ and C^), and one of D (involving and D^). The end result of either

interpretation i s the inversion and register shift of the prolonged pitch

extremities of t h e 'a'-section.^ System (d) o f E x a m p l e 58 summarizes

this r e l a t i o n s h i p — o n e which, a l o n g w i t h the r e t u r n to the o r i g i n a l tempo

and dynamics, and quasi eco indication i n the score, strengthens the

allusion to the ' a ' - s e c t i o n suggested earlier.

14
"Pitch-class (PC) neighbour" refers to r e g i s t r a l l y non-specific
neighbour notes.

^ T h e PC's C a n d D, i n f a c t , f i g u r e v e r y p r o m i n e n t l y i n t h e a u d i t o r y
e x p e r i e n c e a s a r e s u l t o f t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d o u t e r - v o i c e p r o l o n g a t i o n and
l i n e a r d i r e c t e d n e s s t o m e a s u r e 22.
131

Example 58. Linear s t r u c t u r e of t h e 'b'-section and its relationship


to the 'a'-section.
132. .

/ ^

9 t—
I i * i I I " •

(E.H.)

(CL.)
— 4

_ ^ T>
V —
|

J. _i lll|
li*

(HRN.)

(BSN.)
4 ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZl

mm. 2 7 7-14 15-16 16 17 20 20 2| 22-24


i.l.n.

(b)

(O
133

Linear progressions involving lateral voice crossing

As noted i n Chapter I I , t h e most perceivable linear connections in

this idiom a r e those i n v o l v i n g movement b y s e m i t o n e s .arid whole-tones.

In measures 1-12 e a c h instrument articulates two p i t c h e s b e t w e e n rests

and, although i n the f i r s t nine of these m e a s u r e s movement b e t w e e n rests

is by s t e p , movement a c r o s s r e s t s i s o f t e n by l e a p . In order to d i s c e r n

more e x t e n d e d linear connections, stepwise movement a c r o s s the five-voice

s t r u c t u r e must b e c o n s i d e r e d (i.e., lateral voice crossing). Two

classifications of linear events involving lateral voice crossing w i l l be

defined f o r the purposes o f t h i s paper: principal and s u b o r d i n a t e . The

former i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t r a v e r s a l o f t h e e n t i r e r a n g e o f t h e ' a ' - s e c t i o n ,

thereby connecting pitch extremities (i.e., E-^ a n d i n measures 2-5, a n d

and by measure 7). Voice c r o s s i n g s which connect D-^ a n d C^ represent

a type of lateral prolongation—one which complements t h e l i n e a r

prolongations e f f e c t e d b y t h e o u t e r - v o i c e movement j u s t examined.

Three conditions characterize a lateral v o i c e - c r o s s i n g event as

subordinate: first, i t may n o t s p a n t h e e n t i r e r a n g e o f t h e ' a ' - s e c t i o n

(or i t would be a " p r i n c i p a l " progression); second, i t must arrive on one

of t h e two p i t c h e x t r e m i t i e s ; and t h i r d , i t must originate—be spawned—

from a principal progression already underway. Concerning the third

condition: a t some p o i n t a principal progression may h a v e two a v a i l a b l e

stepwise connections, one i n t h e d i r e c t i o n i t started (i.e., the

continuation of the principal progression), and t h e o t h e r i n the opposite

direction. I f the progression which branches o f f i n t h e opposite direction

arrives back at t h e s t a r t i n g pitch of the o r i g i n a l principal progression


134

16
It i sconsidered t o be a subordinate linearization.

Stepwise pitch connections effecting these lateral voice-crossing

events i n v o l v e p i t c h e s w h i c h emerge a s ( a u d i b l y ) p r o m i n e n t through timbral,

dynamic, or articulative exposure. These t h r e e types o f "exposed"

connection w i l l now b e d i s c u s s e d i n greater detail.

Timbral connection

S e m i t o n e o f w h o l e - t o n e movement i n one p a r t i c u l a r instrument, either

in t h e same v o i c e o f a c r o s s v o i c e s , ^ a s i n d i c a t e d by a d i a g o n a l arrow,

qualifies as a timbral connection. I n Example 5 9 , two s u c h connections

are boxed o n system ( a ) — t h e same " v o i c i n g " arrangement a s Example 57—and

summarized on system (b). The f i r s t instance of connection i n E x a m p l e 59

occurs i n t h e same v o i c e , w h i l e t h e second involves voice crossing.

Connection through dynamic exposure

Movement a t mezzoforte t o a p i t c h which i s a semitone o r whole-tone

above o r below t h e preceding pitch of t h eprogression (heard i n another

instrument and which continues t o sound) d e f i n e s c o n n e c t i o n through dynamic

exposure. This particular connection always i n v o l v e s two i n s t r u m e n t s , t h e

first one s u s t a i n i n g i t s p i t c h after t h e second one c o n t i n u e s the linear

18
progression with i t s dynamically exposed pitch; refer t o E x a m p l e 60.

16
I f a t some p o i n t a p r i n c i p a l p r o g r e s s i o n h a s two a v a i l a b l e
s t e p w i s e c o n n e c t i o n s , e a c h i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n a s i t s t a r t e d ( e . g . , f r o m
G to and G t o F ) , both o f which continue i n that d i r e c t i o n and a r r i v e
on t h e l o w e r p i t c h e x t r e m i t y ( t h e u p p e r e x t r e m i t y i f t h e l i n e s a r e
a s c e n d i n g ) t h e s e a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o b e , a n d n o t a t e d a s , two s e p a r a t e
p r i n c i p a l p r o g r e s s i o n s o c c u r r i n g over d i f f e r e n t time spans.

^ V o i c e s , remember, a r e l i n e a r c o n t i n u i t i e s c o m p r i s e d o f t o n e s o f
equal position i n successive v e r t i c a l i t i e s (regardless of instrumentation).

18
In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f c o n n e c t i o n , dynamic e x p o s u r e i s o f
primary importance. Compare t h i s w i t h t h e f i r s t t y p e w h e r e mezzoforte
accent i s secondary t o t h easpect o f t i m b r a l consistency.-
Example 59. Two i n s t a n c e s o f t i m b r a l connection
in l a t e r a l voice-crossing events.

mm. 2 3 4 5

Example 60. One i n s t a n c e o f c o n n e c t i o n through


dynamic exposure.

mm. 9 10

W'

t
connection:
136

Connection through articulation after a rest

When a p i t c h i s articulated after a rest, and i s a semitone or

whole-tone above o r below t h e p r e c e d i n g p i t c h of the progression (again,

heard i n another instrument and which c o n t i n u e s t o sound), i t may b e h e a r d

to continue the l i n e a r i z a t i o n across voices. Example 61 i l l u s t r a t e s this

third condition of linear progression through lateral voice crossing.

Example 61. One i n s t a n c e o f c o n n e c t i o n through


articulation after a rest.

mm.

L connection:

Notice i n t h e second and t h i r d criteria (i.e., Examples 60 a n d 61) t h a t

the instrument which s o u n d s t h e new p i t c h o f t h e p r o g r e s s i o n (be i t t h r o u g h

dynamic or articulative exposure) d o e s n o t h a v e t o move b y s t e p f r o m i t s

own p r e c e d i n g n o t e . Rather, t h e stepwise connection occurs from an a l r e a d y

sounding instrument t o t h e one which p r o v i d e s t h e exposed pitch.

While many b r i e f c o n n e c t i o n s may be d i s c e r n e d , b a s e d on a n y one o f


137

the three criteria s t a t e d above, i t i s the joint consideration of these

principles with the conditions of p r i n c i p a l and s u b o r d i n a t e linear events,

defined earlier, which r e v e a l s linear c o n t i n u i t y i n the opening twelve

19

measures of t h e p i e c e . System (a) o f Example 62 c o n s i s t s o f t h e same

"voice" r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a s E x a m p l e 57 ( u s e d to i l l u s t r a t e outer-voice

prolongation), here, up t o measure 12 o n l y . System (b) i s c o m p r i s e d o f

the v a r i o u s principal and s u b o r d i n a t e v o i c e - c r o s s i n g events defined

through a p p l i c a t i o n of the c r i t e r i a stated above.

All occurrences of a r e approached by a p r i n c i p a l voice-crossing

progression; of bars 7 a n d 10 a r e a l s o d e p a r t u r e pointsff.or l a t e r a l

progressions to C . 4
Of t h e o c c u r r e n c e s of C , 4
a l l a r e approached by a

lateral progression (principal or subordinate), but not a l l a r e p o i n t s

of departure f o r descending lateral connections to D . As i t t u r n s o u t ,

instances of C 4
which f a i l to i n i t i a t e voice-crossing progressions do n o t

appear adjacent to occurrences o f D^. Remember that, i n the preceding

discussion on o u t e r - v o i c e prolongation, a C 4
was l a b e l l e d primary i f i t

occurred next t o a D^, and s e c o n d a r y i f i t appeared "alone." Itis

consistent, then, that of t h e C ' s which a r e not i n i t i a t o r s


4
of descending

lateral progressions, a l l a r e s e c o n d a r y by definition.

System ( c ) o f Example 62 o f f e r s a summary o f t h e i n t e r a c t i n g lateral

progressions. T h o s e on t h e t o p s t a f f progress toward a n d away from

19
A l t h o u g h b a r s 13-15 a r e p a r t o f t h e ' a ' - s e c t i o n , i n c r e a s e d
rhythmic a c t i v i t y , slow dynamic f l u c t u a t i o n r e l a t i v e t o p i t c h changes,
and a b s e n c e o f r e s t s p r e c l u d e l i n e a r c o n n e c t i o n s a s d e f i n e d by t h e a s s e r t e d
c r i t e r i a of lateral voice crossing. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t , w h i l e b a r s 15-
16 h a v e b e e n d e f i n e d a s t r a n s i t i o n a l , a d i s s o l u t i o n o f p a r a m e t r i c c o n t i n u i t y
i s a l r e a d y e m e r g i n g i n b a r s 13-15 a s s u g g e s t e d b y t h e c h a n g e s n o t e d a b o v e
( i . e . , r h y t h m i c , dynamic, and a r t i c u l a t i v e ) , and by t h e c o n d i t i o n a l changes
regarding outer-voice prolongation described e a r l i e r .
138

Example 62. Linear progressions involving lateral voice- crossing


in.measures 1-12.
13?

mm. 2 3 8
140

prolongational p o i n t s noted earlier, while those on the bottom a r e more

extended and o v e r l a p the former progressions.

Connections between d y n a m i c a l l y exposed pitch-pairs

The concept of dynamically exposed pitch-pairs was d e f i n e d earlier

as m a n i f e s t i n g a p a r t i c u l a r mode o f r h y t h m i c grouping. To r e c a p i t u l a t e

the derivation of pitch-pairs, i t was n o t e d that i n measures 1-12 e a c h

instrument features a succession of linear dyads separated by r e s t s .

Pitch changes between r e s t s occur a t o r v e r y near the peak o f dynamic

intensification a t mezzoforte—hence, dynamically exposed pitch-pairs.

At this p o i n t we a r e concerned with the actual pitch content o f such pairs,

and their relationship to surrounding pairs. Although contiguous p a i r s do

not give r i s e to stepwise continuities which t r a v e r s e o r prolong outer-

pitch e x t r e m i t i e s , as i nthe two modes o f l i n e a r connection previously

described, three details of this aspect of linear organization are worth

noting.

The first involves local prolongation o f specific pitches through

neighbour motion provided by i n t e r v e n i n g p i t c h - p a i r s . I n Example 63 t h e s e

instances of l o w - l e v e l prolongation are noted on system (c). System (a)

is the p r e v i o u s l y employed linear representation of pitch content, while

system (b) i s a summary o f t h e dynamically exposed pairs. In the latter,

each p a i r i sslurred and the first pitch o f each i s notated just prior to

changing r a t h e r than at i t s actual p o i n t o f i n c e p t i o n {[since i t i s f i r s t

articulated a t pianissimo and i s t h e r e f o r e most perceptible just prior to

changing (i.e., a t mezzoforte)}. I n most pitch-pair groups (i.e., groups

as separated by dotted v e r t i c a l lines and which correspond t o those o f

E x a m p l e 54) t h e first pitch i s prolonged through either a double neighbour

or major-minor neighbour as indicated on system (c) o f t h e graph.


141

Example 63. Connections through d y n a m i c a l l y exposed pitch-pairs


i n measures 1-14.
143

O c c a s i o n a l l y the i n t e r v a l of a t h i r d w i l l approach the f i n a l p i t c h of

the p r o l o n g a t i o n as i n measures 11 and 12. Because the f i r s t p i t c h of

each group i s not always a p i t c h e x t r e m i t y of the s e c t i o n ( e . g . , or

C ),4
the c o n n e c t i o n of p i t c h e s i n t h i s manner r e s u l t s , a t t i m e s , i n low-

l e v e l " i n n e r - v o i c e " p r o l o n g a t i o n s , e.g., measures 4-5, 6, 10, and 11-12.

Perhaps more s i g n i f i c a n t i s the p r o g r e s s i v e e x p a n s i o n of intervals

o c c u r r i n g between ( l i n k i n g ) p i t c h e s of i n d i v i d u a l p a i r s . Below system ( c ) ,

the d e s i g n a t i o n m/M2 suggests t h a t , up to measure 10, movement between the

r e s t s i n each i n s t r u m e n t i s by s t e p . I n measure 10 t h i s i s expanded to

i n c l u d e minor t h i r d s and by measure 12, major t h i r d s . T h i s might be

viewed as a n o t h e r m a n i f e s t a t i o n of t h e e x p a n s i o n concept d i s c u s s e d i n the

preceding chapter.

A t h i r d d e t a i l of i n t e r e s t c o n c e r n s measures 13-15, two b a r s which

have a l r e a d y been mentioned i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the d i s s o l u t i o n of s e v e r a l

patterns. For example, heightened rhythmic a c t i v i t y i n t h e s e measures was

s a i d t o render v e r t i c a l s o n o r i t i e s and o u t e r - v o i c e p r o l o n g a t i o n s more

difficult to d i s c e r n . L a t e r a l v o i c e - c r o s s i n g connections were a l s o found

to stop s h o r t of bar 13. To be added t o t h i s l i s t of d e p a r t u r e s i s the

absence of p i t c h - p a i r s s e p a r a t e d by r e s t s ; r a t h e r , l i n e a r c o n t i n u i t y i n

each i n s t r u m e n t i s now more a p p a r e n t . However, one f i n a l dynamic " s w e l l "

takes p l a c e i n each i n s t r u m e n t , a g a i n , exposing a p a i r of p i t c h e s . But

r a t h e r than o c c u r r i n g c o n t i g u o u s l y , the p a i r s o v e r l a p as a r e s u l t of

increased rhythmic activity. The d y n a m i c a l l y exposed p a i r s i n q u e s t i o n

are bracketed on system (a) of Example 63. A l o w - l e v e l p r o l o n g a t i o n of

C 4
( t h r o u g h a major-minor lower n e i g h b o u r ) i s perhaps the most s i g n i f i c a n t

outcome of t h i s dynamic f l u c t u a t i o n [see system (c)l; i t r e i n f o r c e s the


144

20
outer-voice prolongation of C 4
illustrated earlier.

Summary

T h r e e modes o f l i n e a r connection utilizing stepwise motion have

been examined i n the foregoing section: outer-voice prolongations, lateral

voice-crossing events, and l o w - l e v e l p r o l o n g a t i o n s t h r o u g h dynamic exposure.

In t h e f i r s t of these, and C — t h e
4
pitch e x t r e m i t i e s of t h e ' a ' - s e c t i o n —

were s i m u l t a n e o u s l y prolonged, and a d j a c e n t articulations of each were

labelled primary. The t w o - v o i c e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e ' b ' - s e c t i o n was shown t o

be a continuation of these prolonged pitch extremities. I n t h e s e c o n d mode

of linearization, three criteria involving timbre, dynamics, and a r t i c u l a -

tion were used to establish lateral v o i c e - c r o s s i n g events which connect

and C .
4
Outer-voice p r o l o n g a t i o n s and l a t e r a l v o i c e - c r o s s i n g s were said

to complement each other i n maintaining the pitch extremities of the 'a'-

section. The c o n n e c t i o n of dynamically exposed pitch-pairs i n close

proximity revealed l o w - l e v e l p r o l o n g a t i o n s o f inner v o i c e s as w e l l as a

particular mode o f e x p a n s i o n . Concerning the latter, movement between

rests was s e e n t o e x p a n d from minor and major seconds in the first ten

measures t o minor and major thirds i n bars 11 a n d 12. Linear continuity

would seem t o b e t i g h t l y controlled through the-modes o f l i n e a r connection

suggested in this section.

Harmonic Details

In the previous chapter, consonance and dissonance i n , and f u n c t i o n a l

relationships between, v e r t i c a l i t i e s were s t a t e d a s b e i n g two c e n t r a l issues

of harmonic pitch organization. Concerning the f i r s t of these, semitone and

20
G i v e n t h a t o n l y t h e p r o l o n g a t i o n o f D^ a n d n o t c 4 i s c o n t i n u e d i n
the subsequent t r a n s i t i o n (measures 15-16), t h i s f i n a l maintenance o f C 4

t h r o u g h dynamic exposure has added s i g n i f i c a n c e .


145

whole-tone content w i l l be u s e d here, as i t was earlier, as a main criterion

for classifying harmonic quality. Because of t e x t u r a l consistency i n the

first twelve measures (already noted), that portion of the 'a'-section will

be dealt with f i r s t . Measures 13-15 (the t r a n s i t i o n ) , and the 'b'-section

will t h e n be examined.

Measures 1-12

Underlying the f i v e - p a r t independent t e x t u r e of measures 1-12,

harmonically, i s a continuum of changing v e r t i c a l sonorities. Although

from one aggregate to the next o n l y one pitch i s changed, harmonic quality

may be affected considerably. The reader i s referred t o Example 64 where,

in system (a), the p r e v i o u s l y employed pitch representation i s given. The

harmonic quality of each v e r t i c a l i t y must be established i n order that

higher-level relationships be discerned. The criteria for classifying

these sonorities are r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e f o r two r e a s o n s : a l l but two of them

contain f i v e members, a n d the sets are r e g i s t r a l l y spaced w i t h i n one octave.

In the l e f t column o f Example 65 (p. 149) a l l possible combinations

of the f i r s t two interval-vector entries f o r five-member sets and two

combinations f o r four-member sets are given. For the purpose of t h i s study,

semitone content i s considered the primary determinant of consonance-

dissonance quality; each interval-class 1 (per v e r t i c a l i t y ) i s therefore

assigned a v a l u e o f 4. Whole-tone content i s used as a f u r t h e r criterion

to differentiate between sets having the same s e m i t o n e content; each

interval-class 2 i s given a v a l u e of 1. When t h e s e v a l u e s a r e a p p l i e d to

the combinations i n the f i r s t column, q u a l i t a t i v e t o t a l s are determined;


21
S e m i t o n e s and w h o l e - t o n e s w o u l d , p r e s u m a b l y , h a v e t o be t r e a t e d
d i f f e r e n t i n s o n o r i t i e s where t h e y appear r e g i s t r a l l y d i s p l a c e d b y one
o r more o c t a v e s ( i . e . , a s compound i n t e r v a l s ) .
Example 64. Harmonic structure.
14-7

mm.2 3 4 8
IO 12 13 14 15 16 17 20 21 22
C-D
factors: 7 10 1b 10 9 7 7 9 11 11 14 10 9 13 9 [5 5\ 13 11 6 9 13 PlO 10 1ol 9 13 6
1 J 1 1 1 1 1 1 «i 1 1J 1 . 7
ii i i U l ! J i T i 1 T T 11 t J M
[
? tT T ^ V ? T ! [? r ? Ir ? v. DP ti& 3T T I ? **
148

Example 65. Consonance-dissonance criteria and C-D factors.


149

a,b of Interval C-D Quality C-D Factor Representative


Vector IC 1=4, IC 2=1 Sets

m. 12
4,3 19
(Diss.)
15 f 0,1,2,3,4 ******
1 m. i i
3,3 15 14 0,1,2,3,5

m. 3

j
3,2 14 0,1,2,4,5
13
m. 9
7-**-*-
3,1 13 12 0,1,2,6,7

m. 4
2,3 11 11 0,2,3,4,6 • »T' *

m. 7
2,2 10 10 0,2,3,4,7

m. 8
2,1 9 9 0,1,4,5,7

m. 9
2,0 8 8 0,1,4,7,8

m. 4
£ s *
1,3 7 7 0,2,3,5,7 m

m. 6
1,2 6 6 0,2,3,6,8

m. 5
it**
1,1 5 5 0,1,3,6,9

m. 8
0,4 4 4 0,2,4,6,8

| m. 12
0,3 3 3 0,2,4,7,9

1 m. 12 V-
0,1 1 2 | 0,2,5,8

1 m. 12

1
0,0 0 0,3,6,9
(Cons.)

1
150

t h e s e appear i n t h e second column. The f a c t o r s 4 and 1 were s e l e c t e d i n

o r d e r t h a t t h e q u a l i t a t i v e t o t a l s r e f l e c t semitone primacy, particularly

a c r o s s groups where whole-tone content i s r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t . For example,

a set w i t h t h r e e semitones and one whole-tone i s presumed more d i s s o n a n t

t h a n one w i t h o n l y two semitones and t h r e e whole-tones. H i g h e r whole-tone ;

c o n t e n t , t h e n , o n l y a f f e c t s harmonic q u a l i t y of s e t s w i t h e q u a l semitone

content. Q u a l i t a t i v e t o t a l s a r e a d j u s t e d t o c o n s e c u t i v e numbers f o r ease

of r e f e r e n c e and l i s t e d i n column t h r e e ; t h e s e a r e h e n c e f o r t h termed

consonance-dissonance f a c t o r s ( o r s i m p l y C-D factors). The right-hand

column c o n s i s t s of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e t s from t h e opening t w e l v e measures.

The C-D f a c t o r s e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e p r o c e s s e x p l a i n e d above a r e

i n d i c a t e d above t h e v e r t i c a l i t i e s on system (a) o f Example 64. With

r e s p e c t to t h e f r e q u e n c y of t h e v a r i o u s f a c t o r s , a t l e a s t t h r e e statistical

d e t a i l s a r e noteworthy. The most f r e q u e n t l y used s o n o r i t i e s a r e t h o s e of

f a c t o r s 9 and 10; t h e y occur 12 and 16 t i m e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . A l s o , the

number o f s o n o r i t i e s of C-D f a c t o r 10 and above i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h a t o f

f a c t o r 9 and b e l o w — r e s p e c t i v e l y , 39 and 36. V e r t i c a l i t i e s of f a c t o r 9

and 10 might be c o n s i d e r e d "average" r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s based on t h e s e d a t a .

F i n a l l y , o n l y one v e r t i c a l i t y of C-D f a c t o r 1 i s used and one of f a c t o r

15, and b o t h occur i n r e l a t i v e l y c l o s e p r o x i m i t y ( e . g . , measure 12).

Regarding s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n s of t h e v a r i o u s s o n o r i t i e s of a g i v e n

harmonic q u a l i t y , two important r e l a t i o n s h i p s may be d i s c e r n e d , b o t h o f

which concern i n s t a n c e s of c o n s e c u t i v e v e r t i c a l i t i e s of t h e same C-D

factor. The f i r s t a l s o i n v o l v e s r e c u r r i n g s e t s of t h e same f a c t o r .

R e f e r r i n g back t o Example 64, system (b) c o n s i s t s o f t h e i n s t a n c e s of D^

and C^ p r o l o n g e d through t h e t e c h n i q u e s o u t l i n e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s section.

Noteworthy i s t h e f a c t t h a t most o c c u r r e n c e s of D^ and are articulated—


151

i n a sense " h a r m o n i z e d " — b y v e r t i c a l i t i e s of C-D f a c t o r s 9 or 1 0 — t h e two

most w i d e l y used i n t h e p i e c e . This reinforces the previously asserted

" r e f e r e n t i a l " p r o p e r t y o f t h e s e two harmonic q u a l i t i e s . These p a r t i c u l a r

c o n n e c t i o n s a r e i n d i c a t e d by t h e l i n e , -, above each s t a f f

on system (b). A l s o o f import i s t h e u s e o f c o n s e c u t i v e v e r t i c a l i t i e s o f

e q u a l harmonic q u a l i t y i n two o f t h e t h r e e i n s t a n c e s o f a d j a c e n t arrivals

on D^ and C^ ( d e f i n e d e a r l i e r as " p r i m a r y " p o i n t s of p r o l o n g a t i o n ) . I n

measures 9-10, f o r i n s t a n c e , b o t h p i t c h e x t r e m i t i e s a r e accompanied by

aggregates o f C-D f a c t o r 3, w h i l e t h o s e i n bar 11 a r e o f t h e f a c t o r 10.

These a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e i n d i c a t e d on system (b) by t h e d i a g o n a l line"^ v

A second important r e l a t i o n s h i p i n v o l v e s i n t e r a c t i o n between harmonic

q u a l i t y and dynamic f l u c t u a t i o n . A d j a c e n t C-D f a c t o r s o f t h e same magnitude

which r e p r e s e n t v e r t i c a l i t i e s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n a r e b r a c k e t e d

above system (a) on Example 64. These f a c t o r s a r e a l s o i n d i c a t e d on

Example 66, a r e p r i n t o f an e a r l i e r example used t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e rhythm

of d y n a m i c a l l y exposed p i t c h - p a i r groups. As t h e graph r e v e a l s , a t l e a s t

some c o n t i g u o u s m e z z o f o r t e p a i r s w i t h i n a g i v e n group o c c u r i n v e r t i c a l

s o n o r i t i e s of e q u a l harmonic q u a l i t y . The ebb and f l o w o f t h e a s s e r t e d

r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n would seem t o be s t r e n g t h e n e d by t h i s aspect o f harmonic

structure.

Measures 13-15 ( t h e t r a n s i t i o n ) , and t h e ' b ' - s e c t i o n

As noted throughout t h i s c h a p t e r , measures 13-15, a l t h o u g h p a r t o f

t h e ' a ' - s e c t i o n , e x h i b i t d e p a r t u r e s from t h e t e x t u r a l and r h y t h m i c d e s i g n

of t h e p r e c e d i n g measures. The s u r f a c e " b u s i n e s s " o f t h e s e b a r s c o n t i n u e s

i n t o t h e subsequent t r a n s i t i o n , t h e l a t t e r f e a t u r i n g f u r t h e r rhythmic

i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n a s w e l l a s a r e d u c t i o n i n t e x t u r a l - d e n s i t y to. t h r e e

components, a l l of which o p e r a t e between D^ and F^. The c o n t i n u o u s


152

Example 66. Recurring sets of equal harmonic quality in units


of dynamically exposed pitch-pairs.
I S3

| I I I | I I I | I I t | I I I | II I | I 1 I | I I I | I I I | 1 I 1 | I I I | I I I | I I I | I I I | 1 I I |

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
measure no.
154

articulation o f D^, D//3, E ^ , a n d i n the t r a n s i t i o n gives the effect of

a r e i t e r a t e d four-note sonority, despite the presence of only three linear

components. The l a c k o f harmonic eventfulness i n the 'b'-section renders

22

individual s o n o r i t i e s extremely perceptible. Obvious i s the wedge-like

expansion from a u n i s o n C//5 t o t h e f o u r - n o t e set , C#^-D^-E^; interesting

is the fact that this set, despite i t s c a r d i n a l i t y , h a s a C-D f a c t o r o f 1 0 —

the most frequent of those i n the 'a'-section (most of which contain five

members). Finally, a detail of harmonic o r g a n i z a t i o n introduced i nthe

previous c h a p t e r may h a v e a p p l i c a t i o n i n t h e f i n a l dyad of this piece.

Specifically, t h e whole-tone sonority may be h e a r d as a consonant

"resolution" (in a relative sense) from t h e p e n u l t i m a t e chromatic

verticality B-C/Z-D-E^ . 7
In this sense i t i s suggestive of the " c a d e n t i a l "

attribute o f t h e whole-tone noted already i n the third and f o u r t h pieces.

Summary

Consonance and d i s s o n a n c e i n , and consequent functional relationships

between, v e r t i c a l s o n o r i t i e s were stated as being two m a i n c o n c e r n s i n

establishing p r i n c i p l e s of harmonic organization. In measures 1-12, five-

note v e r t i c a l i t i e s were identified as to consonance-dissonance " f a c t o r s , "

arrived at through assigning values o f 4 and 1 t o semitones and w h o l e - t o n e s

in t h e i r make-up. A c o r r e l a t i o n between v e r t i c a l i t i e s with t h e most

frequently used C-D f a c t o r s , 9 a n d 10, a n d t h e p r o l o n g a t i o n o f D-* a n d C^

was r e v e a l e d . Also found t o be o f s i g n i f i c a n c e i s t h e a s s o c i a t i o n between

consecutive sonorities with t h e same h a r m o n i c f a c t o r , and peaks o f t h e

units defined by:successive dynamically exposed pitch-pairs. I n t h e 'b'-

22
In t h e ' a ' - s e c t i o n , harmonic rhythm i s t i e d t o r h y t h m i c a c t i v i t y
i n g e n e r a l b e c a u s e e a c h a r t i c u l a t i o n s o u n d s a new v e r t i c a l i t y . I n t h e 'b'-
s e c t i o n , t h e h a r m o n i c r h y t h m i s most o f t e n s l o w e r t h a n t h e l e v e l o f i m p u l s e -
d e n s i t y because o f t h e r e i t e r a t i o n o f p i t c h e s .
155

section, the largest sonority (with respect to cardinality) i s the

penultimate verticality i n bars 21-22. I t was f o u n d t o be o f a f a c t o r

1 0 — t h e most f r e q u e n t l y used i n the piece. Finally, the closing dyad o f

the p i e c e was s u g g e s t e d t o be a n o t h e r instance o f t h e semitone-to-whole-

tone cadential resolution asserted i n Chapter I I .

Connective Factors Between the First and T h i r d


Pieces and I n t e r r u p t i v e Aspects o f t h e Second

At the beginning o f t h e second chapter, instrumentation-density

and instrumentation were said t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r apparent subgroupings

of pieces i n the quintet. Other connective aspects have since been

defined (e.g., articulative a n d tempo similarities i n , and PC connections

between, the f i f t h and s i x t h pieces). A number of f a c t o r s point to a

characterization of the f i r s t and t h i r d pieces as a l a r g e - s c a l e c o n t i n u i t y ,

interrupted by t h e second piece. F o r example, pieces 1 and 3 a r e ensemble

pieces a t J= 40, and s c o r e d for five instruments ( o n l y one o f w h i c h i s

different). Each f e a t u r e s an opening polyphonic s e c t i o n i n which a l l

instruments a r e marked dolcissimo, move i n predominantly stepwise motion,

and do s o b e t w e e n t h e dynamic range f r o m pianissimo t o mezzoforte. Also

common t o b o t h pieces i s the fact that each opens i n one c l e a r l y defined

register and ends i n another. In t h i s regard, the register of the f i r s t

piece's opening i s restored a t t h e end o f t h e t h i r d piece, and t h e c l o s i n g

register of the f i r s t piece i s that of the third piece's opening. (This

will be i l l u s t r a t e d shortly.)

In addition to the similarities listed above, each p i e c e features

a "dramatic event" a f t e r t h e opening polyphonic section. In the f i r s t

piece i t i s i n the form o f a f i v e - p a r t unison (e.g., C//5 o f b a r 16X, w h i l e

in the third, an o c t a v e - d o u b l e d theme p r o v i d e s the dramatic contrast. The


156

two p i e c e s may a l s o be seen as r e l a t e d i n terms of p r o p o r t i o n . I n each

p i e c e the d r a m a t i c event b e g i n s at the g o l d e n s e c t i o n of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e

lengths. P i e c e No. 1, f o r example, i s 100 b e a t s l o n g . The golden s e c t i o n

i s 62, and t h e u n i s o n C# e n t e r s i n beat 63. I n the second p i e c e , 64 b e a t s

l o n g , the o c t a v e - d o u b l e d theme e n t e r s i n beat 39, the g o l d e n s e c t i o n of 64.

On a l a r g e r s c a l e , p i e c e s 1 and 3, t a k e n as an u n i n t e r r u p t e d c o n t i n u i t y ,

a r e themselves i n a g o l d e n s e c t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p . The t w e n t y - f i v e measure

f i r s t p i e c e i s the g o l d e n s e c t i o n of t h e t o t a l f o r t y - o n e b a r s of b o t h

pieces.

P i t c h r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e opening and c l o s i n g of t h e f i r s t and

t h i r d p i e c e s may a l s o be d i s c e r n e d . These a r e i n d i c a t e d on t h e second

system of Example 67, t h e t o p system b e i n g a summary of s t r u c t u r a l p a i n t s

i n the p i e c e s . The bottom system i l l u s t r a t e s the a f o r e m e n t i o n e d registral

connections. The f i r s t of two important d e t a i l s i n Example 67 i s the

senza diminuendo marking which appears w i t h the f i n a l dyad of t h e first

piece, p o s s i b l y suggesting a connection to something w h i c h o c c u r s later

( e . g . , t h e opening of No. 3?). The attacca i n d i c a t i o n a t . t h e end of the

p i e c e would a l s o seem t o i m p l y a c o n t i n u a t i o n . The second d e t a i l concerns

the opening i n t e r v a l of a f i f t h i n t h e f i r s t p i e c e , l i n e a r i z e d at t h e end


23 o
of t h e t h i r d p i e c e . I n t h i s sense, t h e B J
which i s t h e u l t i m a t e a r r i v a l

p o i n t of t h e t h i r d p i e c e , p r o v i d e s a degree o f l a r g e - s c a l e c l o s u r e from

the f i r s t piece.

W h i l e t h e c o n d i t i o n s o u t l i n e d above suggest c o n n e c t i v e aspects

between p i e c e s 1 and 3, a number of c o n t r a s t i n g f e a t u r e s support

c h a r a c t e r i z i n g of t h e second p i e c e as an i n t e r r u p t i o n . First, i t is a

23
I n p i e c e No. 1 the f i f t h r e p r e s e n t s the p i t c h e x t r e m i t i e s of the
i n i t i a l s o n o r i t y . In p i e c e No, 3 t h e l i n e a r i z e d f i f t h o c c u r s i n t h e
a s c e n d i n g t r i l l of t h e c l a r i n e t i n b a r s 12-16.
158

soloistic piece with an o f t e n f r a g m e n t e d texture, fluctuating notated meter,

and a quicker tempo. Second, i t h a s a much w i d e r range than the pieces

which frame i t , and i t f e a t u r e s f r e q u e n t and a b r u p t changes i n r e g i s t e r and

..24

dynamics. The note a t t h e end: " s t o p suddenly as though t o r n o f f , "

suggests a denial of direct continuity t o t h e opening of the third piece.

Summary

While i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n - d e n s i t y and i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n were s a i d earlier

to suggest subgroupings, a number o f d i f f e r e n t factors add s u p p o r t to the

notion of a connection between the f i r s t and t h i r d pieces. Among t h e

connective factors are aspects o f t e x t u r e , tempo, a r t i c u l a t i o n , dynamics,

register, p r o p o r t i o n , and p i t c h connection. The u s e o f a u n i s o n or octave

dramatic event i s also common t o b o t h . Finally, several contrasting

features o f t h e second piece (e.g., t e x t u r e , tempo, a n d d y n a m i c s ) were

said to qualify i t a s an i n t e r r u p t i o n of the continuity between pieces

1 a n d 3.

Summary

The foregoing chapter i s a detailed analysis of the f i r s t piece of

the quintet. Aspects of formal delineation, textural structure, rhythmic

and metric design, and p i t c h o r g a n i z a t i o n were d e a l t with i n d i v i d u a l l y and

interrelationships noted where a p p l i c a b l e . The f i r s t p i e c e was f o u n d t o

be c o n s i s t e n t , i n many ways, w i t h other ensemble p i e c e s i n the quintet,

and concepts such a s i m p u l s e - d e n s i t y and c o n s o n a n c e - d i s s o n a n c e criteria,

introduced i n Chapter I I , were found t o have a p p l i c a t i o n here. Other

concepts (e.g., textural quality, textural space, and i n t e r a c t i o n o f

element-rhythms) a r e s p e c i f i c to the analysis o f p i e c e No. 1. Finally,

24 T. .
Ligetx, Ten Pieces, p. 11.
159

the notion of piece subgrouping, also introduced i n the second chapter,

was found to be r e i n f o r c e d i n elements of connection between the first

and third pieces.


CHAPTER IV

ANALYSIS OF PIECE NO. 10

Introduction

I n t h e a n a l y s i s of p i e c e No. 10 each parameter i s examined

i n d i v i d u a l l y as i n t h e p r e v i o u s two c h a p t e r s . The main f o r m a l s e c t i o n s

a r e as f o l l o w s :

D e l i n e a t i n g F a c t o r s of Formal Segmentation

A s p e c t s of T e x t u r a l S t r u c t u r e

P r i n c i p l e s of Rhythmic and M e t r i c D e s i g n

Modes of P i t c h O r g a n i z a t i o n
Linear D e t a i l s
Harmonic D e t a i l s

Connective F a c t o r s Between t h e N i n t h and Tenth P i e c e s

Summary.

As i n t h e a n a l y s i s of t h e f i r s t p i e c e , some c o n c e p t s here a r e extended

a p p l i c a t i o n s of those i n t r o d u c e d i n Chapter I I , w h i l e o t h e r s a r e p a r t i c u l a r

to t h e t e n t h p i e c e .

D e l i n e a t i n g F a c t o r s o f Formal Segmentation

U n l i k e o t h e r s o l o i s t i c p i e c e s i n t h e q u i n t e t ( e . g . , Nos. 2, 6, and

8 ) , where f o r m a l s e c t i o n s and d i s p a r a t e m u s i c a l i d e a s o f t e n c o a l e s c e into

a continuous stream, t h e t e n t h p i e c e f e a t u r e s f o r m a l s e g m e n t a t i o n w h i c h i s

more d i s t i n c t and pronounced. Two main s e c t i o n s may be d i s c e r n e d : measures

1-12 and 13-22 and, a l t h o u g h t h e i r s u r f a c e s may appear s i m i l a r , many d e t a i l s

u n d e r l i e t h e i n d i v i d u a l i t y of each s e c t i o n . Such d e t a i l s c o n c e r n parameters

160
161

of texture and rhythm, as well as aspects of l i n e a r and harmonic pitch

organization; these w i l l be disclosed in subsequent sections of this

chapter.

More o b v i o u s form d e f i n i n g factors, however, include the generalpause

i n measure 12, prior to, and a f t e r which t h i r t y - o n e beats (i.e., quarter-

notes) of actual sound o c c u r . Tempo indications also reinforce this point

of segmentation; witness the pochiss. rail, in bars 10-12 (accompanied by a

written ritardando), and a tempo and ex abrupto indications i n bar 13. The

melodic structure of the bassoon part i s another factor of delineation.

Each formal section, for e x a m p l e , may be heard to consist of a disjunct

portion followed by a conjunct "cadenza." Dynamic indications accompanying

these i n t e r n a l segments a l s o contribute to the i n d i v i d u a l i t y of each formal

section. In the 'a'-section the disjunct portion i s at ff and the cadenza

at p, while i n the 'b'-section these are replaced by fff and pp. In short,

the loud part of the 'b'-section gets louder and the soft part gets softer,

resulting in a p a r t i c u l a r mode o f expansion: the 'b'-section


•pp
having a wider dynamic range. And finally, fluctuation in instrumentation

participation i s i n agreement w i t h formal s e g m e n t a t i o n as defined above.

The piccolo, silent during the disjunct portion of each section, enters in

the cadenza, thus marking the end of each main f o r m a l d i v i s i o n .

Summary

Many f a c t o r s of formal segmentation involve d e t a i l s of textural and

rhythmic structure, as well as those of pitch organization, to be examined

in forthcoming sections. Patent indicators of formal delineation, however,

include the generalpause i n bar 12, tempo m a r k i n g s , m e l o d i c contour of the

bassoon part, dynamics, and instrumentation.


162

Aspects of T e x t u r a l S t r u c t u r e

In the second c h a p t e r , two textural c o n f i g u r a t i o n s were s a i d to

operate i n the soloistic pieces of the quintet. I n one of these types,

accompanying instruments establish a particular textural pattern over

which the featured instrument asserts itself in a contrasting manner. The

other i s comprised of a continuous linear event, effected i n the featured

instrument, with e i t h e r "contrapuntal fragments" or "sporadic doublings and

colorations" contributed by the remaining instruments.''' The essential

difference, then, i s that i n the f i r s t t y p e two simultaneous textural

elements comprise the o v e r a l l textural configuration, while i n the second

only one i s operative. The final piece of the quintet is texturally

structured according to the principles of the l a t t e r type. Specifically,

2
the bassoon i s featured in a nearly continuous, disjunct linear event

while the remaining i n s t r u m e n t s p r o v i d e u n i s o n and octave doublings, and

semitone and whole-tone c o l o r a t i o n s throughout.

In addition to the t e x t u r a l arrangement d e f i n e d above, two other

conditions are noteworthy. One is a "cadenza" figure consisting mainly of

stepwise motion ( i n contrast to the f i r s t type). Instances of t h i s occur

'''The l a t t e r d e s i g n a t i o n r e f e r s t o t h e t e x t u r a l q u a l i t y o f i n t e r -
a c t i o n between t h e b a s s o o n and o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t s . For example, c o n t r a p u n t a l
f r a g m e n t s were n o t e d as b e i n g b r i e f , r h y t h m i c a l l y independent p a s s a g e s w h i c h
appear s u p e r i m p o s e d on t h e f e a t u r e d i n s t r u m e n t ' s p a r t . This results in
p e r i o d i c fragments of polyphony. D o u b l i n g s a n d c o l o r a t i o n s , on t h e o t h e r
hand, a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by r h y t h m i c i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e ; t h e i r v e r t i c a l
a l i g n m e n t r e s u l t s i n b r i e f i n s t a n c e s o f homophony.

2
The d i s j u n c t d i s p o s i t i o n o f t h e b a s s o o n l i n e , f e a t u r i n g a b r u p t and
e x t r e m e r e g i s t e r c h a n g e s , s u g g e s t s an i m p l i e d m u l t i - v o i c e d l i n e a r . s t r u c t u r e —
one w h i c h w i l l be i l l u s t r a t e d l a t e r i n t h e c h a p t e r .
3
Semitone c o l o r a t i o n s refer to a p i t c h ( i n an accompanying instrument)
vertically aligned w i t h , and a semitone above or below, a p a r t i c u l a r bassoon
°note. That d e s i g n a t e d as a whole-tone coloration o c c u r s a w h o l e - t o n e away.
163

i n measures 5-6, 8-9 c o n t i n u e d i n 10-11 ( p i c c o l o ) , and 16-18 ( t h e f i r s t bar

occurring i n the c l a r i n e t ) . These f i g u r e s c o n t r a s t t h e d i s j u n c t fragments

i n two o t h e r r e s p e c t s : they occur a t p o r pp ( r a t h e r than ff o r fff), and

d o u b l i n g s and c o l o r a t i o n s do n o t occur d u r i n g t h e i r e x e c u t i o n . The t h i r d

t e x t u r a l c o n d i t i o n i s one of s i l e n c e — a d e v i c e which w i l l be shown t o have

a marked e f f e c t on p a c i n g and p r o g r e s s i o n i n t h e p i e c e . Two a s p e c t s t o be

examined here a r e f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e as d e f i n e d by t h e t h r e e t e x t u r a l

c o n d i t i o n s s t a t e d above, and t e x t u r a l p r o g r e s s i o n as m a n i f e s t i n density

and s p a t i a l f l u c t u a t i o n s . The l a t t e r concept d e a l s w i t h i n s t a n c e s of

d o u b l i n g and c o l o r a t i o n s p e c i f i c a l l y .

Formal S t r u c t u r e as D e f i n e d
by T e x t u r a l C o n d i t i o n s

As suggested e a r l i e r i n t h e c h a p t e r , t h e piece:, may be heard t o

c o n s i s t of two main f o r m a l s e c t i o n s , each e x h i b i t i n g t h e use of t h e t h r e e

t e x t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s d e f i n e d above. F o r i n s t a n c e , i n Example 68, a l i n e -

graph r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e p i e c e , t h e ' a ' - s e c t i o n i s shown t o be comprised

of two p h r a s e s , each of w h i c h c o n s i s t s of t h r e e d i s j u n c t fragments and a

cadenza. Large u n i t s of s i l e n c e s e p a r a t e d i s j u n c t fragments i n t h e f i r s t


4

phrase w h i l e t h e s e a r e r e p l a c e d by b r i e f r e s t s i n t h e second. Generally

s p e a k i n g , t h e d i s j u n c t p o r t i o n o f t h e second phrase i s more "condensed" as

a result. Each p h r a s e c o n c l u d e s w i t h a cadenza, approached from t h e f i n a l

d i s j u n c t fragment w i t h o u t i n t e r r u p t i o n . (As w i l l be shown l a t e r i n t h e

chapter, the rhythmic s t r u c t u r e s of t h e cadenzas have a s i g n i f i c a n t effect

on pacing.)

W h i l e t h e ' b ' - s e c t i o n a l s o f e a t u r e s two p h r a s e s , t h e i r internal

4
In t h a t t h e use and e f f e c t s o f r e s t s concern r h y t h m i c p r o g r e s s i o n
and r e c e s s i o n , they w i l l be examined i n t h e next s e c t i o n , on r h y t h m i c
design.
164

Example 68. Line-graph representation of piece No. 10.

[j] = octave doubling


I
I

'f
f«A = semitone or whole-tone
coloration

p.d. = phrase divider


165

|
|
i
166

structures are somewhat d i f f e r e n t from that of the phrases outlined

above. For instance, the f i r s t phrase i s comprised of only two fragments

and does not appear to conclude w i t h a cadenza (at l e a s t not one which

adheres strictly to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of previous cadenzas). On close

i n s p e c t i o n , however, a b r i e f ,
:
disjunct fragment may be h e a r d to separate

the two phrases (labelled "p.d." or "phrase divider" on t h e graph)—one

which, i n some r e s p e c t s , has a considerably close relationship to previous

cadenzas, particularly the f i r s t one (i.e., measures 5-6). I t s reduced

d y n a m i c s and l a c k o f d o u b l i n g s and colorations are factors specific to

previous cadenzas and, although i t o c c u r s as a d i s j u n c t fragment, i t s

o r d e r o f PC unfolding is clearly s t e p w i s e : A^-G-G^, E ^ E - F . In fact,

apart f r o m A^, these are the opening PC's of the f i r s t cadenza ( c f . bars

5-6 where A b e g i n s t h e c a d e n z a ) . Its disjunct structure, however, denies

it the e x p l i c i t linear directive quality of preceding cadenzas, and the

rests which frame i t ^isolate i t from surrounding phrases. For these

reasons i t may be considered a separate e n t i t y — a "divider"—rather than

an integral part of the phrase which precedes i t (as w i t h p r e v i o u s

cadenzas).

The second phrase of the 'b'-section c o n t a i n s no such subdivisions

but, rather, i s one continuous gesture culminating a t t h e end o f bar 15.

Factors of doubling, c o l o r a t i o n , textural-density, register, rhythmic

design, and pitch organization ( a l l of which are discussed later)

^The " r e s t " w h i c h f o l l o w s t h e b r i e f f r a g m e n t i s a c t u a l l y i n t h e


f o r m o f a b r e a t h m a r k (') o f w h i c h L i g e t i s t a t e s t h a t i t s d u r a t i o n i s t o
be no more t h a n a s i x t e e n t h - r e s t (*f ) . S e e Ten Pieces, p. 34.

A s e n s e o f t e x t u r a l p r o g r e s s i o n m i g h t be c o n s i d e r e d t o a r i s e
from the i n c r e a s i n g "urgency" of the phrases ( i . e . , the tendency from a
t e x t u r e o f m u l t i - f r a g m e n t e d p h r a s e s t o one o f c o n t i n u i t y ) .
167

c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f t h e D-> i n bar 15 a s a c u l m i n a t i o n

point. The f i n a l cadenza i s t h e r e f o r e n o t c o n s i d e r e d integral to the

second phrase b u t , r a t h e r , a s a " p o s t - c a d e n t i a l extension."

The p h r a s e s of t h e ' a ' - s e c t i o n , t h e n , a r e c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r

s t r u c t u r e : t h r e e d i s j u n c t fragments p l u s an i n t e g r a t e d cadenza. Those

of t h e ' b ' - s e c t i o n a r e c o n s i s t e n t n e i t h e r among themselves n o r w i t h t h o s e

of t h e o p e n i n g ; r a t h e r , t h e y a r e comprised o f two and f i n a l l y one fragment,

each w i t h o u t an i n t e g r a t e d cadenza. One common d e t a i l of t e x t u r a l d e s i g n ,

however, concerns t h e employment o f d o u b l i n g s and c o l o r a t i o n s . In the

f i r s t phrase o f each s e c t i o n semitone and whole-tone c o l o r a t i o n s f i g u r e

most f r e q u e n t l y , whereas t h e second phrase of each i s marked by t h e use o f

octave doublings. These two modes o f t e x t u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n a r e r e s p o n s i b l e

for p a r t i c u l a r q u a l i t i e s of progression, t o be d i s c l o s e d n e x t .

T e x t u r a l P r o g r e s s i o n as M a n i f e s t i n
D e n s i t y and S p a t i a l F l u c t u a t i o n s

Because i n t e r d e p e n d e n t d o u b l i n g s and c o l o r a t i o n s a r e t h e o n l y two

modes o f i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e bassoon and o t h e r instruments, they also

represent t h e o n l y means o f t e x t u r a l t h i c k e n i n g . Semitone and whole-tone

c o l o r a t i o n s i n f l u e n c e s m a l l - s c a l e s p a t i a l f l u c t u a t i o n and, w i t h o c t a v e and

unison doublings, a f f e c t t h e f l u c t u a t i o n of i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n - d e n s i t y (or

s i m p l y t h e number o f i n s t r u m e n t s sounding a t any g i v e n t i m e ) . Octave

doublings t h e m s e l v e s may be heard t o a f f e c t o v e r a l l t e x t u r a l space, a

more g l o b a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . T e x t u r a l - d e n s i t y and t e x t u r a l space w i l l now

be d i s c u s s e d i n greater detail.

Textural-dens i t y

R e f e r r i n g a g a i n t o Example 68, i n s t a n c e s of c o l o r a t i o n a r e

bracketed (!) and t h e number o f members i n each v e r t i c a l i t y circled.


168

Notice i n phrase I of the 'a'-section that colorations articulate

registrally highest points of the fragments, the f i r s t and l a s t having

three members and t h e m i d d l e ones, o n l y two.^ Phrase I I i s s i m i l a r i n

that high points a r e accented b y c o l o r a t i o n s , e a c h o f w h i c h h a s two

members. Phrase I of the 'b'-section e x h i b i t s a mode o f p r o g r e s s i o n i n

its exclusive use of colorations.. S p e c i f i c a l l y , each o f t h e f i r s t four

instances contains two members (i.e., distinct pitches) while the

c o l o r a t i o n marking t h e end o f t h e p h r a s e c o n t a i n s four, the largest


g

number h e a r d i n the piece. In consideration of the aforementioned

instances of coloration, a large-scale progression towards p o i n t s o f

greater d e n s i t y may be d i s c e r n e d . System (a) o f Example 69 i s a graphic

representation of f l u c t u a t i n g coloration-density ( o n e mode o f t e x t u r a l -

density) as defined above, the general progressive direction being

depicted by t h e arrow above t h e graph.

O t h e r modes of textural-density include f l u c t u a t i o n s i n t h e number

of instruments involved i n occurrences of unison and o c t a v e doubling.

These a r e i n d i c a t e d on systems (b) a n d ( c ) , r e s p e c t i v e l y , o n Example 69,

the former peaking on t h e f o u r - p a r t unison o n D~* i n b a r 15. System (d)

illustrates instrumentation-density fluctuation, referred to earlier.

The culmination point here i s also i n measure 15.

^The number o f members i n a given coloration includes t h e bassoon


pitch itself,
g
N o t i c e a l s o t h a t t h e end o f p h r a s e I i n t h e ' a ' - s e c t i o n i s
a r t i c u l a t e d b y a c o l o r a t i o n o f t h r e e members, t h e l a r g e s t number h e a r d
to that p o i n t . T h e h a r m o n i c q u a l i t y o f t h e s e two v e r t i c a l i t i e s i s o f
s i g n i f i c a n c e and w i l l be d i s c l o s e d l a t e r i n t h e c h a p t e r .
169

Example 69. F o u r modes o f textural-density fluctuation.


o
o

I1

(octave) (unison) X) o
instrumentation-density doubling-density doubling-density coloration-density p. Jo
rt cn rt- cu
n rt
o co

M M M i l l M i l l 1 1 1 1 1
D" O
(T> o
CO 3
n>
cn
o
3

J \

/ /
IK.

\ 1

<
\ 7
4m
-4
J
S \ 4W

2. — < 1 4U

% HI
<, — »
• r a t e

4_
^
—< (

—4 t

•!1

/ t Ii-

x -f-
i

\
I \ 5
\
•4*
l
Z. ^ A

\, w
<


171

Textural space

W i t h r e f e r e n c e t o Example 68 once again (p. 165), the pitch content

of each formal s e c t i o n i s "boxed" into t h r e e groups (the 'b'-section

9
featuring a f o u r t h box at the v e r y end). These represent "spatial fields,"

the temporal spans of which are roughly coincident with formal subdivisions,

e.g., phrases, cadenzas, etc. Two details i n c o n n e c t i o n . ;with fluctuations

in :textural space w i t h i n the 'a'-section are noteworthy. First, the lower

pitch boundary of the first two spatial fields i s B ^ l and, were i t n o t for

octave doublings i n the second phrase, the upper boundary would increase by

only one semitone, e.g., f r o m G// 4


to A . 4
The octave doublings, however,

extend the upper extremity to F#-* and i n an important sense provide

registral preparation f o r the cadenza which f o l l o w s . Second, as clearly

indicated on the graph, the overall direction of r e g i s t r a l space (not just

register) i s one of ascent. For example, n o t only i s the end of the 'a'-

section in a higher register than i t s beginning, but the spatial field is

itself higher, e.g., compare B ^ - A ^ 4


i n the opening to A -E^
4
i n the final,

cadenza. This extreme s p a t i a l traversal, without r e t u r n to the opening

register, is itself a factor of "incompletion"—a registrally articulated

"half-cadence."

Although octave doublings do not provide registral preparation for

the final cadenza i n the 'b'-section, a similar pattern of'spatial expansion

and ascent i s n e v e r t h e l e s s apparent. Here, the spatial boundary i s expanded

in both directions i n the second field and i s followed by a considerably

narrower field as d e f i n e d by the cadenza—a field which l i e s in the

9
" S p a t i a l f i e l d s " a r e r e g i s t r a l s p a c e s d e f i n e d by p i t c h e x t r e m i t i e s
of p a r t i c u l a r formal s e c t i o n s or, i n t h i s case, s u b d i v i s i o n s of such
sections.
172

uppermost register like that of the f i n a l cadenza of the 'a'-section.^

The overall direction of r e g i s t r a l space i s a g a i n one of ascent.

Two additional details regarding textural space i n the 'b'-section

are worth n o t i n g . One i s the minimal, yet important expansion in overall

space from the ' a ' t o 'b'" ^ s e c t i o n .


1
The dotted l i n e — connecting

the middle spatial fields of each section exhibits this ascent from F#-* to

A//^ ( t h e lower boundary remaining B^) . The other is a subtle recollection

of the opening register effected by the bassoon's f i n a 1 C# 2


(the fourth'

spatial box i n the 'b'-section). Although the r e l a t i v e l y static spatial

field and abrupt t e r m i n a t i o n of the f i n a l cadenza may be v i e w e d as factors

of "openness," t h i s brief registral allusion would seem t o d e n o t e closure

within the realm of textural space and registral traversal."''"''

Summary

Disjunct fragments i n the bassoon accompanied by sporadic octave and

unison d o u b l i n g s , and semitone and whole-tone c o l o r a t i o n s i n the remaining

i n s t r u m e n t s were said t o d e f i n e one textural element i n the tenth piece.

Conjunct, c a d e n z a - l i k e passages ( w i t h o u t d o u b l i n g s and colorations) and

extended periods of silence were n o t e d as being two additional textural

arrangements. Coloration-density, as w e l l a s ^ t h a t o f u n i s o n and octave

doubling, were s a i d to d e f i n e s p e c i f i c i m o d e s of t e x t u r a l - d e n s i t y revealing

progressive intensification towards specific p o i n t s i n the piece.

^ C o n c e r n i n g t h e s e two c a d e n z a s , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t t h e p a t t e r n
o f s p a t i a l d e f i n i t i o n i n m e a s u r e s 9-11 i s o n e o f t a p e r e d c o n t r a c t i o n , w h i l e
t h a t o f b a r s 16-19 i s e x t r e m e l y s t a t i c . A l t h o u g h g e n e r a l l y a p p a r e n t on t h e
g r a p h , t h e r h y t h m i c a c t i v i t y o f t h e s e c a d e n z a s w i l l l a t e r b e shown t o
complement t h e s e p a t t e r n s . o f s p a t i a l f l u c t u a t i o n .

^ I n terms of l i n e a r p i t c h o r g a n i z a t i o n , a d d i t i o n a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t
f o r the a s s e r t i o n of openness i s o f f e r e d ; d e t a i l s appear l a t e r i n the
chapter.
173

I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n - d e n s i t y , a f o u r t h mode, was s a i d t o t a k e i n t o account a l l

t y p e s of instrument i n t e r a c t i o n be i t i n t h e form o f d o u b l i n g o r c o l o r a t i o n .

A c l i m a x on i n measure 15 was noted w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h i s a s p e c t of

textural-density. F i n a l l y , t e x t u r a l space, a f f e c t e d by o c t a v e d o u b l i n g s i n

p a r t i c u l a r , was a l s o shown t o r e v e a l p a t t e r n s of d i r e c t i o n and expansion

throughout t h e p i e c e .

P r i n c i p l e s of Rhythmic and M e t r i c Design

In v i e w i n g the r h y t h m i c and m e t r i c d e s i g n of p i e c e No. 10 t h r e e

p r i n c i p l e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d : t h e f u n c t i o n of n o t a t e d b a r l i n e s and their

r o l e i n a r r i v a l p o i n t d e f i n i t i o n , impulse-number p r o p o r t i o n s of phrase

fragments, and d i r e c t e d p a t t e r n s of i m p u l s e - d e n s i t y f l u c t u a t i o n . In

c o n s i d e r i n g t h e f i r s t of t h e s e , i t has been a s s e r t e d throughout t h i s paper

t h a t n o t a t e d b a r l i n e s a r e l a r g e l y f o r ease of r e a d i n g — a convenience o f

n o t a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n r a t h e r than an i n d i c a t o r of a c c e n t - d e f i n e d m e t r i c

units. I t was a l s o noted i n Chapter I I t h a t n o t a t e d b a r l i n e s i n s o l o i s t i c

p i e c e s of the q u i n t e t o c c a s i o n a l l y appear t o be p l a c e d i n o r d e r t o mark


12

specific a r r i v a l points. The t e n t h p i e c e i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the first

of t h e s e a s s e r t i o n s ; i t a l s o f e a t u r e s a c l e a r l y f e l t a r r i v a l p o i n t , but

one which i s independent of t h e demarcation of n o t a t e d b a r l i n e s . The D^

on t h e f i n a l s i x t e e n t h - n o t e of measure 15 i s t h e j u n c t u r e i n q u e s t i o n and

i s , as noted e a r l i e r , t h e c l i m a x p o i n t f o r (unison) d o u b l i n g - d e n s i t y (e.g.,

the f o u r - p a r t u n i s o n ) and i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n - d e n s i t y (e.g., a l l f i v e instruments

sound a t once). As w i l l be e x p l a i n e d l a t e r , l i n e a r c o n t i n u i t i e s a l s o

c u l m i n a t e a t t h i s p o i n t and i m p l i c a t i o n s o f PC c e n t r i c i t y (on D) a r e r e a l i z e d

here. I t i s c l e a r l y (and a u d i b l y ) t h e " s t r u c t u r a l " a r r i v a l p o i n t of t h e


12
In t h e s e i n s t a n c e s , "downbeats" were d e f i n e d as t o parameters
o t h e r than a c c e n t - d e l i n e a t e d m e t r i c p a t t e r n s .
174

entire piece and, yet, the barline i s indicated just after i t . The

clarinet p o r t i o n of the cadenza commencing i n bar 16 has the effect of

an "afterbeat" relative to the preceding, highly exposed arrival on D-*.

Given this apparently c o n t r a d i c t o r y b a r l i n e (although i t i s not perceptible

as such) t h e performer, may treat the arrival on D differently from a

situation where t h e downbeat occurs i n accordance with the conventional

association, that i s , immediately after the barline. While a precise

characterization of such a "treatment" is difficult, a feeling of

"incompleteness" or "inconclusiveness" is likely t o accompany t h e arrival

on D—a feeling which the p e r f o r m e r may, in fact, convey to the listener.

13

The resulting tension i s dissipated, although not completely, in the

ensuing cadenza.

Impulse-number proportions of phrase fragments i s the second

principle of rhythmic design to be discussed and, i n that a l l instrument

interaction i s i n the form of interdependent doubling and coloration, the

rhythmic pacing of the piece is essentially d i c t a t e d by that of the

bassoon part itself. Example 70 c o n s i s t s of an impulse-density graph

with impulse-number proportions o£ phrase segments i n d i c a t e d above the

g r a p h , a n d two l e v e l s o f progression and r e c e s s i o n d e p i c t e d b e l o w .


R e g a r d i n g impulse-number proportions ( i . e . , t h e t o t a l number o f i m p u l s e s
14

and " a c t i v e " beats i n each segment), disjunct portions of the 'a'-section

13
The r h y t h m i c " s t e a d i n e s s " o f t h e c a d e n z a ( t o be commented o n l a t e r )
and a b r u p t t e r m i n a t i o n of a c t i v i t y ( a l l u d e d t o e a r l i e r ) r e s u l t i n t h e
r e t e n t i o n of a c e r t a i n degree of i n t e n s i t y . My own v i e w i s t h a t o n l y a f t e r
the piece i s a c t u a l l y f i n i s h e d i s the i n t e n s i t y f u l l y d i s s i p a t e d .
14
The l a r g e u n i t s of s i l e n c e have n o t been i n c l u d e d i n t h e i m p u l s e
c a l c u l a t i o n of a c t i v e beats. A l s o , because of the rhythmic interdependence
o f t h e d o u b l i n g s and c o l o r a t i o n s , t h e y h a v e n o t been c o u n t e d as separate
impulses.
175

Example 70. Impulse-number p r o p o r t i o n s of phrase fragments and


impulse-density graph.
176
177

and the first cadenza (measures 5-6) are r e l a t i v e l y balanced.The six

active beats of the f i r s t phrase, however, occur over seventeen beats of

actual time, the three d i s j u n c t fragments being s e p a r a t e d by large periods

of silence. A "tentative" quality r e s u l t s — o n e which i s r e p l a c e d by a

sense of d r i v e and urgency i n subsequent phrases where d i s j u n c t fragments

are s e p a r a t e d by a sixteenth-rest a t most. T h e s e two tendencies are

reinforced by the rhythmic structure of each section's final cadenza. In

bars 8-11, f o r example, a steady d e c l i n e i n rhythmic activity creates a

"hesitant" ambiance, reinforced by the seemingly "reluctant" pitch

departure to i n bar 11 (piccolo).^ The ' b ' - s e c t i o n ' s cadenza, on the

other hand, exhibits a steady rhythmic d r i v e matching that of the preceding

two phrases.

The extended l e n g t h s of the cadenzas i n m e a s u r e s '7-11 and 16-22

(i.e., "extended" relative to the d i s j u n c t p o r t i o n s and cadenza i n bars

5-6) may be v i e w e d as functional necessities. The "pressing forward" of

the ' a ' - s e c t i o n ' s second phrase generates c o n s i d e r a b l y m o r e momentum than

its first phrase and therefore requires a g r e a t e r "wind-down" p e r i o d for

the d i s s i p a t i o n of energy. In a d d i t i o n to t h i s , i t not only concludes the

second phrase but punctuates the end of the 'a'-section as a whole.

Concerning the f i n a l cadenza of the piece, the c o n t i n u a t i o n of

rhythmic activity i n bar 16 a n d sustained c o n n e c t i n g bar 15 to 16 are

f a c t o r s which suggest that i t operates within or at the level of the

"''"'Regarding t h e c a d e n z a i n b a r s 8-11, t h e b a s s o o n p o r t i o n ( c u r i o u s l y
t h a t w h i c h i s r h y t h m i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l t o t h e f i r s t c a d e n z a , i . e . , | | | | F^ n

| | | | ]
s | | | | | 3I J ) i s a l s o roughly balanced with the other phrase
portions.

16
T h i s p a r t i c u l a r p i t c h d e p a r t u r e m a r k s an i m p o r t a n t p o i n t i n the
s t r u c t u r e o f l i n e a r p i t c h o r g a n i z a t i o n , one w h i c h w i l l be e x p o s e d later
in the chapter.
178

'b'-section. On the other hand, i t s " p o s t - c a d e n t i a l " q u a l i t y noted earlier,

and extended length (e.g., longer than the preceding p o r t i o n of the 'b'-

section) suggest that i t also operates at a higher level, punctuating the

end of the piece as a whole. The inactivity of bars 19-21 may be heard as

a (partial) "wind-down" p e r i o d f o r the rhythmic energy of the opening of

the cadenza, the 'b'-section, and on a still l a r g e r s c a l e , f o r the entire

piece.

In consideration of the impulse-density graph, the apparently

"balanced" phrase fragments discussed above (i.e., balanced in relative

numbers o f impulses, irrespective of rhythmic configurations) reveal

progressive and recessive tendencies already alluded to. As suggested in

level (a) below the graph i n E x a m p l e 70, phrase fragments of the 'a'-section

exhibit brief rhythmic progressions, growing in intensity and culminating

at the beginning of the cadenza i n m e a s u r e s 7-8. The cadenza then effects

a definite rhythmic recession to bar 11. The 'b'-section as depicted in

level (a) reveals little i n t h e way of rhythmic progression; a slight

intensification towards the arrival on D at the end of bar 15 may, however,

be discerned. Level (b) illustrates overall patterns of rhythmic direction,

the 'a'-section revealing a progressive unit followed by a recessive one,

and the 'b'-section exhibiting a relatively consistent level of activity,

the recession of which occurs implicatively through the inactivity of bars

19-21.

Summary

Although barline-suggested downbeats (like those found in other

soloistic pieces) are essentially non-existent i n the tenth piece, the

in bar 15 emerges a s a structural arrival point exposed through textural-

density. An apparently c o n t r a d i c t o r y b a r l i n e was noted at this point. In


179

addition to this aspect of rhythm, impulse-number proportions of phrase

f r a g m e n t s were f o u n d to be approximately balanced, and their rhythmic

configurations, directed. Regarding the latter, the 'a'-section was

depicted as a rhythmic progression followed by a recession, while the

'b'-section exhibited a relatively steady l e v e l of activity, the "wind-

down" p e r i o d of which occurs i n the inactivity of the final measures.

Modes o f Pitch Organization

Linear Details

In previous c h a p t e r s we have o b s e r v e d linear events structured in

a number o f d i f f e r e n t ways. In No. 2, for example, pitch extremities of

successive arpeggiations were f o u n d to reveal specific linearizations

while i n No. 4, two-note o s c i l l a t i o n s exhibited a comparable s i g n i f i c a n c e .

Other factors such as dynamic exposure (No. 7), and unison transfer (No. 3)

were a l s o shown t o generate stepwise l i n e a r connections of relative

significance. And i n No. 1, outer-voice prolongation and lateral voice

crossing provided support f o r the maintenance of pitch extremities in a

complete formal section thus r e v e a l i n g an aspect of large-scale pitch

organization. Because of the t e x t u r a l primacy of the highly disjunct

bassoon part and subordinate r o l e of the other instruments, this study of

linear organization i n the tenth piece will focus on registral connections

in the bassoon part itself. A s e c o n d mode o f linear organization, PC

unfolding, will take into account s e m i t o n e and whole-tone colorations

provided by the oboe, clarinet, and horn.

Linear registral connections

In the light of the bassoon's h i g h l y disjunct structure, alluded to


180

above, i t may r e a d i l y be p e r c e i v e d as " m u l t i - v o i c e d . " ^ Specifically,

p i t c h e s may be heard t o form s t e p w i s e c o n t i n u i t i e s unfolding i n four

r e g i s t e r s simultaneously: i ,

and iv, •^ . The j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e s e r e g i s t r a l designations

involves motivic considerations—an a s p e c t t o be e x p l a i n e d more f u l l y

l a t e r i n the chapter. I t s r o l e i n r e g i s t r a l d e f i n i t i o n , however, i s

i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e f i r s t e i g h t n o t e s o f t h e bassoon p a r t as shown i n

Example 71. The t o p s t a f f c o n s i s t s o f t h e p i t c h e s as t h e y o c c u r i n t h e

s c o r e ; each o f t h e lower s t a v e s r e v e a l s a f o u r - n o t e m o t i v e , t h e l o w e s t

p i t c h o f each i n i t i a t e s one o f t h e f o u r r e g i s t e r s noted above.

Example 71. M o t i v i c d e f i n i t i o n o f r e g i s t e r s i and i i .

The same f o u r - n o t e m o t i v e i n t h e next o c t a v e ( i . e . , B ^ t o D^ )4

o c c u r s over a much l o n g e r span, but f a i l s t o c o n t i n u e to D 4


a t any p o i n t

^ I n t h i s sense l i n e a r o r g a n i z a t i o n here i s n o t c o m p l e t e l y unlike


t h a t found i n t h e second and f o u r t h p i e c e s .
181
18
i n the p i e c e . R e g i s t e r i i i t h e r e f o r e c o n s i s t s of only the four-note

motive i t s e l f . The r e g i s t r a l l y " i s o l a t e d " E ^ 4


then i n i t i a t e s r e g i s t e r i v
(T 19

which c o n t i n u e s up to E J
by measure 11.

The r e a d e r i s now r e f e r r e d t o Example 72 i n w h i c h a l l of the bassoon

p i t c h e s a r e i n d i c a t e d on the bottom f o u r s t a v e s of system (a) ( c o r r e s p o n d i n g

to t h e f o u r r e g i s t e r s d e f i n e d above). The top two s t a v e s show t h e d o u b l i n g s

and c o l o r a t i o n s p r o v i d e d by the o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t s . (The l a t t e r a r e stemmed

down t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e bassoon n o t e s . ) System (b) shows t h e r e l a t i v e l y

f o r e g r o u n d l e v e l o f p i t c h o r g a n i z a t i o n i n which t h e f u n c t i o n s of a l l p i t c h e s

i n the bassoon p a r t a r e d e s i g n a t e d . ( N o t a t i o n a l symbols a r e i n d i c a t e d t o

the l e f t o f Example 72.)

W h i l e l i n e a r p r o g r e s s i o n s and p r o l o n g a t i o n s on systems (b) and (c)

a r e s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , s e v e r a l f a c t o r s of p i t c h exposure a r e noteworthy.

For example, c e r t a i n r h y t h m i c d e t a i l s s e r v e t o h i g h l i g h t s t r u c t u r a l p i t c h e s

of l i n e a r p r o g r e s s i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the a s c e n d i n g f o u r t h , E ^ 4
t o A^ 4
(bars

3-5); here, each p i t c h of the ascent i s preceded by a r e s t . I n the case of

A^ 4
a d e l a y of p r o g r e s s i o n r e p l a c e s the r e s t . I t s approach, in fact, i s

r h y t h m i c a l l y s i m i l a r to t h a t of F# 4
i n bar 3 ( c f . " f j ^ and | | | | | ).
3 3

In a d d i t i o n to t h i s r h y t h m i c d e t a i l and t h e more o b v i o u s d i s j u n c t approach

and r e g i s t r a l exposure, t h r e e o f t h e f o u r p i t c h e s a r e punctuated by a

c o l o r a t i o n i n one of t h e r e m a i n i n g i n s t r u m e n t s . (The harmonic i m p l i c a t i o n s


^ I n r e g i s t e r s i and i i t h e f o u r - n o t e motive c o n t i n u e s up t o D and 2

and e v e n t u a l l y up t o A and A^, r e s p e c t i v e l y . The d e n i a l o f D


2
m 4

r e g i s t e r i i i i s the main f a c t o r of s e p a r a t i o n between r e g i s t e r s i i i and


iv. The PC D, i n f a c t , w i l l be shown t o have s t r u c t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n
t h i s p i e c e as i t d i d i n Nos. 1, 4, 5, and 6.
19 be:
W h i l e the bassoon extends up to E^- o n l y , the p i c c o l o n o t e s i n
5

bars 10 and 11 a r e c o n s i d e r e d to f u n c t i o n i n t h e l i n e a r c o n n e c t i o n and


r e g i s t r a l e x t e n s i o n up t o E^; t h e y a r e t h u s a c o n t i n u a t i o n of the bassoon's
cadenza, not s i m p l y d o u b l i n g s o r c o l o r a t i o n s .
182

Example 72. First and second l e v e l s of linear pitch structure.

primary linear progression


(see text for criteria of "primary" designation)

= less exposed linear progression

prolongation of a particular pitch


(neighbours stemmed to beam, embellishing patterns to slur)

pitch in parentheses is "relocated" for


interpretation of a linear progression

"secondary" prolongation
(see text for criteria of "secondary" designation)

denotes "reinterpretation" of the second pitch


(see text for details)
184

of these colorations w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d l a t e r . ) Each of three other

structural pitches in this register i s approached by a r e s t : the r e -

established A ^ i n bar 7 (which proceeds almost immediately t o A^) , A ^

which begins the 'b'-section ( p r e c e d e d b y t h e generalpause of bar 12),

and A^ two b e a t s later (this pitch initiating the ascending fourth to

in measure 15).

With r e f e r e n c e to system (c), three details are noteworthy. First,

the initial ascending progression, E ^ to A ^ , i s counterbalanced i n the

'b'-section with the descent from A ^ to ^ (measures 13-15). The

eventual continuation of the i n i t i a l ascent up t o E ^ i s a l s o mirrored,

this time i n the f i n a l cadenza's reiteration of E \ A second detail

concerns t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n up t o E ^ j u s t mentioned and i n v o l v e s t h e "wave-

slur" ("""~ s«*') .


N
At t h e second level £i.e., system ( c ) ] , the re-established

A ^ ( b a r 7) i s r e i n t e r p r e t e d ^ and e n h a r m o n i c a l l y n o t a t e d ( a s G#) to depict

its status a s a p a s s i n g - t o n e t o A^. T h e same situation arises i n bars 10-11

. 21
where t h e r e i t e r a t e d E -> i s u l t i m a t e l y reinterpreted and e n h a r m o n i c a l l y

notated ( a s D#) t o suggest i t spassing-tone quality t o E^. Through this

higher-level pattern of reinterpretat ion brief p r o g r e s s i o n s are connected

to form a more c o m p r e h e n s i v e linear event.

The third detail of s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the linear pitch structure

pertains t o t h e apparent tendency t o w a r d s t h e PC D. The i n i t i a l four-note

motive, B^-B-C-D^, f o r e x a m p l e , exhibits inclination t o D, r e a l i z e d i n

20
That i s , i t i s r e i n t e r p r e t e d from i t sinitial o c c u r r e n c e where i t
f u n c t i o n s as a goal o f motion.
21 \lK
The i n i t i a l E - a l s o s t a n d s a s a l o c a l
9 3
arrival point, i . e . , the
g o a l o f m o t i o n o f t h e a s c e n t f r o m A^ i n b a r 7.
185

o 22
r e g i s t e r i i where D J
i s reached i n bar 3 and prolonged u n t i l bar 1 5 .

I n r e g i s t e r s i and iii, however, t h e m o t i v e c o n t i n u a l l y f a l l s s h o r t o f

i t s r e s p e c t i v e D, hence t h e p a s s i n g - t o n e d e s i g n a t i o n o f C# 4
and C# 2
in

measures 1 5 and 2 1 r e s p e c t i v e l y £see system ( c ) ] .

Systems (a) and (b) o f Example 7 3 r e p r e s e n t t h i r d and f o u r t h l e v e l s

of l i n e a r s t r u c t u r e . Each r e v e a l s t h e f i v e e s s e n t i a l l i n e a r progressions

i n the p i e c e , the h i g h e s t , most encompassing l e v e l o m i t t i n g t h e initial

octave ascent from E ^ 4


to E^5 ancl f o u r t h progression, E^ 4
to A'' to 4
E^ . 4

In short, E^5 ana ; E^-are c o n s i d e r e d j o i n t l y as an incomplete major-minor


23 IF

upper n e i g h b o u r t o ( t o which i t moves i n bar 1 5 ) . E' 4


and E , 4
also

an incomplete major-minor upper n e i g h b o u r , do not however.move t o D.


4

Concerning r e g i s t e r s i , ii, and i i i — p r e d o m i n a n t l y u n f o l d i n g s of t h e f o u r -

n o t e m o t i v e , B ^ - B - C - D ^ — o n l y i n r e g i s t e r i i i s the m o t i v e c o n t i n u e d to D;

the o t h e r s , as n o t e d above, a r e l e f t "hanging."

One f i n a l aspect of l i n e a r p i t c h o r g a n i z a t i o n concerns m o t i v i c

s t r u c t u r e , a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d t o some e x t e n t . Example 7 4 i l l u s t r a t e s

occurrences of the f o u r - n o t e m o t i v e ( t h e n o t e s of w h i c h a r e beamed) i n

registers i , ii, and iii. Apart from o v e r l a p p i n g o c c u r r e n c e s of the

pattern i n register i , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between

m o t i v i c s t r u c t u r e s as such, and " a n t i c i p a t e d c l o s u r e " on t h e PC D (a

tendency i n h e r e n t i n t h e m o t i v e i t s e l f ) . I n r e g i s t e r i i i the second of


22

System (b) r e v e a l s t h e s t r u c t u r a l d e t a i l s of t h e prolongation:


upper n e i g h b o u r ( b a r s 3 - 5 ) , e m b e l l i s h i n g p a t t e r n ( b a r s 6 - 7 ) , and f i n a l l y
a descending l i n e a r approach from A^ ( b a r s 1 3 - 1 5 ) .
23

As was n o t e d e a r l i e r , t h i s c u l m i n a t i o n p o i n t i s a l s o t h e c l i m a x
of i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n - d e n s i t y ( i . e . , i t i s the o n l y p o i n t where a l l f i v e
i n s t r u m e n t s sound a t once) and (unison) d o u b l i n g - d e n s i t y ( i . e . , i t i s
the o n l y PC doubled i n f o u r p a r t s ) . The C//5 w h i c h accompanies i t w i l l be
d e a l t w i t h i n the s e c t i o n on harmonic d e t a i l s .
186

Example 73. Third and fourth l e v e l s of linear pitch structure.


mm. 1 3 7 8 11 13 15 16-18 21

immuri

00
188

Example 74. Motivic organization i n r e g i s t e r s i , i i , and iii.

two occurrences of the motive i s complete in a motivic sense (e.g., it

contains no B^) and also i n terms of PC closure (e.g., i t does not

continue to D). Register i i i s unique in that the motive occurs only

o n c e and does extend to D 3 whereupon t h e latter i s prolonged; it is

therefore complete i n both respects. Finally, register i ,motivically

the most a c t i v e , i s "closed" with respect to m o t i v i c structure (the final

C# being the f o u r t h PC of the pattern) but open i n terms of PC closure

(i.e., i n the sense of a D-centricity).

PC unfolding

Apart f r o m modes o f linearization i n v o l v i n g p i t c h and/or PC

connections, patterns of PC unfolding—specifically, twelve-note orderings—

were a l s o n o t e d i n Chapter II. While such patterns are not as consistently

applied i n the tenth piece as, say, the fifth, No. 10 does e x h i b i t a

particular mode o f PC unfolding. Example 75 c o n s i s t s of three staves


189
24
representing coloration PC's, b a s s o o n PC's, and total PC content.

Segments c o r r e s p o n d i n g to d i s j u n c t fragments, cadenzas, etc., established

earlier, a r e numbered f o r ease of r e f e r e n c e .

One immediate observation of importance concerns the chromatic or

25

near-chromatic total PC content i n each segment. Often t h e PC content

of a whole fragment unfolds ( i n the piece) i n a chromatic or near-chromatic

fashion, i n which case the "normal form" o r d e r i n g of t o t a l content (i.e.,

the third staff of E x a m p l e 75) resembles that of the bassoon part and

colorations (i.e., the top two s t a v e s o f Example 75). S e g m e n t s 1, 4, 5,

8, 9, and 13 reveal this relationship. Others exhibit several smaller


26

chromatic "subsets" w h i c h , when c o n s i d e r e d j o i n t l y and organized into

normal form, a g a i n give r i s e to chromatic p a t t e r n s , e.g., s e g m e n t s 2, 6,

10, 11, and 12. The p a t t e r n s o f u n f o l d i n g i n segments 3 and 7 reveal

little i n t h e way of stepwise PC connections, yet the normal form ordering

of their respective total contents still display a near-chromatic PC

linearization.
24
C o n c e r n i n g t h e t h i r d s t a f f , t o t a l PC c o n t e n t o f e a c h segment i s
arranged i n "normal form" i n the d i r e c t i o n i n d i c a t i v e of the a c t u a l p i t c h
u n f o l d i n g i n the music. T h a t i s , i n a l l s e g m e n t s b u t n o s . 4, 9, 11, and
13 PC's a r e o r d e r e d i n a n a s c e n d i n g p a t t e r n w i t h t h e s m a l l e s t i n t e r v a l s
to t h e l e f t . The o t h e r f o u r s e g m e n t s a r e " r e v e r s e d " v e r s i o n s o f t h e
normal form o r d e r i n g , i . e . , descending from l e f t to r i g h t w i t h the
s m a l l e s t i n t e r v a l s to the r i g h t , again arranged to r e f l e c t the d i r e c t i o n
of u n f o l d i n g i n the a c t u a l music.
25
S e g m e n t s w i t h m o r e t h a n s e v e n PC's w i l l n a t u r a l l y r e v e a l s t e p w i s e
orderings. S m a l l e r s e t s , however, s t i l l e x h i b i t p r e d o m i n a n t l y chromatic
u n f o l d i n g s r a t h e r t h a n c o l l e c t i o n s i n v o l v i n g n u m e r o u s w h o l e - t o n e s and
small leaps.
26
A " s u b s e t " i n t h i s context r e f e r s to a group of p i t c h e s ( w i t h i n
a segment) w h i c h u n f o l d i n a c h r o m a t i c f a s h i o n i n t h e p i e c e . I n segment
No. 2 f o r e x a m p l e , two s u b s e t s may be d i s c e r n e d : D^^ down c h r o m a t i c a l l y
to A ^ S and up t o F#3 ( t h e F b e i n g a n o t e o f c o l o r a t i o n ) . (See s t a v e s
i and i i . ) When t h e s e two s u b s e t s a r e c o n j o i n e d and a r r a n g e d i n t o n o r m a l
f o r m , a l l PC's e x c e p t G a r e p r e s e n t .
190

Example 75. PC content of formal segments.


\9\

'a'-section

measure: 1

segment: 1

-disjunct fragments cadenza disjunct fragments cadenza

1
phrase I phrase II

b'-section

i • coloration p-c's

ii = b s n . p - c ' s

iii= t o t a l p - c content

^disjunct fragments ^ -
phrase divider disj. fr. cadenza

phrase I phrase H
192

In a d d i t i o n t o t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f c h r o m a t i c o r d e r i n g , PC c o n t e n t

i s i t s e l f an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t of l i n e a r o r g a n i z a t i o n . It i s , in fact,

r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c o n t i g u o u s and non-contiguous

s e g m e n t s — r e l a t i o n s h i p s such as e x p a n s i o n , i n c l u s i o n , o v e r l a p p i n g , and

t w e l v e - n o t e aggregate c o m p l e t i o n . Segment no. 1, f o r example, i s embedded

i n t o the expanded no. 2, t h e l a t t e r c o n t a i n i n g a l l PC's except G. While

t h e normal form o r d e r i n g of t h e t h i r d segment o v e r l a p s t h a t of t h e second

(e.g., F and F#), t h e f i r s t a r t i c u l a t e d PC i n no. 3 ( i . e . , i n t h e a c t u a l

music) i s G, thus c o m p l e t i n g t h e t w e l v e - n o t e aggregate i n i t i a t e d i n no. 2.

(The square b r a c k e t from no. 2 t o no. 3 i n Example 75 i l l u s t r a t e s this

completion.) Segment no. 3 o m i t s A and A#, A b e i n g t h e f i r s t and h i g h e s t

p i t c h of no. 4, and A//, t h e l o w e s t . Segment no. 4 a l s o c o n t a i n s a l l PC's

except one, t h i s time G#. I n t e r e s t i n g l y G# i n no. 3 i s t h e r e g i s t r a l


27
h i g h p o i n t of t h e i n i t i a l a s c e n d i n g f o u r t h p r o g r e s s i o n exposed earlier.
The second phrase o f t h e ' a ' - s e c t i o n opens w i t h a t r a n s p o s i t i o n o f
•T+3 j-
the f i r s t segment of phrase I : e.g., m
* x 1 15
"

Segments 5 and 6 o v e r l a p and j o i n t l y i n c l u d e a l l PC's except A* and C—

the f i r s t two a r t i c u l a t e d i n segment no. 7. T h i s second o v e r l a p p i n g

c o m p l e t i o n of t h e t o t a l aggregate i s a l s o i n d i c a t e d i n Example 75 by a

square b r a c k e t . Each phrase of t h e ' a ' - s e c t i o n e x h i b i t s a n e a r - c o m p l e t i o n

of t h e t w e l v e - n o t e aggregate i n i t s opening two segments. The m i s s i n g

p i t c h ( e s ) i s (are) f u r n i s h e d by t h e " a r t i c u l a t e d " opening o f t h e t h i r d

segment i n each case ( i . e . , nos. 3 and 7 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) .

Phrase I of t h e ' b ' - s e c t i o n opens i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n t o t h a t of

The s t r u c t u r a l v a l u e of A^ i n segment no. 3 w a r r a n t s i t s o m i s s i o n


i n no. 4 and j u s t i f i e s n e g a t i o n of A i n no. 3. (The r e g i s t r a l c o n n e c t i o n
to A, remember, o c c u r s i n bar 7, not w i t h t h e A of segment no. 4.) '
193

the 'a'-section. That i s , i t s f i r s t segment i s embedded i n t o i t s second,

the l a t t e r c o n s i s t i n g of a l l PC's except one. The m i s s i n g D#, although

not the f i r s t a r t i c u l a t e d PC of segment no. 11, i s the lowest i n the


2 8

normal form o r d e r i n g . An o v e r l a p p i n g t w e l v e - n o t e c o m p l e t i o n may once

a g a i n be n o t e d , as i n d i c a t e d i n Example 75. The second p h r a s e of the

' b ' - s e c t i o n was s t a t e d e a r l i e r to be u n i q u e l y c o n s t r u c t e d of one

c o n t i n u o u s d i s j u n c t fragment. I t i s a l s o u n p a r a l l e l e d i n terms of i t s

PC content as i t i s the o n l y s i n g l e segment which c o n t a i n s a l l t w e l v e .

T h i s sense of c o m p l e t i o n i s complemented by t h e c u l m i n a t i o n of t e x t u r a l

and l i n e a r p r o g r e s s i o n s , s p e c i f i c a l l y on t h e f i n a l of t h e segment (as

noted e a r l i e r ) . One f i n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i s noteworthy.. I t concerns t h e

bassoon p a r t i n segments 11 and 13 and, specifically i t s inclination

towards t h e PC D i n each case. Segment no. 11 ( t h e phrase d i v i d e r )

stops s h o r t on the upper n e i g h b o u r E^, w h i l e no. 13 sounds e s s e n t i a l l y

the same PC's but s u b s t i t u t e s t h e lower n e i g h b o u r C# f o r E^. The two

segments a l s o d i f f e r i n t h a t no. 13 c o n t a i n s the u l t i m a t e " r e s o l u t i o n -

n o t e , " D, p r o v i d e d by the p i c c o l o . I n t h i s s e n s e — o n e p u r e l y of PC

content, i r r e s p e c t i v e of t h e a c t u a l o r d e r of a r t i c u l a t i o n — s e g m e n t no. 13

might be viewed as " c l o s e d " r e l a t i v e t o no. 11.

Summary

Because of t h e d i s j u n c t d i s p o s i t i o n of the bassoon p a r t , r e g i s t r a l

l i n e a r connections were found to be of s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of

p i t c h content i n t h i s piece. Four r e g i s t e r s were e s t a b l i s h e d , e s s e n t i a l l y

through m o t i v i c consistency ( i . e . , t h e f o u r - n o t e m o t i v e B^-B-C-D^), i n

28
The s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s c o m p l e t i o n l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t the
composed o r d e r i n g c l o s e l y resembles t h a t of t h e "normal form," and the D#
i n i t i a t e s the second " s u b s e t " of the segment.
194

which f i v e primary progressions were e x p o s e d . A tendency t o w a r d s t h e PC

D, inherent i n the four-note motive itself, was r e v e a l e d i n the primary

progressions thus reiterating a D-centricity witnessed i n previous pieces

( e . g . , N o s . 1, 4, 5, a n d 6 ) . These primary progressions a r e E^-VE->, a s an

incomplete major-minor upper neighbour t o D^; E^4/g4^ a s a n incomplete

major-minor upper neighbour to D 4


(the latter never occurring but rather

implied); B^3 t o C/P, suggesting motion towards D 4


which, again, never

actually occurs; B^ 2
t o C//^ a n d u p t o D^; and B ^ t o C// 2
tending towards,

but falling short of, D . 2

Segments o f p h r a s e s d e f i n e d earlier were studied here for their PC

content (including that of c o l o r a t i o n s a l s o ) , and p a t t e r n s of unfolding

were f o u n d to r e v e a l chromatic and n e a r - c h r o m a t i c collections. Relation-

ships between segments, w i t h respect to twelve-note aggregate completion,

were a l s o f o u n d t o be o f s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the piece.

Harmonic D e t a i l s

In that c o l o r a t i o n and d o u b l i n g are the only forms of instrument

interaction i n the piece, they also represent the only i n s t a n c e s of

harmonic u n i t s — i . e . , verticalities with specific interval content.

Consonance-dissonance quality of colorations w i l l be examined first, with

a discussion of their specific placement and c o n t e n t to follow. A study

of the various doublings and t h e i r placement will conclude the section.

Consonance-dissonance quality of c o l o r a t i o n s

The five s i m u l t a n e i t i e s used i n the piece i n order o f t h e most

consonant t o most dissonant (explained below) a r e [ 0 , 2 ] , [o,l], [ 0 , 1 , 3 ] ,

[o,l,2], and [ o , l , 2 , 4 ] . Semitone and whole-tone content, as w e l l as t h e

number o f members i n each v e r t i c a l i t y are f a c t o r s i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of


195

harmonic q u a l i t y . For example, [ 0 , 2 ] i s t h e most consonant (and t h e r e f o r e

has a C-D f a c t o r of 1) because i t i s t h e o n l y v e r t i c a l i t y w i t h o u t a

semitone. The most d i s s o n a n t harmony i s [ o , 1 , 2 , 4 ] ( w i t h a f a c t o r o f 5)

because i t has t h e g r e a t e s t number o f members and two semitones. The

v e r t i c a l i t y [ o , l ] i s t h e second most consonant because i t i s t h e o n l y o t h e r

set w i t h two elements; i t has a C-D f a c t o r of 2 . Between [o,l,3]| and

[ 0 , 1 , 2 ] , t h e former i s more consonant ( w i t h a f a c t o r of 3 ) as i t c o n t a i n s

o n l y one semitone compared t o t h e l a t t e r ' s two ( t h e r e f o r e h a v i n g a f a c t o r

of 4 ) . Example 76 i l l u s t r a t e s a l l i n s t a n c e s o f i n s t r u m e n t i n t e r a c t i o n be

they d o u b l i n g s o r c o l o r a t i o n s . The a f o r e m e n t i o n e d " s e t - t y p e s " w i t h t h e i r

c o r r e s p o n d i n g C-D f a c t o r s a r e i n d i c a t e d below t h e v a r i o u s i n s t a n c e s of

coloration.

R e f e r r i n g t o Example 76, one p a r t i c u l a r o b s e r v a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g

consonance-dissonance f l u c t u a t i o n i s noteworthy. P h r a s e I of t h e 'a'-

s e c t i o n e x h i b i t s a s h i f t from r e l a t i v e consonance (i.e., factors 3 , 1, and

2) to dissonance ( i . e . , f a c t o r 4 ) . The t h r e e - n o t e s o n o r i t y i n measure 5,

i n f a c t , o c c u r s o n l y once and i s t h e most d i s s o n a n t found i n t h e 'a'-

section. P h r a s e I I l e a n s towards t h e consonant s i d e w i t h harmonies of

f a c t o r s 1 and 2 . The ' b ' - s e c t i o n r e v e a l s a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n : phrase I

p i c k s up where t h e ' a ' - s e c t i o n l e f t o f f — i . e . , w i t h r e l a t i v e consonance—

and moves t o t h e most d i s s o n a n t v e r t i c a l i t y i n t h e p i e c e i n bar 14. Phrase

I I d i s p l a y s s e t s o f f a c t o r s 1 and 2 not u n l i k e t h e second phrase of t h e 'a'-

section. I n b o t h s e c t i o n s , t h e n , a consonance dissonance

consonance p a t t e r n emerges, w i t h t h e peak o f d i s s o n a n c e o c c u r r i n g a t or

near t h e end o f t h e f i r s t phrase o f each. The r e t u r n t o r e l a t i v e l y

consonant s o n o r i t i e s i n t h e second phrase o f each s e c t i o n may be heard as

resolutive. I n a sense t h i s a s p e c t of "consequence" contradicts other


196

Example 76. Consonance-dissonance factors of c o l o r a t i o n verticalities.


197

'a'-section
phrase I phrase I I

measure n o s . :
ir

coloration
pitches:

bassoon
pitches:

set-types: [0,1,3] [0,2][0,l] [0,1,2] [0,2] [0,1] [0,1]

C-D f a c t o r s : 3 1 2 4 1 2 2 2

doublings: two-part two-three- oct./ three-part unis./ three-part


unison/ part o c t . one octaves/ one unison/
three and u n i s • / note two cons. note f o u r cons,
cons. t h r e e cons, notes notes
notes notes

b -section
phrase I phrase I I
ir
measure nos.: 13 14 15

a—1
*
coloration
pitches: j 1
1 rHH 1 n. ,
-/•—
/ w
bassoon M •a
1
ft- ^
pitches:

set-types:
m
[0,1]
^ [0,1][0,1] [0,2]
s
[0,1,2,4] [0,l][0,2] [0,l]

C-D f a c t o r s : 2 2 2 1 5 2 1 2

doublings: unis./ two-part u n i s . and two-three- two-part f o u r - p a r t


one unis./ oct./two part o c t . / unis./ unis./one
note one n o t e cons, n o t e s t h r e e cons, two cons. n o t e
notes notes
198

factors o f " o p e n n e s s " a t t h e end o f t h e ' a ' - s e c t i o n (e.g., factors such

as registral ascent and " h e s i t a n t " - p i t c h d e p a r t u r e from to E5), while

reinforcing the feeling o f " c l o s u r e " on t h e i n b a r 15 [ e f f e c t e d b y t h e

culmination of instrumentation-density and ( u n i s o n ) doubling-density, as

well as twelve-note aggregate completion and l i n e a r pitch connection].

Specific placement and content of colorations

Many c o l o r a t i o n s w o u l d appear t o be s t r a t e g i c a l l y placed; some

punctuate structural points in registral linear progressions defined and

illustrated earlier, while others articulate t h e ends o f f o r m a l segments

(e.g., phrases or fragments). The f i r s t coloration i n the piece, f o r

instance, harmonizes t h e f i n a l p i t c h of the bassoon's opening disjunct

fragment, i . e . , the four-note motive, B -B-C-D , illustrated earlier.

Curiously, one o f t h e c o l o r a t i o n p i t c h e s i s D^, the asserted "arrival-

point-pitch" of the motive i n r e g i s t e r i i ( m e a s u r e 3, b a s s o o n ) . In this

sense the c o l o r a t i o n i s an " a n t i c i p a t i o n " o f t h e s t r u c t u r a l D3

appearing later i n t h e bassoon. The r e m a i n i n g colorations i n the f i r s t

phrase harmonize structural pitches i n the i n i t i a l ascending fourth-

L7 Li 29
progression, E to A 4 (as noted earlier).

The final p i t c h of the f i r s t fragment i n phrase II, like that of

p h r a s e I , i s marked by a c o l o r a t i o n ( a l t h o u g h t h e harmonic quality i s

30
different). The l a s t two c o l o r a t i o n s i n the 'a'-section harmonize the

29 bA
It i s the arrival point of this progression, A i n b a r 5, w h i c h
has t h e C-D factor 4 harmonization, t h e most dissonant of t h e 'a'-section.
Its articulation i s highly accented on t h e one hand, b u t somewhat
"disguised" by t h e d i s s o n a n t harmony on t h e o t h e r .
30
T h e s e two f r a g m e n t s , e a c h t e r m i n a t e d w i t h a c o l o r a t i o n , a r e
t r a n s p o s i t i o n a l l y r e l a t e d as explained e a r l i e r . The p a r a l l e l i s m o f t h e
two p h r a s e s i n t h e ' a ' - s e c t i o n , a l s o n o t e d e a r l i e r , i s h e i g h t e n e d b y
this relationship.
199

re-established A^ 4
( m e a s u r e 7) of the ascending progression in register

iv and the A 4
(measure 7) to which i t u l t i m a t e l y moves. Notice that,

w h i l e each o f t h e s e two structural pitches i s colored by a lower half-

step, A i s harmonized differently here from measure 5 (where i t s lower

half and whole-step sound).

The colorations of A^ 4
and F#4 i n measure 13 are noteworthy as

these p a r t i c u l a r pitches initiate the "counterbalancing" descending

fourth-progression, A^ 4
to E ^ , 4
illustrated earlier. Although A is

harmonized differently here from the opening ascent, i t s coloration tone

concurs with that of the A^ 4


just mentioned, i . e . , G. F# 4
i s , however,

harmonized as i n bar 3, with F . 4


The next two verticalities i n phrase I

of the 'b'-section articulate points of l e s s e r importance i n the linear

structure. B^ of bar 13, f o r example, initiates the second four-note

motive in register i i i , while the colored E 4


of bar 14 i s another of the

pitches i n the descending fourth, A^ 4


to E^^.

Two of the remaining v e r t i c a l i t i e s a r e worthy of mention: first,

the coloration of the bassoon's A^ i n measure 14 p u n c t u a t e s t h e end of

31

phrase I w i t h t h e most dissonant sonority of the piece. The second

involves t h e D^/C#^ v e r t i c a l dyad i n measure 15. The centricity of the

PC D and, more s p e c i f i c a l l y , the pitch have a l r e a d y been n o t e d . While

the d i s s o n a n t C// i n t e n s i f i e s the a r r i v a l on D, i t also tends to slightly

32
"blur" the latter. The four-part unison doubling of and subsequent
31
T h i s p o i n t , as i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r , i s analogous to t h e c l o s e of
p h r a s e I i n t h e ' a ' - s e c t i o n w h e r e C-D f a c t o r 4 ( t h e m o s t d i s s o n a n t t o
that p o i n t ) i s found.
32
I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o compare t h e d i s p o s i t i o n o f p i t c h e s i n t h i s
f i n a l c o l o r a t i o n t o t h o s e o f t h e f i r s t one i n b a r .1. In the e a r l i e r instance
the ( c o l o r a t i o n ) was n o t e d a s a n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e b a s s o o n ' s s t r u c t u r a l
two b a r s l a t e r . In the f i n a l c o l o r a t i o n , i s t h e m a i n n o t e a n d C//^ i s
the c o l o r a t i o n p i t c h ; t h e two PC's h a v e e s s e n t i a l l y t r a d e d f u n c t i o n s .
200

s u s t a i n i n g of i n the p i c c o l o , however, c o n f i r m i t s r o l e as a.point of


33
pitch closure.

S p e c i f i c placement of o c t a v e and u n i s o n doublings

Octave and u n i s o n d o u b l i n g s were d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r i n the l i g h t of

t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n to the f l u c t u a t i o n of t e x t u r a l - d e n s i t y . As i n many

i n s t a n c e s of c o l o r a t i o n , however, t h e s e d o u b l i n g s may a l s o be viewed i n

c e r t a i n cases as f a c t o r s of i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n . Three such p o i n t s e x i s t i n

the 'a'-section. The f i r s t i s i n measure 5 where t h e l a s t t h r e e n o t e s of

t h e d i s j u n c t p o r t i o n of phrase I ( l e a d i n g i n t o the cadenza) a r e doubled


34

in unison. The second i n s t a n c e accompanies the opening t h r e e n o t e s of

phrase I I . These i n t u r n l e a d i n t o t h e f o u r t h and f i n a l n o t e of t h e

fragment w h i c h , as s t a t e d e a r l i e r , i s c o l o r e d by a semitone. Perhaps t h e

most emphatic i n s t a n c e , however, i s t h a t which o c c u r s i n measure 7. The

f o u r n o t e s c u l m i n a t i n g on the s t r u c t u r a l A 4
a r e doubled i n u n i s o n by the

oboe and c l a r i n e t . (This p a r t i c u l a r A 4


i s s t r u c t u r a l as i t i s the

immediate g o a l of the i n i t i a l a s c e n d i n g fourth-progression, E^ 4


to A^ ,
4

and on a l a r g e r s c a l e , the t r i t o n e d i v i d e r of t h e octave-progression,


b4 b
E^ to E*5.) The u n i s o n d o u b l i n g ( f o u r - p a r t ) of i n bar 15 i s the most

s t r a t e g i c d o u b l i n g i n the ' b ' - s e c t i o n ; as noted e a r l i e r , i t s r e a l

s i g n i f i c a n c e l i e s i n i t s placement as a peak w i t h i n t h e p r o g r e s s i o n of

(unison)33 d o u b l i n g - d e n s i t y . 9
The bassoon's f i n a l C# , however, may be heard as a s u b t l e
"reminder " o f C// which accompanies
5
i n bar 15.
The f i r s t n o t e o f the t h r e e i s t h e A g o a l o f the i n i t i a l
4

ascending f o u r t h - p r o g r e s s i o n , a l s o c o l o r e d as noted e a r l i e r . And t h e


f i n a l n o t e i s D3, the p r o l o n g e d a r r i v a l p o i n t of t h e f o u r - n o t e m o t i v e
i n r e g i s t e r i i , a l s o d i s c u s s e d i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n .
201

Summary

I n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e harmonic s t r u c t u r e of t h i s p i e c e consonance-

d i s s o n a n c e f a c t o r s (based on semitone and whole-tone c o n t e n t , and the

c a r d i n a l i t y of the v a r i o u s v e r t i c a l i t i e s ) were e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h e instances

o f c o l o r a t i o n used t h r o u g h o u t . Each s e c t i o n e x h i b i t e d p r o g r e s s i v e l y more

d i s s o n a n t s t r u c t u r e s towards the end of i t s f i r s t p h r a s e , f o l l o w e d by more

consonant s o n o r i t i e s i n i t s second. The most d i s s o n a n t s o n o r i t y of t h e piece

was found i n the ' b ' - s e c t i o n , t h e r e b y r e v e a l i n g one element of o v e r a l l

harmonic d i r e c t i o n from the 'a' t o 'b'-section.

I n s t a n c e s of c o l o r a t i o n were f r e q u e n t l y found t o h i g h l i g h t s t r u c t u r a l

pitches i n r e g i s t r a l l i n e a r progressions ( p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e i n t h e upper-

most r e g i s t e r ) , and o t h e r i m p o r t a n t j u n c t u r e s such as p h r a s e b e g i n n i n g s and

endings. Octave and u n i s o n d o u b l i n g s were a l s o found t o i n t e n s i f y s t r a t e g i c

p o i n t s i n the p i e c e , the of bar 15 b e i n g the most s i g n i f i c a n t of such

points.

C o n n e c t i v e F a c t o r s Between the
N i n t h and Tenth P i e c e s

Four f a c t o r s p o i n t t o a p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e n i n t h and

tenth pieces. The f i r s t of t h e s e concerns i n d i c a t i o n s i n t h e s c o r e a t the


35

end of the n i n t h p i e c e . Such i n d i c a t i o n s i n c l u d e "break o f f s u d d e n l y "

(as though a c o n t i n u a t i o n were f o r t h c o m i n g ) , silenzio assoluto (suggesting

an "expectant" q u a l i t y ) , senza diminuendo ( t h u s d e f e r r i n g a f e e l i n g of

c l o s u r e ) , and attacca ( d i r e c t i n g an immediate c o n t i n u a t i o n ) .


36

The second f a c t o r i n v o l v e s t h e f i r s t t h r e e PC's of p i e c e No. 9.

35
L i g e t i , Ten Pieces, p. 33.
36
The whole p i e c e , remember, c o n s i s t s of o n l y n i n e PC's i n an o r d e r e d
unfolding.
202

Specifically, the opening sustained and reiterated and subsequent E

and D are PC's of primary importance i n the linear s t r u c t u r e of the tenth

piece ( E ^ and E being considered jointly as an incomplete major-minor

upper neighbour to the main a r r i v a l point D).

The linear s t r u c t u r e of the entire ninth piece and one particular

registral progression i n the t e n t h would appear to be related, this being

the third f a c t o r of connection between t h e two. As stated earlier, the

ninth piece i s comprised of a nine-note unfolding. As i t turns out, this

unfolding essentially o u t l i n e s an ascending progression from to A^6

(this register being i n the extreme upper range of the instruments

involved). PC's E^ and A^ are interestingly also the e x t r e m i t i e s of the

ascending fourth-progression in register i v of the tenth piece (measures

37
3-5). This r e l a t i o n s h i p i s summarized i n Example 77.

Example 77. L i n e a r p r o g r e s s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p between the


n i n t h and t e n t h p i e c e s .

Finally, i n the light of the pattern of PC unfolding in piece

No. 9 (discussed i n Chapter II) and the concept of twelve-note aggregate

completion noted between certainvcontiguous s e g m e n t s o f No. 10, a

37
The i n t e n s i t y o f No. 9, r e s u l t i n g from the upper range of the
i n s t r u m e n t s , i s matched i n the t e n t h p i e c e as the p r o g r e s s i o n i n question
i s at the top of the bassoon's range.
203

particularly s t r o n g c o n n e c t i o n may be d i s c e r n e d between t h e two pieces.

As n o t e d i n Example 78, i f the descending PC line i n No. 9 is extended

it generates t h e t h r e e PC's absent from the p i e c e — c u r i o u s l y , those found

at t h e b e g i n n i n g o f No. 10. This large-scale instance of twelve-note

aggregate completion p r o v i d e s an important bond b e t w e e n t h e two pieces;

in addition, i t anticipates the use of inter-segment completion within

the tenth piece itself.

Example 78. Twelve-note aggregate completion from


the n i n t h to the tenth piece.

Summary

A number o f factors have been cited above as pointing to a

connection or r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e n i n t h and tenth pieces. Notes in

the score at t h e end o f No. 9 were s a i d to imply a lack of c o m p l e t i o n and

a need to continue immediately, while underlying details o f PC unfolding

(e.g., E^-E-D a n d the p r o g r e s s i o n from E^ 7


t o A^) were f o u n d to provide

an association between t h e two pieces. And finally, an important

c o n n e c t i o n was also revealed i n the twelve-note aggregate completion at

the beginning of the tenth piece, the f i r s t n i n e PC's having unfolded

in No. 9.
204

Summary

The foregoing analysis of the tenth piece has i n c l u d e d independent

e x a m i n a t i o n s o f form d e l i n e a t i n g f a c t o r s , t e x t u r a l s t r u c t u r e , r h y t h m i c and

metric design, and p i t c h organization. A s s o c i a t i o n s between parameters

have been i n d i c a t e d where a p p l i c a b l e . While concepts such as r e g i s t r a l

linear connections and consonance-dissonance q u a l i t y were introduced i n

previous chapters (albeit under considerably different circumstances),

progressive tendencies i n t e x t u r a l s p a c e a n d modes o f t e x t u r a l - d e n s i t y ,

as w e l l a s impulse-number proportions of phrase segments a r e a s p e c t s

specific to the a n a l y s i s of the tenth piece. Relationships between t h e

n i n t h and t e n t h pieces were a l s o d i s c u s s e d , thereby adding another subgroup

to the l i s t o f those previously defined.


CHAPTER V

CONCLUSION

In seeking an understanding of the musical language of Gyorgy

Ligeti's Ten Pieces for Wind Quintet, the foregoing s t u d y has presented

individual examinations of m u s i c a l parameters such as form, texture, rhythm

and m e t e r , and pitch. While the auditory e x p e r i e n c e of this ( o r any) music

involves simultaneous consideration of a l l musical parameters, viewing them

in isolation for the purposes of analysis allows specific d e t a i l s of their

individual structures to be assertained before attempting an understanding

of the intricacies of their interaction. Chapter II focussed on certain

principles (some g e n e r a l , others more s p e c i f i c ) w i t h i n the various musical

p a r a m e t e r s and exemplified them i n excerpts from the second to n i n t h pieces

in the quintet. This provided a basis for the d e t a i l e d analyses of pieces

1 and 10 ( i n Chapters I I I and IV). In these p a r t i c u l a r studies, musical

parameters (e.g., form, texture, etc.) were a l s o treated separately, but in

dealing with the two pieces as complete entities—i.e., looking at them on

a more g l o b a l l e v e l — i n s t a n c e s of i n t e r a c t i o n between parameters were

illustrated, thus p r o v i d i n g a more c o m p r e h e n s i v e v i e w of the overall musical

structure i n each case.

The quintet was suggested i n Chapter I to be representative of

Ligeti's works s i n c e the middle sixties, illustrating many compositional

procedures i n a medium c o n s i d e r a b l y more "compact" than that of most of his

other works. The fact i s that Ligeti's own c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of his musical

language in this period i s accurately represented i n the quintet. He speaks

205
206

of h i s music (since the middle sixties) as having "no tonal centres" on t h e

one hand, but n o t t r e a t i n g a l l t w e l v e n o t e s " e q u a l l y " on t h e o t h e r . * While

tonal centres, a s s u c h , may n o t be i n o p e r a t i o n i n the quintet, pieces 5, 6,

and especially 10, r e v e a l e d a strong inclination towards t h e PC D, r e f e r r e d

to as a " D - c e n t r i c i t y . " Linear directedness, instrumental doubling, and

durational e x p o s u r e a r e some o f t h e f a c t o r s s u g g e s t i n g such an inclination

to, and r e i n f o r c e m e n t o f , that particular PC. In the f i r s t piece, PC

centricity appeared t o i n v o l v e b o t h D a n d C, t h e s e being the pitch

extremities of the 'a'-section, maintained through outer-voice prolongation

and lateral voice crossing. The 'b'-section also revealed linear directed-

ness to a n d C^, the f i n a l pitches of the piece.

Ligeti also comments ( i n connection with h i s works from the middle

sixties) that c e r t a i n "arrangements" of i n t e r v a l s "determine the course of

the music and t h e development of the form." The q u i n t e t furnishes

numerous instances of this as i n the t h i r d piece, f o r example, where

vertical c o m p l e x e s w e r e shown t o grow p r o g r e s s i v e l y more d i s s o n a n t (according

to the asserted criteria of harmonic q u a l i t y ) toward the climax, after which

a trend towards increased c o n s o n a n c e was discerned. ( S e e E x a m p l e s 44 a n d 45.)

Also, v e r t i c a l arrangements of i n t e r v a l s were shown t o be a f a c t o r o f formal

segmentation i n the f i f t h piece; of the four sections, the f i r s t and third

were n o t e d as being relatively restricted in overall t e x t u r a l space (and,

hence, v e r t i c a l intervallic disposition), while the second and fourth

sections w e r e shown t o be r e g i s t r a l l y dispersed. And f i n a l l y , piece No. 1

was defined as to the f l u c t u a t i o n i n harmonic q u a l i t y through a derived

system of consonance-dissonance c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ; verticalities with specific

''"Ligeti, liner notes for Melodien.

Ibid.
2
207

C-D ( c o n s o n a n c e - d i s s o n a n c e ) f a c t o r s w e r e shown t o p l a y a vital r o l e i nthe

maintenance of p i t c h e x t r e m i t i e s i n the 'a'-section. ( S e e E x a m p l e 64.)

The harmonic structure of the f i r s t piece's 'a'-section also illustrates


3

Ligeti's concept of "harmonic-musical flow," i n which interval combinations

merge s l o w l y i n t o one another r a t h e r than change abruptly.

Ligeti further defines h i s music from the middle sixties as u t i l i z i n g

micropolyphonic textures i n which l i n e s a r e more d i r e c t e d and r e t a i n a


4

certain degree of independence w i t h i n the "overriding contrapuntal network."

Again, pieces 1 a n d 3 come t o m i n d . In the l a t t e r , two suggested

techniques—unison t r a n s f e r and p i t c h i n t e r c h a n g e — w e r e said to create linear

continuities within an o v e r a l l texture o f complex polyphony. Regarding the

first piece, outer-voice prolongations and l a t e r a l voice-crossing events,

noted earlier, emerge a s i n d e p e n d e n t linear structures underlying t h e web-

like interweaving of instrumental parts.

W h i l e many o f t h e t e c h n i q u e s o u t l i n e d above a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of

earlier works t y p i f i e d b y Atmospheres ( i n addition to representing Ligeti':s

music of the middle sixties), the style o f Apparitions and Aventures—i.e.,

rapid successions of disparate musical ideas—was also seen t o s u r f a c e i n

the quintet, particularly i n t h e s i x t h and e i g h t h pieces.

The quintet, then, c a n be v i e w e d as representative of L i g e t i ' s

compositional style i n the middle sixties; i n addition, i t may b e s e e n t o

expose r e f i n e m e n t s of e a r l i e r techniques and d e v i c e s . The e x p l i c a t i o n ,

illustration, and d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e c o n c e p t s ^ - i n relative isolation

(as i n Chapter I I ) , and i n more e x t e n d e d a p p l i c a t i o n s (as i n Chapters I I I

and IV)—aims t o e s t a b l i s h a fundamental working knowledge o f L i g e t i ' s


3
Ibid.
4
Ibid.
208

musical l a n g u a g e i n t h e Ten Pieces for Wind Quintet.


WORKS CITED

Books and P e r i o d i c a l s

Berry, Wallace. Structural Functions in Music. Englewood Cliffs:


P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1976.

Clifton, Thomas. Music as Heard. New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1983.

Cone, E d w a r d . " A n a l y s i s Today." The Musical Quarterly (April 1960): 172-188.

Ligeti, Gyorgy. Q u o t e d i n Ove N o r d w a l l , l i n e r n o t e s f o r Musica ricercata


( 1 9 5 1 - 5 3 ) , o n Duo Pohjola. Grammofonfirma B I S 18, r e c o r d e d i n
W. Germany, 1 9 7 4 .

. L i n e r notes f o r Ligeti: Melodien for Orchestra. Decca Headline,


Head 12, 1 9 7 6 .

Nordwall, Ove. "Ligeti, Gyorgy." The New Grove Dictionary of Music and
Musicians. E d i t e d by S t a n l e y S a d i e . London:' M a c m i l l a n Publishers
L i m i t e d , 1 9 8 0 . V o l . 10, p p . 853-856.'

Music

Ligeti, Gyorgy. Apparitions. Wien: U n i v e r s a l E d i t i o n , cl964

Atmospheres. Wien:. " U n i v e r s a l , , E d i t i o n , cl963 . . .

Aventures. F r a n k f u r t : C.'F. Peters Music Publishers, cl964.

Double Concerto. M a i n z : B. S c h o t t ' s Soehne, el974.

Requiem. F r a n k f u r t : C. F . P e t e r s M u s i c P u b l i s h e r s , cl966

Ten Pieces for Wind Quintet. M a i n z : B. S c h o t t ' s Soehne,ccl969.

Volumina. F r a n k f u r t : C. F . P e t e r s M u s i c Publishers, cl967.

209
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Beyer, W. H. " C o m p o s i t i o n a l P r i n c i p l e s i n Three Works o f Gyorgy Ligeti."


D.M.A. D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington, 1975.

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