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WOODamagazine April2002,lssue141


46 contemporaryW stand
Letthisprojectprovidea handsome
homefor yourelectronics.

50 model speedboat

60 build-to-suitpergola
Shadeyourdeck,patio,or yardwith
thispleasing structure.
E 66 how to installposts
- Learnthe tricksbuildersuseto locate
andset postsin the ground.
(L 68 arbor/swingcombo
o summer
Planfora relaxing withthis
72 deluxe deck-railing system
Planter-boxcolumnsand tough mate-
I rials make for lasting beauty.
,i.,ir I
80 on-wall trellis
Combine 2x2sandlatticeto createa
forclimbing plants.

92 glass-domed snack tray

f4 Serve thisplate,
cheeseboard,and knife handle.

96 10waysto tablesawsuccess
Make your tablesawthe best it can be
with these shop-smarttricks.



U 7lq" circularsaws
We test the power, performance,and
featuresof eight competingmodels.

4 wood close-up:baldcypress
il how to craft cutlery handles
Checkout the resultsof threestaffers
who usedmail-order knifekits.
90 who built LadyLiberty?
See the role wood playedin the con-
structionof our most famous statue.


6 editor'sangle
I talkingback
12 greatideas:rip-fencesaddle
Machinebridlejoints, open morlises,and
tenonswith this handyjig.

14 short cuts
1 6 shopskills:step-building
Learnthe guidelines
2. joinery:mark with precision
24 talkingshop:glassshelving
26 how dry shouldwood be?
32 askwooD
36 shoptips
100 outdoorproductsrcsourceguide
101 prcductsthat perform
111 wood anecdote:coffeetree
112 what'saheadin our next issue
Better Homes and Gardensa (ISSN-0743-894X)is published
l-OOOa- magazine nine times a year in
I:!r,rly,Jvlarch...April,_May/June, ^July/Auqust,seplemlg1 octo'ber,
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changesro Befter Hotnesand Gardens wooD magazine,p.o. Box 37439,Boone, IA 50037-0439.

WOOD magazine April 2002

Better llomes and Gardenso

editortsanete w0CID.
April2002o vol.19,No.3 o lssue

Sorne special people Projects

DesignEditorKEVIN B0YLE

you ought to know Master

lf you'vevisitedour onlinedis- Don Sindledecker,Ketchikan, AK, TIMCAHILL, MIKEMITTERMEIER
hostat Inrge
cussiongroupsyou know how Technical
Jim Frye, Toledo, OH, hostat large KIRKHESSE, GARRY SMITH
muchwoodworkingwisdom Jim Becker,New Hope, PArtoolbuying
can be gainedby tuningin to Willy Driscoll, Surrey, BC, ArtDirector
woodworking plansfinder Assistant
them.That exchangeof infor- Jamie Downing, West DesMoines,IA, PublisherMARKHAGEN
333N.MichiganAve., 1500,
mationwouldn'tbe possible downloadableplan support Chicago,
Jim Kull, McKinney, TX, SalesAssistant.
withoutthe helpof thesededi- finishing and refinishing
MailResponse ManagerCAR0LYN DAKIS
cated readers. Phil Brennion, Chino Yalley, LZ, AccountExecutive
woodturning AccountExecutive
149 Fax:248/356-8930
think I speakfor everyoneon the staff Kathy Hutton, Dubuque, IA, AccountExecutive
lwhen I saythat the bestpart of working scrollsawing Northeast,
Southeasl: Dempsey& Dennis,
atWOOD magazineis producinga publi- RossCanant, Greenville, TX, ol.dtools 2951PiedmontRd,,NE, 100,
Suite Atlanta,
cationfor readerswho are so passionate RussellFloyd, Jericho, VT, Phone. -5400Fax4041261
4041261 -5404
abouta subjectmatter.If there'sa group woodworkingplnnsfinder GroupMarketingDirector
Phone: -7178 Fax.2121551
2121551 -7192
of peoplewho enjoy their craft and pursue Doug Mount, PeachtreeCity, GA, Senior
it with morezealthanwoodworkers,I'd homeimprovement GrouP
p ublishe
like to meetthem. Tim Rundal[ DesMoines,IA, Associate Business
Director FEAR
So it's no surprisethat thousands of woodcaming Senior Product
woodworkerssharetheir knowledge,and Consumer Marketing
seekit from others,by activelypartici- To learn more abouttheseenthusiastic Consumer Marketing
Manager DAVE
patingin our Internetdiscussiongroups woodworkers,and seetheir pictures,go VicePresidenVPublishing
at The I I groups to and click on MEREDITHPUBTISHING GR()UP
covereveryareaof woodworking,and President
WOOD TALK. And while you're there,
GroupPresident JERRYKAPTAN
the talk can get ratherlively, the view- don't forgetto add your two centsto one GrouoSalesMICHAEL BROWNSTEIN
pointsprettystrong.I've alwaysfound it or moreof the discussions.We'll be Creative
fun and informational. expectingyou. Manufacturing
The discussions arehostedby a corpsof Consumer Marketing
dedicatedvolunteersfrom acrossNorth
America.They monitorthe conversations,
I conponnrroru

lend a helpinghandto needywoodwork- WlLtlAMT. KERR.

lll, Chairman
of the Executive
ers,andyes,they stepin from time to time
OCopyrightMeredithCorporation 2002
to keepthingscivil. If a participantraises All rightireserved.
Printedin theU.S.A.
Customer Service Information: For service on your sub-
a concernthat requiresthe immediate scription, including change of address, contact us at
attentionof one of our editors,they alert or call 800/374-9663.
Subscription mailing address: Better Homes and Gardens
us to it. They do thesethingsbecausethey WOOD magazine,P.O. Box 37439, Boone, IA 50037-0439.
Pleaseenclose your addresslabelfrom a recentissue.Editorial
love woodworkingand sharinginforma- mailing address:The Editor, WOOD magazine,l7 l6 Locust
tion. For that,I would like to acknowledse Street.GA3l0. Des Moines. IA 50309-3023.For ouestions
on editorial, questionsabout how to reachan advertiser,or to
them here.Someof thesefolks have pface an advertisementin our magazinecall 800/374-9663.
To order back issuescall E00/346-9663.Article reprints, send$5
expertisein specificareas,andI've listed per article (no phoneorders),includeissueand nameof article,to
thoseafter their hometown. 7"!A{^^Dv WOOD Article Reprint Service, P.O. Box 349, Kalona, [A
52247, checkor moneyordermadepayableto WOOD magazine.
,o ilrr
WOOD rnagazine April 2002
talkin back
Ourbulletin andtimelyupdates

Increase the performance Drilling for quarters

Yourframeddisplaycasefor commemo-
of your cyclone rativestatequartersis a drop-dead
I downloaded the plansfor the projectthat l'm surelotsof peoplewill
cyclonedustcollector fromyourWeb wantto make("OurCountryin Quarters"
site,and builtit prettymuchas i n i s s u e1 3 1 ) .
shown.My only departureswere a You specifyusinga 1" Forstnerbit to
2-hpblowerand feltfilterbags. drillthe %o"-deepholesfor the quarters.
At the end of a 4' lengthof duct Neutral And becausethis resultsin a loosefit,
vane you say to use a removableadhesive
connectedto the cyclone'sinlet,I
measuredan air flow of 350 cfm. underneathto keepthe quartersnice
Afterinstallinga "neutralvane" and aligned.Well,thiswillwork,but why
insidethe cyclone,shownon not save yourselfthe trouble?| used a
r5lro"Forstnerbit to drillmy holesand
Drawing1, the flow increasedto
525 cfm. This is a significant then "punched"the quartersin place
increasein performancefor such with a 3/+"dowel.The fit is perfect.No
a simplemodification, and is well adhesiverequired!
-Tom Epps,Denver
worthtrying out.
-John Dillbeck,ShellKnob,Mo. E nnootFtcATloN
Another reader recently called usfor advice on building the cyclone, and described
the same sort of deflector inside an old cyclone that was once part of a piece of farm
machinery. Perhaps they knew something we didn't when we designed our cyclone.
It wouldn't be too dfficult to retrofit an existing cyclone in this manner. But better
yet, incorporating a similar detail in a new cyclone would simplify its construction.
Whenforming the teardrop-shape cutout in the cyclone's cylinder (H), leave three
tabs around its perimeter, where shown on Drawing 2. Bend the tabs into the cylin-
der, and trim the end of the inlet duct (l) at an
angle so it clears the outlet duct. Insert the inlet
and pop-rivet the tabs to it, where shown on Thanks, Tom,for your suggestion,but we
Drawing 3. Seal around the inlet/cylinderioint on would sound a note of caution. Force fit-
the outsi.dewith caulk ting a quarter into alsha" hole might split
one of the states like West Virginia or
, Tennesseewhere the coin recesscomes
I very close to its edge. Even if you got a
^YftLeave.r,,rabsto t quarter into Texas or Arizona without

--------t.--"/ ; splitting it, seasonal wood shrinkage

attach PartQ' ' woulcl probably do the job.
: What nmy be the perfect solution comes
@ from Rockler Woodworking and
: Hardware. Anticipctting a needfor dis-
: playing these comntemorative quarters,
I they are selling a special quarter-size
; (.995") carbide-tipped Forstner bit (cata-
: Iog no. 26057) for $21.99. To order one,
EI CYI.IIVDER-NEW E IruWT-NEWOPTION ' call 800/279-4441.
Continued on page l0

WOOD magazine April 2002

Footbridge is short a couple of spindles 36
I justfinishedmaking thegarden foot- drawings
bridge featured
in issue133,andam follow.I'ma rookieat thissoftof thing,
extremely happywiththewayit turned andI wantto thankyouforthewonder-'sbetterlookingthanthepictures. ful,constructive
hoursI spenton this
Thereare,however, a coupleof cor- project.Thisbridgeis thecenterpiece of
rections thatshouldbe noted.TheRail my backyard.
Holesdrawingon page43 showsholes -Tom Mateer,Naperville,
for 16spindles on eachside.Thepho-
tographs andBridgeSidesdrawingon Thanksfor your compliments,Tom,and
page46 show18spindles. Also,theRail you're right about the spindleholesand

P-,"f; f'.:'sxsi
EndandCenterMountsdrawingon the centermounts.Seethe drawings,
page44 impliesthat the below and ight for the corrections. HB E
;d Y',?B
bottomends of both the end
No screwsin shadedareas
mounts(l) and the center 411q" 613/ro 6 1 3 / ro 41|c" ,,
Bottomrail@ 1 holes
mounts(J) have a 15o L 21/q"deep,drilled
bevel.Only the end mounts 41/q"on center
needthe bevel,The center
mountsare cut square.
Asidefrom thesetwo Center
rail@ No screwsin shadedareas
items,your instructions
and 45"

Buying guide revised Not untilrecently.Some good friends Wehopeso too, John,and thanksfor
for the arched-top clock of mine were aboutto move intotheir writing. Just to underscoretlrcpoint,
Pleasenotethe revisions. indicated dream retirementhome,whichwas stainingragsaren't the onlypotential
belowin red type,to the almosttwo years in the buildingand on problem. Ragssoakedwith drying oils,
BuyingGuidefor the whichthey were puttingthe finishing suchas boiledlinseedoil and Danish-oil
arched-topclockin touches.The weekendbeforethey were finishes,arejust asprone to spontaneous
i s s u e1 3 8 . to move in, fire totallydestroyedtheir combustionif not handledproperly.
Brrying Grride new home.The cause?A pile of wet Don't takechances.Neverrellt on "air-
trrass KnoDs n0. stainingragsaccidentallyleft on the tight" containers.Lay out (or hang up to
39500, $1.25 each(4); wood floor. dry as shown,left)any ragsor paper
5%"-diameter press-in
clockmovement no, I hope this letterwill hit home with towelsyou've usedto apply thesefinishes.
15343, $11,95.Order your readersand save someoneelse
fromKlockit, P,0.Box from such a tragicaccident.
636,LakeGeneva, Wl -John R. Good,Kewanee,
53147, orcall800/556- lll, Write Us!
2548,orgoto Doyouhavecomments, criticisms,
www.klockit,com. tions,or maybe evena compliment specifically
relatingto an articlethatappeared in
W00b magazine? Pleasewriteto:
Don't fet youS drearn home TalkingBack
go up in s'moke W00Dmagazine
l'ma regular
readerof WOODa, andI Des Moines,lA flX109-3{f23
havereadyourfrequent cautionsabout
therightwayto storepotentially
com- Dueto the volumeof lettersande-mailswe
andsupplies. receive,wecanrespondto andpublishonly
Butyourgoodadviceneverreallyhit thoseof thegreatestinterestto ourreaders.

10 WOOD magazine April 2002

great ideas for your shop

An inerq)ensive,shop-built jig for
top-notch machining and joinery

uild this auxiliary wood fence and Positioned to cen-

mating saddleto bevel-cutthe post ter the workpiece
over the dado
capsfor the pergolaon page 61, or blade, the jig is
build it for supportingstilesandotherwork- the perfect setup
piecesasshownin thephotoat right.Use for machiningbri-
dle joints or open
onehandto pushthe saddleandworkpiece mortises and the
acrosstheblade,andyourotherhandto mating tenons.
keepthe saddleriding firmly on theauxil-
iary fence.Wax thematingpiecesif neces-
saryfor easysliding.

Note: Our auxiliaryfence is screwed

securelyto our metal tablesawrip fence,
withthe top edgeof thefencesittingI"
abovethe top edgeof the metalfence. The
awriliaryfence mustbe 90" to the saw
table.Sizeyour woodfenceso the saddle
3/+xBx 8" plywood 1
rides smoothly,withoutfree play, along
the top edgeof the auxiliaryfence. *
3/+x2x8" stock
lllustration:Roxanne LeMoine; Tim Gahill
Photograph:Baldwin Photography

3/cx 11h x 8" stock

Tablesawrip fence

to rip fence


WOOD magazine April 2002

short cuts

A touching tribute Seen here with Diablo

woodworking club
fromAmericats members, founder of
woodworking clubs WUFA Phil Cullen (mid-
dle row, second from
After the tragediesof September11,2001, right) has received the
nod to make the flag
peopleacrossthe country askedwhat they
case for the chief of the
could do to help. In SanRamon, FDNY who lost his life
California,just eastof SanFrancisco,a on September11.
woodworkernamedPhil Cullen hatched
an ideathat took hold in severalwood- contactedkey officials at the Pentagon
working clubs acrossAmerica.The idea: and spokewith membersof otherwood-
build flag casesfor the families of police working clubs." In no time, the ideagrew
officers,firefighters,and otherswho lost into a nationwideorganizationthat is
their lives from the terrorists'acts. referredto asWoodworkersUnited for
At that point, Phil e-mailedhis idea to America (WIJFA).
severalwoodworkingclubsto seeif they Phil's local Diablo woodworkingclub,
were up to building the needednumberof above,pitchedin andmade60 cases;
Membersof the DesMoineswoodwork-
flag cases.As Phil describesit, the otherclubs,suchasthe DesMoines ing club showoff theirflag cases.This
responsewas both instantand impressive. WoodworkersAssociation,right, and batchis slatedfor the familiesof those
"GeorgeDuBois from the Guild of otherIowa clubs mademore than 50 lost in the Pentagon.DickMeuler(center
right)headedup the effortin lowa.
OregonWoodworkersvolunteeredto be cases.Clubs from practicallyevery state
the nationalcoordinatorof the effort. He in the country,includingAlaskaandHawaii, volunteeredtheir woodworkingtalents
andtime.And becauseof the tasksize.the
Want to help? Contact the WUFA regional representative nearest you. work continues.And that'sto saynothing
r George DuBois,503/365-7636
ffi LarryRine,8151577
-1307 of the distributionlogistics.Solicitedcom-
paniesfrom aroundthe country alsoare
n BillTarleton,
btarl@attbi,com 6 Mickey Hudspeth,770l441-9202
doingtheir part by donatingglass,wood,
and flags to help the woodworkingclubs.
3 workersunitedforamerica,org dmeuler@wood-
m Al K.Spitzer
Thoughthe constructionof the triangu-
lar casesvariesfrom club to club. the
' 4 ' EarlAshurst,9721727-3542eashurst@wood
r JohnE.Mielcarski,3151476-6571
basicplan (found on the Internetat
703/490-8103 calls for sidesthat measure t/qx33/axl8s/q"
I yar_rolyat@hotmai
and a z/qx3t/qx26Vz" base.Sideendsare
miteredat22Vz' and45",andheld togeth-
er with splines.Groovesin the sidesand
basekeepthe glassin place,while a ply-
wood back fits into rabbetededgesand
screwsoff to hold a folded flag inside
(typically, one that is 5x8' or 5x9Vz').
If you, too, would like to help WUFA,
whetheryou are a woodworkingclub
memberor not, contactthe nearestregion-
al representative usingthe map at left. For
more info, log onto their Web
Photographs:Chris Kammeyer;
Baldwin Photography

WOOD magazine April 2002

develop your shop skills

steip builtrrrg
Get off the ground one step at a time with a
framing square and these tricks of the trade.

deckbuilt closeto the ground,like Measurefrom the top of the deck sur-
the one shownabove,givesyou faceto the ground.This numberis the Step building
an excellent chance to learn the total "rise" of the steps. by the numbers
skills of stepbuilding.You'll usethe same Now, you needto makesurethat each Here'san exampleof how to figurea
principlesthat apply to any run of steps, of the individualstepshasan equalrise. stair run for a low deck.In this case,the
but you canpracticethemwith small,eas- If one or more are off, vour feet will top of the deck is 26" abovethe ground.
ily handledpieces. feel the difference. 1. Dividethe total rise by your chosen
We'll showyou how to build stepswith Divide the total rise by the preferred riserheightof either6" or 7" (26 divided
openstringers,which supportthe treads rise of eachstepin inches---cither6 or by 6 = 4.33).
from underneath.Laying out these 7 will give you a comfoftablestep.The 2. Roundup or downto the nearest
stringersrequiresaccuratemeasurements resultprobablywill includedecimals, wholenumberto get the actualnumber
and a bit of arithmetic.After that, it's just so round it to the nearestwhole number of steps (4).
a matterof making basiccuts. to determinehow many stepsyou'll 3. Dividethe total rise by the numberof
build. Now, dividethe overallriseby stepsto get the actual rise per step (26
Figrrre the rise the numberof stepsto get the actual dividedby 4 = 6.5, or 6V"').
Take a look at the drawingsbelow to get rise per step.Seethe box at right for a You can add or subtracta step and
familiar with step-buildingterminology. typicalcalculation. dividethat numberintothe total rise if
Now let's get to the constructiondetails. you're not satisfiedwith the riserthat
Figrrre the run you calculatethe firsttime. lf you end
The total "run" is the horizontaldis- up with a risernumberthat'snot a
tancefrom the edgeof the deck to the wholenumberor standardfraction,one
bottom end of the stringers,as shownin riserwill be slightlydifferentthan the
t" the drawing.The run of an individual rest. Make it the first one at the bottom
.1 stepequalsthe width of the tread-l 1"
Stringer-_.//2 end of the stringer.
is typical. As for treadwidth,consider11" the
Continuedon page 18 standard.As you makeyour plans,
allowfor one lesstreadthan the num-
ber of risers.Becausethe stringer
The total run of a set attachesto the deck joist belowthe
of steps equals the
distance from the level of the deck surface,the deck itself
edge of the deck to servesas the top tread.
the point where the Beforeyou buy or rough-cutstringer
stringers rest on a
pad. The total rise is boards,calculatethe approximate
the distance from lengthyou'llneed.Add up all of the
pad to deck top. tread widthsto find the total run of the
Each step consists
of a riser and tread. steps. Use a tape measureto mark that
pointon the ground,then measurefrom
thereto the highestpointwherethe
stringerwill contactthe deckjoist.This
numberis the stringerlength.

16 WOOD rnagazine April 2002

develop your shop skills

The treadcanbe one wide boardor severalnanowerboards morecommonto fit thatriserboardunderthe tread,leavinga
with equalgapsin between.We useda pair of lV+xl%" com- 1" overhang.
positedeckingboardsto makeeachtread,or you canusepres- Figurethe approximatelengthof your stringers,asdescribedin
sure-treated2x lumber.To matchthe deckdesign,we attacheda the box on page 16, andmark the spotwherethey will sit on the
boardto eachsetof risercutsso that its top edgeservesaspart ground.Installa 4"-thick concretepadon a 4" gravelbaseto sup-
of the tread,as seenin the lower right photoon page20. lt's

Lay out the stringers

Now you're readyto lay out your stringersfor a two-step
assembly,as shownin the drawingsbelow.Choosestraight
2x12 lumber,anddraw your linesso that any
sienificantknotswill lie in the wasteareas.

gauge on the out-
side edge of the
square's long leg at
the number equaling
the run. The other EDrawasecondsetofriseandrun|ines,withthe
gauge goes on the lEflrise the previousrun lineat the
line intersecting
outside of the short
edgeof the board.Drawa third rise line,markits end point,
then extend the line across the board.
leg, at the number
equaling the rise.

starting from the end point.

your framingsquare
to mark the rise and
run. This will be the
top end of your

Thicknessof bottomplate
Thicknessof tread

@ il Hffi
:'3.?,lll J[i,:ffi,s'ili"l[*:"8;
the first tread. Then, mark the stringer's bottom end. Write
xxl'";fi i:
to mark the waste areas, shown here in a lighter color.
"pattern" on your first stringer, and trace around it to lay out
each of your other stringers.
Continuedon page 20

1B WOOD magazine April 2002

develop your shop skills

Cut and assemble the steps

Follow the techniquesoutlinedbelow to completethe steps.
Use stainless-steel screwsthroughoutto avoid rust or corrosion
problems.Make your stepsat least3'wide for safety,and useat
least three sffingers,evenly spacedfor full supportunderfoot.
For wider steps,you'll needto usemore stringers.Make the
spacing24" or less.

For open steps, let the treads overhang the stringers by
about 1" at each end. We made each tread with two boards of
G#ICUT THE STRINGER: Mount a coarse-toothed
the same composite material that covers the deck. Attach
your layout lines. Always keep the blade on the waste siOe of each board with two screws in each stringer.
the line. At the inside corners, stop when the leading edge of
the saw blade reaches the perpendicular line. Use a handsaw
or jigsaw to finish the cuts.

THE STRUCTURE: Attach a 2x12 base

cause tripping accidents, too. A single board nearly covered
Eplate to the bottom ends of the stringers with the gap in our steps. We used shims to coax the top edge
screws. Then, locate a2x12 backing plate at the top ends of flush with the next step, then fastened the board in place with
the stringers, where it serves as the final riser, and attach it a pair of screws into each stringer. lF
with screws. Set the assembly squarely in place atop your
concrete pad. Secure the entire unit in place with several 3" Photographs: BaldwinPhotography
deck screws through the backing plate and into the rim joist. lllustrations:

UIOOD magazine April 2002


rnark $zitfr O O

Top-quality joints depend on

layout lines that are accurate,
sharp, and easy to follow. Try
these tips in your workshop.

Measure by holding your rule on edge, and fit the pencil point into the
incised line. This method eliminates the slight inaccuracy that can result
from looking across the thickness of a rule lying flat on your workpiece.

ure, you shouldmeasuretwice

and cut once,but don't ignore
the crucial stepin between.
Mark thosemeasurements preciselyin
your questfor perfectjoints. Here are a
few basictools that will help you do
just that, along with sometips about
how to usethem.
Use a pencil for most markingjobs,
but make sureit's an accurateone.
Don't settlefor a flat carpenter'spen-
cil, or evena standardwriting pencil.
Their lines get wider and wider as you Make your mark with an arrow shape, like To draw a line after measuring a dimen-
the one shown here. When you take the sion, hold the pencil point on the tip of the
usethem.Get a good mechanicalpen- rule away, you'll still know the exact point arrow, then slide your square or rule until
cil, instead.We chosea model that that matched your measurement. The it contacts the pencil. This method
uses0.5 mm lead,which producesa longer leg denotes the waste side of the ensures that your line will match the point.
cut to be made through this point. Now, pull the pencil along the square.
nilrrow, consistentmark.
Marking knives comein handyat
times becausea sharpknife makesthe
finest line possible.However,remem-
ber that the cut can posea problemif
it's visible in your finishedproject.
Finally, equip your shopwith steel
rules and squaresthat haveincised
measurement lines.They'll be much
more accuratethan tools with painted-
on lines.Also, the incrementson your
variousmarking tools shouldmatch
one anotherexactly,so you can switch For a line parallel to an edge, place the Use a knife that's flat on one side and
tools without losing accuracy.Com- pencil at the correct spot, then adjust your beveled on the other to define a recessed
parethem to make sure.iF combination square to match. Put the area, such as a hinge mortise. The line
grooved side up, so the pencil won't slip will guide your chisel. This marking knife,
into the notch. Hold the pencil against the item number 127680 in the Woodcraft cat-
Photographs: Baldwin Photography square as you slide it along the edge. alog, costs $11.99. Call 8OOl225-1 153.

WOOD magazine April 2002

our project builderstalk shoP

lrrrying gfass=
Size,price, options-
what you need to know to be a smart shopper

hen we designedthe televi- Keep in mind, also, that thick-
sion standonpage 46,we er glassalwayscostsmore than
wanteda glasstop to comPle- thin glass.We could haveused
3/s"glassand savedaboutI0Vo Ogee
ment its clean,crisp lines and to highlight
the beautifulmapleand mahogany.Once of the cost, but we felt the Vz"

that decisionwas made,a whole rangeof
issuescameinto play. tops are also availablein V+",
3/+", and 1" thicknesses. Tell
Design with price and your supplier what weight the
1" Bevel
availabitity in rnind glassmust hold and the span
In our original plan, we sizedthe glass betweensupportsto determine
to fit the project. But, we were surprised the proper thickness.
by the almost$100 price tag from our
local supplier for the Vzx26x36"top Hold your
piece that the TV restson. We also ternper
plannedto make the stand'sadjustable Glass,of course,canbreak,and Chamfer
shelf from %" glass.Though smaller, the thoughtof a televisionor Grandma's
this piecewas almostas expensive.The china smashedatop shardsof broken glass
high price, we learned,was becauseboth isn't pleasant.That leadsmany peopleto "standard" profile for a tabletop. Most
pieceshad to be custom-cutto size. believe they needtemperedglassfor a supplierscan producethe custom edge
We turnedto a mail-orderglasssupplier tabletop.Temperedglassis four to five designsshown,and sometimesmore.
that offereda Vzx24x36"pieceof glassat times sffongerthan standard,but more Expectto pay at least50Vomorc for a
a much lower price: $66. So we modified expensive.Standardglasswill beara sur- customedgethan the standard-edge cost.
the standfor the 2"-narrowerpiece.The prising amountof weight-aVz" piece Ottr Vzx24x36"piecewith a 1" bevel
lesson:Justas with hardware,it's critical supportedevery two feet will bear about would havebeen$118.
to determinethe glassyou'll usebefore 80 poundsper squarefoot. SeeAsk Dependingon where your tabletop will
finalizing the designor cutting wood. WOOD in issue#137 for more informa- be located,you may want to consider
Norm Levine of WholesaleGlass tion. Also, tabletopsseldomare subjectto radiusedor cut corners,like thoseshown
Brokers(seethe Buying Guide below) heavyimpacts,so usestandardglass.Save below.Most suppliersoffer this service,
saysmany local glasssuppliersstockrel- the temperedglassfor doors,room with or without a customedgeprofile, and
atively small glasssheets.Often, the cut- dividers, and areassubjectto impacts. can ffim the cbrnersanywherefrom 1" to
offs from thesesheetsare too small to 6" for addedsafety.
be usedastabletops,so you maYend Add life to the edge If theseoptions aren't enough,
up essentiallypaying for the waste. Glassedgescan be finishedin a variety of round and oval tops are avail-
Lar:geglassretailers,suchashis, ways. Someof the common profiles are able,too. For a price, you can
buy very largeglasssheets.This shownabove.We chosea flat-polished get glasscut in almostany
resultsin lower cost,as one edgefor our televisionstand.This style, shapeimaginabte.i zu
sheetcan yield many small- or a flat-groundprofile (similar but lllustrations:
er pieceswith lesswaste. with a frostedappearance), is often the Tim Cahill

Buying Guide
Formore onglass
information write
Wholesale Ste.357,
Southfield, orcall800/288'6854,
WOOD magazine April 2002
wide world of wood

How dry should your

vvood fte?
How dry is dry when it
comes to woodworking
stock?That depends on
what you're planning to
build, as well as where
you'Il build it.

ood freshly cut from a log,

calledgreenwood, can con-
tain a lot of water.And the
amountoften variesbetweenthe heart-
wood and the sapwood.(Seethe chart on
page 28 for the greenmoisturecontentof To further reduce
somecommonlyusedwoods.)That's wood's moisturecontentand
becausewood is actuallya network of makeit fit for indoor use.sav for The advisable moisture content of wood
close-knitcells-like microscopicopen furniture,manufacturersdry it in an oven- used for interior projects varies due to
barrels-with spongelikewalls. These like facility calleda kiln. The dry heat changes in relative humidity. Let wood
acclimate to its surroundings before
cellshold andtransportthe tree'ssap,also slowly bringsthe wood'smoisturecontent cutting or assembly.
known asfree water. Someof the free down to anywherefrom 6 to 9 percent
water alsogetsabsorbed,saturatingthe (typical for hardwoodspnly). Those may shrink and check,split, warp,
cell walls and becomins.boundwater. percentages are more in line with the or causejoints to fail asit dries.
relativehumidity found in modernheated Commercialprocessors
Why rnoisture tmatters anddehumidified buildinss. delivering wood to the
As wood dries,it first losesthe free water furniture and floorins
to the atmosphere.The bound water, Where you live Continued on page 28
though,takeslongerto escape.(Think of a rnakes a differerlee
sponge.Wringing it out getsrid of the free Accordingto datacompiledby the U.S.
water,but the spongestaysdampuntil all ForestProductsLaboratoryGPL) in
the water escapesfrom its cell walls.) Madison,Wisconsin,the recommended
Moisturein the air influenceshow moisturecontentfor wood destinedfor
quickly and completelywood dries.The interior usevariesacrossthe
lower the relativehumidity, the more shownin the mapabove.For maximum
waterthe wood losesand the drier it gets. stability,the moisturecontentof such
Wood neverdriesout completely,but wood shouldvary only about I per-
eventuallyreachesan equilibriumpoint centfrom thoselimits. Wood
basedon the humidity of the air aroundit. that's too dry may expandand
Given the averagerelativehumidity of the make drawershard to open,
United States,air-driedwood can reacha or evenpushassemblies
minimum moisturecontentof only about apart.Woodthat's
12-15 percent.That's good enoughfor too moist. a much
boardsutilized in building construction more cornmon
and outdoorprojects. problem,
wide world of wood

industrygenerallydry wood to a moisture face,or cut a few inches hardwood species heartwood sapwood
Ash, white 95 113*
contentslightly lower than it will finally from one end and check the Hickory 70 52
encounter.This practiceassumesthat the end grain.Ask first; suppli- Maple, sugar 65 72
wood will take on somemoistureduring ers may frown on poking Oak, red 80 69
Walnut, black 90 73
furtherprocessingand consffuctionstages. holesin their stock.Pinless
metersare also available. softwood species heaftwood sapwood
for proiects that last, Always let your wood Gedar, red 58 249*
Fir, Douglas 37 115*
care io- yorrr wood acclimateto the relative Redwood 86 210*
If you're suspiciousof the moisturecon- humidity whereit will be
* Becausemoisturecontentis definedas the weightof the
tent of the wood you arebuying, askthe used,rememberingthat dry
supplierto checkit for you. It might pay wood will pick up moisture water expressedas a percentageof the wood's dry weight,
not the total greenweight,it oftenexceeds100 percent.
for you to buy a moisture meter (from $70 from the atmosphere.If it's
to $150),especiallyif you buy air-driedor for your home,stickerthe
rough-milledstock.With a meter,you can wood (stackit with wood spacers)for a into a project.As relativehumidity
checkwood's moisturecontentbeforevou week or more in an areawith the same changes,wood still absorbsand sheds
buy, and then track it at home. relativehumidity beforemachiningit. moisture.The bestway to minimize this
Most moisturemeterswork by passinga (Checka pieceof furniture in your home is to sealall surfacesof the completed
small electricalcunent betweensensor and compareit to your stockfor a bench- project,notjust the exterioror exposed
pins insertedabout Vq"into the wood. mark.) You alsocan storestockstanding parts,with a few coatsof finish. aF
More moisture ffansfersmore current, straightup, but neverput dry stock
Written by Peter J. Stephano
resultingin a higher percentagereading. directly on a concretefloor. lllustrationinformationprovided by the
For the most accuratereading,checksev- Don't think that wood movementstops U.S. ForestProducts Laboratory
Photograph:Baldwin Photography
eral locationsalongthe board'sedgeor onceboardsare machinedand assembled

28 WOOD magazine April 2002


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Answers fromletters,

Gut rno lree forming over the knots. Generally, a

sawmill doesn't saw boardsout of the
trefiore its lirnc middle of a big tree becausethe knots
fi About20walnuttreeswillbe start to show up."
Y taken out for a highway proiect Dan Johnson,with the U.S. Forest
in ourarea,thelargest beingabout12" Servicein Indiana, saysfederal hardwood
in diameter. Arethesetreestooyoung gradingcategoriesdon't go below an 11"
to salvage for lumber? diameter.He saysthe best time to harvest
wbW00DONLINEmost hardwoodtrees-including walnut,
oak, hickory, and cherry-is when they
You might get a few boardsout measure24" to 28" in diameterat breast It doesn'ttake much force to drive the
of them, Steve,but they're a long height. Growth slows after that. chuck out of your drill presswith a
-{t1,00Domagaine wedgeand a hammer.
way from their prime as lumber sources.
According to Joey Gallion, a forest machinist includes a hole at the wide end,
products specialistwith the Indiana then run a string or plastic tie through that
Departmentof Natural Resources,a I2"- Rernoving a chrrck hole, and hang the tool somewhereout of
diameterwalnut tree will contain a high takes rrlore than lrrck the way on your drill press.
proportion of light-colored sapwood,and 1|i NowI knowwhatthe"immov- Raisethe table until it almost touches
the heartwoodwill have a large number Y able obiect"reallYis-it's the the chuck, or have someonehold the
of knots. "Hardwood treeshave a lot of chuckon mydrillpress.I triedto chuck. Insert the narrow end of the tool
limbs in the beginning, then as those remove it so I couldinstalla mortising into the gap, and tap the wide end with a
limbs get shadedout and die, knots accessory, andhadnoluckwhatsoev- hammer,as shown in the photo above.
remain," Joey says."As the tree grows er.What'sthesecret?. That should force the chuck to drop out.
bigger, you get good-quality wood -Dave Goodman, Calif.
Carmichael, To reinstall the chuck, slide it firmly
back into the quill, place a board on the
Smallwatnuttrees produce Amazing how tight a Morse-taper table, and raise the table until the board
boardslike this one. connectioncan be, isn't it, Dave? contactsthe chuck. Open the belt housing
Insteadof clear,dark
heartwood,you Here's the right way to remove the typi- on top of the drill press,place a block of
get knots and cal drill-press chuck. Lower the quill, hardwoodon thg exposedend of the spin-
white sap- exposingthe slot in its side. Inside the dle, and tap it wittr a hammerto set the
slot, you'll seedaylight through a gap. chuck's Morse taperin place.
You should have receiveda tapered JrVOOD magazine
piece of steel with your drill press,a tool
that we've seenreferred to as a wedge rWhatts the key to
or drift key. If you don't have that staining end grain?
tool-it's the kind of item that f| | ambuilding anArtsandCratts
tendsto disappearover the Y mirrorframe outofquartersawn
years-ask your dealer whiteoak.I planto usea Watcodark
to get a replace- walnutfinish.Howdo I prepare
ment from the grain?Myexperience withotherwoods
manufacturer. is thattheendgraintendsto soakup
Or, go to a lotsof stainandgetmuchdarkerthan
machine shop thefacegrain.
and have one -Kevin Herber;
Sapwood made.Make sure the Continued on page 34

32 WOOD magazlne Aprit 2002

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I recommends limitingwooddustexposures. TheJDSAir-Tech 2000will
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variablespeed allowsyouto dialin yourdesired airflow,froma whisperquiet
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Anotherquoliv productfrom
tDs AIR-TECH 2000"

ask wood

I apply a one-poundcut of shellac

on the end grain.Anothergood
way is to usewhite glue mixed with
water and apply it on the end grain.

Take a pieceof scrapand sand

the end grain with sandpapera
coupleof gradesfiner than the sandpaper
you usedon the facegrain.Test stainit to
seehow well it matcheswith the face.
-Jim Green, Use sandpaperon your turnings, ratherthan burnishingwith shavings.Hold the
Calif. paper like this, to keep your fingers safe in case the paper catches on the wood,

We've heardthat too, Ron, but ings on one portion and used320 paper
To brrrnish or it's an old-timemethodthat's on the rest. "The resultswith sandpaper
rrot to brrrnish . . . beenmadeobsoleteby today'smateri- were far superiorto the shavings,"Alan
1|i Some woodturners
talkabout als. ProfessionalwoodturnerAlan Lacer reports.He found that the shavingscut
Y usinga handful
of shavings to says,"Turnersusedto do that to give the little groovesin the pine.They didn't
burnishtheirworkon the lathe.I've wood someluster,but that was before groovethe mapleas noticeably,but they
justfinisheda spalted-maple bowl,and we had 320-gritsandpaper."Out of didn't do much to improveit, either.
l'm wondering,whatarethe prosand curiosity,Alan experimentedwith a cou- If you really wantto burnisha turning,
consof thattechnique? ple of samples,onepine and one hard you couldusea roundbar of steel.
-Ron, yr,a
W00DONL|NEo maple.On eachpiece,he rubbedshav- However,Alan pointsout that anybur-

34 WOOD magazine April 2002

ask wood

nishedlook disappears the momentyou thengo aheadwith staining-if you're : wood afteryou applya smooth,consistent
applya liquid finish."And if you burnish seton usinga stain.(Skippingthe stain ot* finish to the table'
'take' and going directlyto a cleartopcoatof -vv00Dmagazine
it reallyhard,somestainswon't
very well," he says.Our advice:Forgetthe varnishor lacquerwould eliminatethe ,
burnishing,andjust concentrate on doing risk of a dark spot.) : Got a question?
a thoroughjob of sanding. When sucha spotappears, it's difficult ; lf you'relookingforananswertoa woodworking
-W00Domagazineto eliminate.You would haveto sandthe , question, writetoAskW000, 1716Locust
. GA310,DesMoines, lA50309-3023orsendus
entiresurfacebelow the extentof the Forimmedi-
i ane-mailat
damage,or hide it with fairly sophisticated; atefeedback post
Didntt like the dent, touch-uptechniques. The goodnews, i yorrquestion groups
ononeofourdiscussion at
really hates the spot accordingto Bob, is thatthe spotwill :
1|ri Whilebuildinga tableof hard appearto be a naturalcharacteristicof the
!| dentedthe
maPle,I accidentallY
top.I ironedout the dentwitha warm
all the gritsagainto 220,andsawno
evidence of scorching.ButwhenI
applieda colonialmaplestain,a black
spotappeared wherethe denthad
but can'tgetthe spotout.Whatcaused
this,andis thereanything elseI can
do to fix it?
-Ed Cloonan,

Soundslike you took all the right

steps,Ed, but the resultingdefect
is not uncommon.FinishingexpertBob
Flexnersaysthat steamingout a dent
"stretches"the wood fibersand makes
that spot softerthan the surrounding
wood.When you apply stain,sometimes
the repairedareasoaksup more colorant ,,h{
andbecomesdarker.It's impossibleto
predict,however,so all you can do is dF
sandthoroughlyafter fixing the dent,


You can steam out small dents in wood

with an ordinary household iron, but
staining might leave a dark spot.
sho youworkfaster,
Helping andsafer
ti wilrner

They say the

longera couple
the more they
becomelike eachother,and that seems
3/qx3x l2" hardwood hardwood
to be true in the caseof Tom Freyerand
7+" plywood . his wife of 45 years,Samantha. Our
Top ShopTip winnerlovessteam
11/z" hole
engines,andSamantha enjoysthe old
You'll oftenfind husbandandwife,
11/e" sideby side,working with wood as
3/ax3/c" hardwood well. "Sometimes,shedoesmy finish-
miter-slotguide 1r(", ing," Tom says,"and whenI built new

-l ll t' - l
| , - ?
cabinetsfor our kitchen,Samantha
punchedthe brassinsertsfor the upper
Carriage I cabinetdoors."Tom seemsto have
Cross 13/q"
Section beena prettygoodcatchhimself,judg-
./r'li Spindlecarriage ing from his Top ShopTip, at left.

;6;'- '
, For sending this
issue's Top Shop
- S

edgesas shownin the Tip, Tom Freyer

-ry-& receives a Tool
Dock TD300CH
Sectiondrawing, Router Station
Fi nal l y,I w entto the --!ffi from Waterloo
lathe,turnedeachend lndustries.
Terrific tip, Tom!
of the carriagelo 1t/2" --ili

i n di ameter. and mount-

ed the carriageintothe
To usethe j i g, I
attacha zero-clearance Tell us how you've solveda workshop
auxiliaryfenceto my router-table fence, puzzler,and we'll sendyou $75 if we
and set a straight bit to cut the length print your solution.And, if your tip is
Solrrcd: Sqrrarte and diameterof the tenon,Next,I posi- chosenas the Top ShopTip of the
peg in rorrnd hole tionthe jig in my routertable'smiterslot issue,you'll alsowin a tool prize
Whilebuildingan Artsand Crafts-style so thatthe spindlecarriageis centered worth at least$250.
bed recently,I didn'texactlyrelishthe on the routerbit,and clampit to the Sendyour besttips,alongwith pho-
thoughtof chiselingthe 54 roundspindle tabletop.Then,I fire up my router,insert tos or illustrationsand your daytime
holesintosquaremortises.Yet the rails a scrapof spindlestockintothe car- telephonenumber,to: Shop Tips,
weretoo wideto fit intomy benchtop riage,and gentlyplungeit intothe spin- WOODaMagazine,lTL6 Locust St.,
mortiser.So, I madethe router-table jig, ningbit untilthe stocktouchesthe auxil- GA-310,DesMoines,IA 50309-
shownabove,to cut roundtenonson the iaryfence.One completeclockwiserota- 3023.Or postyour suggestions on our
squarerails. tionof the carriage roundsoffthe spindle. Top ShopTip discussion group at
The heartof the jig is the spindlecar- Finally,I test-fitthe roundtenonin a
riage,whichI madeby firstcuttinga railhole,and adjustthe bit height,if nec- Becausewe try to publishonly origi-
V-groovein a 14t/z"long essary,to fine-tunethe fit. Oncesatis- nal tips,pleasesendyour tips only to
pieceol7/8"hardwood. Aftercrosscutting fied,I switchto the actualspindlesand WOOD magazine.Sorry,but we can't
the groovedpieceintotwo 7" lengths,I startcrankingout roundtenons. returnyour materials.
gluedthemtogetherand beveledthe -Tom Frever,Phoenix

36 WOOD rnagazine April 2002

Good to tlre finish piecesof perforated hardboard. Insert
Here'san age-oldproblem:applying the sharpeneddowelswherethey best
finishto all sidesof a projectin one ses- supportyour project.lf you breakor dull
sion.My solution:the portablefinishing the fine points,you can touchthem up
rack,shownbelow.Buildingthe rackis a g a i nwi tha qui cktri pto the penci l
prettystraightforward-justmakesure s h a rp e ner,
you alignthe holesin the top and bottom -David Luttrell,
Xenia, )hio,viaW00D0NLINE@

An irattractivett idea for drrst hoods

I recentlyoutfittedmy shopwitha dust- , the tool sectionof my localhomecenter
collectionsystem,includinga lathedust : for lessthan $5. The surprisingly strong
hood (Woodcraft,8001225-11 53, part magnet holds fast to the cast-ironlathe
no. 141207)I.ns te a do f p e rm a n e n tl y bed, yet I can repositionthedusthood
mountingthe hoodto the lathebed, I instantlvanvwhere at:i:,:x;:;i;rht
attacheda round magnet that I found in , city,

Continued on page J8
shop tips

Need a tern1rorary
table? Pipe up!
I havea smallshop,so benchtopspace
is alwaysan issue,especially whenit
comestimeto finishmy projects. To gain
the extrarealestate,I makea temporary
tableout of a pieceof plywoodand four
3' pipeclamps.Whenassembled, as
shownat right,it's at a perfectworking
height,and whendisassembled, it only
takesup as muchspaceas the plywood.
-Darin Wallace,

No-bandsaw rnethod
to crrt corrrers
I lovedthe Arts and Crafts-style family-
room makeover in WOOb magazine
issue132,and incorporated the platerail
and bracketswhen I put togethera room
for our firstchildlastfall.However,I
don'thavea bandsaw,and cuttingmore
than 30 of thoselittlebracketswitha
copingsaw wasn'tat all appealing.
Instead,I turnedto my drillpressand
a 5" holesaw,as shownbelow. Atter
removingthe half-moon-shaped waste
piece,I cut the bracketblankwhere
shownand nettedtwo brackets.This
techniquesure madethe job go quickly,
and I was surprisedat how littlesanding
I had to do on the curves.
-MatthewWhite, lnd.

WOOD rnagazine April 2002

Zeto-clearance extGtt- board.(Pressthe hardboarddownto the
sion rmakes a rnini-rnill tabletopwitha pieceof scrapwooddur-
Whilebuilding a s c a l emo d e lre c e n tl yI , ing this operation, keepingwellclearof
neededto rip some %" stockto t/a"wide th e e m e rgi ng bl ade.)
to m ak em iniat ur lu
e mb e r.R i p p i n g To rip my 1/2x1/8"strips,I startwith a
piecesthat smallagainstmy tablesaw 7+"-thick blank.Usinga straightbit in my
fencewas just beggingfor big trouble, routertable,I createat/+" rabbels/q"
so I madea zero-clearance fenceexten- deepin the edgeof the blank.Taking
sionfrom a pieceoI1/ex1x24" hardboard the blankbackto the tablesaw,I place
and an equallengthof 3/+"stock,as the rabbetfacedownand againstthe
shownbelow. edgeof the hardboard, whichguidesthe
After installingan 80-toothcrosscut blankthroughthe cut.Witha littletrial
bladein my tablesaw,I loweredthe and error,I can adjustthe routerbit's
bladebelowthe tabletop.Next,I cuttingdepthto wherethe rabbetleaves
clampedthe zero-clearance fenceexten- me witha preciset/e"-thickness. After
sionto my tablesaw's fence,set the each rip, I re-routthe rabbetfor the next
fenceso that the hardboardhungover rip.Onceset up, I neverhaveto read-
the bladeby about1/2" , lhen cranked the just the bit'scuttingdepth.
sp inning blade up t h ro u g h
th e h a rd - -Dan Myers, Kelso,

Continued on page 40
wrvrn woodonline,com
shop tips

Stow the bench,

and save tlre storage The6"-widepermanent portionof the
I readwithinterest yourFold-Down benchtop is boltedto mygaragewall.I
Workbench projectin WOOb magazine usedbutthingesto makethe legset
issue139.WhenI designed a similar swingoutof thewayto stowthe bench.
bench24 yearsago,I madeit so I could Usingmy lefthandto liftthefrontedge
keepfrequently useditems,suchas glue of the benchtop I grabthefront
bottlesandfasteners, at the ready,even apronwithmy righthandand
withthemainbenchtop dropped. That swingthe legsetflatagainst
bench,mademostlyof 2x4stockwitha thewall,thenlowerthetop.
laminated plywood
1t/2"-thick top,shown -Jack Turnage, Kan.
al right,is stillin usetoday.

3" butt

1x6 stretcher

1x4 apro\n
(\ 2x4 rear
t \ \ \-1 apron
\ attached
t)l to wall
Slide leg I 3" butt
assembly I hinges
right and , on bottom
fold down' side of top
top to I
store. I

h\ \
'\ Y-

WOOD rnagazine April 2002

Stretch 18x18" of space to theflooranchor.(You'llneedto drill a ceilingjoistwitha conduitstrap.
into 4x6' of stonge an accessholein thebottomto drivethe Finally, hangstoragehooksin the peg
Here'sa wayto squeeze a lotof storage screwsintotheflooranchor.) holes,andyourtoolson the hooks.
intoa smallamountof floorspace:a Usingconstruction adhesive, cement louis Grivetti,Latonia,Ky.
rotatingtoolkiosk.Startby rippingthe theflooranchor to thefloorat least18"
perforated hardboard to width,joining fromthewall,andletcure.Attachthe
thethreepieceswithplasticcableties, topandbottomtriangles insidethe
as shownbelow,thencuttingandfitting perforated-hardboard sideswithscrews, You'llfind mordgre.atShOpTips
thetriangular plywood topandbottom. runa lengthol3/t"conduit throughthe throughouteveryissue'of'WOOD@
Don'tattachtheendsto thesidesjust holes,thensliptheconduit intothe magazine.Lookfor bo<eelile this
yet,though. anchorholeas youstandupthe kiosk. one nestledamongthe projectand
Drilla 1" holein thecenterof eachtri- Whentheconduit is plumb,secureit to technique ailicles. ,i ,,, , ,
angle,andattacha 3" lazy-Susan bear-
ing(partno.28951,Rockler Hardware,
8001279-4441) to thebottom.Now,cen-
holet/2"deepin the plywood
ler a tsAa"
flooranchor. Position thebottom's 1"
holeovertheanchor's hole,andattach
theothersideof the lazy-Susan bearing

" electricalconduit

* *'K,,tityng

3/e"access hole

od online.

Great Reasolts to Visit Irnprove yorrr

l- 20 active woodworking discussion groups Time to revitalizeyour
2. Free serninars shop? Seldoma day
3. Free home page software goesby whenwe don't
4. WOODo magazine searchable index get a letteror e-mail
5. Shop tip of the day from someonelooking )tEditor's Welcome
to upgradeor redo their )tEditorhl Extras
Ilrrdos for free classilieds workshop.If this )t$hop Tours
We recentlyreceivedthis e-mailfrom a WOOD ONLINE user: describesyou, help is >t$hop'lipofthe Day
I just wantedto pass along my thanks.I placedan ad in the only a click away.Just )IWOOD lndex
)tWood Profilss
WOOD ONLINE classifiedad sectionto sell my old air com- visit WOOD maga- )tHallof Farne
pressorand sold it today. Not only that, I had the opportunity zine'sfive Idea
to meet a really nice woodworkerand show off my shop to Shopso,completewith )tWoodworlcing
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him. He was happy to get the compressorto take to job sites floor plans,shoppro- Basics Liuenup
with him and I was happy that I do not have two air compres- jects,andhundredsof pair.The
sors taking up the space in my tiny shop that can barely greatideasyou canput
accommodateone compressor.I promptlydeletedmy ad so to use.Bestof all,
that no one else will contactme about it. we'vebuilt eachshop
Texas to verify the results.JF

UIOOD magazine April 2002


Circle No. 877

Circle No. 900
*t?' )':'rc '.v
'' il' i' :;
i: "'


The buttressed
belle of the bayou* : i:...,:j

, rI-
lust rcnraininu speciesol' an
:5 ancient trcc l'antilv that oncc
.',t!'. t-angcclover Norlh Anrerica ancl
northerrr ELu'o1tc. tlte lralclcypress
( T i t . u x l i u r t td i . t t i c l r t r n ri)s t r r - r l vu n i q u e .
This tree is classifieclus a conif'crancla
solirvt'roclbecause it has ncc-cllesrather
t h a n l e a v e s . B L r t . b a l c l c v p l e s si s n ' t a n
e v c r - ! : r e el ni k e o t h e rc u n i l ' e r sI.t s h e c l si t s
firliagc as ckr clecicluor-rs (harclrvoocl)
trecs. a trait shareclonly by the larch.
Ancl. balclcypressf'eelseqLrallyat hortre
grou ing in r,r'ater'or'on clr'1,lancl.
, i,,

In its SoLrthern raltgc. balclcl,;trc-ss
di r
i' o n c e g r e \ \ ' t o i n - r u r c n ssci z e s .T r e e s l - 5 0 '
{ .r t a l l u , i t h l 2 ' c l i a r n e t e rw s eren t Lrncorrr-
r . n o r tI.n t h c L o u i s i a n as w ' u l n l l sa n c lo t h c r
places r,r'lrere it gron,s in stancls.itn lrcre
of olcl-_cror,r'th lralclcypl'esstrees coLrld
vielcl 100.0(X)btxrrclf'eetof' lLrnrber.By
thc I930s. trccs o1'tl.rosc_ulancl propor-
t i o n s h a c la l l l ' a l l e nt o t l i e s a w ' .l ' u r n i s h i n - u
c l e c a v - r e s i s t a n tl r o a r c l s a n c l t i r l t r e r s
firl countless ckrcks. rvarchctuses.ancl
Frorri Floriclato castcnt Tcxas thcrc's
no\\' rur abnnclant sLr1tpl1, o1' seconcl-
gro\\,'thbalclcyprcss. Althorrgh it isn't as
Growth range
resistant to clecay as thc- olcl-growth
w ' o o c l .i t ' s s t i l l a n e x c c l l c n t c h o i c e l i r r
olrtckror' prcr.jects. SaIvage o1terat ions aIscr
contribLrtcto tlrc-sLrltplv.They provicle
"sinkcr cyllress" olcl-sl'orvth logs
clrcclgccl fkrrn lakes.rivcrs. anclswnn.tlts.
Too. as clccrcpit facturics ancl wiu'e-
il holrscsarc rcplacccl.stnrctlrraltintbcrsof
K olcl-gnrwthwoocl retltnt tcttlte saw.
i-- Finding the tree afield
i-)11 S w a n r l t f i t r c a si n t h e b a l c l c y p r e s sr a l t g e
r;. p r o v i c l e t i r c b c s t c n v i n t n r t r e l t tl o r t h e

44 WOOD rnagazine April 2002

largest trees. There, they'Il grow in In its range, you'll find baldcypress
stands, their thickly buttressed trunks relatively abundant. Elsewhere, it is
providing storm-proof anchoragein the becoming more available as an alterna-
sodden footage. Baldcypress growing tive to western red cedar and redwood.
in water also feature above-waterexten- Baldcypress veneer is available from
sions of their roots called "knees," marquetry suppliers. You won't, how-
which provide added stability and air to ever, find it availableas plywood.
the tree. On drier ground, baldcypress
trees stand unaided by knees and have Batdcypress in the shop
lessbuttressing. Although fairly hard, baldcypressis easy
Young baldcypresstreeshave a rough- to work with, behaving much like other
ly conical shapewith a thin layer of light softwoods,such as pine.
brown bark. As baldcypressmatures,it . You can work straight-grainedbaldcy-
develops a thick, tapering trunk that presswith hand or power tools. Though
approaches120'in height and a diameter not prone to burn, usecarbide cutters and
of 3-5'. Its irregular crown of foliage is bladesfor the bestresults.
frequently drapedin Spanishmoss. The . Tear-out isn't a problem when planing
reddish brown, ridged bark peels off in or machining straight-grained boards.
long strips about 2" thick. Make lighter passes when working
Baldcypress' yellow-green needles cathedral-grainedboards.
(leaves) are Vz3/c" long and arranged . Baldcypressholds screwswell. Predrill
spirally around the twig. Come fall, shank holes, pilot holes, and counter-
they turn yellow or brown before boresto avoid splitting.
dropping to the ground. Scaly, purple- . Baldcypress' waxy feel won't hinder
colored conesabout 1" long follow the gluing. Use weatherproofadhesivesfor
blooms of spring. outdoor projects.
. Sandthrough 180-to 22D-gntabrasives
fhe wood and its rrses to impart a smooth finish for fine pro-
Baldcypressheartwood,becauseit's so jects. Baldcypresscan be left rough for
durable in contact with the ground, long use in construction or to provide a more
ago earnedthe title "the wood eternal." rustic look on outdoor projects.
Approximating the weight of cotton- . If staining, avoid cathedral-grained
wood or willow at 28 pounds per cubic boards.The dark latewood absorbsless
foot air-dry, the wood is somewhatsoft stain, as shown below. al
and even textured. Although it has a
waxy feel, baldcypress contains no
resin ducts.
The thin sapwood is much lighter in
color than the pale- to reddish-brown
heartwood, which carries an unpleasant
odor. Baldcypress is also relatively
sffong, stiff, and stable for its weight.
It occasionally can have attractive,
although not outstanding,figure. A fairly
rare architecturalveneermade from bald-
cypresscrotch wood, called faux satine,
is quite beautiful, as well as expensive.
Traditional usesfor baldcypresswood
include docking and structural timbers,
siding, posts, boat planking, flooring,
water tanks, coffins, and shingles.Don't
overlook it, though, for both indoor and
outdoor furniture, as shown at left.
Stained with "Antique Cherry," this bald-
Somebaldcypressffees are attackedby cypress board takes a lighter tone in the
a fungus that causespockets of decay. denser latewood. Use wood conditioner
Baldcypress is weather resistant and The resultantwood is riddled with small, or gel stain to achieve consistent color.
easy to work with, making it a good shallow holes and is called "pecky
Writtenby PeterJ. Stephano
choice for outdoor projects, such as this cypress." Still durable, such wood is Illustration:
potting bench found in issue 140. used for decorativepaneling. Photographs: BaldwinPhotography

www.woodonline.corn 45
lean lines,sleekstyling,and a touch of
flair make this televisionstand the ideal
placeto set your set. Buildit as a stand-
alone piece or as paft of a matchinglivingroom
ensemblewith the futon sofa/sleeper and modular
knock-down shelving set, both shown at right. The futon sofa/sleeperabove
All three piecessharethe same designstyle and (issue 139)is great for sitting or
snoozing.The modular shelving at
simpleapproachto construction. lelt(issue 143)can be configured
to match most any space or task
thanks to special hardware.
#8 x 11/qF
' .H.
Il ense 3"
- 11/2"

Tse"shank hole,

#8 x 1Yz'F.H.
wood screw

Staril at the base
3/c" milrogany, cut the z/o+"
pilot hole
I From s/q"dee?
I stretchers(A), foot bodies (B), 1
and foot faces(C) to the sizeslisted in Tse"shank hole,
countersunk 2V4"
the Materials List. Laminate the feet
(B/C), as shownin Drawing1. Once the t/e" chamfer
glue dries, use a chamfer bit in your
router to rout a %" chamfer around the
boffom of eachfoot. Then clamp the feet blies (A/B lClD), then drill the pilot and ffi Glue and clamp the panels(K) to the
to the stretchers,and drill the pilot and countersunkshank holes, where shown *# frame assemblies(VJ). Make sureto
countersunkshank holes where shown. in Drawing 1. Drive screwsto join the apply one shelf-pin-drilled panel to each
Glue and screw the stretchersto the feet. assembliestogether. assembly and check that the panel's
edgesare flush with the frames.
$ Cut the lower reveal trim (D) to
&r2v2x20". Then notch each piece Add tlre ernds f, Cut the top/bottom trim (L) and end
where shownin Drawing 1. This can be I From
3/4" poplar, cut the frame f# trim (M) to width and about I "
done using a jigsaw or bandsaw.Just I tops/bottoms(I) and frame ends (J) longer than dimensionedin the Materials
make sure the edges of the notch are to size. Glue and clamp the frames (VJ) List. Fit the trim aroundthe panel assem-
squareand straight. together,keeping the ends flush, where blies (VJ|K), miter-cutting each piece to
{} Finish-sandthe lower revealtrim (D) shown in Drawing 2. ,Measure the length. Glue and clamp the trim pieces
*) and the foot assemblies(A/B/C) to frames' diagonals or use a framing in place, where shown in Drawing 2.
220 gnt. Then glue the reveal trim to square to check each for square, and After the glue sets, finish-sand the end
each foot assembly to create two base place them on a flat surface while the assemblies(I through M).
assemblies (A/B/C/D), leaving a V+" glue dries. Once the glue sets, remove ff Cut the upper reveal trim (N) to size
reveal on the sides,front, and rear edges, the clamps, drill pilot'and countersunk * from t/q" mahogany.Finish-sandthe
where shown in Drawing 1. If you wish shankholes, and drive in the screws. pieces,then stainthe top face, edges,and
to stain the base assemblies(AlBlClD), {} Cut the four end panels (K) to size ends with the same stain used earlier.
do so now. We useid Bartley's kfrom 3/q" maple plywood, making Don't stain the bottom face. Glue the
PennsylvaniaCherry gel stain. sure they match the length and width upper reveal trim to the end assemblies
of the assembledframes. Chuck a VB" (unstained face down), leaving a Y4"
if Cutthe bottompanel (E) to sizefrom
\t/q" maple plywood. From 32" solid rabbetingbit in your router and rout %" reveal on all sides.
maple, cut the bottom panel edging (F) rabbets V+" deeparound the perimeter of
to size,aswell. This is a good time to cut the good faces of all four panels,where
the adjustableshelf (G) and shelf edging shownin Drawing2.
(H) to size,too. Q Choose two panels (K) to be the
f Glue the edging (F) to the front and rlinsides of the end assemblies.Then
iJback edgesof the plywood bottom lay out and drill the shelf pin holes in
panel (E). Sandthe edging flush with the these two panels, where shown in
faces of the bottom, taking care not to Drawing2.
sand through the plywood's thin veneer Note: The dimensions shown for the
layer. Also glue the shelf edging (H) to shelf pin locations are measuredfrom
the shelf (G), sand them flush, then set the edge of the panel, not from the edge
this assembly (G/H) aside. Once the of the rabbet.
standis assembled,you can perform one accentuatethe reveal formed by
last operationon the shelf to help keep it ttre rabbets around the end panels,
in position. Seethe shop tip on page 48. stain the bottom of the rabbet,as shown
Mask the edge of the rabbet to keeP
f, N"*t, glue and clamp the bottom in Photo A. Use the same stain you stain from accidentally bleeding onto it
lJ assembly (E/F) to the base assem- applied to the mahoganyparts earlier. or the panel's surface. 47
television stand


7sz"shankhole, rubberbumper
countersunk @ \ -1'(-

(insideand out)
7 g z "s h a n k h o l e ,
c o u n t e r s u n ko n i n s i d e f a c e

Brritd the bacl:

Cut the back panel(O) to the dimen-
sionslistedin the MaterialsList. As
you cut the panel, remember that the
grain runs veftically.Rabbetthe perime-
ter of the good face of the back panel,
just as you did earlierwith the end pan-
els, and apply stainto the rabbets.
Use a Forstneror spadebit in your
drill pressto bore the lt/2"-diameter
cord-access holesthroughthe backpanel
(O), where shown in Drawing2. (Once
again, measurefrom the edges of the
panel.)Chuck a chamferingbit in your A
router,and rout %" chamfersaroundthe
holes on both faces of the panel. This 7ez"shankhole, VIEW
easesthe edges,which reducesthe risk countersunk
on bottom # B x 2 1 / q "F . H .
of chip-out when pulling wires through wood screw
after the televisionstandis completed.
From /+" solid maple, cut the back the counterbores to be packedawayor moved.Lay out the
on theside trim facethe
side trim (P) and top/bottom caps locationsof the mountingholes on the
inside.After the glue dries,finish-sand
(Q) to size. Drill countersunkshank the back assembly(O/P/Q)to 220 grit.
upper surface of the base assembly,
holesthroughthe back side trim, where where shown in Drawing2. Then, from
shownin Drawing2. Now finish and the top side, drill a 5A2"shank hole at
Clamp and glue the back side trim assernble your stand each location. Turn the base assembly
(P) and top/bottom caps (Q) to the The base.end. and back assemblies facedown,and countersinkthe underside
back panel (O). Make sure the caps are simply screwtogether,meaningyou of eachof theseholes.
flush with the face of the panel and that canbreakthe standdown if it ever needs Becausethere are no glue joints to
worry about,go aheadand finish all
the partsprior to assembly.We applieda
I I coat of gloss polyurethane,then sanded
lightly wrth 220 grit, and added two
Solution for stay-put shelves coats of satinpolyurethane.
To preventthe adjustableshelffrom sliding
fonruardwhen you need to access VCR or DVD After the finish dries on all the
playerwires, we routed recessesfor the shelf assemblies,lay some cardboardon
pins.Afterassemblingthe stand,put the shelf your benchtopand assemblethe stand.
in positionand mark aroundthe pins.Transfer The processis easierif you assemblethe
the centerlinesto the end edgesof the panel. standupsidedown. Start by placing the
Chuck a lz" slraightbit in your table-mounted back assembly(OlPlQ) on a 7+"-thick
router,and raiseit for a Ve"-deep cut. Position scrapwood spacer. Position the end
.thefenceto centerthe bit on the layoutmark.
assemblies(I throughN) alongside,with
Clampa stopblockto the fence,and rout a
the upper revealtdm (N) restingon the
7e"-longrecessat each pin location.
bench.Referringto Drawing2, you'll see

48 WOOD magazine April 2OOZ

#8 x 1t/z' F.H.wood screw

t/2" dgep


face only)

I-r-\ \:2i
6" 3" F Va
-->l F--
Rest the stand on cardboard to protect
that the back assembly is positioned /+" Clear View" on page 24. Finally, insert the finish. Use clamps to keep the pieces
forward of the rear edges of the end shelf-support pins and position the aligned as you drill and drive the screws.
assemblies. Temporarily clamp these adjustable shelf. Now you're ready to
install your television and components, Writtenby David Stone with Charles l. Hedlund
assembliestogether. Projectdesign:Kevin Boyle
Place the base assembly on the ends and sit back to watch the tube or at least Roxanne LeMoine;Lorna Johnson
jl Photographs:Baldwin Photography
and back, aligning it so the feet are admire the stand it sits on.
flush with the outer faces of the end
assemblies, as shown in Drawing 2a.
Note that the rear edge of the back bot-
mnaterials list
tom cap (Q) should be flush with the rear
edge of the bottom panel edging (F). A stretchers Y4" 3" 19" MY I frametopsi
bottoms 3/cu 11/z' 19"
Once you have everything aligned, use B footbodies 3/t' 3" 2Vq' MY 12
J frame ends 3/q' 11/z' 131/z' P
the countersunk mounting holes you C footfaces 3h' MY
drilled through the base assembly as K endpanels 3/q' 1 9 " 1 5 " MP
D*lowerrevealtrim 3/qu 21/z' 20' MY
guides. and bore'%:" pilot holes into the trim
L. top/bottom 3/tu 3" 201/z' M
E bottom 3/r' 163/q' 30"
back and end assemblies.Then drive in M-endtrim 3L' 3 161/z' M
F bottom
the screws, as shown in Photo B. Using e0grng 3/q' 3/qu 30" N upper revealtrim3/qu 21/z' 20' MY
the shank holes in the back sides (P) as
guides. drill pilot holes into the end 3/c' O backpanel 3/q' 26Vz' 15" MP
G adiustable
shelf 15', 263/s',
assembliesand drive those screws. 3h' 1V4" 15"
H shelfedging 3/4' Yi 263/a' M P backsrdetrim
Remove the clamps and turn the
initially Seetheinstructions.
cutoversize. Q backtop/bottom
stand right side up. Adhere clear rub- caps 3/4u 21/2" 261/z' M
ber bumpers to the upper reveal trim (N), Key:MY-mahogany,
fl,{aterials MP-maple plywood,
M-maple, P-poplar. Buyirrg Gr.ride
where shown in Drawing 2.
Position the Vz" glass plate on top of Supplies:#8x11/2"flatheadwoodscrews #Bxlt/o'
(38), Glass.
%x24x36" glass withflat-polished
tabletop edge,
flatheadwoodscrews (11),#Bx2t/q"
flatheadwood $66plusshipping.
the stand. For more information on screws (6),spoon{ype pins(4),
shelf-support WestTwelve Ml48076;
the types of glass available and pur- s/a"-diameter clearrubber
self-adhesive bumpers(4), 800/288-6854.
chasing options, see "Buying Glass: A polyurethane
stain, (gloss
finish andsatin).


3/ax 71/cx 96" Mahogany

3/qx 51/zx 96" Maple

3/qx 71/qx 96" Maple

3 / qx 3 1 / z x 9 6 " P o p l a r 3/qx 48 x 96" Mapleplywood

wrrtrv.woodonline. c om 49
ome toys arefor play,othersfor
display.With this snaz4yrub-
ber-band-powered speed-boat,
you haveboth.Modeledaftera 1930s
hydroplaneracer,this fully-functional
boat can whirlacrossa bac(yardpool
or sit handsomelyon its stand. STEP 4
Constructedwith scraps of cedar Gluedeckto hull.
2x6, straight-grained pine,and brass STEP 1
CulaVa" groove
rod,tube,and sheet,it requiresonlya th" deep centere{ '
on Uottomot tiutt@. F,--.-r'
smallinvestmentin materialsto com-
Note: Thebrassrod, tube,andsheetwe
used in this project are available at
hardware and hobby stores, or see the
Buying Guidefor our source.

Forrn the hrill first (C). Edge-glue the deck halves (B) to 3"-wide cockpit, shown in Step 5. To
Cut a 20"-longpieceof cedar2x6for both sidesof the center strip (C), shown avoid chipping the blank's side,back the
#* the hull (A). Cut a centeredgroovein in Step 3. With the glue dry, plane this cuts with an auxiliary extensionattached
the bottom of the hull, where shown in deck blank (B/C) to V+"thick. to your miter gauge.
Step 1 on Drawing1. ,ff Ctue the deck to the hull, shown in
*ffiStep ffi Copy the deck from the WOOD
ffi Chuck a V2" straight bit in your 4, keeping the ends and edges &#paftf'RlUso inserr.Adhere it to the
#* table-mounted router, and, using a flush. To spreadthe clamping pressure deckftrullblank with sprayadhesive.Tilt
stopblock clamped to the fence to con- evenly, lay down waxed paper, and your bandsawtable 15o, and cut along
trol the groove's length, rout a 3t/c"-long clamp the assembly, deck down, to a the pattern lines, shown in Step 6. Save
stoppedgroove, shown in Step 2. piece of 3/q"plywood. Remove any glue the cutoffs. Sandthe saw marks from the
ffi From a 2O"-long piece of dark, that squeezesinto the Vzxs/e"gloove. hull assembly.
%#straight-grained cedar 2x6, resaw
ffi Scrape any excess glue from the ff Select a piece of wood with straight
two 3/s"-thickbook-matchedpieces for q# sides of the hulVdeck assembly. S grain, and resaw and plane the
the deck halves (B). Rip them to the Sand the stern so the deck and hull are planks (D) to the size listed, book-
width in the Materials List. Cut a flush. Install a 3/+"dado blade matching the two sides.Glue and clamp
Vsx3/sx20"pine piece for the center strip in your tablesaw, and cut the the planks, one piece at a time, to the
hull, shown in Step 7. Use the hull

#3 x 7a"brass
7o+"shankhole, F.H.woodscrews
STEP5 countersunk t/e" slot \
Cut a 3"-widedado on back 1t/+" long ll
hulland deck. .,,

Formthe transom.


---d<- Glueplanksto
STEP2 VA STEP6 bandsawn
Rout a t/2"groove7a"deep, Tilt bandsawtableto 15', and hullassembly.
stopped3gZ"from end. cut hull/deckto shaoe.
cutoffs as clamp blocks. Make sure the the protruding planks flush with the
planksprotrudebeyondthe edgesof the transom.Mark the screwhole locations,
hull all around with at least 3/to"over- where shown on Drawing 1a, and drill
hanging the stern. Trim the first plank Vro"prlot holesthroughit, into the stern.
where it overhangsthe bow before glu- Remove the transom,enlargethe holes
ing and clamping the second plank. to 1/oq"for the screw shanks,and coun-
When the glue dries, use a block plane tersink them. Install a Vs" stratghtbit in
and a sandingblock to trim the planks your table-mountedrouter. Using your
flush with the deck and the bottom of the miter gauge fitted with an auxiliary
hull. Do not trim the stern. extensionand a stopblock,cut the lVq"- Now, outfit the cockpit
Cut a Vsx2x43/q" blank for the tran- long slot in the transomfor the rudder, Cut a lV+xIzAxlO"blank for the seat
som (E). Use your bevel gaugeto whereshown.Setthe transomaside. (G). Make the two cuts shown on
transfer the planking's angle onto the Sandan angledflat at the bow where Drawing2a to form the back and bench.
transom,and trim the endsto shape.Fit the planks come together,as shown Match the compoundcuts at the seat's
the transom between the protruding on Drawing 2. Cut the bow stem (F) to endsto the insideof the cockpit. (To get
planks (D), and sand it flush with the size,and glue it to the hull, holding it in a good fit, we angledthe miter gauge3'
hull at the top and bottom. Then trim placewith maskingtape.When the glue and tilted the blade 15".)Make the cuts
and sand dries. carefullv sand it flush with the on scrapto testthe fit. After making any
planks,deck,and bottom. necessaryadjustments,cut the seat to
finished length. Sand the round-overs,
whereindicated.Set the seataside.
Cut a Ixlt/axl}" blank for the wind-
shield(H). Bevel-ripthe 45" angle,
shownon Drawing2b. Angle your miter
gauge30", tilt the sawblade30o,andcut
the windshield to final length. Set the
Cut the rudderblock (I) to size,and
II test-fit it in the rectangularhole
I formed in the sternby the t/zxs/c"groove
lw f :y.i$415+S-
and the deck.The fit shouldbe snug,but
still allow easyremoval.Hold the block
with a handscrewclamp, and drill the

arnd hole with your drill press,where shown

on Drawing2c. Drill and countersinkthe
hole in the deck for the screwthat holds
the rudder block in place,where shown
on Drawing2.

rubber-band runabout

Trim both ends to match

insideof cockpit.


i *
. ;^

^ " - 1€€
#3 x t/2"brass
;?*\\ 7
4te 7/a+" 1 1/s'
E hole,countersunk

It's tirne to fit the keel

and trrrild a cradle
Cut a t/gx2v2x20"blank for the keel
(J). Make a copy of the keel fiom
the pattern insert, and adhere it to the
blank. Scrollsaw and sand to the pattern Rudderassembly .025"-thick
line. Remove the pattem, and glue and
clamp the keel into the groove in the
bottom of the hull.
Adhere two V+x6xl2" pieces of
Baltic birch plywood together with G l u ek e e l @
double-faced tape for the cradle frames into groovein
(K) and cradle stretchers (L). Make bottomof hull.
copies of the frames and stretchersfrom 1/2"ra'

the pattern inseft, and adhere them to 1/2tt

' - ra-
| z
the plywood. Scrollsaw and sand the
6-32 brassnuts
parts to the pattern lines. Glue and
#6 brassflat washers
clamp the frames to the stretchers, as
shown on Drawing 2.

.025x 2x2t/+" brasssheet

Apply varrrish and 7sz"-O.D.
brass bentaroundtubingand
1 / a x 4 t / 2 " - l o n gb r a s s l i f t r o d
paint, arrd brrild the s/0"-1.D.
brass (Prethreaded, prebent eye)
tubing3" long solderedin place
runrring gear screw eye
Finish the hull assembly, transom,

rudder block, and cradle with gloss E EXPIODED
polyurethane. To make sure the parts are
well protected, we brushed on the first
coat, sandedwith 220 grrt, then finished
up with two light coats from a spray can.
Prime and spray-paint the seat red and
the windshield black.

Cut a 3"-long piece of sAt" brasstub-

ing for the propeller shaft sleeve. Cut
a 2t/+"-long piece from a .025x2x12"
strip ofbrass sheet for the sleeve bracket.
Bend it to fit around the sleeve,as shown Bend and thread your own pro-
on Drawing 2. Solder the tube to the peller shaft, or use a brasstoilet tank
bracket so V2" protrudes at each end. scrollsaw the propeller to shape. stopperlift rod. (We found one at the
Polish away any discoloration from the File the edges smooth. Holding hardware store, threadedon one end
soldering. Put a dab of silicone sealanton it with a small C-clamp, shape the pro- with an eye on the other.)Drive a brass
the keel's bottom edge, and slide the peller, as shown in Photos A and B. screw eye into the keel at the bow, and
sleeve/bracket assembly onto the keel. Removethe pattern. string up a couple of sturdy rubber
Make a copy of the propeller from Slide the propellershaft throughthe bands. We used loops of rubber strip
the pattern insert, and adhere it to the sleeve,and assemblethe washers, from a hobby store(SIG ContesrRubber
brass strip. Drill the center hole and nuts, propeller,and cap nut, as shown. no. CR-825).

52 WOOD magazine April 2002


Twist each propeller blade, pushing Now, maintainingthe twist, bend an
down on the short lobe, and pulling up
on the long one.
upward curl in each blade. The side with
the pattern is the back of the propellel.

fl 30"


t/e"brass rod
8/+"long^,r4 /f A pair of clothespinsholdsthe rudder
centeredon the shaftwhileyou solderit
in place.
To wind the propeller, pull the rudder
shaft out of the transom slot, and swing
it out of the way.
ffi 51/q

hold it with pliers while you flatten the rreaterials list

90' ,r,,

tip of the shaft with a hammer just
t/e" hole
enough to keep the washer from sliding
f'\-spring from off the end. A hull 11/z' 51/z' 20'
\ Slide the rudder assembly into the B-deckhalves 1/t' 211Aa"20'
#6 brassflat washer sternrecess.Fushthe rudderblock in 1/t' 20"
C-centerstrip V8
.025"-thickbrasssheetfor to compressthe spring Vt", anddrive the D planks l/su
rudder.solderedto rod 21/4' 21'
screw through the deck hole. Screw the E*transom 1/s, 13/4' 4sAa"
transom(E) in place. Glue the seatand l/zu
F bowstem 1/," 21/c'
Make a copy of the rudder from the windshieldin placewith a coupleof dabs
G*seat 11/q" 13/4" 4s/s-
pattern insert, adhereit to the brass of silicone sealant.Wind the propeller,
'er tip. t H-windshield 1" 11/4" 415f16" c
strip, scrollsawit to shape,and file the as shownin Photo D, and let
I rudder
block f2 5/a' 17/s' P
edges smooth. Bend an 8/+" length of
Written by Jan Svec J- keel 1/sn 2sAa"191/t" P
%" brassrod for the rudder shaft, shown Projectdesign:JamesR. Downing; Jan Svec
K-cradleframes 1/t' 41/z' 7u BP
on Drawing2c. Clamp the shaft in your Kim Downing; Lorna Johnson
Photographs:Hetherington Photography; 1/tu
vise,and solderthe rudderto it, asshown Baldwin Photography
L*cradlestretchers 1u 101/+' BP
in Photo C. Slide the shaft through the -Parts Seetheinstructions.
rudder block (I), spring, and washer. Materials P-pine,
Key:C-cedar, birchply,vood,
Compressthe springwith the washerand 4r/2"-long
Supplies: brasstoilettankstopperliftrod,#6
brass nuts(2),6-32capnut,
crrtting diagranr l/qx 6 x 12" Baltic birch plywood
(2 needed) rubber
solder, bands, glue,glosspolyurethane,redand
spraypaint, sealant.
Brrying Guide
.125x12"brassroundrodno.G7646, 5/ezx12"
11/2x51/zx 48" Cedar (2x6) brassround no.G7612,
tubing $t,OO. Industrial,
Call800/523- , or goto

1x4).Planeor resawto thicknesslistedin the 53
the WooDolfangcnfts

Interested in making your own larives?

Tluee WOOD staff members were, so we let them have at it.

"i,o createtheir cutlery pieces, masking tape. Without the taPe, the and feel of the handle, I completed the
paper sheathstill tended to slide down sandingusinga palm sander,progressing
accidentally as I worked, leaving the from 120-to 220-gntpaper.
'r' ' '
" itemsfrom mail-ordersup- sharpblade exposed. BecauseI prefer a satin finish on a
Becausethe fillet knife's tang had a work knife, I didn't buff the handle,
pliers.In eachcase,they received
nice handle shape,all I had to do was although Dymondwood can be brought
bladeswith pre-drilledtangs(the por- match the two Dymondwood(a "plasti- to a glass-like sheen.Plasticized wood
tion that fits into the knife's handle). cized" wood madeof birch veneerlayers requires no protective finish, and holds
impregnated with resin) up well to the abusea fillet knife faces.
Two of the builders orderedkits that scalesto it. I did this by trac-
camecompletewith scales(the handle ing the shapeof the tang onto
each scale,then bandsawing
slabsthat fit on eithersideof the blade eacha bit oversize.
tang).Eachof our intrepidbuilderstook In my kit, the holes for the
threebrassrivets were already
their own path to completion.
drilled in the blade tang and
the scales.I just glued the
scales in place with cyano-
A fillet knife acrylate (instant) adhesive,
in a flash making sure the holes lined
By Marlen(Perkins) up. Next, I used a hammer
Kemmet,Managing andnail punchto settherivets
in the handle. Buying Guide
Prior to any work on I sandedthe scalesto rough Filletknifekit:7"polishedandhoned bladepre-
shape using a 3"-diameter drilled twoprebored
forrivets; andcountersunkDymondwood handle
the handle, I taped handle,
forattaching Kit,
blanks (rosewood threebrassrivets
the suppliedcardboard drum sanderin the drill press $30including postage.Leathersheath,
sheath to the blade, and a I" spindlesander,both Easley Knives,638 N.14thAve., NE68008.402/426'2481.
then I wrapped the with 8O-grit paper. When I,SendSASE forfreebrochure.
entire sheath with was satisfiedwith the shape

54 WOOD rnagazine April 2002

Wittr double-faced tape, I fastened ttre middle. This left the middle of the han-
. two scales together, then taped them to dle a little thicker for a hand-hold. I
one side of the blade's tang. I drilled the shaped the tapers with a drum sander
pin holes in the scalesat the drill press, mounted in the drill press.
as shown in Photo A. Using 80-gdt paper,I rounded over the
Keeping the scales in the same handle edges slightly. Then I moved on
orientation,I pulled them away from the to 120-grit and finished with 150-grit.
lO.step blade tang. I cut three pins from Holding the protected blade in a vise, I
steak knives the mosaic-patternedbrass pin stock, wiped on three coats of polyrethane,
By Kevin (the carni- making them slightly longer than the sanding between coats with 600-grit
vore) Boyle,Senior combined thickness of the scales and wet/dry sandpaper. After the finish
blade'stang. dried, I applied a coat of paste wax and
When I received my I applied two-part epoxy to the back buffed the handles at the benchtop
order, I discovered side of the scales and placed them onto grinder with a buffing wheel.
that I really didn't care the tang, lining up their holes. Next, I
for the color of the tapped the three pins into the holes, as
handle scales I'd shown in Photo B, and clamped the
selected,so I made my scalesdown tightly.
own scales from scraps of bubinga. To After the epoxy cured, I sanded the
get started, I taped on the cardboard pins flush with the scalesurfaces.Next, I
sheathes that came with each sharp sanded the scales with an 80-grit drum
blade. This protected me and the blades. sanderin the drill press to the outline of
After performing each of the steps in the knife's tang.
fashioning the first handle, I brought all
the other knives along to that step before A crrstortl shape
moving to the next one. That helped I personalizedthe handles with a double
keep all the handles consistent. taper on top that ran each way from the

KnlfeSupplies. Blades:
hollow ground stainless
overall, Mosaic t/ex12",
$5.25; pins:
brassandstainless #MPP200-12,
steel, $16;
brassandstainless steel,#MPP200'06,
$9;Scales:Dymondwood, pair,eachapprox.
{ax11/zx5u, $3.25.Shipping and
TexasKnifemake/s Supply,1062t9Haddington,
Predrilledholesin the tang guidethe drill The pins help hold the scalesto the #180,Houston, TX77043. 888/461-8632
bit to createholesfor pins that, along tang, and add decoration,with stainless (orders)., Catalog,$6.95.
with epory, attachthe scalesin place. rods arrangedinsidea brasstube.
Grrt-above crrtlerv
m ByJan(Ginsumafi) Jan's cook's knife
Svec, Projects
I needed.I saweda tang slot in
Rather than follow- this blank. then used the hardboard
ing the traditional template to trace the individual handle
method of letting outlines onto the blank. Next, I cut the
the shape of the blank into individual handles, and
tang dictatethe han- sawedand sandedthem to final shape.
dle profile, I made Using the rivet holes in the tangs as To finish the ::i-
my handlesfrom z/q"-thickblanks glued guides,I drilled all the way through the handles, I soaked
up from granadillo and redheart scraps. handles, as Kevin did. I counterbored them in tung oil for an
This allowed me to make a handlewider each hole so the rivet headswould pro- hour or so, as shownin Photo D.
than the tang, a design inspired by the trude just a hair from the surface, then I let the finish dry, then buffed each
fins on a late 1950sChrysler. drilled holesfor the rivets. Next, I routed one with a cotton cloth. al
a partial round-over on the handles'
Greating a prototype edges.To avoid chipping, I sandedthe Photographs:Baldwin Photography
I beganby tracing the outline of the knife end-grainround-overs.
blade's tang on %" hardboard,then drew After dry-fitting the bladesin the han- Buying Guide:
the handle design around this outline, dles, I masked the blades where they KnifeSupplies.Blades, pre-punched
heaftreated, for
keeping the top edgesof the handle and met the handles.To install the handles.I polished,
rivets, andhollowgroundfrom440-C stainless
tang flush. I cut out this hardboardtem- appliedslow-setepoxy,making surethe steel:8" cook's,
#SS821, cook's,
$10,02;6" #SS820,
plate, and traced the pattern onto 3/q"- epoxy filled any void at the slot's $6.50; 5%"boner,#SS823,$6,58;8"carver,
$7,43; carving
$6,49; s/roxt/2"
thick scrap,which I cut and sandedto the bottom. With that done, I inserted the brass,(pkgof25)#RV125, %ox7e"
patternlines to act as a prototype. rivet halves and drove them together brass,(pkgof25)#RV325, $3.95,Plus
When I was satisfied with the feel. I with a hammer. shipping andhandling.
installed a thin-kerf blade and a zero- When the epoxy cured, I filed and JantzSupply, 309W,Main,Davis, 0K
clearanceinsertin my tablesaw,and cut a sandedoff any excess,then refilled any 73030.,
groove in the prototype's top edge to voids. I let the epoxy again cure, then 800/351-8900. e-mail:
$5, I
acceptthe tang, as shown in Photo C. sandedthe rivets flush with the handles. i

Note: Becausethe blade tangs are set in IT

Jan also crafted three t
epoxy when they're riveted to the han- \
other knives and a
dles,the tang'sfit in the grooveshould serving fork to create
be slightly loose. Epoxy needs a thick a complete kitchen
glue layer to developany strength. cooking set.

Hands-otr handle rlrrorL

I glued up, using epoxy, a blank long
enough to accommodateall the handles

Unlike the two-part handles of most Soaking the handles lets the tung oil
knives, Jan's one-piece design allows penetrate deeply, beautifying and pro-
for more grip area (prototype shown). tecting the wood.

56 WOOD rnagazine April 2002

Ternpting trellis,
page 80
Big impact with little expense
or effort: That's what you'll
get with this trellis. The west-
ern red cedar frame will hold
up for years, and surrounds
ummerwill be herebeforeyou knowit, accents made from plastic
so now'sthe timeto startthinking lattice that wears like iron. lt
aboutprojectsthat will helptransform never needs painting, won't
pop apart when cut, and
your outdoor livingspacesinto Invitingget- doesn't split or warp like
aways.To help out, in this issuewe'll show wood lattice can when
you how to buildthe pergolas,trellis,and exposed to the elements.
gardengate and fence,also shown,are
coming up in the next issue.We designedall
of these projectswith versatilityin mind so
that they'llfit with most homes,backyards,
and gardens.To give you a senseof how
they look groupedtogether,we built all of
them in the backyardof
the home shown at left.
Now,you don't haveto
do such a total transfor-
mation.You'llfind that
any outdoorareawill
greatlybenefitby adding
just one of these projects.
Eachis designedto mini-
mize maintenanceby appropriatelycombin-
ing long-lastingsyntheticmaterialswith
woods.To learn
resource guide"
on page 100.

Versatile, drrrable planter box

and railing systern, page 72
High style meets low maintenancewith this deck railing
system. Built from expanded polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
lumber, these rails and balusters won't warp, split, or
splinter. Topped with a coat of paint, the material
appears just like wood. And you can work it just like
wood, with basic skills and a few common tools.
The railing sections are joined by columns with built-in
planter inserts. The columns are made from economical
exterior plywood, and sheathed with fiber-cement
shingles that hold paint for years. More PVC trim dresses
out the columns' corners and the inserts.

58 WOOD magazine April 2002

A gracefrrl garden gate,
lrrneflrrly issrre
We'll show you how to create this dramatic entrance
to your yard or garden. The main structure matches
the pergolas and railing system, iust in case you want
to build all of them. The hefty cedar gate features
ornate (but easy) trim around its "window."

r'lttl Fancifrrl fencingr
ffi issrre
-t This fence defines the boundaries of your yard while
llrll enhancing your landscaping.Whateverthe size or
contours of your outdoor spaces, you can build the
fence to fit, with its pressure-treated posts and pan'
els made of cedar and plastic lattice. Construction
goes quickly, but the beauty lasts for years.
- tt-t"-.' -- 1:-rl =-t-

+a- i.:
.-, -, -: j:::: ::: -- l
.: ,-1-.-:'r:,---

i :;i I ti:-;l:: ,r,i;a /' ,r:

-: l i
: - . I I l r i, i j i l:,:,
!:1-lFl I I
',ir:;11.;1,., i l F .: t i I itl::: ! ,
i:-- ll-:r I
; i

t'l ; i
il i:,::I I
:'rl i-:;-:';i,

A pergola lit
for a swing,
Page 68
This scaled-down
version of the large
pergola makes the
perfect place to hang a
swing. To build the
swing, follow the
instructions available
(no. WP-OFS-I002,
$10.95).To order go to
or call 888/636-4478.

Pretty pergola, page 60

Add dappled shade, classic styling, and a sense of defined space
to any outdoor area with this pergola. The design is flexible, so
you can dress up an existing deck, as shown here, or create an
"outdoor room," as seen on page 60. (Check out page 66to see
proper techniques for setting the posts into the ground.) Building
the pergola is a straightforward process, employing a few
portable power tools and hand tools. For longevity, it's made of
high-quality, rot-resistantwestern red cedar. 'F

www.woodonline.eorn 59
\ t?
Add elegiance to )rour out-
door living wittr this airy
p on.Easilysi 6'to frt
qrryqpace,this versttile
pe will errh e ]rour
patioor :tard.'
o two of us havethe sameoutdoorlivingSpaces,So we designed
this pergolato be infinitely Theoneshownhereoccupies
a 111x148""footprint,"but you'lllearnhow to increaseor decrease
How to plan y_our
its dimensions as needed.Youcan buildit as a freestanding structureon an perfect pergola
Usingthese instructions and the draw-
existingdeck or patioor set its postsin the ground.To shrinkit to the sizeof
ing belowas a guide,Youeasilycan
an arborand add a relaxingswing,seethe articleon page 68. customizea pergolato fit your needs.
No matterwhich way you go, you'll appreciatehow your pergolagoes H ere' show .
Startwith your pergola'sfootprint.
togetherlike LincolnLogs.You startwith a pileof machinedparts,raisethe to
Thi s i s si mpl ythe outsi de- of - post
posts, construct the frames, then fit the slotted canopy subassemblies outside-of-post lengthand width.
B ecause16' i s the l onges com
t m onlY's that easy.
availablecedar2x6, and the girders
and joistsextendbeyondthe footprint
by 10" at each end, your footprintcan-
Grrt the parils not exceed 172x172".
for yorrr pergola kit Althoughyou can orientthe mainjoists
Cut four 6x6 (5 t/zx\t/z" actual) posts and sidegirders(D, E) in eitherdirec-
(A) to the length in the Materials tion,for planningpurposeswe'llreferto
List. To get a square cut, mark your cut-
line on all four sides. Using a crosscut
guide, cut all around the post to the full i
depth of your portable circular saw. -. t i
Finish off the cut with a handsaw. Sand {
the posts to 120 grit, and set them aside. 24"t
For the post caPS, start bY cutting i
four 1Vzx5l/zx5t/2"cap tops (B) and 51/z'-

four t/qx4t/zx4/2." cap bases (C). Bevel I

the lVz"-thick cap tops, where shown on
Drawing 1. To make these cuts, we used t
the auxiliary fence and sliding saddle
Footprint I-
length 24','t
,4" deckscrew Use your jigsaw to cut the ioist and gird-
g/0"shankhole, er ends to shape before smoothing the
\ countersunk final profile with your router.

shown in "Great Ideas for Your Shop" 24'! ll)l

on ptge 12. To hold the blank, drive a
wood screw through the back of the jig Footprint
4d galvanized width
finish nail into the blank's center. Cut one face,
rotate 90o, cut, and repeat until all four the outside-of-post to outside-of-post
tI bevels are cut. Glue and nail the cap dimensionparallelto thesemembersas
bases,centered,to the cap tops, using an the footprintlength.To findthe lengthof
I exterior glue and 4d galvanized nails' the mainjoistsand sidegirders(D, E),
Sand the caps to 120 grit and set them add 20" to the footprint'slength.To find
aside. (We installed the caps after the the lengthof the end girders(H),add
20" to the footprint's width.
pergola was completely assembled.)
Positionthe mainjoists(D) across
Cut the 2x6 main joists and side
the end gi rders(H ),keepingt he dis'
E posr girders (D, E) to length. Make the
marking/trimming template shown on
tance betweenthe close-spaced pairs
3/e"lag screw aI51/2".Adjustthe numberof pairs
Drawing 2a, and use it to mark the and/orthe lengthof the blocking(F) to
3" long
3t/2"-radtus cutouts on the parts' ends, evenlyfill the distancebetweenthe
Postbase where shown on Drawing 2. Cut close posts.(We triedto keepthe interval
Mitered to the lines, as shown in Photo A. betweenadjacentjoist pairsin the
ends Chuck a flush-trim bit in your hand- neighborhood of 24".)The interval
held router. Clamping the template to betweenthe pairsis the lengthof the
bl ocki ng(F).
each part to guide the bit, rout the final
Now,usingthe same sPacingmethod
profile. For smooth routing, rout from (thoughnot necessarilY the same
1/2" CIYQ
I the cutout's "heel" to the part's end. spaci ng),posi ti onthe bl ockingand t he
2" deck screw . / l l
Chuck a t/s" round-over bit in your stubjoists(l) alongthe mainjoists.


@ unruJorsr/BLocKrNG

,-1,1,t/'" 23s/a"
c,/2 | , -/
11/2"-, ) l'f -4
151/2" th" hardboard
3" deck

3" deck screw countersunk
( 3" deck screw
83/a" 11/z'

Rout t/a"round-overs
R=31/2" on theseedgesafterthe
end profilesare shaped.

.,:'' and edgesflush. In the samemanner as mate with the notchescut in the bottom
i' router (to matchthejoists' before, use a handsaw and chisel to edgesof the sidegirders.As with the two
factory edges), and rout the deepenthe notches to 23/q"(or half the sidegirders(E), extendthe notchesin the
end profiles' edges. actual width of your 2x6s). Mark these end girdersto23/c"deep.Sandthe partsH
the joists and girders as the side girders (E) that, along with and I to 120 gnt, and set them aside.
upside down on a pair of the end girders (H), form the pergola's ;, '. Cut eight 2x8 blanks 417/8"long for
sawhorses,and clamp them together outer frame. Sandthe parts (D, E) to 120 ' - the brackets(J). Using your circular
with their endsand edgesflush. Using a grit, and set them aside. saw or tablesawand miter gauge,make
square,draw lines acrossthe parts' bot- Cut the blocking (F) and upper
,,,,,: the angled end cuts, where shown on
tom edges(now facing up) for the IVz"- ',.,,,ibracketcleats(G) to size.Sandthem Drawing 4a. Mark the centerpointof the
wide notches, where dimensionedon to 120 grit, and setthem aside. curve on one blank. Bend a narrow strip
Drawing2. Using your portablecircular Cut the end girders(H) and the stub of hardboardto join the centerpointand
saw,a straightedge, and a I" chisel,form joists (I) to size. As with the main ends, and draw the curve. Jigsaw or
the notches,asshownin PhotosB andC. joists and side girders,usethe template, bandsaw,then sandto the line. Use this
(These photos show cutting similar jigsaw, and router to mark and form the completedbracket as a templateto trace
notchesin the swing pergolajoists. See end cutouts,where sho'rvnon Drawing3. the curve on the other bracket blanks.
page 68 for this project.)Checkthe fit of ' Following the same procedure as Saw to the waste side of the lines. Then
your I Vz" stock in the notch. For good , with the main joists and side girders, clamp the template bracket, in turn, to
appearanceand easy assembly,you'll form the notchesin the end girders (H) eachof the sawnblanks,and usea flush-
want a closebut not tight fit. and the stubjoists (I), where shown on trim bit in your handheld router to
.' Take two of the partsjust notched, Drawing 3. Note that the notchesin the smooth the curves.Finish up by routing
' and clamp them together,with ends end girders are cut in their top edgesto %" round-overswhereshown.
Cut the lower 8Y2"
bracket cleats 1Vz'
(K) to size.Rout the Vq"
cove. and drill three
shank holes counter-
sunk from the back and
six shankholescounter- 131':
sunk from the front in each
piece, where shown on Drawing 4.
Sandthe cleatsto 120 gnt.
Note: The 4/4 cedar that many lumber-
yards carry is about 7/a"thick and rough-
sawn on one side. To get smoothfaces
and edges,we planed a lx6x8' board to
Set your saw to c.tl2t/q" deep. Clamp a Use a chisel and hammer to clean out s/t" thick and ripped and jointed it to
straightedge to the joists, and cut a the notches, smoothing their bottoms to
series of kerfs to define the notches. a uniform depth. 31/2"wide beforecutting the 10" lengths.

62 WOOD rnagazine April 2002

How to assemble the pergola (continued on next page)

Screw together main joisUblocking (D/F) Screw together the two main joisUstub Lay out your pergola's footprint, and
subassemblies,where dimensionedon joist (D/l)subassemblies,where dimen- lag-screw four post bases to the deck.
ffir*wlng *. Fasten the upper bracket sioned on Orawing 3. Fastenthe upper Take diagonalmeasurementsto check
cleats (G) to the subassemblieswhere bracket cleats (G) to the main joists, your layout for square. The post bases
shown on Srawings ? and 5. where shown on the drawing. allow you to fine-tunetheir locations.

For the cove caps (L) and base trim Prime all the pergola parts with an Prrt it all together
(M), plane two lx6x6' cedar exterior-grade latex primer. Apply and voili, pergota
boards to 3/+"thick, as noted above. Joint two coats to the end grain and the notch- Now that you have all your pergola
one edge of each board. Rout a th" cove es. When the primer dries. lightly sand parts made, primed, and painted,
in the jointed edges,and rip off a 7-r"-wide with 220-grit sandpaper.Finish the parls you're just an afiernoon away fiorn
strip for the cove caps (L). Joint the sawn with two coats of exterior transforming your yard's personality.
edges of the remaining boards, and rip latex paint. Refen'ing to the nine-stepsequenceof pho-
them to 3t/+" wide fbr the base trim (M). tos that starls cbole and ends on page 65,
Sand the base and cap stock to 120 grit.
You'll miter-cut the cove caos and base
trim to fit aroundthe postsafter
the pergolais in place.
I enncrETMouNTrNc
3" deck screw
1 , / r " 1 ,(


d < / t l
21/q" 114a" I
,\ r
1r/r' 361/4' c'/2



1t/z" deck screw
-{ 2"
@ \
4s/a" f-


wwur.woodonline, com 63
How to assemble the pergola (continued)

Lag-screw each end girder to two posts, Slip the end notches of the side girders Hoist the main joisUstub joist assem-
where shown on Drawing 4. Stand these (E) into the notches of the end girders blies (D/l) into place, slipping the stub
assemblies up in the post bases, plumb, (H). The tops of both girders are flush. joist and main joist notches over the
and brace them in place. Screw the bases Drill th" pilot holes, and lag-screw the side girders (E) and the end girders (H).
to the posts, as shown on Drawing 1. side girders to the posts. Fasten with deck screws. as shown.

4" deck screw

3" deck screw
f---7 4" deck screws

%tuI g"oeck-ffl 1" counterbore

SCTEW t/z"deep with
a 7e"hole


e/e"lag screw
4" long

1lz" deck


1r/2"deck screw
e/a"lag screw
4" long

2" deck screw


64 WOOD magazine April 2002

Positionthe mainioisUblocking assem- Screwthe lowerbracketcleats(K)to the Miter-cut the base trim (M) to fit around
blies(D/F),slippingthe mainioist notch' brackets(J),whereshownon Drawing 4. the post bases. Apply construction
es over the end girders.Leave5lz" Screwthe bracketassembliesto the adhesive and band-clamP,as shown'
spacesbetweenthe mainioists of adia- postsand the upperbracketcleats(G), Miter-cut the cove cap (L) to fit around
cent assemblies. Fastenwith screws. whereshownon Drawings4 and 5. the post, and nail it in Place.

make up the subassemblies,erect the Finish off your pergolaby driving 3" rrlaterials list
posts and girders, and assemble the deck screwsthrough the side girders
canopy and braces.All you'll need is (E) and the end girders(H) into the upper A posts 51/2, 51/z' 1073/q', c
some basic hardware:deck screws,lag bracketcleats(G). Removethe temporary B captops 11/2. 51/z' 51/2',
screws,and steel post bases(Simpson bracesfrom the posts.Drill countersunk C capbases 3/q' 41/2', 4r/2',
StrongTie no. ,4.866).To give us secure shankholesthroughthe post caps(B/C).
D mainjoists 11/z' 51/z' 168'
anchoragefor the post bases,we added Apply constructionadhesiveto the bot-
E sidegirders 11/z' 51/z' 168"
blocking underneaththe deck. When toms of the caps,and screw the capsto
F blocking 11/z' 51/2' 22' 30
lag-screwingthe girders to the posts, the tops of the posts.Touch up the paint
drill counterboredshank holes through where needed.Jl G yppqr
DracKet 11/z' 51/2, 83/a',
the girders and V+" pllot holes into the H endgirders
11/2" 51/zu131
posts. When fasteningparts with deck Written by Jan Svec with Kevin Boyle
Projectdesign:Kevin Boyle;James R. Downing I stubjoists 11/z' 51/z' 151/z' c 20
screws, drill only countersunk shank lllustrations:Roxanne LeMoine; Kim Downing; J- brackets 11/z' 71/q',403/a' c
holes. The deck screws drive into the Lorna Johnson
K lower
cedarwithout pilot holes. Photographs:Baldwin PhotograPhY cleats
bracket 3/t' 31/z^ 10" C
L- covecaps Vtu 3/q' 7' C 16
crrtting d ragrarnr M*base trim 3/qu 31/q' 71/a', c lo
.Partsinitially Seetheinstructions'
51/zx 51/zx 120" Cedar (6x6x10)(4 needed)
Supplies: 1/2"deckscrews, 3"deck
screws,4"deckscrews, %"lagscrews 3"long,3/e''
(2x6x14)(10 needed) screws 4dgalvanized
4"long,%"flatwashers, finish
1 1 / 2 x 5 1 /xz 1 6 8 "
nails, (4),construction
1 1 / 2 x 5 1 /xz 1 6 8 Cedar(2x6x14)

x 192"Cedar(2x6x16)(3 needed)

168"Cedar(2x6x14)(2 needed)

x 168"Cedar (2x6x14)(2 needed)

e --.,:.)1.:.'.'---
"."e "'/ -.o_-..::)1.:.'-"---._
,:: a._.1
s/+x51/2x72"Cedar(1x6x6)(2 needed)

1Vzx7t/ax 168"Cedar(2x8x14)(2 needed)

r,)\ .A rA G\ O\ /O\ JA__fi\-
\-v \_y \-v {_v \_v {y \_v l\_v
3/qx 51/zx 96" Cedar (1x6x8)

Well-built outdoor projects start with

accuratelayout of post locations. 1. Get
You don't need much equip-
ment to lay out posts for an
outdoor structure. For an
easy way to visualize its size
and shape, use a tape mea-
sure and a garden hose to
outline your project's dimen-
sions on the ground. Then
gather some 1x2 lumber and
cut it into 3' lengths for "bat-
terboards." You also will
need a heavy hammer to
drive the upright stakes into
the ground, a drill and 1th"
deck screws for quick
assembly, a plumb bob, and
he pergolas featured in a spool of mason's string.
this well as the
garden gate and fence
projectsstill to come,call for postssetin straightlines
and with square corners. A few lx2s, a length of
mason'sstring,and simple arithmeticwill get you to
that goal.
The illustrations and captionson thesepagesshow
you the essentialstepsin locating and lining up the
posts you'll need. Posts set in the ground, and
anchoredwith concrete,are the best way to supporta
gate,a fence,or a pergola with an attachedswing.
Use posts made of pressure-treated lumber or foun-
dation-grade (heartwood) cedar. Make sure to sink
them deeper than the frost line for your area, to
counter the effects of frost heaving. For a neaterjob,
and addedprotection againstheaving, buy cardboard
tubesat your home centerto line the post holesbefore
filling them with concrete.
Before you go too far, check with local or county
governmentofficials to make sure your project plans 2- Go to yorrr cortilers-
are in compliancewith building codesand ordinances Define each corner with a pair of batterboards. For each bat-
terboard, make a pair of stakes by cutting two 1x2s to a point
regarding setbackfrom your property line. Also, call at one end, and drive them into the ground. Set them 2' away
the "One Call" phone number for your state or from the planned post location, and spaced so that the post
province, and ask to have the buried pipes and wires will stand about halfway between the stakes. Attach a cross-
on your property located and marked before you dig. piece with screws, as shown. Use a framing square to help
you set the corner's other batterboard at a right angle to the
If you can't find the number,call the North American
first. When you have installed all of your batterboards,wrap a
One Call ReferralSvstemat 888/258-0808.Jl length of mason's string several times around a crosspiece,
pull it tight to the facing batterboard at an adjacent corner,
lllustrations:fUife Uittermeier and wrap it there, marking the side of the structure through
the center of each post. Continue until you've marked all four
sides, with a pair of strings intersecting at each corner.

66 WOOD rnagazine April 2002

3. Itts
At one corner of your planned structure' measure
from the corner to a point 3' away on one string, and
mark the spot on a piece of masking tape folded over
the string. Then, measure the perpendicularstring 4'
out from the corner, and mark that point. Now, mea-
sure between your two marks. lf the distance equals
5', the strings lie at right angles to one another. lf the
distance is less than or greater than 5', relocate the
string on your batterboard until it's right on the
money. Mark the correct spot on the board with a 4. lI rnarl.s the s1rot
nail, or a handsaw kerf, in case the string gets moved At each corner, transfer the strings' inter-
by accident. Gheck the adiacent corners for square' section down to the ground with a plumb
and finish up at the opposite corner. line. You can find an inexpensiveplumb
bob at a home center, and a camera or
telescope tripod makes a handy holder.
Keep the plumb line about 7a" away from
the strings, so that you're not pushing
them out of position.The Plumb bob
locates the spot for the center of the
post. Mark that point, then remove the
strings to make room for digging.

5. Dig, alignt
arrd finish the iob
Dig an 8"-diameter hole at least 6" deeper than your
area's frost line for each 4x4 post, using a power auger'
hand auger, or post-hole digger. A 6x6 post requires a
1O"-diameterhole. Shovel a 6" layer of gravel into the
hole to provide drainage. Now, put the strings back on I
the batterboards,but move them toward the outside of
the layout by one-half the post thickness. Set each post
in its hole, and move it until the outside edge lines up I

with the string. Attach two braces to adiacent sides of the I

post with screws, and drive a stake next to each brace. I
Use a level to make sure the post is plumb-check adia-
cent sides-and fasten the braces to the stakes with
screws. When everything lines up, add water to premixed
concrete, and fill the holes.

Tlris freestanding shrcture lets you
venture be,yondthe deck.
l=i> 4,,deckscrews
e/ro"shank hole,
countersunk 3/e"nut
11/2' ---1
t ( 31s/+" WAShETS

-. svr'lI
he construction method
used in the previousarticle
for the deck pergolais very
versatile.With a little imagination
and planning,it adaptsto any num-
ber of outdoorapplications.
\' 3/e"washgr
We combineda porch swing from \
\ ./r" rag screw
our libraryof WOODPl-ANSowith a 4" long
reconfiguredpergola.The resultis a 1" counterbore1/2"deep with a
great place to relax and watch the 7a"hole centeredinside
world go by. See the BuyingGuide
for the swing plan. (We made our 953/4"

swing out of cedar.)Here'show to

buildthe swing'spergola.
E exploDED
Plant forrr posts
on a level spot
Dig four lO"-diameterholesspaced
whereshownon Drawing1.Thearti-
cle"Be a postmaster"onpage66 shows
you how to accuratelylocateandtem-
porarilybraceyourposts.To supportthe
swing,the postsextendat least.36"
belowgrade.Because of thefrostlinein
ourlocation,ourpostsextend42" below
grade.Check your local requirement.
Dig holesdeepenoughto allowfor a 6"
layer of gravel at the bottom for
drainage,asshownon Drawing2.
Note: Our swing is 581/2"wide. The hole
pergola is sized to leave about 8" of
clearance at each end betweenswing
and posts. If you use a dffirent swing,
you may have to modify the pergola to the blade. Measure this offset distance
maintainthis clearance. down from the markedtop line, and draw
Positionfour 6x6x12'(5Vzx5Vz" actu- a level line aroundall four sidesof each
posts (A) in the
al) pressure-treated post. Temporarily nail a short board to
holes, plumb them, and brace them in one sideof the first post with its top edge
place. Make sure that the distance at this lower line. Settingyour saw to its
betweenthe postsis the sameat the top maximum depth, use the board to guide
as at the grade.Set them in concrete,as your saw as you make the cut. In this
shownon Drawingla. manner,work your way aroundthe post's
When the concretehardens,remove other three sides.Finish cutting through
the bracing from the posts.Make a the post with a handsaw.Repeatthis pro-
mark 953A"up from grade on one post. cedureon the other three posts, making
Using a straightboard and a level, trans- themevenin height.
fer this top mark to the other posts. Make four post caps (B/C), as
Measurethe offset on your portablecircu- explainedin Step2 on page 61. Set
lar saw betweenthe edee of its baseand them aside.

arbor/swi ng

I ururu

I 31/z'1 1" counterbore

Post location lz" deep with as/a,'holecenteredinside

E cnossJorsr

Grrt the parts for togetherwith their endsand edgesflush. shank holes through the crossjoists at
tlre overhead grid Lay out the notch locations, where eachnotch.Drive 4" deckscrewsthroueh
Cut the main joists (D) to the length shown on Drawing3. Form the notches, the crossjoists into the main joists.
''' in the Materials List. Form the end
as explainedin Step4 on page 62. ..*Hpritt /s" holesfor the eye bolts,cen-
cutouts, shown on Drawing 2, as Note: Check the actual dimension of ";,*1;teredbetweenthe posts and in the
explainedin Step3 on page 61. Drill the your 6x6 posts. The spacesbetweenthe thickness of the cross joists, where
counterbored32" holeswhereshown. paired notches in the cross joists (E) shownon Drawing1. Touch up the paint
Cut the crossjoists (E) to the length must match this dimension. whereneeded.With the paint dry, install
. in the Materials List. Form the end the eye bolts, and hangthe swing.rl
$ Sandall your pergolapartswith 120-
cutouts, shown on Drawing 3, in the sandpaper.Prime the parts, Written by Jan Svec with Kevin Boyle
samemanneras thosein the main joists. including the posts, with an exterior- Projectdesign: Kevin Boyle; James R. Downing
Turn the crossjoists upsidedown on grade latex primer. Take special care to lllustrations:
Roxanne LeMoine;Kim Downing;
coat the end grain and the notches.When Lorna Johnson
Photographs:Baldwin Photography
the primer dries, lightly sand with 220-
grit sandpaper.Finish the parts with two
coatsof exteriorlatex paint.

Nour put it all together A posts 51/2' 51/z' f' PT

''l{] B captops
Apply construction adhesive and 11/2" 5r/z' 51/z'
- glue andscrewthe postcaps(B/C) to C capbases Vqu 41/z' 41/z'
the posts,as shownon Drawing4. D mainjoists 11/z' 51/2' 106"
*rffiClamp the main joists (D) to the
E crossioists 11/zr 51/z' 50'
r#*#posts, where shown on Drawings 1
and4. Make surethejoists arelevel side- instructions.
to-sideand that the front pair of joists is MaterialsKey:PT-pressuretreated
level with the back pair. Using the coun- Supplies: 4"long(16),
%"lagscrews %"flatwashers
Fasten the main joists to the posts with terbored holes in the joists as guides, (32),4dgalvanized
(20),4' deckscrews finishnails,/a'
lag screws and flat washers. drill pilot holes into the posts.Drive in eyebolts8"long(2),%"nuts(2),construction
the lag screws,as shownin PhotoA. primer,paint,
'€$ Place the cross joists (E), where cubicfeet).
taruffshown on Drawing1. The notchesin BuyingGuide
porch planno.WP-OFS-1002,
the crossjoists fit over the mainjoists, as bycalling
$10.95, orgotoW00D
shown in Photo B. Drill countersunk PLANSo atwww.woodstore.woodmall,com,

crrtting diagrarn
51/zx 51lzx 144"Pressure-treated
lumber(6x6x12)(4 needed)

1 1 l z x 5 1 /xz 1 2 0 " (2x6x10)(4 needed) 3lqx51lzx24"

Drop the cross joists in place over the Cedar (1x6x2)
main joists.
(2x6x10)(3 needed)

70 WOOD rnagazine April 2002

Go from plain to pleasing
with new railings and
planter-box columns

11/+"deck screws

eplacewimpy corner
posts with shingled
columns,and give 7sz"shank hole.
your deck a solidstructurallook
and architecturalflair.Then,add
planterinsertsin the columns'
2" deck screw
tops to brightenyour deck with
Constructedwith pressure-
treatedplywood,PVC lumber
(seethe sidebaron page 74),
and fiber-cementshingles,
thesecolumnsand railingswill
give you yearsof maintenance-
free enjoyment.And for added tr
to the
m i n u s1 "
3" deck

strength,we builtthe railing's
top memberaround1Yz"galva-
2" deck

Brrild and install

the colrrmns
Note: This section covers the installa-
tion of a columnat the corner of a deck.
The installation of a column between
corners is the same, except that three
sidesof the column must be notchedto
fit over the deck's edge. The Materials
List specifiesthe materialsfor one col-
umn and one lengthof railing.
Once you determine the length of
your columns' sides (A) (see the
sidebar, "Planning your installation"),
cut the plywood, and glue and screwthe Planrdng your installation
columns together. (We glued with We locatedplanter-box columnsat the deck's
polyurethane construction adhesive.) outsidecorners,wherethe railingsterminatenextto the
Lap the corners,as shownon Drawing1, house,and alongsidethe stepsthat descendto the yard.Also,if a lengthof
making boxes whose inside dimensions railingwouldexceed12',we addeda columnto shortenthe span.
are 15x 15" . The columnsare notchedso theiroutsidefacesextendalmostdownto
Cut the insertcleats(B) to the sizein groundlevel.This givesthem the appearanceof supportingthe deck.To
the Materials List, and attach them determinethe overalllengthof your columns'sides(A), measurefrom the
whereshown. deck surfaceto the ground,and subtract1". Add this dimensionto 41" (the
Mark lineson the deck lIt/z" in from columns'heightabovethe deck).Our deck surfaceis about 18" abovegrade,
s o we cut our si des58" l ong.To fi t the col umnsto our deck,w e then cut
the edges,thenextendthe linesdown
17"-longnotchesout of the columncarcases,shownon Drawing1. Once your
columnsare in place,measurebetweenthem for railinglengths. 73
deck railing

1t/2" 1/2" schedule
deck screw 4 0 g a l v a n i z e d s t e e l p i p e
1 1/2"
deck screw
Zt/z"deck screw


3t/z"deck screw

V\Ihenlumber isn't wood:

a look at cellular PVC
lf trim is goingto be painted,does it reallyneedto be
madeof wood?We askedourselvesthis questionand
decidedto try out Azek cellularPVC.Azek Trimboardsare
madefor non-load-bearing exteriortrim applications.(Seethe
BuyingGuidefor Azek dealerinformation.) They can be sawn,routed,
drilled,and sandedwith standardwoodworking tools.Theirsawn or routed
edgesare void free and have a fine densetexturecomparableto MDF.
Azekis availablein 4'-widesheetsup to 20' long in3/q"and 1" thicknesses,
and in nominallumberwidths(3r/r",51/2",71h", 91/+")18' long in 5/s",3/q",and the deck's outside face. Cut 2x4 deck
1" thicknesses.Some prefabricatedcomponents,such as the 1s/qx13/qx26" cleats(C, D, E) to size.Align theiredges
balustersused in the railings,are also available. with the markedlines,and screwthem in
Azekcan be screwed,hand-nailed, or nailedwith a nail gun. Glue it to place,as shownin PhotoA.
othermaterialsusingstandardconstruction adhesives.Bond it to itselfwith Mark thecutout,shownon Drawing1,
PVC cement.(The manufacturer recommendsGorillaPVC,a nonflammable
on the column. Guiding your saw
cementthat providesadequateworkingtime. See the BuyingGuidefor our
with a straightedge, cut out the notch,as
Go r illaP V C c em en ts o u rc e .)
Althoughthe materialis whitethroughout,and has a smoothsemigloss shownin PhotoB.
surface,the textureof cut or routededgeswill look dull,so you may want to Set the notched column over the
paintit. For best results,use high-quality 1O0%acryliclatexprimerand paint. cleats,and check it with a level for
Becauseit absorbsno moistureand is imperviousto watervapor,Azek has plumb. Secureit with deckscrewsdriven
superiorpaint-holding characteristics, and will neverrot.
is insectproof, throughthe plywood and into the cleats.

74 WOOD magazine Aprr} 2002


V-groove mraterials list
/e" dgep %r"shankf
@ hole,
31/2" onfront A sides 3/q' 153/q' t PTP 4
I hole B insert
cleats 3/4' s/tu 14Vt' A
i 1/2" schedule 61/q"
C deckcleat1 1Vz' 3Vz' 15" PT
i40 galvanized
steelpipe %r"shankI D deckcleat2 11/2" 31/z' 111/2', PT
countersunk E deckcleat3 11/z' 3Vz' B1/z' PT
onback F narrow
battens 3/qu 1t/z' t
t G widebattens 3/q' 21/t' t

H.starter 7/,16" 3/q' 54"

I shingles th' tt tr l-t/

1/z"cove J upperrailsides 3/tu 23/q' t
1" r- 1"
K upperrailtop 1u 3t/z' t

/a" deep L upper
21/2" stringer 1u
baluster 21/a' t

'rI -?-r
i i '.o,' li
i M lower
stringer 1
baluster 31/q' t
7sz"shankhole. 21/2" rail
N lower 1u 31/z' t
on back
countersunk 0 balusters 13/t' 13/q' 26'

/ t l
2 1/2
@ @- P railbrackets 1u 41/t' 6t/t'

, deck screw 2" Q blocking 13/q' 13h' 4'

Tse"shank hole,
,/2 cove

countersunk on front
_i R sides Vc' 113/q"14' A
I .._.. E
S bottom Vq' 133/c'133/q' A

v @\ I"labricate
T trimbase
U trim
3/tu 23/4' 171/2"
3/c' 3Vz' 163/q' A

the railing cap -Parls initrally

@ With the column carcasesin place,
tlengths or numbers of parts
determined byyourdeck's
_ g1/4".
measurethe distancebetweenthem,
_ and subtract2" for the thicknessof the
31/2' ttCuttofit,Seetheinstructions.
two rail brackets (P), as shown on
Materials Key:PTP-pressure-treated plywood,
@ Drawing2. Cut the upperrail sides(J), lumber,
Trimboards PVC,PT-pressurelreated
4u upperrail top (K), upperbalusterstringer FC-fiber-cement shingles.
I (L), lower baluster stringer (M), and
lower rail (N) to this length. Rout the
$rrpplies : 11/t',11/z', 3",and3%"deckscrews;

I coves in the lower baluster stringer,
where shown on Drawing 3 Set the
40galvanized steelpipe;
latexwoodfiller;acrylic latexprimer; latexpaint;
packing peanuts; potting
jig,you'llneedtwo1/cx4x5" pieces of hardboard
E!,,, eighlshxe/ox7t/2"woodcleats.
'bb Buying Guide
Forstner $13.95.MLCS, P0 Box4053,
Cellular information,
Vycom at 800/235-8320,or goto
- * , ;N
, "w anddeckcomponents,

PVCcement. 32-ounce PVCcement,

canGorilla no.R'
3200, Gorilla
$16,95. PVCCement LLC,POBox
848969, FL33084,
Hollywood, orcall888/367-4583.
,i'.f 'x', ', Single
Heritage Shingleproductanddealerinformation,
'y' .- callJamesHardie Products,
Building or
Fasten the cleats (C, D, E) to the deck To guide your saw, temporarilynail a
with 3"-long deck screws. short, straight board to the column.

wwwwoodonline,com 75
deck railing

upper balusterstringer (L), lower balus- E ronurNcTHERAILING

ter stringer(M), and lower rail (N) aside. STEP 4
Routthe edges. STEP3
{} Chuck a3/q"straightbit in your table- Sawthetopbevels.
fr mountedrouter, and rout s/s"rabbets
Va"deepin the upperrail sides(J), where Blade tilted 8" from vertical
shown on Drawing 3. Clamp the upper
rail sides together, separatedby tempo-
rary 2x2" spacers,as shownin Photo C.
Make sure the rabbetsface inward and
the endsof the rail sidesare even.
Q SpreadPVC cementon the top edges
t#of the rail sides.Slide the upperrail 45" V-groovebit
top (K) underthe clamps,and secureit to
the sides with masking tape. Make sure STEP 1
Rout the grooves.
the endsand edgesare flush.
,1{ With the cement set, remove the
Using your table-mounted
router and tablesaw, follow the four
steps shown on Drawing 4 to form the STEP2
upper rail. Sand the saw blade marks Routthecoves.
from the top bevel, and blend the round- 5/e"rabbets
overs into the beveledsurfaces.Remove 1/e"deep
the spacers,and set the railing cap aside. (previously
t/2"cove bit

a strrrdy balrrstnde (We purchasedthe prefabricatedAzek evennumberof balusters).Drill pilot and
I To figure the number of balusters balusters mentioned in the sidebar on countersunk shank holes, and cement
I tOl you need, make a "story pole" page 74. Seethe Buying Guide to find an and screwthe first balusterin place,cen-
about I' longer than the length of your Azek dealernear you.) tering it on the widths of the stringers.
railing, and mark it off in 53/q"intervals. S fo make baluster spacing/centering Then use the jigs to position the rest of
(The maximum allowable spacebetween #*iigs, cut two Vqx4x5" hardboard the balusters, as shown in Photo D,
the 13/+xlz/+" balustersis 4".) Shift the spacers and eight tAx/cx7v2" cleats. cementing and screwing them in place.
pole back and forth on one baluster Glue and clamp together the upper and In the finished rail, the railing cap's rab-
stringer until you can locate balusters lower jigs, as shownon Drawing5. beted sides fit over the top baluster
equally spaced no more than 3" from {} Mark the upper and.lower baluster stringer,housing a length of 1/z" galva-
eachend.(3" plus the 1"-thickrail brack- tlstringer (L, M) centers(if you have nized steel pipe, as shown in Photo E.
et equals the 4" maximum spacing.) an odd number of balusters),or 27/e"to The cap will be cementedin place after
Count the number of neededbalusters. one side of the centers(if you have an the balustersectionis installed.

Clamp 2x2" scrap blocks between the Use the spacing jigs to maintain 4" The hollow space formed by the railing
upper rail sides (J) to keep them proper- spaces between balusters and keep cap and upper baluster stringer houses
ly spaced and parallel. them centered on the stringers. a fength of 1lz" galvanized steel pipe.

76 WOOD magazine April 2002

Install tlre railing p sencrNc/cENTERtNc
ft Cementandclampthe lowerrail (N) to Position
#' ttre lower baluster sninger Qvt). Cut Centerline
four rail brackets (P) for each section of
railing. With a Forstrer bit, drill ltsAe"
holes in the upper pair, where shown on
Drawing3a. (SeettreBuying Guidefor a bit 1/qx4x5"
source.) Then drill countersunk shank hardboard
holes,whereshownon Drawings3aand3b.
Cement and screw the brackets to the
ends of the upper and lower baluster
stringers,where shown on Drawing3. i -------------------r
r l


ffi Slide the railing sectionbetweenthe 15/8"--d

#previously installed columns. With

the bottom rail bracketsresting directly
on the deck, screw the brackets to the l/qx4 x 5" hardboard
columns,where shownon Drawing2.
S Using the hole in the upper rail
q"#bracket(P) as a guide, drill a ltsAe" Vqxs/c x7t/2" rail
hole through the column side, as shown
in Photo F. Mark a correspondingcen-
terpoint on the corner column's opposite
side, and drill anotherhole. UPPER/LOWERJIGS SIDE VIEW

ffi Measure the distance between two

Add the thicknessof two ffi Center the pipe so its ends are flush ffi Rip one 54" length of starter strip
column sides.Cut lVz" galvanizedsteel %,#with the insides of the columns. t"# (H) for eachcolumn. From this strip,
pipe to this length. Feed it through the SpreadPVC cementon the railing cap's cut piecesto fit around the bottom of the
first column, over the balusterassembly, bottom inside rabbets and slide the cap column. Nail them in place with 4d gal-
and into the secondcolumn, as shown in over the pipe, seating it on the upper vanized box nails. Where the column is
Photo G. The pipe must engage the balusterstringer. notched around the deck, install the
columns' plywood sidesat both ends of strips on the horizontal portions. Leave
the railing. Shingte the colrrrnlr Vq"betweenthe strips and the decking.
*,;i Cut pieces of baluster stock for the $ Measuring the column's corners for ffi Now, calculate your shingle needs.
-t*#?blocking(Q), and centerthem under -& their lengths, cut 'the narrow and r#' The V+"-thick I 8"-long fiber-cement
every fourth baluster space.Drill coun- wide battens (F, G) to size. Glue and shinglesthat cover the columns come in
tersunk shank holes through the lower clamp them together,forming L-shaped 6", 8", and 12" widths. Because the
stringer/rail assembly,and drive in the assemblies.Nail them to the columns width of our sidesis l3vz", we usedonly shownin Photo H. with 4d galvanizedfinish nails. the 6" and 8" widths. (See the Buying

Guided by the hole in the upper bracket, A hole in the column face opposite the To prevent sagging install 4"-long
hole through the column.
drilf a 115/rs" railing facilitates the installation of the pieces of baluster stock between the
Repeatat the railing's other end. 1lz" galvanized steel pipe. deck and bottom rail assembly.

www.woodonline.corn 77
deck railing

2" deck screw

1 13/q"

7sz"shankhole 3/q"dado V+"deep

countersunk 3/q"ftom bottom edge

The planterInsertsin the top of each

columnlift out for easymaintenance.

*)Cutthe trim base(T) and trim (U) to

and from column to column. To keep the ksize. Clamp the trim base to the
courseseven where the columns notch insert sides, butting the corners, as
Guide for shingleinformation.)Using a over the deck, you may have to cut short shown on Drawing 6. Drill pilot and
7Vc" carbide-tippedblade in a tablesaw, coursesof shingles.When counting the countersunk shank holes through the
we cut the lengthsin half, making 8ts/te"- courses,include any short ones. Now, sides(R) into the trim base.Remove the
long shingles. divide the total number of courses by trim, apply PVC cement to the mating
First you'll needto figure out the shin- two. (You're getting two 81%0"-long surfaces,and screw the parts in place.
gle course spacing,then count the total shingles out of each l8"-long one.) QSpread PVC cementon the trim base
number of courseson all the columns. Finally, divide this numberby two, and rJ(T), and clamp the trim (U) in place.
To do this. divide the column's total purchasethis many each of the 6x18" To add strength,overlap the corners in
height by 7Vz" (the optimum exposure), and 8x18" shingles. the opposite direction, as shown. When
then stretch or shrink the exposure to / Use one 6"- and one8"-wide shingle the cement cures, sand the edges of T
obtain consistentcoursestop to bottom. tp"r course,trimming the 6" shingleto and U flush. then rout the Va" round-
Try to maintain a 7t/+--73/q"exposure fit. Fastenthem with consffuctionadhe- overs on the top and bottom edges.
(lV4-134" course overlap). Keep the sive and 1" roofing nails, maintainingthe
courselines even all aroundeachcolumn proper exposure,as shown in Photo l. finish up with a coat of
Staggerthe joints in successivecourses. paint arrd add plants
As you shingle the column, notch the 1 Apply a coat of acrylic latex primer
shingles around the rail brackets.Keep I to the railings and columns. Prime
the shingles Vq" off the deck. Because only the planterinsert'strim base(T) and
nothing overlaps the top course, trim trim (U). Finish with an acrylic latex top-
theseshinglesto the exposurelength. coat. We painted the columns to match
the house's siding and trim colors, then
Make the planter inserils paintedthe railing a warm off-white.
I Cut the planter sides (R) and the 9To ensure good drainage, place
I planterbottom (S) to the sizeslisted. &rabout 3" of plastic packing peanuts
Install a3/c" dadobladein your tablesaw, in the bottoms of the planter inserts,then
and cut the Vq"-deepdadoesin the sides, fill them to about 1" from the top with
where shown on Drawing 6. Drill a half- potting soil. Lower them into the
dozen Vq" drain holes in the bottom. columns, and put in your
Clamp the bottom and sides together,
and drill pilot and countersunk shank Written by Jan Svec with Kevin Boyle
Projectdesign: Kevin Boyle;James R. Downing
holes, where shown. Disassemblethe
Starter strips nailed to the bottom of lllustrations:Roxanne LeMoine; Kim Downing;
box, apply PVC cement to the mating Lorna Johnson
each column side give the first course
of shingles the appropriate slope. surfaces,and screw it together. Photographs:Baldwin Photography

78 WOOD rnagazine April 2002


his wall-or fence-

up any outdoorarea,
providingan attractive

"i .r"I
for a climbing
plant.But the realbeautyis
in its simpleconstruction.
Lay orrt and shape the
rrprights and crossbars
, \ o t e : B c , q i r t t r t 1' t t ' r t .li tt' tt l l l t t ' l t t t t t l t c r -
t'ttrtl itt' .sclct'titrg .stockt'ru't'titllt.,'\ll tltc
ltttt'l.s Irtt'tItc trcIIi.;.lt'(un(,('()tn(, .ft'()tntv ()
l0'-lortq t ttlttr 2x1.;. Lrxtk lltr ltottnf.s
t t ' i t l t . s t t ' t t i , q l,tqt r u i t t ; r ' i t l t n o r ' ( r r po t '
1 r l i 1 , ' t u t l i l ' i t l t r t t t k t t r t t .ost ' . s t r r u l lt.i , q l t t
l r n r ) l sl l t t t l r r o t t ' t 1 t o 1ott t l . , \ l . s ol t i t ' k t t l tt t
- --ru J' t'cdur 1x.1.urttl tt 21x18" slrcetof ltrt-
ticc. (II/c tt.sadltlu.stiLlultit t' irt Lr.stlLtttt't'
I t , ' 2 "1 1 1 111' 1 t tt1.n,u i l u l t l c i t t l t o n t t '( ( ' n l ( ' t ' .)\ .
Rin trio l0'lx-ls into Ii,:xlf':"-riiclc
s t r i p s .T h c n c r o s s c L tr ht c s t r i p st o t h c
l c n s t h s l i s t c c li n t h e \ { a t e r i a l s L i s t a n c l
D r a w i n g 1 a t 0 c r c u t ct h c u p r . i - u h (t A s . Bt
a n t l c n r s s b l r r (- C s - .D ) .
L a r o r r ta r r cnl r a r l it h e l o c a t i o n so l ' t h e
cllrclocsin cach 1-riccc. ri hc-r'cclinrcn-
sioneclin Drawing 1a. N'larktlrc arei.rto
b c r c r l o r c c l n i t h a n " X " t o l ) r ' c c\ n t c o n -
t'Lrsion uhcn vou nrr.ichinc thc-clrcloes.
l n s t l l l l " + " c l l c k rb l a c l ei n v o r t rt a b l c -
sW s r l \ \ ' . l t n r l c l l t n t p a r . + ' - t h i c l ' s. c t t t l t
i'1 "G% b l o el . 1 ol l r c f ' c i r c ca. b o L ril' a h c a col l ' t h c
b l u c l c ., \ l s o . a t t i r c ha n a L r r i l i u r ' \c \ t e n -
s i o r .tro r o r . l rn r i t c r g i . r L r St oc l t c l p \ u l l l ) ( ) r ' t
%' rqI
thc long ri orl.,picccs.
N o u c u t t h c I ' i r s tc l a r k ri n o n c o f t h c
I o n u L r p r i r h t s( A ) . do this.position
t h c l c r r c cs o t h c s c t L l lb) l o c k i s t h c u p p r o -
l " r r i u trcl i s t u n c cl l ' o r nt h e t r l u c l c( 7 " l i r ' p l r t
, \ ) . F l L r ti h t c c n c lo l ' t h cr i o r k p i c c cu g u i n s t
t h c s c t L r lb- lro c k .t h en n i l t k co n c l l l s s o \ c r '

""*iFf *, ."*'e{iw:
WOOD magazine

,Lrj \*,
1/2" dadoes 3/4"deep


l[ onooLAYour
1t/q" deck

kr 11/2"

561/2" Tsz"shankhole,
countersunkon back side
1 281/z' I
7sz" pilot hole t/2"deep 25

lattice panel I
g/0"shank hole
a / l l

|'t/q" deck screw

_) II
t/qx157/ax1St/a" 25
t/2" rabbets't/+" deep
1/2"-1.Dx .1 " 31/2"
copper pipe coupling

1tl2" dadoes
-_12"_4 s/+" deeP
L F-7"--1 |


*g7r"-(fr 1tl" dadoes

7sz"shankhole. 31/2"1+
Il exploDED
VIEW countersunk
| l--

1 1/2u

the shownin Photo A. Pull the

workpiece and miter gauge back, slide
the workpiece against the fence, and
make anotherpassto completethe dado,
as shownin Photo B. Flip the pieceend-
for-end and repeatthe process.Then cut
the matching dadoesin the other long
upright using the samesetup.
lrir Repositionthe fence/setupblock and
".ii:,cutthe rest of the dadoesin the long
uprights(A) using the sameprocedures.
Then dado the short uprights (B), long
crossbars(C), and shortcrossbars(D).
Note: The locations of the first two
Butt the workpiece against the setup For the second pass, butt the workpiece
block, holding it securely against the against the fence. This doubles the dado dadoes in the long uprights(A) match
miter gauge. Then make the first cut. width without a setup change. those in the long crossbars (C). Cut

wwur.woodonline. corn
one terrific trellis

tltese pieces consecutively 7o eliminate dadoesfacing up. This will be the back
ertra fence setups. The dadoes irt the side.Lay the shorluprights(B) just out-
short uprights (B) und the short cross- side the long uprights.Now spreadan
bars (D) nmtc'h one another as well. exterior-grade glue in the dadoes.Join
the long and short crossbarsto the
Assernble, add lattice uprightswith the dadoesfacingdown to
panels, and rrlourrt lock the piecestogether.Usingthe shank
Predrill7r:" countersunk shankholes holesin thecrossbars asguides,drill-7::"
through the long crossbars(C) and pilot holesinto the uprights.Then secure
shortcrossbars(D) befbregluing them to eachjoint with a | /+" deck screw.
the uprights.Centertheseholes in the Chuck a t/2" rabbetingbit in your
dadoes,whereshownin Drawing1. handheldrouter,and setit to make a
Lay the long uprights(A) on a flat t/t"-deepcut. Rabbetthe squareareasof
surface,about 16" apartand with the the trellis frame to receive the lattice
panels, where shown in Drawing 1.
Squareup the cornersusinga chisel.Cut
mrlcE/sroP TNSTALLATToN lattice panelsto fit the rabbetedopen-
s/oq"pilot hole ings,but don't installthem yet.
r/z"rabbel Use your handheldrouter,equipped
t/q"deep with a chamfering bit, to rout a
t/1" chamfer along each edge of the
Attach all four mounting screws loosely
#6 x 3/q" 4'-long lx4. Then rip a l"-wide strip at first, then snug them down to hold
panhead from each edge of the board. Chamfer the trellis firmly to the wall.
and rip one edgeof the remaininglx4
againso you end up with threetAxlx49" Hold the spacers between the trellis and
s/0" shank hole
chamferedstrips.Miter-cutthe stripsto wall, and secure the trellis with 4" deck
length to create the lattice stops (E). screws, as shown in Photo C. JP
Attach the stops to the trellis frame
Writtenby DavidStonewithCharlesl. Hedlund
using 4d galvanizedfinish nails, where Projectdesign:Charlesl. Hedlund
latticepanel shownin Drawing2. lllustrations:
Stain or paint the trellis as you Photographs:BaldwinPhotography
prefer.(We paintedoursto matchthe
exterior trim on the house where it is
installed.)Then mountthe latticepanels
to the frame,whereshownin Drawing2.
4d galvanized To mountthe trellisto the wall, first A- longuprights 11/z' 11/z' 631/z' C
f i n i s hn a i l dnll sAt" countersunkshank holes B-shortuprights 11/z' 11/z'561/z' C
throughthe long uprightsfor the mount- C*lonocrossbars 1l/zu 11/z' 42' C
ing screws,whereindicatedin Drawing1.
D-shorlcrossbars 11/2' 11/z' 35' C
Temporarily position the trellis, then
E- latticestoos 3/qu 1" 15' C
pushan awl or long nail throughthepilot .Parts
holesto mark the locationsof pilot holes initially Seetheinstructions.
on the wall. To hold thetrellis awayfrom MaterialKey:C-cedar.
the wall, we used spacersmade from Supplies: woodglue,
Exterior paint
exterior orstain,
157/ax157/a" panels
lattice (2),4dgalvanized
standard copper plumbing-pipe cou-
(16),1/+ deckscrews(24),4' deckscrews
plings (t/:" inside diameterx 1" long) panhead sheet-metal
screws (12),
purchasedat the local hardware store. pipecouplings(4).

crrttirrg diagrarrr 3/qx 31/zx 48" Cedar (1x4x4)


1 1 / 2 x 3 1 /xz 1 2 0 " C e d a r ( 2 x 4 x 1 0 )

1 1 / zx 3 1 / zx 1 2 0 " C e d a r ( 2 x 4 x 1 0 )

82 WOOD magazine April 2002

ometimes. it's easier to take the none of the guards hun-eup in this test or
tool to the work than the other way in -generaluse.
around. That's why we have a To see how dust would impact the
well-worn portable circular saw in our saw's workings, we made 50 crosscuts
shop. and we'll bet you do. too. For large with each saw in 8"-wide cement-and-
bLrilt-in-placeprojects, snch as the out- cellulose siding, a notoriously dusty
door projects in this issue, a circ saw is material. Again, all of the saws passed
worth its weight in -eold.Meanwhile, in this test with no apparent effect on
the shop. it earns its keep by helping motors, bearings,or blade guards.
break down sheet -9oodsinto tablesaw- Finally, we spent a month just using
rnana-ueable sizes. the saws; sometimes with the supplied
Circr,rlarsaws come in two basic vari- blade, sometimes with the Diablo blade;
eties-helical-drive rnodels (sometimes cutting freehand and guided by a
called "sidewinders")and worm drive- straightedge. We even made pocket
with blades ran,ein-ufrom 4" to 16" in We bevel-cutthin strips of medium-den- (plunge) cuts in oriented-strand board
sity fiberboard to test each saw's lower
diar-neter.and costing anywhere between (OSB) and oak plywood. This month of
blade guard for hang-ups.
$30 and $700. For this test. we focr:sed "playing" gave us a -9oodfeel for the set-
or.lsaws with 7 t/+"bliides and drawin-g I 3 After a short motor break-in, we got to tings, adjustments,and how easy it is to
to l-5 amps.Tl'resetools provide the best work ripping pressure-treated2x8s. as follow a cutline.
balanceol'power. price. por-tability.and shown in the photo opposite-a
versatility. Also. you'll find the widest denianding task for any saw. While What to look for
selectionof specialtybladesin this size. pushin-ethe saw to the point that it was in a good circrrlar saw
for cr"rttin-gnon-wood materials. such as under heavy load, but not ready to stall, .Powerfulmotor. A circular saw's
concrete.tile. and metal pipe. we timed a 5' rip. This test was per- ampere ratin-etells you how much elec-
formed three times with each saw. and trical current the motol'uses.but it can't
Torrgh testing times averaged.
the cr"rttin-e tell you how well the saw uses it. The
for torrgh tools Next. becausethe blade guards on cir- First to the Finish Line chart on the ne.r/
To make certain we evaluatedthe saws cular saws harvea repr.rtationfor hanging page does. For example, the l3-amp
and not the bladesthat came with them. up when cuttin-ubevels, we made sever- Bosch 1657 made a 5' rip cut in pres-
rve first set aside each saw's supplied al %"-wide cllts tn 34" medium-density sllre-treatedlumber faster than all of the
blade and installed identical 24-tooth. fiberboard (MDF) at both 22.5' and 45" l5-amp models in the test except the
carbide-tipped Freud Diablo blades. (Photo A). We're happy to report that Milwaukee 6390-21.

What about rnlorrn drives?

Unlik et he hel i c a l -d ri vmo
e d e l si n o u r te s t,w o rm-dri ve also givesthe operatora longerreachand allowsthe
saws,such as the Skil 77 shownbelownElhlput the saw to get into spotstoo tightfor a sidewinder, where
m ot orm or ebe h i n dth e b l a d eth a n b e s i d ei t. T h e name the motorsticksout one side.
"wormdrive"comesfrom the worm gear on the motor However,worm-drivesaws weigh3-8 poundsmore
shaftthat transfersthe powerto the bladearbor. than the saws in our test.And their pricetags are no
Thesesaws are popularwith contractorsbecause ei ther,starti ngat about$165and runn ing
l i ghtw ei ghts
t heirs lowers p e e d(u s u a l l ya ro u n d4 ,0 0 0rp m ,com- as highas $250 (ourtestedhelical-gear saws range
paredto the 5,000-5,800rpm of a helical-gear saw) makesmor e
from$80 to $165).A l l i n al l ,a si dew i nder
m eanshigherto rq u e T . h e l o n g ,n a rro wb o d yo f the tool sensefor woodworkingand occasionalremodeling.

With its motor shaft perpendicularto the blade arbor, rather than parallel to it, a worm-drive saw (rightl is longer and
narrower than a helical-gearsaw (/eff).

www.woodonline. corn 85
circ saw tool test

Rip-cutting speed reveals power
2x pine)
of 3 cutsin pressure-treated



Depth-locking leverslocatedbetween
4.7 the handleand bladeguardare awkward
seconds to operatewith the left handwhilehold-
per foot ing the saw in your right.
Porter-Cable(Photo D). And, although
you can adjustthe 0' bevel stopon all of
4.7 the saws,only two-Makita and Porter-
per foot Cable-provide calibration screws for
the 45' stops.
As for the bevellocks,we preferlevers
4.3 to thumbscrews,which often put your
MAKITAsOOTNHK seconds fingers into tight spots.Bosch,DeWalt,
per foot Makita, and Milwaukee uselever locks.
,Stnmpedfoot.The baseof a circular saw
is called its "foot" (or sometimes,
3.4 "shoe"),andmostof thesefeethavegone
seconds high-tech.Only Ryobi still uses a steel
per foot foot, while the other modelssport a foot
of stampedaluminum, cast aluminum,
magnesium,or compositeplastic.
4.7 When dropped, a stamped foot may
seconds bend,but a castor compositefoot is more
per foot
likely to break. A bend can be straighr
ened; a broken foot must be replaced,
which could meandowntimeon a project.
per foot

If you useyour circularsaw day in and dle and the upper blade guard, as shown
day out, you'll eventuallyneedto replace in Photo B.
the motor's brushes, and the Hitachi Most of the sawshave a depth-of-cut
C7BD, Makita 5007NHK, and Porter- scale,but some are easierto read than
Cable 347K allow you to change the others. See the model-by-model sum-
brushesfrom the outsideof the casewith- maries for specifics,but Ryobi's depth
out disassembling the saw. scale(Photo G) readseasierthan any of
,Easy cutting-depth adjustments. the othersin the test.
Although all of the testedmechanisms .Convenient beveling. All of the saws
worked smoothly, we found plenty of will bevel at least45o, and most can go
differencesin the ease of using them. beyond. Getting past the 45o stop, on
First, the locationof the depthlocks var- those saws that have them, can be as
ied. We gavelower marksto the Hitachi, simple as slipping past a ball-bearing
Clearly marked graduations make set-
Makita, and Ryobi CSB130K,wherethe detent on the DeWalt DW369, or as ting the correct cutting depth easy with
locking lever is betweenthe saw's han- clunky as the bevel-stopsleeveon the the Ryobi CSB130K.This saw also had
the most marked graduations.

86 WOOD rnagazine April 2002

Some saws also come in a left-bladed
configuration that allows an unimpeded
view of the blade and cutline (see the
chart onpage 88). However, this config-
uration places the wide part of the foot
and the weight of the tool on the waste
piece during cutting instead of the
"keeper" piece, which can contribute to
DeWalt and Milwaukee high
marks here, partly due to large openings
in the foot, and partly becausetheir front
handles don't interfere with your line of
sight at 0o or 45o bevel. Ryobi's viewing
window (Photo F) allows you to get
Porter-Cable'sbevel-stopsleeverotates closer to the sight line while minimizing Insteadof an open space,Ryobiincor-
to openthe bevelscaleabove45'and the splatter of dust in your face. poratesa dust-deflectingwindowfor
below0'. However,thereare no mark' viewingthe remainedsurpris'
ings to indicatewhetherthe stop is in ingly clearthroughoutour tests.
placeor not.

.Safe blade guard,. The lower blade

guard should retract automatically in
most sifuations, but some procedures,
such as pocket cuts, and thin-strip Craftsman 27108
bevels and rips, require that you manu- Visit your local Searsstore or
ally retract the guard. Bosch's unique sman
remote lift lever (Photo E) keeps your There's an awful lot to like about this
hand well away from the blade when circular saw, starting with its price:
pulling back the guard. Four of the test- $100. The comfortable soft-grip materi-
ed saws-Bosch, DeWalt, Milwaukee, al on the handle, and the large,
and Ryobi-have mechanisms that well-placed, loop front handle (like
automatically retract the guard slight$ those found on wonn-drive saws) gave
when the foot is tilted to 45o or beyond, us good control of the tool, in spite of its
reducing the risk of the guard hanging 11.9-poundheft.
up on such cuts. The 27108 could be improved,
c Good sightlines. The blade mounts on Bosch 1657 though, by changing the bevel and
the right side of the motor on all of the 8771i267-2499 depth-of-cutlocks from thumbscrewsto
tested saws, so right-handedusers must levers. Also, although the depth scaleis
sight the cutline through a'gap between Besidesranking as one of the most pow- numbered from 23/a"to l3/q", there are
the body of the saw and the blade guard. erful saws in the test, the 1657 also no numbered markings from IVz" on
offers nice feafures, such as its remote down, making it more difficult to set the
guard lift, an electric blade brake that depth for thinner stock. A 1/4" dust pott
stops the blade within two secondsof comeswith the.27108,but the weight of
releasing the trigger, and handy on- our vac hose often detached the port
board storage for the blade-changing from the saw.
wrench. The spring-steel45o-bevelstop
feels positive and is easyto defeatwhen
Two sets of markings on the depth-of-
cut scale let you set either the actual cut-
ting depth, or the thickness of material
you're cutting. However, the scaleis hard
to read from the back of the saw because
the markings face the handle. We had to
look through the handle to use the scale.
At 12.3 pounds, the Bosch 1657 is
almost half a pound heavier than the
This leverretractsthe lower bladeguard
of the Bosch 1657so you don't haveto next-heaviest,the Craftsman. It's also
reachdown aroundthe bladewhen mak- the loudest in the test, tied with Ryobi.
ing pocketcuts. 87
circ saw tool test

Hitachi CTBD You do get an electric blade brake,

800/546-1666 though. And our Canadianreaderswill appreciatethe depth-of-cutscalemarked
We really like the way this saw helped in both metric and English.
us follow a line. With most of the other
tested saws, we were able to hold the
line well enoughwith a little attention.
But the CTBD tracks a straight cutline
Beyond that, though, this is a saw in
needof updating.For example,the bevel
DeWalt DW369 angle maxes at 45o, making it the only
800/433-9258 sawthat doesn'tgo beyond.And without soft-grip material, or even molded tex-
This saw covers all the angleswhen it ture, the smoothplastic handlesslipped
comesto beveling,with its 56' capacity in sweatyhandsduring our tests.We'd
(the most in the test) and 1o increments also like to see the thumbscrew bevel
on the bevel scale. (Most scalesoffer lock replacedwith a lever. Makita 5007NHK
only 5o markings.)Ball-bearingdetents 8001462-5482
mark 22.5" and 45o bevels, and we
found it easyto overridethem. We also This saw turned in the second-best time
like the substantial locking levers on in our 5'-rip test, and the secondlowest
both the bevel and depthmechanisms. weight. The 5007NHK boasts beefy
The plastic compositefoot keeps the locking levers and a fine-adjustment
weight of the tool down, making the screwfor the 45o stop. And, going past
DW369 the second-lightestsaw in the the 45" stop is easy,thanksto a simple
test. And, as we mentionedearlier, the knob that you turn to openthe way to the
tool providesgood visibility of the cut- full 50" bevel scale. The factory-
line at all angles.Like the Bosch, this equippedbladeis coatedwith a nonstick
saw has an electric blade brake. materialthat reducesthe amountof sunk

,^ />
IFl g l{ IF
r/s? tg tlu
/o* ld, tzt
ls tFt
x It,/,i tg
t€t! s l .r- lfrl,
- /t*i-

tfts I

.Qli n*/rs
61/zx 111/z

61/z x 11/q

6lzx 1|Vq

6s/s x 113/a

6/a x 11/e

61/z x 121/z

6 1 / zx 1 1 / c

NOTES: For specifications on other types of tools, click on

"Tool Gomparisons" at
1. (.) Electric-brakemodel also available. 2. (CA) Cast aluminum s. !excetlent Measured24" trom saw equippedwith 6. (R) Rip fence
("-) No-brakemodel also available. (SA) Stampedaluminum standardblade. (D) Dust-collectionport
(C) Composite (C) Case
(SS) Stampedsteel
@oooo (P) ThermoplasticPVC
(M) Magnesium ffirait (R) Rubber 7. (LIFE) Lifetimewarrantyagainst
factory defects.

WOOD rnagazine Aprll 2002

building up on the blade and causing saw trackednice and straight with virtu-
friction, a plus if you do much work with ally no effort on our part. The 6390-21
pressure-treated lumber. also comesin a blade-on-leftconfigura-
We were surprised to find that the tion. The model we testeddoesn'thave
5007NHK doesn't have a depth-of-cut an electric blade brake, but a sister
scale.Although we didn't think we'd use model(6394-21,$190)does.
thesescalesmuch, we quickly came to The unique Tilt-Lok handle can be
rely on them, and we missedthe conve- locked in any of eight positions to keep
nienceon this saw. The 5007NHK also your hand at approximately the same
comesin a left-bladedversion. angle for any cutting depth. As much as
the tilting ability, though, we like the
comfortable soft-grip material found on
both the front and rearhandles.Although
the 6390-21has no bevel stops,its scale
is marked in 1o increments like the Ryobi CSB130K
DeWalt.And it's theonly scalein the test 8001525-2579
that's markedon the back, so it can be
read from the normal operatingposition. The CSB130Kis everythingyou expect
in an $80 circular saw, and a little bit
more. As we mentionedbefore,we like
its depth-of-cutscale and cutline-view-
ing window. However,in our 5'-rip test,
this saw took nearly twice as long to
Milwaukee6390-21 make the cut as the top performersin our
8771279-7819 test (which, not coincidentally, cost nearlytwice as much).
From its excellentpower, to its heavy- This tool sharessome features of the
duty lockinglevers,to its middling$155 more expensivesawsin the test,suchas
price tag, we liked almost everything a dust port (with an odd 1%" diameter),
about the 6390-21.Like the Hitachi, this a blade guard that retractsslightly at 45"
bevel, and onboard wrench storage.
Porter-Cable 347K Unfortunately,the CSB130Kalsoshares
800/487-8665 some of their foibles. such as noise (Bosch), smooth handles(Hitachi), and
ACCESSORIES Perhapsthe most notablefeatureof the the absenceof bevel stops(Milwaukee).
347K is the dust-collectiontube, which
A rorrnd of applause
/s acceptsa standard 1/+" vacuum hose,
sproutingfrom the top front of the upper for the top circ san ts
blade guard.Where a vac isn't conve- Milwaukee's 6390-21 offers almost
lu, I
nient, the tube directs debris anywhere everything we're looking for in a circ
//' ./q/ you want, which we found handy when saw: lots of power, straight-as-an-alrow

rRlr/s/i working outdoorson breezydays.
The 347K is also the only saw in the
tracking,and a boatloadof performance-
enhancingfeaturesat a reasonableprice.

c,R 1 yr.
U 12.3 $1s5 N/A
testwith a bypassable stopat 0o bevel,as
well as the typical 45' stop. With the
bevel stoprotatedout of the way, you can
DeWalt's DW369 trades a little power
for bevel stops at 22.5o and 45o, and
doesit for about$20 less.
c,D 1yr. 1 1. 9 1 0 0 N/A back-bevelasmuch as-3o,or bevelup to If you don't think you'll use a circular
48'. Although similar in function to the saw often enoughto justify the cost of
c 1 yr. U 1 1. 2 1 3 5 N/A
stopon the Makita, it's lessintuitive and the DeWalt or Milwaukee, the
D,R 1 yr. J 1 1 . 1 165 N/A
requires2t/z tums of the locking thumb- Craftsman27108will fill the bill nicely
c R 1 yr. U 1 1. 2 1 6 0 r007NLl($160
for you. For occasionaluse,we canover-
screwto rotateit in or out of position.
R LIFE U 1 1. 6 1EE 6391-21l$155
All of the tested saws have spindle look the thumbscrewlocks.i
c,D R 1 yr. U 1 1. 1 1 3 0 743Kl$130 locks for changing blades, but the
c Writtenby Dave Gampbellwith Kirk Hesse
C,D 2 yr. 1 1. 5 80 N/A 347K's is in a tight spot between the Photographs:Baldwin Photography
front handle and the upper blade guard,
making it more difficult to accessthan
8. (U) UnitedStates
(C) China the others. However, we'll give P-C Visit wur,',w.woodonline. cofir to
(S) Singapore
credit for including onboard storagefor talk about circular saws with
9. All saws weighedwith identicalbladesinstalled. other woodworkers.
the bladewrench.
10. Pricescurrentat time of article'sproduction.

www.woodonline.corn 89
the vyoodrruorkers
Look beyond the Statue of Liberty's metal exterior and
you'll find the handiwork of skilled woodworkers.

t was a grand day that Fourth of difficult to seewhy woodworkingskills

July in 1884 when the Statueof were critical in its construction.To
Liberty was presented to the understandwhy, it's helpful to know a
United Statesin a ceremonyheld at the bit about the properties of that most
Gaget, Gauthieret Companiefoundry malleablemetal-copper.
outside Paris. There, for eight years Copperwas the ideal materialfor the
underthe directionof sculptorFr6d6ric- Statueof Liberty. It can be shapedand
Auguste Bartholdi, nearly 200,000 bent without breaking, making fine
pounds of copper had been meticu- contours possible.Pure copper won't
lously formedinto the panelsthat rust,andactuallygainsprotectionasthe
a, would becomeLady Liberty. surfaceoxidizes,forming the greenish
I Though all the attentionmay patinathat shieldsthe metalunderneath,
have gone to the shiny metal- providing built-in protection against
work-then as brieht as a new salt air and dampness.
penny-it was the scores of Through an ancient metal-forming
French woodworkers and carpen- techniqueknown as repouss6,raw cop-
ters behind the scenesthat made it all per sheets were carefully hammered
possible. On these shores, it took againstintricatewooden forms (possi-
American woodworking know-how bly built from pine or ash) until the
before the statue could take its place of copperwasjust 2.5 millimetersthick-
honor in New York Harbor. about 7r:". See the photo below, The
resulting thin contoured copper
A statrre like no other plates-some 310 of them-formed the
Because the statue is constructed almost three-dimensional jigsaw puzzle that
entirely of copper and steel, it may be would becomethe statue.


Some 310 huge sheets of copper were hammered into shape against intricate wooden
molds to shape the skin of the Statue of Liberty.

WOOD magazine April 2002


A forrndation for Liberty

The French had pronouncedthe statue
completedon IndependenceDay 1884,
but it took more than two years before
she could stand in New York Harbor.
First, American workers had to build a
fitting pedestal atop the pyramid-
shaped concrete foundation that had
just been completed. That foundation
weighedan incredible23,500tons and
rose more than 52 feet above the
ground. At the time, it was believed
to be the largestmassof solid concrete
in the world.
The pedestal, designed by architect
Richard Morris Hunt. was crafted from
concreteand granite, and standsanother
Before the final wooden molds could be constructed, it was necessary to make
actual-sizereplicas of the statue's components out of wood lath and plaster.
89' tall. It incorporatesa balconyand 40
escutcheonsbearingthe coatsof arms of
Three sepaaiate statues gavethem safeaccessto the exterior skin each statethen in the Union.
To createthe molds, woodworkersfirst while, inside, other workers (who were In May of 1886,the statueat lastbegan
built three progressively larger wood- able to enter through an access in to take shapeover the new edifice. On
lath-and-plasterenlargementsof Lady Liberty's right foot) assisted. October 28, 1886, more than a million
Liberty. The first stoodjust over 9' tall. Working from outside and within, people turned out for the dedication
The second version-about 36' tall- workers affixed the outer skin panelsto a ceremony to unveil this new symbol of
was sectionedoff, and eachsectionwas 96' iron pylon inside the structure.The freedomand democracyto the world. 'l
measuredsome 9,000 times in order to pylon was designed by Alexandre-
Written by Dave Kirchner
enlargeit yet again.Theseenlargedsec- Gustave Eiffel, who had yet to begin Photographs:Courtesyof National Park Service:
tions,shownabove,were assembledinto work on the tower that bears his name. Statue of Liberty National Monument
a l5 1' colossus that was used to Sproutingout on all sidesfrom the pylon
:. i i5 ;; ; ::',,,',
createthe final statue. is a network of flat metalbars.Bolted to lJt :r; :?},,i
li.'t :;.F"!l.$,:i;1.
the pylon at the center, this armatureis Write: The Superintendent, The Statue of
The real work begins affixed to the copper skin with some Liberty National Monument, Liberty lsland,
More than 300 full-size wooden forms 2,000 steel bracketscalled saddlesthat New York, NY 10004. You will receive
were modeledfrom the contouredplaster provide elasticity in the face of winds information about the Statue of Liberty and
sections of the final enlargement.On and changesin temperature. Ellis lsland.
theseforms, workers shapedthe copper
plates that make up the statue's skin.
This was delicatework, partly because
of the intricate contoursof the sculpture
and the thinnessof the copperskin, and
because the wooden molds weren't
solid. As shown in the photo at right,
many curved sections of the wooden
molds were an open matrix, which
required extreme care with the wooden
mallets and implementsused to shape
the copper. For the most detailed sec-
tions,the coppersheetshad to be heated
to give them maximumflexibility before
they were formed.
Eventuallyit cametime to put the elab-
orate planning and construction tech-
niquesto their ultimatetest-a complete
assembly in Paris before disassembly
and shipmentto America. Again, wood
was key to the ultimatesuccess.
To assemblethe statue,workers built The workshops at the Gaget, Gauthier et Companie foundry were filled with activity,
an elaborate wooden scaffoldine that and with hundreds of wooden forms, such as this one, used to shape the copper.

www.woodonline.corn 91
dorned- -r' ^_

--/ \/ \ -*/ \/\-

Senrecheese and
crackers on this terrific
turned tray.

maple cheeseboardgracesthe centerof this domed mahogany

tray,makingan idealservicefor all kinds of snacks.A knifewith
a turnedbird's-eyemaplehandlecompletesthe set.

Note: See our Buvittg Guicle .\our('c.\on page L)5for the

g/rr.r.idorrte, kttile blude, .f itti.sltt'.s,
utttl rrrultogurt.t'untl
ltirtl',s-eyentuple tuntittg bltnks. Cltack tlte .spet.iulkit
., prit'ittg.for WOODo rcutler.s.

Prepare the blank.

Cut a Ax6t/s6t/t" bird's-eye ntapleblank fbr the
cheeseboard.Draw diagonal lines to locatethe center on
the sicleof the blank that will be tlie bottonr.Draw I %"
and 3r,/s"-radiLrs
circles arrcllrnd
the center.BanclsawiLrst
outsicletlie larse circle.

92 WOOD rnagazine Al.rr.rl.1f l-,2

1 Tray blank

Attach an auxiliary faceplate. True the blank. I

Use your 3" faceplateto tracea circleonto a pieceof Mount the tray blank 2"
I %"-thickscrap,and bandsawto the line. The disc on your lathe.Use a
doesn'tneedto be perfect,but get it as closeas you can. bowl gougeto true the
Apply cloth-backeddouble-facedtapeor hotmeltglue to blank'sedgeandturn it
this auxiliaryfaceplate,and fastenit, centeredrnthe lt/z"- to a 12"di ameter.
Repositioning the tool
oTrue face
with one
radiuscircle,to the cheeseboard blank.If you usedouble- cut.
facedtape,squeezethe two partstogetherwith a clamp, rest parallelto the
or in your benchvise. blank'sface,turn it
almost to finished thickness.Then Turnto finished
true the face with one continuous @ thickness.
Turn the cheeseboard. cut from rim to center.
Screwyour 3" faceplate T00[: %" bowlgouge. Truethe disc,and
3" faceptatel | - turn it to finished
to theauxiliaryfaceplate. -1 T00[ REST:Slightlybelowcenter.
, \ ffi- | "i""."_
ii;;g diameter.
and mount thecheeseboard iffi | | blank SPEED: 600-800rom.
blankon your lathe.Use a -+ ff --+ -{- Round
totrue_the L+l I | ,n"f;Xii Make the gauging cuts.
With the lathe at
3/s' @ Uart<edge bead.
slow speed,and refer-
dome. The dome should faceplate $ .lrueIne ring to your tray front
l J d i s c ,a n d
slip over the boardeasily lf tr. it to and back templates,
withoutbeingtoo loose.
Form a %" round-overon
mark the 3" radiusfor
the cheeseboard recess "il"Tl!l."'l
bevel li'T
ano I
@ Vart<bottom
of rim bevel.
G to 320 grit.
the front edge.Sandthe cheeseboard and the 37s"radiusfor beoinninq
reSeparatethecheeseboardfromtheauxiliaryface- the bottomof the rim of bottoni' Markcheese-
plate,and set it aside. bevelon the blank's recess. board recess.
EF SPEEI):600-800rpm.
the blank's edgeand
front face, mark the plat-
-- ter's-78"edgebead. cut #1 inside
Again measuringfrom recessmarK.

htr*Wffmt* th* tr*y the edge,mark the end Makegauging

cut #2 outside
of the back bevel and the begin- first cut.
Create a pair of ternplates. ning of the bottom recess. Makegaugingcut
Make a copy of the tray full-sizehalf pattemsfrom the Using a parting tool, make the #3 centeredon
WOOD PATTERNSoinsert at the centerof the magazine. four gauging cuts, where shown on the bottomof
rim bevelmark.
Use sprayadhesiveto adherethem to %" hardboard.Cut the drawing, to the depths indicated.
and sandthe front and back templatesto the patternlines. T00[: Parting
#4 behind edge
T00[ REST:Center. beadmark.
SPEED: 800-1,200rpm.
Prepare the blank.
Startwith a pieceof U4 mahoganyI2A" square.If
you can't find a piecethis size,glue up nalrowerstockto Forrn the back bevel
makeone.(Theblank listedin the Buying Guideis glued and edge bead.
up from color-blended stock.)Draw the square'sdiago- Usinga bowl gouge,roughout the
nals on the bottom of the blank to locateits center.Draw backbevel,cutting away the corner
circlesaroundthe center.Bandsaw
lth."- and6t/s"-radius until you connect the
just outsidethe largecircle. bottom of gauging cut #4
with the marked bottom of
the back bevel. Change to
Attach an auxiliary faceplate. a skew chisel and roll the
With the auxiliaryfaceplateyou usedto turn the bead. Smooth the bevel
cheeseboard still mountedto the faceplate,cleanoff any with a squarenosescraper.
double-faced tapeor hotmelt,elueresidue.Using regular T00[S: %" bowlgouge,%" skewchisel,
woodworkingglue, glue and clamp the auxiliary face- scraper.
%" squarenose
plate,centeredin the I %"-radiuscircle,to the tray blank. T001,REST:Slightly
Let the glue dry thoroughly. SPEED: 800-1,200rpm.
@ turn
the back. €) ro,,t
rrwur.wo odonline. corn 93
snack set

Forrn the front bevels.

Usin-ea bowl gouge,
G_eta handtreon the knife __ j
rou,9hoLrtthe front bevels.
Work fl'om the ed,eebead to Prepare and rnount the blank.
the bottom of gauging cut To make the knife handle,right, mark the centeron
#3. then from _eaugingcut #2 eachendof a lxlx8" blank.Drill a %0"hole2" deepat
to the bottom of cut #3. the centerof one end.Centerpunch the otherend.Installa
Srnooth the bevels. and sharpenthe line @ Formthe
snortbevel. drive centeron the latheheadstockand a revolvingcone
where the two bevels meet with a centerin the tailstock.(Seethe BuyingGuidefor a cone
sqLlafenosescraper. @ Shapethe centersource.)Mount the blank betweencenters,engag-
T00[S: %" bowlgouge,%" squarenose
scraper. the two bevels. ins the hole in the end on the conecenter.
T00L REST:Slightly
O Formthe
SPEEII:800-1,200rpm. long bevel. True the blank.
Using a spindle gouge, round down the blank to 3A"
for a distance of 6" from the tailstock end. Leave the 2"
Fit the cheeseboard. portion at the headstock end square.
Hollow or.rtthe tray's center to the T00L':%" spindlegouge.
depth of gauging cut #l with a bowl T00L REST:Slightlyabove center.
goLlge.As you near the bottom of the SPEED: 600-800rom.
cut, stop the lathe periodically and use a
strai_ehtedge to check the bot- Centeris Mark the blank and
tom of the recessfor flatness. thanthe edge. turn the beads.
With the bottom flat, switch to_ Draw guidelineson the blank. Mark the first bead A"
a sqllarenosescraper,and, orm the from the blank'send,whereshownon the knife handle
while smoothing the recess,cut recessfor the full-size patternon the patterninsert.Then mark the other
the center about t/rr." deeper cheeseboard.
beadsand the steppedfinial. Use a skewchiselto form
than the edge. This will ensure
that the cheeseboarddoesn't rock. Check
@ 4.ojust.
otameler rI
the beadsand finial. Turn the finial only as far as the end
"button." Do not part off the turning.Finally, make index @,
the cheeseboard'sfit in the recess.The necessary.
markson the blank and drive centerso you can remount
diameter of the recessshould be about Flattenlip the turning in the samepositionafter removingit to sand
r/tr." larger than the cheeseboard. Use the for the the grip recesses in the next step.
scraper to enlarge the recess,if neces- T00Ir:%"skewchisel.
sary. Flatten the lip where the glass dome sits. T00[ REST: Slightly
T00[S: %" bowlgouge, %" squarenose
scraper. SPEED: 800-1,200rpm.
T001,REST:Slightly abovecenter.
SPEED: 800-1.200rom. Sand the grip recesses.
Referringto thJ knife handlefull-size pattemon rhe
patterninsert,mark the lengthof the grip recesses.
Finish up the tray. Dismountthe workpiece.Sandthe concavegripson
Form the %"-deep bottom recesswith a oppositesidesof the handlewith a drum sander.To keep
bowl -9or"r_ee. cutting slightly into the waste the grips parallel,keepthe squareend of the workpiece
block as you work toward the center. flat on your spindle-sanderor drill-presstable.
Chan-eeto a parting tool, and continue cut-
tirr,eto within t/2"of center. Sand the platter Remount the turning.
to 220 grit, then part it off with a Finish-sandthe handleto 220 grit. Trim it at the
piirting tool. Finish-sand the tailstockend,cuttingin as closeto the conecenteras
center of the bottom recesswith possiblewithoutdisengaging it. For the cleanestcut, cut
a sandingblock. straightin at the guidelinewith the long point of a skew
Note: You ccut lppb' a finish to chisel.Use the skew to finish forming the finial as you
the platter before porting it front part off the handle.Touchup the finial's tip with sandpa-
tlte uu.rilian' .fuceplate. See the Wllnln Y2" per,and sandthe handle'sbladeend smooth.
Ittst.sec'riort oftltis article, "Ort to of center.
tlrc.finislt lirte." ($ Holtow T00[ REST: Slightly
T00[S: 1/2"bowlgouge, partingtool. thebottom. SPEED: 800-1,200 rpm.
T00L REST:Slightly abovecenter(gouge), (parting
center toot).
SPEED: 800-1,200 rpm. Note: You can appb' a finislt to the kniJehancllebefore
pctrtingit.from the waste.See"Ort to the finish line."

94 WOOD magazine Aprrl 2002

On to the finish line
Apply a clearfinish to the platter
and the knife handle.To withstand
Sandto z/ra"thick. the rigors of occasionalwashing,spray
on threecoatsof glosspolyurethane
Bladeno. from an aerosolcan.Rub out the finish
betweencoatswith 0000 steelwool or
an ultra-fine(gray) Scotch-Britepad.
As an alternative,you canapply the fin-
ish while the part is still on the lathe.
Drivecenter 3/+"diameter. 3/ro"hole2" deep Although it ties up your lathe for addi-
@ finisn-turnto
2- 2tl tional time, it is easierto get good results
when finishesare appliedin this manner.
Simply slow your latheto about300 rpm,
and follow the directions on the finish
Leavethis se9theBuvilsc9109:
sectionsquare. Revolvingcone center
Becausethe cheeseboard will be
subjectto knife cuts,do not usea
film finish.Apply an oil finish,reapply-
ing periodicallyas needed.Seethe
Qvart< bead and Buying Guide fo1 a finish sourc"
With the finishesdry, epoxy the
bladetang into the handle.Placethe
cheeseboard in the platter'srecess,and
cover it with the glassdome.lP
T/ ff^ \ \ G) nottthebeads.
G)rorr the but
topknot, donotpartoff.
I t"n" indexmark. Written by Larry Johnston and Jan Svec
on the spurand blank. with Ray Wilber
Projectdesign:Ray Wilber
Roxanne LeMoine; Lorna Johnson
Photographs:Baldwin Photography

Supplies: face-
woodworke/s glue,finish,
Turning blanks,1shx121Ax121/t" mahogany
fromcolor-blended stock);
3/4x61 maple; 1x1x8"bird's-eye
maple. Kitno.W-141, $19,95 ppd.,Minnesota
residentsaddsalestax.Heritage Building
Specialties,205N,Cascade, Fergus Falls,MN
56537. Call8001524-4184.
Conecenter. Conecenter no.914-0001 (#1
Morse taper)orno,914-0002 (#2Morse taper),
Q finisn-sandto 220grit. $39.99 ppd,CraftSupplies USA,1287E.1120
S.,Provo, UT84606. Call800/551-8876, orgo
Domeandknife.6"glass domeno,011-0120,
$7,99;deluxe cheese knifeno.199-1001,
@rorm thetopknotbutton t CraftSuppliesUSA.
as youpartoffthepiece. ll $6.50.
(DCut in as closeto conecenteras Finishes. Mylands FrictionPolish(4oz.)no.
- oil(16oz.)no,
possible without it,
disengaging 949-400,$5.50; butcherblock
076-0830, $6.99.CraftSupplies USA.
W00Dospecialkit.Glass dome, knife,
butcher blockoil,kitno.900-9000,
$26.99 ppd.CraftSupplies USA.

. t


Get blade height right.

Everyone has a diff-erent idea
on how f-ar saw-blade teeth Finesse the fence. To set
should protrude above the stock. As a the fence parallel to the blade,
t/2" above
-generalrule. raise the blade staft by cutting two 2"-lon-9
the surface of softwood stock to blocksto fit snuglyin onemiter gallge
reduce heat buildup. For hardwoods, slot. Positionthe fence againstthem.
raise it to 34" above the surface. You and use a thin shim to check for an
want the blade to eject waste from the equalgapat bothends,asshownat left.
-qulletsbetween the teeth. That means Settingthefenceexactlyparallelyields
that the bottom of the blade's gullets thebestresults,especiallywith dadoes.
should be almost flush with the sur- If the workpieceburns or binds, cant
face of the stock, as shown above. the outfeedend away from the blade
between.010" and .030" (about the
thicknessof a business card).

True the blade and table.

For straight,burn-freecuts,the
saw blade must run parallel to
the miter-gauge slots and the f-ence.To
ali,gnthe blade, mark one blade tooth and
measure,at the front of the throat open-
ing, from one miter gauge slot to it using
a cornbination square,as shown at riglt.
Then rotate the blade and measureto the
same tooth at the back of the throat open-
ing. If the distances vary, reposition
either the trunnions or the saw table.
Check your owner's manual to see
which method applies. Also check and
adjust the blade's 45o and 90' bevel
stops.Proceduresfor this vary widely, so
check your owner's manual.

aDAdd function to the fence. For some operations,such as
Jll*hen cutting tenons with a dado blade or cutting with the blade
Vagainst the rip fence, you'll appreciatehaving an auxiliary fence
face. Easy to make, this accessorypreventsdamageto the fence, and can
support a tall face for cutting wide workpieces on edge.
For generaluse, cut a z/q"plywood face 4"-wide by the length of your
fence. How you attach the face dependson your fence. If your fence has
holes through it, attach the face with bolts. Just counterborethe holes in
the face so the bolt heads sit below the surface. Or make a "saddle" that
slips over the fence,
^a Gover the angles. To ensureaccurate as shown at right.
frcrosscuts, make sure the miter gauge is Clamp it at the out-
Iaccurate at 90' and45'. Restone edgeof a feed end, or mount
plastic drafting triangle on the blade body-not on a pair of T-nuts in
the teeth. Loosen the miter gauge knob, stde the the saddle's back
head against the ffiangle, and lock the knob, as "legr" and use short
shown above.Do the same at45o. Thesetriangles bolts as setscrewsto
are available in artist's supply stores and are very securethe saddle.
accurate.Adjustablemodelsalso are available.

Get prcper clearance. The standard throatplateon most

sawshasa wide openingto allow tilting the blade.This leaves
the undersideof the workpieceunsupported and susceptibleto
chip-out, and can allow thin wood strips to drop into the gap. To mini-
mize theseproblems, make a zero-clearanceinsert. Just fface your insert
onto plywood of the proper thickness (you may have to plane it down)
and cut it to rough shape.Plywood is better than solid stock, which may
warp. Either sandthe insert to exact shape,or attach it to ttre throat plate
using double-facedtape and shapeit using a
pattern-routing bit in your table-mounted
router, as shown below. You also can use
thinner plywood and drive short flathead
screwsinto the bottom face to act as levelers.
Lower your saw blade all the way and
check the insert's fit. If the blade doesn't
reffact far enough to allow the insert to
sit flush with the table surface, reinstall the
standard throat plate and cut a kerf in the
underside of the zero-clearance insert.
Recheckthe fit, then clamp the insert in place
using a long board. Turn on the saw and
slowly raise the blade to fulI height to cut
through the plate, as shown at right. Use the
sameproceduresto make a dado insert.

www.woodonline.corn 97
tablesaw success

Crcate a mightier gauge. When

crosscuttinglong boards or cutting
multiplepiecesto the samelength,an
auxiliary extension board for the miter gauge
is a must. Make one from scrap 7+" plywood,
about3" wide andup to 36" long, suchasthe one
shown at right. For even greateraccuracy,give
the extensiona grip on the workpiece by cover-
ing the face with adhesive-backedsandpaper.
Screw the extensionto the miter gaugeso it pro-
trudesbeyond the blade, then cut a kerf through
it. Next, make a clamp-on stopblock about /+"
shorterthan the fence height to prevent sawdust
from building up and causinginaccuratecuts.

G) Make sacrificaal guides, Any

fltime you are ripping pieces nar-
-rower than 6", use a pushstickto
guide your stock while keepingyour hands
safely away from the blade. Make your
own by simply cutting a birdsmouthnotch
in one end of az/qx2xI2"pieceof stock. If
you have to rip piecesniurower than 1",
make a wide pushblock from a 2x4 and a
piece of hardboard,as shown at left. T\e
blade will cut into the pushblock, but the
hardboard "heel" pushes both the work-
piece and waste safely past the blade.
Ratherthan getting fancy, make your push-
sticks from scrapstock, and sacrificethem
to the blade insteadof your fingers.

Wax for smooth sliding. I 4lTake time for rcgular maintenanoe.

Cast-ironsaw tableswill rust I I lYour saw will run befferand last longer if you take careof it on
if left bare, which prevents IfV a regularbasis.Do the following every month or two:
workpiecesfrom sliding freely. You can 'Wipe sawdustand debrisfrom the saw table. Sprayprotectantor polish the
get rid of rust by sprayingthe table with table with wax severaltimes per year.
penetrating oil (such as WD-40) and . Vacuum,blow, or brush sawdustfrom the trunnionsand lubricateper the man-
scrubbing with a synthetic steel-wool ufacturersinstructions.
pad or 22}-gntweVdry sandpaper.Form . Turn blade-heightand bevel handwheelsthrough their full range of motion,
a barrier to new rust by coating the table and check45oand 90o stops.
with a commercial product such as . Use blade-and-bitcleanerto removepitch from your saw blade.Oven cleaner
Top-Cote (available from Woodcraft at works, but is caustic.Try Formula 409-brandcleanerfor minor cleanups.
800/225-1153),or by applying a couple . Checkthe condition of drive belts,and replacethem if crackedor worn. Check
coats of paste wax to the table and pulley setscrews,and tighten if necessary.
buffing it out well. Recoat the table . Make sureall electricalcords and connectionsare in good condition. aF
every few months to prevent rust from
Written by David Stone with Robert Settich
coming back. Photographs:Baldwin Photography

98 WOOD rnagazine April 2002

Square plastic
latticein Honey-Almond
imitatesthe lookof is soldin a
varietyof colorsandpatterns,anddoesnot

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re guidc FASTElIERS
ProMax Optimized
Thread Length
greatholdingpowerwith shanklengths
sizedto matchwoodthickness.
hen we designedand built 8001443-7937
the projectsfor our out-
door living areafeatured
on pages 58 and 59, we selected Tehema WaterWashPatioPavers TC-3407
products that met our rigorous criteria. Comment: Providinga real-stonelookwitr
We combed the market for materials bettercolorconsistency,this lighter-weight
buildingmaterialis easyto installdueto ib
and hardware that are maintenance- consistentthicknessandflat bottomside.
free and resistant to weather's worst Cultured
StonrA Division of Owens-Coming
abuses.We also chose products that 800t255-1727
offer convenience, ease of installation,
and great looks. Now let's review IOW.UOITAGE tIGHNilG
these nationally available products and Malibu Architectural
GradeC1900 andC1902
recessed lights;
how you can learn more about them.
Comment: Easyto install,theseenergy-
efficientlightscomein manystylesand
CEDARTUMBER featureprotective, durable,metalhousings.
WeyerhaeuserCedar0ne Western
Redcedar Intermatic,Inc.
CommentCedaris a rot-,warp-,andcrack- 8151675-2321
resistantwoodthat holdsup well in above-
866/233-2766 MA905 panelspeakersandoneMS15010" subwooferwaterproofspeakers
Comment: Waftib high-fidelitystereosound,
DEGKIIIG this waterproofaudiosystemattachesto
WeyerhaeuserChoiceDek Plus yourhome'saudiosystemfor convenient use.
CommentThesewoodfiber/plasticcomposi- Poly-Planar,
tion boardswon't rot,crack,or warp;they 215t675-7805
dueto theirgroovedsurface.
WeyerhaeuserBuilding Products GOI{CRETE A]ID FORMS
877/235-6873 10x42"Quik-Tube concrete
formsandQuikrete 5000Concrete Mix
CommentWhilethe easy-to-use formsgive
TUMBER shapeto yourfooters,the quick-mixingcon-
AzekExpanded RigidPVC cretemixfills theformswiUrlastingstrength.
GommentThisplastic-based product TheOuikrete Companies,Inc.
machines likewoodandlookslikeit once B00t2B2-5828
painted;it's impervious
to rot andinsects.
5701346-8254 GASGRItt Weber GenesisPlatinumgasgrill
CommentThismaybe the lastgrill youever
sHtltGtEs haslong-wearing stainlesssteelcom-
Shingle ponenb,anda 12' quick-disconnect hose
Comment: SingleShinglewon'trot,split,or that leb you hookup to yourhome'sgas takespaintwellandcomespre-primed supplyso youneverhaveto run outto fill a
with a 30-yearwarranty. propanetank.
JamesHardie Building
Inc. Weber-Stephen Products,Co.
8881542-7343 800/446-1 071
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100 WOOD magazine April 2002

wares ourshoptrials
er rm
Portable planer finislres the iob
Considerwhat you dislike about your bined) infeed and outfeedtablesvirtually
portableplaner and, chancesate, Delta's eliminate detectablesnipe,even on my
22-580Two-SpeedFinishing Planerhas 8'-longtest workpieces.
addressed them.The 22-580'sdisposable Delta engineersaddeda unique "blade
and self-aligning 13" knives make knife zero" device for quickly zeroingthe cut-
changinga snap.But one of its best attrib- terheadto your workpiece's starting thick-
utes is one you might never have thought ness.After using the blade-zeroon a piece
you needed:dual feed speeds. of 4/4 rough-sawncherry, the cufferhead
At "dimensioning" speed,this planer just barely skimmed the top of the board,
delivers about 60 cuts per inch and leaves proving it to be an accuratestartingpoint. Defta22-580
a relatively smooth surface.I was sur- I've alwaysfound thicknessscaleson Two-Speed Planer
prised at how quicHy I planed away Vz"of portableplanershard to read<n top of Performance *****
walnut in multiple passes.For the final the machineis too high; on the cufferhead *****
pass,though, I switchedto "finishing" is too low. The 22-580'sscaleis on the
Machinery orvisit
speed,which slows the feed rate and face of the case,near the top, and angled iner!'.com.
leavesa silky-smooth 90 cuts per inch. for good viewing.
The differencein surfacequality was Many portable planershave a cutting- anywherealong the full 6%"-thickness
clearly visible. depth stop that ensuresuniform thickness capacity of the machine.
Snipea problem?Not with the 22-580. to one or a few fixed dimensions,up to -TestedbyGarry
The cutterheadlock and 35" long (com- 3/+"ot 1". The 22-580'sstopcanbe set Continued on page 102


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com 102 WOOD magazine April 2002
wooci anecdote

Its beans were once better than nothing

s the only species of its genus the beans of the Kentucky coffeetree
in North America, the sparsely as a stimulating replacement. The
appearing Kentucky coffeetree result was a bitter imitation at best,
(Gymnocladus dioicus) was a welcome but they made do.
sight to eady explorers and pioneers Reachingheights of 100'and diame-
tmveling into the wilds west of ttre ters to 4' in its range from southem
Allegheny Mounains. Not that it's an Carradato Kentucky and west to
attractive tree-it leafs out in late spring Nebraska,the Kentuclry coffeetree has into fumishings and
and sheds early, causing it to stand so wide a distribution and so single a other necessities.
naked for at least half of the year. In growth pattem that it has never reached Today, if you are able
fact, becauseit often looks so stark, the commercial importance. Although, to find the wood of the
French called it chicot or "dead tfee" farmers always have used the coarse- Kentucky coffeetree, its
while to Southemers it became "stump grained yet durable wood for fence known as coffeebean.
tree." Rather than its eye-appeal,the posts and barn timbers. Light brown to Be sure to build some-
attraction was its bean-ladenpods. reddish brown in color, the heavy and thing of it, but leave
Iacking coffee beans for their trav- hard wood machines easily and takes a the beans behind. .l
els, frontiersmen ground and brewed high polish. Pioneers no doubt crafted it Illustration: Brlan Jeosen

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1 12 WOOD rnagazine April 2002