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UCSI UNIVERSITY
Faculty of Engineering, Technology and Built Environment
Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Department

Reservoir Engineering - EG316


Lecture (1)
Introduction - Reservoir Engineering

7 May to 30 August 2018 Second semester/Third Years

Introduction to Reservoir Engineering


Content
• Reservoir Engineering
• Role of reservoir Engineering
• Significant of Reservoir Engineering to other disciples
• Reservoir , Reservoir Rock, Pressure and Temperature
• Geological Control on Reservoir Properties and Performance

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Reservoir Engineering

The Main purpose of Reservoir engineering is economic optimization of


the development and production of hydrocarbon reservoirs. This requires most
representative solutions to the following aspects:

• Quantity of hydrocarbon in place

• Recoverable hydrocarbons reserves

• Rate of exploitation (Investment, operation, development)

The determination of these three quantities is the core of reservoir engineering.

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Reservoir Engineering
General Purpose of Reservoir engineering :

• An understanding of the nature of rock-fluid interactions in the reservoir

• An understanding of the complex displacement of fluids within the reservoir

• Development of a flow model for the reservoir, consistent with geological data,
rock and fluid property measurements and past performance characteristics

• Prediction of future recoveries

• Development of processes and methods for improved recovery of hydrocarbons


from the reservoir

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Reservoir Engineering
…………. General Purpose of Reservoir engineering :

• have an understanding of the geology and geological processes that gave rise to the
reservoir

• be familiar and fluent with fluid mechanics principles and mathematical methods
required for solving flow problems

• be familiar of thermodynamic principles

• have broad engineering skills – computers, electrical, mechanical, chemical, materials


etc…..

• MOST IMPORTANTLY – A “good” reservoir engineer should be open to applying


technology borrowed from other areas of engineering and scientific activity.

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Reservoir Engineering
………. General Purpose of Reservoir engineering :
• Determination of petrophysical properties of reservoir rocks
• Work in conjunction with geologists, geophysicists to identify reservoir
envelope
• Material balance calculations for identifying reservoir drive mechanisms,
hydrocarbon in place
• Reservoir flow simulation of complex displacement scenarios
• Making reservoir management decisions
• Design and analysis of new and advanced processes for improved oil
recovery
• Pressure data
• Formation fluid content data
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Role of Reservoir Engineering

 To continuously monitor the reservoir and collect relevant


data and interpret it , using equations and correlation, so that
movement of fluids through the reservoir can be:

• Determined (present conditions)

• Estimated (future conditions)

• controlled

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Role of Reservoir Engineering -Data Acquisition


The importance of data acquisition, starting at the exploration / appraisal phase and
continuing through the full life cycle of the field, cannot be over stressed and the
reservoir engineer should play a major role in deciding what information should be
gathered and when.
The main areas of involvement of the reservoir engineer during exploration and
appraisal will generally be in the design of:

**logging programs **coring programs


**fluid sampling programs ** pressure (well) test programs

In addition to these activities, during field development the reservoir engineer will
also be involved in ensuring quality data is obtained from:

**pressure surveys **production monitoring


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Role of Reservoir Engineering - Field Development


Activities
Typically, for a reservoir engineer working on a new field development, a broad task list would be:

estimate the volume of hydrocarbons in place


determine the likely recoverable reserves via a production
A reservoir engineer’s
profile that relies on, at least, a basic field development plan
job description will
confirm the economic viability of the development invariably have both a
 review / rework / optimize technical and a
commercial
monitor the actual production
dimension.
model the performance of the reservoir
review / rework / optimize
review / rework / optimize

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Significant of Reservoir Engineering to other disciples


It is generally agreed that Petroleum Engineering, in the main, comprises the disciplines
of Reservoir Engineering and Production Technology. Since Drilling and Well Engineering
work very closely with Petroleum Engineers during some critical phases of development
it is not uncommon for some of these specialists to be referred to as Petroleum
Engineers.

The other scientists and specialists who work closely with Petroleum Engineers are
Petrophysicists, Production Geologists and Economists. It should be noted that only the
Reservoir Engineer is involved throughout the entire life cycle of a field following its
discovery. All the other disciplines are only called upon during certain phases of field
development.

On the grander scale, Petroleum Engineering interfaces with Exploration and Front-end
Engineering, the latter being the lead-in to General Engineering.
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Significant of Reservoir Engineering to other disciples

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Significant of Reservoir Engineering to other disciples

As previously noted, the reservoir


engineering discipline is involved
from the early stages of
development all the way through
to abandonment. This will
necessarily involve maintaining
and updating plans and forecasts,
further emphasizing the reservoir
engineer’s central role in
development.

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Reservoir

A reservoir is a porous and permeable subsurface formation containing hydrocarbon


accumulation. For a reservoir to be commercially exploitable, three basic requirements
must be fulfilled:

• Sufficient void space generally called porosity to store oil and gas.

• Adequate connectivity, i.e. permeability to allow hydrocarbon fluids movement


over large distances under pressure gradients.

• Accumulation in a trap with cap rock, which should prevent upward migration of
the oil and gas.

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Reservoir

Accumulation of oil and gas in a reservoir


(After “Reservoir and Production Fundamentals”, Schlumberger, 1982)
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Reservoir Rock
These rocks are generally sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary rocks are rocks made up of sediments formed at
the earth’s surface by debris or chemical precipitations. Sedimentary rocks are classified into two groups:
clastic (the rocks of detrital origin) and non-clastic (sediments of biochemical or chemical precipitate
origin.)

NOTICE :- Sandstone reservoirs are the widest spread hydrocarbon pools.


The most prolific hydrocarbon bearing carbonates are highly fractured.

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Reservoir Rock
TRAPS
The trap is the place where oil and gas are barred from further movement. The traps can be classified as:

Structural trap: oil and gas accumulation Structural trap: oil and gas accumulation
in a dome structure in an anticline

(After “Reservoir and Production Fundamentals”, Schlumberger, 1982)


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Reservoir Rock
TRAPS
……. The traps can be classified as: Combination traps

Combination traps formed by a change


Combination traps associated with salt dome
in permeability

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Reservoir Pressure
Reservoir pressure is a dominant variable condition that affects every petroleum
reservoir. It is in the form of stored and available energy. It is one of the most
important parameters of reservoir engineering calculations.

The fluids confined in the pores of the reservoir rock occur under certain degree of
pressure, generally called reservoir pressure, fluid pressure or formation pressure.

The original pressure can be measured directly only by the first producing the well
drilled into the reservoir, for the pressure begins to decline as soon as oil and gas are
withdrawn.

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Reservoir Pressure
The normal pressure distribution from surface through a reservoir structure is shown below:

NOTICE :-
Abnormal pressures can occur, when some part of the overburden load is transmitted to the formation fluids.
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Reservoir Temperature
The average reservoir temperature is needed for :

 laboratory analyses carried at reservoir conditions.

 Determining reservoir fluid properties such as


viscosity, density, formation volume factor, and gas in
solution.

 Determining reservoir rock-fluid interaction properties


like capillary, relative permeability and resistivity
measurements.

 EOR techniques such as chemical ,miscible processes


and heat injection (Steam / in-situ combustion).
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Reservoir Temperature
Reservoir temperature is usually measured at
the bottom of the well or wells in a reservoir
using a wireline temperature measure.

If a variation in temperature is detected


across a reservoir after correcting for depth,
an average value can be used for the
constant reservoir temperature.

Notice :-
 Hydrocarbon during primary recovery is
an isothermal process.
 hydrocarbon during steam recovery is not
an isothermal process.

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Geological control on reservoir properties and performance

TEXTURE :The rock texture is related to those properties of rocks that concerns with grain to grain
relations. Some of these properties are chemical composition, grain shape, grain roundness, grain size,
sorting and grain orientation. The rock texture influence porosity, permeability, and the interstitial water
saturation.

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Geological control on reservoir properties and performance


Grain size : has remarkable influence on irreducible water saturation:

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POROSITY
Porosity of a rock is the ratio of the pore volume to the bulk volume. In hydrocarbon reservoirs,
the pore volume is the space available for oil, gas and water storage.

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PERMEABILITY
Permeability is a measure of the capacity of formation to transmit fluids.

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SATURATION

Fluid saturation is defined as the fraction of pore volume occupied by a particular fluid.

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WETTABILITY
 Wettability is defined as the tendency of one fluid to adhere or spread on a solid
surface in presence of other immiscible fluids.

 The spreading tendency is expressed by measuring the angle of contact at the


liquid-solid interface. This angle is called the contact angle θ.

Wettability has profound influence on distribution of fluids in the porous media


and affects the ultimate recovery.
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CAPILLARY PRESSURE
Capillarity is the rise or depression of
liquids in a fine tube resulting from
surface tension and wetting
preferences.

An important application of


capillary pressure data
relates to the fluid distribution
in a virgin reservoir. The
capillary pressure - saturation
data can be converted into
height –saturation relation
ship.
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Things I learned
Things I confirmed
Question I still have

Be ready next lecture

with my best wishes

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