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SHORTCUT ON
CODING-DECODING

This Chapter is taken from our Book:

ISBN : 978-9386146984
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Chapter

4 Coding-Decoding
INTRODUCTION Pattern 2:
In this segment of commonsense Coding in backward sequence.
reasoning, secret messages or words EXAMPLE 2. If ‘NAME’ is coded as
have to be decoded. They are coded as ‘MZLD’, then how will code 'SAME'?
per a definite pattern/ rule which should Sol. Here, every letter of the word
be identified first. Then the same is ‘MZLD’ moves one place in
applied to decode another coded word. backward alphabet sequence. Let us
see:
TYPE-1 CODING BY LETTER N A M E
SHIFTING –1 –1 –1 –1

Pattern 1: M Z L D
Similarly, every letter of the word
Coding in forward sequence ‘SAME’ will move one place in
backward alphabet sequence. Let us
EXAMPLE 1. If ‘GOOD’ is coded as see :
‘HPPE’, then how will you code ‘BOLD’? S A M E
Sol. Here,every letter of the word –1 –1 –1 –1
‘GOOD’ shifts one place in forward
alphabetical sequence. R Z L D
\ Code for ‘SAME’ will be ‘RZLD’.
G O O D
Pattern 3:
+1 +1 +1 +1
Coding based on skipped sequence.
H P P E
EXAMPLE 3. If the word ‘FACT’ is
Similarly, every letter in the word
‘BOLD’ will move one place in coded as ‘IDFW’; then how will you code
‘DEEP’?
forward alphabetical sequence as
Sol. Here, every letter of the word shifts
given below:
three place in forward alphabetical
B O L D order.
+1 +1 +1 +1 F A C T
C P M E
+3 +3 +3 +3

\ Code for ‘BOLD’ will be ‘CPME’. I D F W


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Similarly, ‘DEEP’ can be coded. Let
EXAMPLE 5. If ‘TEMPERATURE’ is
us see :
coded as ‘ERUTAREPMET’, then how
D E E P will you code ‘EDUCATION’ following
+3 +3 +3 +3 the same scheme.
Sol. Here, the word ‘TEMPERATURE’
G H H S has been reversed. Hence, the code for
\ Code for ‘DEEP’ will be ‘GHHS’. ‘EDUCATION’ will be ‘NOITACUDE’.
q Shortcut Approach TYPE 4 : CODING IN FICTION
• Observe alphabets given in the LANGUAGE
code carefully.
In some cases of coding-decoding,
• Find the sequence it follows
fictions language is used to code some
whether it is ascending/descending words. In such questions, the codes for
• Detect the rule in which the a group of words is given. In such types
alphabets follow. of problems, codes for each word can be
• Fill the appropriate letter in the found by eliminating the common words.
blank given.
EXAMPLE 6. In a certain code
TYPE-2 : CODING BY language ‘over and above’ is written as
SUBSTITUTION ‘da pa ta’ and ‘old and beautiful’ is written
as ‘Sa na pa’. How is ‘over’ written in
In this coding, some words are replaced that code language?
by some substituted words and on the
basis of substituted word the code is Sol. Over and above ® da Pa ta
derived.
Old and beautiful ® Sa na Pa
EXAMPLE 4. If 'cages' are called
Clearly, ‘and’ is common in both and
'rockets', 'rockets' are called 'traps', a common code is ‘Pa’.
'traps' are called 'planets', 'planets' are \ Code for ‘and’ must be ‘Pa’.
called 'aeroplanes', 'aeroplanes' are Code for ‘over’ = ‘da’ or ‘ta’.
called 'cycles' are cycles' are called Code for above = ‘da’ or ‘ta’.
'cars', what is Earth Code for old = ‘Sa’ or ‘na’
(a) Cycles (b) Rockets Code for beautiful = ‘Sa’ or ‘na’
(c) Planet (d) Aeroplanes \ We can’t certainly say what will
(e) Cars be exact code for ‘over’. But it is
Sol. Earth is a planet and here planets sure that code for ‘over’ must be
are called aeroplanes. So, earth will either ‘da’ or ‘ta’.
be called aeroplanes.
q Shortcut Approach
TYPE-3 : CODING BY
• Firstly, write the words and their
REVERSING LETTERS codes as given in the question in
In this coding, all letters of a word has straight line with an arrow in
been reversed. middle.
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• Now, find the common words and EXAMPLE 8. In a certain code 3 is
their corresponding codes. coded as ‘R’, 4 is coded as ‘D’, 5 is coded
• Encircle each pair with the same as ‘N’, 6 is coded as ‘P’, then find the
code for ‘53446’.
shape.
Sol. As per the given condition
• Finally, we have each word and
its corresponding code. 3 4 5 6
R D N P
TYPE-5 : CODING BASED
5 3 4 4 6
ON NUMBERS Now,
N R D D P
Pattern 1:
\ Code for 53446 = NRDDP.
When numerical values are given to words.
TYPE-6 : MATHEMATICAL
EXAMPLE 7. If in a certain language OPERATIONS WITH THE
A is coded as 1, B is coded as 2. C is POSITION NUMBERS OF
coded as 3 and so on, then find the code LETTERS
for AEECD.
Sol. As given the letters are coded as EXAMPLE 9. In a certain code, if
below: ‘TALE’ is written as 38, then how will
you code ‘CAME’ using the same coding
A B C D E F G H I scheme?
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Sol. Look at the numbered alphabet
and write down the number
corresponding to the letters of the
A E E C D
word ‘TALE’.
Now, 1 5 5 3 4
T A L E
\ Code for AEECD = 15534 20 1 12 5
The fact that the code for ‘TALE’ is
q Shortcut Approach
38, gives you a clue that the code is
• First you have to observe the probably obtained by performing an
number code. arithmatical operations of the
• Now, notice the position of numbers of each other. Let us see :
number. 20 + 1 + 12 + 5 = 38
• Search the common pattern. Thus, the code for ‘CAME’ is

Pattern 2: C A M E
3 + 1 + 13 + 5 = 22
When alphabetical code value are given
for numbers. \ Code for ‘CAME’ = 22
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Remember Matrix I
• If the letters in the code look the 0 1 2 3 4
same as in the original text, it will be 0 I A U E O
a scramble type coding. 1 E U O A I
2 O A I E U
• If more than one codes are given
3 E U A O I
then likely the required code can be
4 E I O A U
drived from the question itself and
you will not need to solve it Matrix II
mathematically. 5 6 7 8 9
• If the code for a word is a one digit 5 K R L M N
number then likely the position of 6 M R K N L
the letters are added and the digits 7 K N M L R
are summed up until the one digit 8 M L K R N
number is arrived at. 9 N R L K M
1. MONK
TYPE-7 : MATRIX CODING
(a) 58, 33, 67, 98
In this type of questions two matrices (b) 65, 02, 59, 67
are given. In each matrix there are 25 cells (c) 65, 04, 89, 75
and these cells contain two classes of (d) 65, 20, 89, 68
alphabets. The columns and rows of Sol.
matrix I are numbered from 0 to 4 and
A ® 01, 13, 21, 32, 43
that of matrix II from 5 to 9. A letter from
E ® 03, 10, 23, 30, 40
these matrices can be represented first
by its row number and next by its column I ® 00, 14, 22, 34, 41
number. For example. ‘A’ Can be O ® 04, 12, 20, 33, 42
represented by 32 or 43. U ® 02, 11, 24, 31, 44
K ® 55, 67, 75, 87, 98
EXAMPLE 10. L ® 57, 69, 78, 86, 97
Directions: In each of the following M ® 58, 65, 77, 85, 99
questions find out the correct set of N ® 59, 68, 76, 89, 95
number pairs for the given word from the R ® 56, 66, 79, 88, 96
two matrices given above. So, 65, 04, 89, 75 is correct

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Practice Exercises with Hints & Solutions – P-24-34


Chapter Test – C-7- 8

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