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Lista Modelo OMS


de medicamentos
esenciales

lista 20
(Marzo de 2017)

Estado de este documento

Esto es una reimpresión del texto en la Página Web de la OMS medicamentos

http://www.who.int/medicines/Publications/essentialmedicines/en/
http://www.who.int/medicines/Publications/essentialmedicines/en/

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El material publicado se distribuye sin orden de ningún tipo, sea expresa o implícita. La
responsabilidad de la interpretación y el uso del material se encuentra con el lector. En ningún caso la
Organización Mundial de la salud será responsable por daños y perjuicios derivados de su utilización.

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Edición
TH 20

Notas explicativas de la lista modelo de


medicamentos esenciales (marzo de 2017) WHO

El lista básica
presenta una lista de necesidades mínimas de la medicina para un sistema de atención de salud básica, listado
medicamentos eficaces, seguros y costo-efectiva para las condiciones de prioridad. Condiciones de prioridad se seleccionan
base de relevancia actual y Estimado futuro de salud pública y potencial de tratamiento seguro y
rentable.

El lista complementariapresenta los medicamentos esenciales para enfermedades prioritarias, para el cual diagnóstico esp
o se necesita supervisión instalaciones, atención médica especializada, o formación especializada. En caso de duda
medicamentos también pueden aparecer como complementario sobre la base de mayores costos constantes o
menos atractivo costo-eficacia en una variedad de ajustes.

El (símbolo) caja cuadradao) está destinada principalmente para indicar funcionamiento clínico similar dentro de un
clase farmacológica. La medicina lista debe ser el ejemplo de la clase que es lo mejor
evidencia de la efectividad y la seguridad. En algunos casos, esto puede ser la primera medicina que se
licencia para la comercialización; en otros casos, compuestos posteriormente con licencia pueden ser más
seguro o más efectivo. Donde no hay diferencias en cuanto a eficacia y datos de seguridad, el medicamento
indicado deben ser el que generalmente está disponible al precio más bajo, basado en fuentes de información
de precios internacionales de la droga. Cajas cuadradas no todos son aplicables a la selección de
medicamentos para los niños, ver la segunda EMLc para más detalles.

Equivalencia terapéutica está indicado solamente en base a comentarios de eficacia y seguridad y cuando sea
coherente con las directrices clínicas de la OMS. Listas nacionales no deben usar un símbolo similar y deben
ser específicas en su selección final, que dependerá de la disponibilidad local y el precio.

El unsímbolo indica que hay una restricción de edad o el peso en el uso de la medicina; datos de cada uno
la medicina puede encontrarse en la tabla 1.1.

Donde la [c] símbolo se coloca junto a la lista complementaria significa que el medicamento require(s)
Especialista instalaciones diagnóstico o de vigilancia, atención médica de especialista o especialista en formación para
su uso en niños.

Donde la [c] símbolo se coloca al lado de una medicina individual o la fuerza de la medicina significa que hay
es una indicación específica para restringir su uso a los niños.

La presencia de una entrada en la lista de medicamentos esenciales no lleva ninguna garantía en cuanto a
calidad farmacéutica. Es responsabilidad de la autoridad reguladora de medicamentos nacionales o
regionales pertinentes para asegurar que cada producto es de calidad farmacéutica (incluyendo estabilidad)
y que, cuando proceda, los diferentes productos son intercambiables.

Para recomendaciones y consejos sobre todos los aspectos de la garantía de calidad de medicamentos ver los
medicamentos quehttp://www.who.int/medicines/areas/quality_safety/quality_assurance/en/
sitio de Internet
http://www.who.int/medicines/areas/quality_safety/quality_assurance/en/.
Medicamentos y formas de dosificación aparecen en orden alfabético dentro de cada sección y no hay
ninguna implicación de preferencia por una forma sobre otra. Guías de tratamiento estándar deben
consultarse para obtener información sobre las formas de dosificación adecuadas.

Los términos principales utilizados para formas de dosificación en la lista de medicamentos esenciales pueden encontrarse

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Definitions of many of these terms and pharmaceutical quality requirements applicable to the different
categories are published in the current edition of The International Pharmacopoeia
http://www.who.int/medicines/publications/pharmacopoeia .
WHO Model List of Essential Medicines 20th edition

1. ANAESTHETICS, PREOPERATIVE MEDICINES AND MEDICAL GASES

1.1 General anaesthetics and oxygen

1.1.1 Inhalational medicines

halothane Inhalation.

isoflurane Inhalation.

nitrous oxide Inhalation.

oxygen Inhalation (medical gas).

1.1.2 Injectable medicines

ketamine Injection: 50 mg (as hydrochloride)/ mL in 10- mL vial.

Injection: 10 mg/ mL; 20 mg/ mL.


propofol* * Thiopental may be used as an alternative depending on local
availability and cost.

1.2 Local anaesthetics

Injection: 0.25%; 0.5% (hydrochloride) in vial.


o bupivacaine Injection for spinal anaesthesia: 0.5% (hydrochloride) in
4- mL ampoule to be mixed with 7.5% glucose solution.

Injection: 1%; 2% (hydrochloride) in vial.

Injection for spinal anaesthesia: 5% (hydrochloride) in


o lidocaine
2- mL ampoule to be mixed with 7.5% glucose solution.

Topical forms: 2% to 4% (hydrochloride).

Dental cartridge: 2% (hydrochloride) + epinephrine 1:80 000.


lidocaine + epinephrine (adrenaline) Injection: 1%; 2% (hydrochloride or sulfate) + epinephrine
1:200 000 in vial.

Complementary List

Injection: 30 mg (hydrochloride)/ mL in 1- mL ampoule.


ephedrine
(For use in spinal anaesthesia during delivery, to prevent hypotension).

1.3 Preoperative medication and sedation for short-term procedures


atropine
Injection: 1 mg (sulfate) in 1- mL ampoule.

Injection: 1 mg/ mL.

o midazolam Oral liquid: 2 mg/ mL [c].


Tablet: 7.5 mg; 15 mg.

morphine Injection: 10 mg (sulfate or hydrochloride) in 1- mL ampoule.

20th WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (March 2017) page 1


WHO Model List of Essential Medicines 20th edition

1.4 Medical gases

Inhalation

For use in the management of hypoxaemia.


oxygen*
*No more than 30% oxygen should be used to initiate
resuscitation of neonates less than or equal to 32 weeks of
gestation.

2. MEDICINES FOR PAIN AND PALLIATIVE CARE


2.1 Non-opioids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAIMs)

Suppository: 50 mg to 150 mg.


acetylsalicylic acid
Tablet: 100 mg to 500 mg.

Oral liquid: 200 mg/5 mL.


ibuprofen a Tablet: 200 mg; 400 mg; 600 mg.
a Not in children less than 3 months.
Oral liquid: 120 mg/5 mL; 125 mg/5 mL.

Suppository: 100 mg.


paracetamol* Tablet: 100 mg to 500 mg.

* Not recommended for anti-inflammatory use due to lack of


proven benefit to that effect.

2.2 Opioid analgesics

codeine Tablet: 30 mg (phosphate).

Transdermal patch: 12 micrograms/hr; 25 micrograms/hr; 50


fentanyl* micrograms/hr; 75 micrograms/hr; 100 micrograms/hr

*for the management of cancer pain

Granules (slow-release; to mix with water): 20 mg –200 mg


(morphine sulfate).

Injection: 10 mg (morphine hydrochloride or morphine sulfate)


in 1- mL ampoule.

Oral liquid: 10 mg (morphine hydrochloride or morphine


o morphine* sulfate)/5 mL.

Tablet (slow release): 10 mg–200mg (morphine hydrochloride


or morphine sulfate).

Tablet (immediate release): 10 mg (morphine sulfate).

*Alternatives limited to hydromorphone and oxycodone

20th WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (March 2017) page 2


WHO Model List of Essential Medicines 20th edition

Complementary list

Tablet: 5 mg; 10 mg (as hydrochloride)

Oral liquid: 5mg/ 5mL; 10mg/ 5mL (as hydrochloride)


methadone*
Concentrate for oral liquid: 5 mg/ mL; 10mg/ mL (as hydrochloride)

*For the management of cancer pain.

2.3 Medicines for other common symptoms in palliative care


amitriptyline
Tablet: 10 mg; 25 mg; 75 mg.

Injection: 50 mg/ mL.


cyclizine [c]
Tablet: 50 mg.

Injection: 4 mg/ mL in 1- mL ampoule (as disodium phosphate


salt).
dexamethasone
Oral liquid: 2 mg/5 mL.

Tablet: 2 mg [c]; 4 mg.

Injection: 5 mg/ mL.


Oral liquid: 2 mg/5 mL.
diazepam
Rectal solution: 2.5 mg; 5 mg; 10 mg.
Tablet: 5 mg; 10 mg.

Capsule: 100 mg.


docusate sodium
Oral liquid: 50 mg/5 mL.

Solid oral dosage form: 20 mg (as hydrochloride).


fluoxetine a
a >8 years.
Injection: 5 mg in 1‐ mL ampoule.
haloperidol Oral liquid: 2 mg/ mL.
Solid oral dosage form: 0.5 mg; 2mg; 5 mg.

hyoscine butylbromide Injection: 20 mg/ mL.

Injection: 400 micrograms/ mL; 600 micrograms/ mL.


hyoscine hydrobromide [c]
Transdermal patches: 1 mg/72 hours.

lactulose [c] Oral liquid: 3.1–3.7 g/5 mL.

loperamide Solid oral dosage form: 2 mg.

Injection: 5 mg (hydrochloride)/mL in 2‐mL ampoule.


metoclopramide Oral liquid: 5 mg/5 mL.
Solid oral form: 10 mg (hydrochloride).

Injection: 1 mg/ mL; 5 mg/ mL.


midazolam Solid oral dosage form: 7.5 mg; 15 mg.
Oral liquid: 2mg/ mL [c].

20th WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (March 2017) page 3


WHO Model List of Essential Medicines 20th edition

Injection: 2 mg base/ mL in 2- mL ampoule (as hydrochloride).


Oral liquid: 4 mg base/5 mL.
ondansetron [c] a
Solid oral dosage form: Eq 4 mg base; Eq 8 mg base.
a >1 month.
senna Oral liquid: 7.5 mg/5 mL.

3. ANTIALLERGICS AND MEDICINES USED IN ANAPHYLAXIS

Injection: 4 mg/ mL in 1- mL ampoule (as disodium phosphate


dexamethasone
salt).

Injection: 1 mg (as hydrochloride or hydrogen tartrate) in 1- mL


epinephrine (adrenaline)
ampoule.

hydrocortisone Powder for injection: 100 mg (as sodium succinate) in vial.

Oral liquid: 1 mg/ mL.


o loratadine * Tablet: 10 mg.

*There may be a role for sedating antihistamines for limited indications


(EMLc).

Oral liquid: 5 mg/ mL [c].


o prednisolone
Tablet: 5 mg; 25 mg.

4. ANTIDOTES AND OTHER SUBSTANCES USED IN POISONINGS

4.1 Non-specific

charcoal, activated Powder.

4.2 Specific

Injection: 200 mg/ mL in 10- mL ampoule.


acetylcysteine
Oral liquid: 10% [c]; 20% [c].

atropine Injection: 1 mg (sulfate) in 1- mL ampoule.

calcium gluconate Injection: 100 mg/ mL in 10- mL ampoule.

methylthioninium chloride
Injection: 10 mg/ mL in 10- mL ampoule.
(methylene blue)

naloxone Injection: 400 micrograms (hydrochloride) in 1- mL ampoule.

penicillamine Solid oral dosage form: 250 mg.

potassium ferric hexacyano-ferrate(II) -


Powder for oral administration.
2H2O(Prussian blue)

sodium nitrite Injection: 30 mg/ mL in 10- mL ampoule.

sodium thiosulfate Injection: 250 mg/ mL in 50- mL ampoule.

Complementary List

deferoxamine Powder for injection: 500 mg (mesilate) in vial.

dimercaprol Injection in oil: 50 mg/ mL in 2- mL ampoule.

20th WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (March 2017) page 4


WHO Model List of Essential Medicines 20th edition

Injection: 5 mg/ mL (sulfate) in 20- mL ampoule or 1 g/ mL (base) in


fomepizole
1.5- mL ampoule.

sodium calcium edetate Injection: 200 mg/ mL in 5- mL ampoule.

succimer Solid oral dosage form: 100 mg.

5. ANTICONVULSANTS/ANTIEPILEPTICS

Oral liquid: 100 mg/5 mL.

carbamazepine Tablet (chewable): 100 mg; 200 mg.

Tablet (scored): 100 mg; 200 mg.

diazepam Gel or rectal solution: 5 mg/ mL in 0.5 mL; 2- mL; 4- mL tubes.

Tablet: 25 mg; 50 mg; 100 mg; 200 mg.

Tablet (chewable, dispersible): 2 mg; 5 mg; 25 mg; 50 mg; 100


lamotrigine* mg; 200 mg.

*as adjunctive therapy for treatment-resistant partial or


generalized seizures.

Parenteral formulation: 2 mg/ mL in 1- mL ampoule; 4 mg/ mL


o lorazepam
in 1- mL ampoule.

Injection: 0.5g/ mL in 2- mL ampoule (equivalent to 1 g in 2 mL;


50% weight/volume); 0.5g/ mL in
magnesium sulfate* 10- mL ampoule (equivalent to 5 g in 10 mL; 50%
weight/volume).

* For use in eclampsia and severe pre-eclampsia and not for


other convulsant disorders.

Solution for oromucosal administration: 5 mg/mL; 10 mg/mL

Ampoule*: 1 mg/ mL; 10 mg/mL


midazolam
*for buccal administration when solution for oromucosal
administration is not available

Injection: 200 mg/ mL (sodium).

phenobarbital Oral liquid: 15 mg/5 mL.

Tablet: 15 mg to 100 mg.

Injection: 50 mg/ mL in 5- mL vial (sodium salt).


Oral liquid: 25 mg to 30 mg/5 mL.*
Solid oral dosage form: 25 mg; 50 mg; 100 mg (sodium salt).
phenytoin
Tablet (chewable): 50 mg.
* The presence of both 25 mg/5 mL and 30 mg/5 mL strengths
on the same market would cause confusion in prescribing and
dispensing and should be avoided.

20th WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (March 2017) page 5


WHO Model List of Essential Medicines 20th edition

Oral liquid: 200 mg/5 mL.

valproic acid (sodium valproate) Tablet (crushable): 100 mg.

Tablet (enteric-coated): 200 mg; 500 mg (sodium valproate).

Complementary List

Capsule: 250 mg.


ethosuximide
Oral liquid: 250 mg/5 mL.

Injection: 100 mg/ mL in 4- mL ampoule; 100 mg/ mL in 10- mL


valproic acid (sodium valproate)
ampoule.

6. ANTI-INFECTIVE MEDICINES

6.1 Anthelminthics

6.1.1 Intestinal anthelminthics

albendazole Tablet (chewable): 400 mg.

ivermectin Tablet (scored): 3 mg.

levamisole Tablet: 50 mg; 150 mg (as hydrochloride).

mebendazole Tablet (chewable): 100 mg; 500 mg.

niclosamide Tablet (chewable): 500 mg.

praziquantel Tablet: 150 mg; 600 mg.

Oral liquid: 50 mg (as embonate or pamoate)/ mL.


pyrantel
Tablet (chewable): 250 mg (as embonate or pamoate).

6.1.2 Antifilarials

albendazole Tablet (chewable): 400 mg.

diethylcarbamazine Tablet: 50 mg; 100 mg (dihydrogen citrate).

ivermectin Tablet (scored): 3 mg.

6.1.3 Antischistosomals and other antitrematode medicines


praziquantel
Tablet: 600 mg.

triclabendazole Tablet: 250 mg.

20th WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (March 2017) page 6


WHO Model List of Essential Medicines 20th edition

Complementary List

Capsule: 250 mg.

oxamniquine* Oral liquid: 250 mg/5 mL.

* Oxamniquine is listed for use when praziquantel treatment fails.

20th WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (March 2017) page 7


WHO Model List of Essential Medicines 20th edition

6.2 Antibacterials
To assist in the development of tools for antibiotic stewardship at local, national and global levels and to reduce
antimicrobial resistance, three different categories were developed – ACCESS, WATCH and RESERVE groups.
Group 1 - KEY ACCESS ANTIBIOTICS

To improve both access and clinical outcomes antibiotics that were first or second choice antibiotics in at least
one of the reviewed syndromes are designated as key ACCESS antibiotics, emphasizing their role as the
antibiotics that should be widely available, affordable and quality-assured. ACCESS antibiotics are listed below.
Selected ACCESS antibiotics may also be included in the WATCH group.

6.2.1 Beta-lactam medicines 6.2.2 Other antibacterials


amoxicillin cefotaxime* amikacin gentamicin
amoxicillin + clavulanic acid ceftriaxone* azithromycin* metronidazole
ampicillin cloxacillin chloramphenicol nitrofurantoin
benzathine benzylpenicillin phenoxymethylpenicillin ciprofloxacin* spectinomycin (EML only)
benzylpenicillin piperacillin + tazobactam* clarithromycin* sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim
cefalexin procaine benzyl penicillin clindamycin vancomycin (oral)*
*
cefazolin meropenem doxycycline vancomycin (parenteral)*
cefixime*
Italics = complementary list
*Watch group antibiotics included in the EML/EMLc only for specific, limited indications

The 2017 Expert Committee identified the following antibiotics or antibiotic classes that should be the subject of
a specific stewardship focus. Antibiotics or antibiotic classes in these groups are designated accordingly in the
EML/EMLc. The “WATCH” and “RESERVE” stewardship groups could assist in activities such as local,
national and global monitoring of use; development of guidelines and educational activities.

Group 2 - WATCH GROUP ANTIBIOTICS

This group includes antibiotic classes that have higher resistance potential and so are recommended as
first or second choice treatments only for a specific, limited number of indications. These medicines
should be prioritized as key targets of stewardship programs and monitoring .
This group includes most of the highest priority agents among the Critically Important Antimicrobials
for Human Medicine1and/or antibiotics that are at relatively high risk of selection of bacterial
resistance.
Watch group antibiotics
Quinolones and fluoroquinolones
e.g. ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin
3rd-generation cephalosporins (with or without beta-lactamase inhibitor)
e.g. cefixime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime
Macrolides
e.g. azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin
Glycopeptides
e.g. teicoplanin, vancomycin
Antipseudomonal penicillins + beta-lactamase inhibitor
e.g. piperacillin-tazobactam
Carbapenems
e.g. meropenem, imipenem + cilastatin
Penems
e.g. faropenem

1 http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/251715/1/9789241511469-eng.pdf?ua=1
20th WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (March 2017) page 8
WHO Model List of Essential Medicines 20th edition

Group 3 - RESERVE GROUP ANTIBIOTICS


This group includes antibiotics that should be treated as “last resort” options that should be accessible, but
whose use should be tailored to highly specific patients and settings, when all alternatives have failed (e.g.,
serious, life-threatening infections due to multi-drug resistant bacteria). These medicines could be protected
and prioritized as key targets of national and international stewardship programs involving monitoring and
utilization reporting, to preserve their effectiveness.

Reserve group antibiotics


Aztreonam Fosfomycin (IV)
4th generation cephalosporins Oxazolidinones
e.g. cefepime e.g. linezolid
5th generation cephalosporins Tigecycline
e.g. ceftaroline
Polymyxins Daptomycin
e.g. polymyxin B, colistin

6.2.1 Beta-lactam medicines

Powder for oral liquid: 125 mg (as trihydrate)/5 mL; 250 mg (as trihydrate)/5
mL [c].

Solid oral dosage form: 250 mg; 500 mg (as trihydrate).

Powder for injection: 250 mg; 500 mg; 1 g (as sodium) in vial.

FIRST CHOICE SECOND CHOICE

- community acquired pneumonia (mild to - acute bacterial meningitis


amoxicillin moderate)
- community acquired pneumonia (severe) [c]
- complicated severe acute malnutrition [c]
- exacerbations of COPD
- lower urinary tract infections
- otitis media
- pharyngitis
- sepsis in neonates and children [c]
- sinusitis
- uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition [c]

Oral liquid: 125 mg amoxicillin + 31.25 mg clavulanic acid/5 mL AND 250 mg


amoxicillin + 62.5 mg clavulanic acid/5 mL [c].
amoxicillin + clavulanic acid
Tablet: 500 mg (as trihydrate) + 125 mg (as potassium salt).

Powder for injection: 500 mg (as sodium) + 100 mg (as potassium salt); 1000
mg (as sodium) + 200 mg (as potassium salt) in vial.

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WHO Model List of Essential Medicines 20th edition

FIRST CHOICE SECOND CHOICE


- community acquired pneumonia (severe) [c] - bone and joint infections
- complicated intraabdominal infections (mild to - community-acquired pneumonia
moderate) (mild to moderate)
- exacerbations of COPD - community acquired pneumonia
- hospital acquired pneumonia (severe)
low-risk febrile neutropenia
- lower urinary tract infections - otitis media
- sinusitis
-
- skin and soft tissue infections

Powder for injection: 500 mg; 1 g (as sodium salt) in vial.

FIRST CHOICE SECOND CHOICE


ampicillin - community acquired pneumonia (severe) [c] - acute bacterial meningitis
- complicated severe acute malnutrition [c]
- sepsis in neonates and children [c]

Powder for injection: 900 mg benzylpenicillin (= 1.2 million IU) in 5- mL vial


[c]; 1.44 g benzylpenicillin (= 2.4 million IU) in 5- mL vial.
benzathine benzylpenicillin

FIRST CHOICE SECOND CHOICE

- syphilis

Powder for injection: 600 mg (= 1 million IU); 3 g (= 5 million IU) (sodium or


potassium salt) in vial.

FIRST CHOICE SECOND CHOICE


benzylpenicillin
- acute bacterial meningitis[c]
-community acquired pneumonia (severe) [c]
- complicated severe acute malnutrition [c]
- sepsis in neonates and children [c]
- syphilis

Powder for reconstitution with water: 125 mg/5 mL; 250 mg/5 mL
(anhydrous).
Solid oral dosage form: 250 mg (as monohydrate).

cefalexin FIRST CHOICE SECOND CHOICE


- exacerbations of COPD
- pharyngitis
- skin and soft tissue infections

Powder for injection: 1 g (as sodium salt) in vial.

* also indicated for surgical prophylaxis.

a >1 month.
cefazolin* a
FIRST CHOICE SECOND CHOICE

- bone and joint infections

20th WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (March 2017) page 10


WHO Model List of Essential Medicines 20th edition

Capsule or tablet: 200 mg; 400 mg (as trihydrate).

Powder for oral liquid: 100 mg /5 mL [c]


cefixime
FIRST CHOICE SECOND CHOICE
WATCH GROUP
- acute invasive bacterial diarrhoea /
dysentery
- Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Powder for injection: 250 mg per vial (as sodium salt)


* 3rd generation cephalosporin of choice for use in hospitalized neonates.

FIRST CHOICE SECOND CHOICE


- acute bacterial meningitis - bone and joint infections
cefotaxime* -pyelonephritis or prostatitis (mild to
-community acquired pneumonia (severe)
moderate)
WATCH GROUP - complicated intraabdominal infections (mild to
moderate) - sepsis in neonates and children [c]
- complicated intrabdominal infections (severe)
- hospital acquired pneumonia
-pyelonephritis or prostatitis (severe)

Powder for injection: 250 mg; 1 g (as sodium salt) in vial.


* Do not administer with calcium and avoid in infants with hyperbilirubinaemia.
a >41 weeks corrected gestational age.
FIRST CHOICE SECOND CHOICE

ceftriaxone* a - acute bacterial meningitis - acute invasive bacterial diarrhoea /


-community acquired pneumonia (severe) dysentery
WATCH GROUP
- complicated intraabdominal infections (mild to - bone and joint infections
moderate) - pyelonephritis or prostatitis (mild to
- complicated intrabdominal infections (severe) moderate)
- hospital acquired pneumonia - sepsis in neonates and children [c]
- Neisseria gonorrhoeae
-pyelonephritis or prostatitis (severe)

Capsule: 500 mg; 1 g (as sodium salt).

Powder for injection: 500 mg (as sodium salt) in vial.

Powder for oral liquid: 125 mg (as sodium salt)/5 mL.

*cloxacillin, dicloxacillin and flucloxacillin are preferred for oral administration


o cloxacillin* due to better bioavailability.

FIRST CHOICE SECOND CHOICE

- bone and joint infections - sepsis in neonates and children [c]


- skin and soft tissue infections

20th WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (March 2017) page 11


WHO Model List of Essential Medicines 20th edition

Powder for oral liquid: 250 mg (as potassium salt)/5 mL.

Tablet: 250 mg (as potassium salt).

FIRST CHOICE SECOND CHOICE


phenoxymethylpenicillin
- community acquired pneumonia (mild to
moderate)
- pharyngitis

Powder for injection: 2 g (as sodium salt) + 250 mg (as sodium salt); 4 g (as
sodium salt) + 500 mg (as sodium salt) in vial

piperacillin + tazobactam FIRST CHOICE SECOND CHOICE

WATCH GROUP - complicated intraabdominal infections (severe)


- high-risk febrile neutropenia
- hospital acquired pneumonia

Powder for injection: 1 g (=1 million IU); 3 g (=3 million IU) in vial.

* Procaine benzylpenicillin is not recommended as first-line treatment for


neonatal sepsis except in settings with high neonatal mortality, when given by
trained health workers in cases where hospital care is not achievable.
procaine benzylpenicillin*
FIRST CHOICE SECOND CHOICE

- syphilis [c] - syphilis

Complementary List

ceftazidime
Powder for injection: 250 mg or 1 g (as pentahydrate) in vial.
WATCH GROUP

Powder for injection: 500 mg (as trihydrate); 1 g (as trihydrate) in vial

a >3 months.

*imipenem + cilastatin is an alternative except for acute bacterial meningitis where


meropenem* a meropenem is preferred.
WATCH GROUP FIRST CHOICE SECOND CHOICE

- acute bacterial meningitis in neonates [c]


- complicated intraabdominal infections
(severe)
- high-risk febrile neutropenia

Complementary List – RESERVE GROUP

aztreonam Powder for injection: 1 g; 2 g in vial

fifth generation cephalosporins


(with or without beta-lactamase inhibitor) Powder for injection: 400 mg; 600 mg (as fosamil) in vial

e.g, ceftaroline

20th WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (March 2017) page 12


WHO Model List of Essential Medicines 20th edition

fourth generation cephalosporins


(with or without beta-lactamase inhibitor) Powder for injection: 500 mg; 1g; 2g (as hydrochloride) in vial

e.g., cefepime
6.2.2 Other antibacterials

Injection: 250 mg (as sulfate)/mL in 2- mL vial

FIRST CHOICE SECOND CHOICE


amikacin
-pyelonephritis or prostatitis (severe) - high-risk febrile neutropenia
- sepsis in neonates and children [c]

Capsule: 250 mg; 500 mg (anhydrous).

Oral liquid: 200 mg/5 mL.

azithromycin* * also listed for single-dose treatment of trachoma and yaws.

WATCH GROUP FIRST CHOICE SECOND CHOICE


- Chlamydia trachomatis - acute invasive bacterial diarrhoea /
- cholera [c] dysentery
- Neisseria gonorrhoeae - Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Capsule: 250 mg.

Oily suspension for injection*: 0.5 g (as sodium succinate)/ mL in 2- mL


ampoule.

* Only for the presumptive treatment of epidemic meningitis in children older


than 2 years and in adults.
chloramphenicol
Oral liquid: 150 mg (as palmitate)/5 mL.

Powder for injection: 1 g (sodium succinate) in vial.

FIRST CHOICE SECOND CHOICE

- acute bacterial meningitis

Oral liquid: 250 mg/5 mL (anhydrous) [c].


Solution for IV infusion: 2 mg/ mL (as hyclate) [c].
Tablet: 250 mg (as hydrochloride).

ciprofloxacin FIRST CHOICE SECOND CHOICE

WATCH GROUP - acute invasive bacterial diarrhoea / -cholera


dysentery - complicated intraabdominal infections
- low-risk febrile neutropenia (mild to moderate)
- pyelonephritis or prostatitis (mild to
moderate)

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Solid oral dosage form: 500 mg.

Powder for oral liquid: 125 mg/5 mL; 250 mg/5 mL

Powder for injection: 500 mg in vial

clarithromycin*† *erythromycin may be an alternative.

WATCH GROUP †clarithromycin is also listed for use in combination regimens for eradication of
H. pylori in adults.

FIRST CHOICE SECOND CHOICE

-community acquired pneumonia (severe) - pharyngitis

Capsule: 150 mg (as hydrochloride).

Injection: 150 mg (as phosphate)/ mL.

clindamycin Oral liquid: 75 mg/5 mL (as palmitate) [c].

FIRST CHOICE SECOND CHOICE

- bone and joint infections

Oral liquid: 25 mg/5 mL [c]; 50 mg/5 mL (anhydrous) [c].


Solid oral dosage form: 50 mg [c]; 100 mg (as hyclate).
Powder for injection: 100 mg in vial
a Use in children <8 years only for life-threatening infections when no alternative
exists.
doxycycline a
FIRST CHOICE SECOND CHOICE
- Chlamydia trachomatis - cholera [c]
- cholera -community acquired pneumonia (mild
to moderate)
- exacerbations of COPD

Injection: 10 mg; 40 mg (as sulfate)/ mL in 2- mL vial.

FIRST CHOICE SECOND CHOICE

gentamicin - community acquired pneumonia (severe) - Neisseria gonorrhoeae


[c]
- complicated severe acute malnutrition [c]
- sepsis in neonates and children [c]

Injection: 500 mg in 100- mL vial.

Oral liquid: 200 mg (as benzoate)/5 mL.


metronidazole
Suppository: 500 mg; 1 g.

Tablet: 200 mg to 500 mg.

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FIRST CHOICE SECOND CHOICE

- C. difficile infection - complicated intraabdominal infections


- complicated intraabdominal infections (mild to moderate)
(mild to moderate)
- complicated intrabdominal infections
(severe)
- Trichomonas vaginalis

Oral liquid: 25 mg/5 mL [c].


Tablet: 100 mg.
nitrofurantoin
FIRST CHOICE SECOND CHOICE
- lower urinary tract infections
Powder for injection: 2 g (as hydrochloride) in vial.
spectinomycin FIRST CHOICE SECOND CHOICE

- Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Injection:

80 mg + 16 mg/ mL in 5- mL ampoule;
80 mg + 16 mg/ mL in 10- mL ampoule.

Oral liquid: 200 mg + 40 mg/5 mL.

Tablet: 100 mg + 20 mg; 400 mg + 80 mg; 800 mg + 160 mg.


sulfamethoxazole +
trimethoprim* *single agent trimethoprim may be an alternative for lower urinary tract
infection.

FIRST CHOICE SECOND CHOICE

- lower urinary tract infections - acute invasive diarrhoea / bacterial


dysentery

Capsule: 125 mg; 250 mg (as hydrochloride).


vancomycin SECOND CHOICE
WATCH GROUP
- C. difficile infection

Complementary List

Powder for injection: 250 mg (as hydrochloride) in vial.


vancomycin
FIRST CHOICE SECOND CHOICE
WATCH GROUP
-high-risk febrile neutropenia

Complementary List – RESERVE GROUP

daptomycin Powder for injection: 350 mg; 500 mg in vial

fosfomycin Powder for injection: 2 g; 4 g (as sodium) in vial

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Injection for intravenous administration: 2 mg/ mL in 300 mL bag.


oxazolindinones
Powder for oral liquid: 100 mg/5 mL.
e.g., linezolid
Tablet: 400 mg; 600 mg.

polymyxins Powder for injection: 1 million I.U. (as colistemethate sodium) in


vial
e.g., colistin

tigecycline Powder for injection: 50 mg in vial

6.2.3 Antileprosy medicines

Medicines used in the treatment of leprosy should never be used except in combination. Combination therapy is
essential to prevent the emergence of drug resistance. Colour-coded blister packs (MDT blister packs) containing
standard two-medicine (paucibacillary leprosy) or three-medicine (multibacillary leprosy) combinations for
adult and childhood leprosy should be used. MDT blister packs can be supplied free of charge through WHO.
clofazimine
Capsule: 50 mg; 100 mg.

dapsone Tablet: 25 mg; 50 mg; 100 mg.

rifampicin Solid oral dosage form: 150 mg; 300 mg.

6.2.4 Antituberculosis medicines


WHO recommends and endorses the use of fixed-dose combinations and the development of appropriate new
fixed-dose combinations, including modified dosage forms, non-refrigerated products and paediatric
dosage forms of assured pharmaceutical quality.

Oral liquid: 25 mg/ mL [c].


ethambutol
Tablet: 100 mg to 400 mg (hydrochloride).

ethambutol + isoniazid Tablet: 400 mg + 150 mg.

ethambutol + isoniazid + pyrazinamide +


rifampicin Tablet: 275 mg + 75 mg + 400 mg + 150 mg.

ethambutol + isoniazid + rifampicin Tablet: 275 mg + 75 mg + 150 mg.

Oral liquid: 50 mg/5 mL [c].

isoniazid Tablet: 100 mg to 300 mg.

Tablet (scored): 50 mg.

Tablet:

75 mg + 400 mg + 150 mg.


150 mg + 500 mg + 150 mg (For intermittent use three times
isoniazid + pyrazinamide + rifampicin
weekly).

Tablet (dispersible): 50 mg + 150 mg + 75 mg [c].

Tablet:

75 mg + 150 mg; 150 mg + 300 mg.


60 mg + 60 mg (For intermittent use three times weekly).
isoniazid + rifampicin
150 mg + 150 mg (For intermittent use three times weekly).

Tablet (dispersible): 50 mg + 75 mg [c].

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Oral liquid: 30 mg/ mL [c].


Tablet: 400 mg.
pyrazinamide
Tablet (dispersible): 150 mg.

Tablet (scored): 150 mg.

Capsule: 150 mg.*


rifabutin
* For use only in patients with HIV receiving protease inhibitors.

Oral liquid: 20 mg/ mL [c].


rifampicin
Solid oral dosage form: 150 mg; 300 mg.

Tablet: 150 mg
rifapentine*
*For treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI) only

Complementary List

Reserve second-line drugs for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) should be used
in specialized centres adhering to WHO standards for TB control.

amikacin Powder for injection: 100 mg; 500 mg; 1 g (as sulfate) in vial.

bedaquiline Tablet: 100 mg.

capreomycin Powder for injection: 1 g (as sulfate) in vial.

clofazimine Capsule: 50 mg; 100 mg.

Solid oral dosage form: 250 mg.


cycloserine*
*Terizidone may be an alternative

Tablet: 50 mg.
delamanid a
a >6 years

Tablet: 125 mg; 250 mg.


ethionamide*
*Protionamide may be an alternative.

kanamycin Powder for injection: 1 g (as sulfate) in vial.

levofloxacin Tablet: 250mg; 500 mg; 750 mg.

Injection for intravenous administration: 2 mg/ mL in 300 mL


bag.
linezolid
Powder for oral liquid: 100 mg/5 mL.

Tablet: 400 mg; 600 mg.

moxifloxacin Tablet: 400 mg.

Granules: 4 g in sachet.
p-aminosalicylic acid
Tablet: 500 mg.

streptomycin [c] Powder for injection: 1 g (as sulfate) in vial.

6.3 Antifungal medicines

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Powder for injection: 50 mg in vial (as sodium deoxycholate or


amphotericin B
liposomal complex).
Vaginal cream: 1%; 10%.
clotrimazole
Vaginal tablet: 100 mg; 500 mg.

Capsule: 50 mg.

fluconazole Injection: 2 mg/ mL in vial.

Oral liquid: 50 mg/5 mL.

Capsule: 250 mg.


flucytosine
Infusion: 2.5 g in 250 mL.

Oral liquid: 125 mg/5 mL [c].


griseofulvin
Solid oral dosage form: 125 mg; 250 mg.

Capsule: 100 mg.

Oral liquid: 10 mg/mL.

* For treatment of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis,


itraconazole* histoplasmosis, sporotrichosis, paracoccidiodomycosis, mycoses
caused by T. marneffei and chromoblastomycosis; and
prophylaxis of histoplasmosis and infections caused by T.
marneffei in AIDS patients.

Lozenge: 100 000 IU.

Oral liquid: 50 mg/5 mL [c]; 100 000 IU/ mL [c].


nystatin
Pessary: 100 000 IU.

Tablet: 100 000 IU; 500 000 IU.

Tablet: 50 mg; 200 mg

Powder for injection: 200 mg in vial


voriconazole* Powder for oral liquid: 40 mg/mL

*For treatment of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis and acute


invasive aspergillosis.

Complementary List

potassium iodide Saturated solution.

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6.4 Antiviral medicines

6.4.1 Antiherpes medicines

Oral liquid: 200 mg/5 mL [c].

o aciclovir Powder for injection: 250 mg (as sodium salt) in vial.

Tablet: 200 mg.

6.4.2 Antiretrovirals

Based on current evidence and experience of use, medicines in the following three classes of antiretrovirals are
included as essential medicines for treatment and prevention of HIV (prevention of mother-to-child
transmission, pre-exposure prophylaxsis (where indicated) and post-exposure prophylaxis). WHO emphasizes
the importance of using these products in accordance with global and national guidelines. WHO recommends
and endorses the use of fixed-dose combinations and the development of appropriate new fixed-dose
combinations, including modified dosage forms, non-refrigerated products and paediatric dosage forms
of assured pharmaceutical quality.

Scored tablets can be used in children and therefore can be considered for inclusion in the listing of
tablets, provided that adequate quality products are available.

6.4.2.1 Nucleoside/Nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors

Tablet: 300 mg (as sulfate).


abacavir (ABC)
Tablet (dispersible, scored): 60 mg (as sulfate) [c].

Oral liquid: 50 mg/5 mL [c].


lamivudine (3TC)
Tablet: 150 mg.

Tablet: 300 mg (tenofovir disoproxil fumarate – equivalent to


tenofovir disoproxil fumarate† (TDF) 245 mg tenofovir disoproxil).

†also indicated for pre-exposure prophylaxis.

Capsule: 250 mg.

Oral liquid: 50 mg/5 mL.

Solution for IV infusion injection: 10 mg/ mL in


zidovudine (ZDV or AZT)
20- mL vial.

Tablet: 300 mg.

Tablet (dispersible, scored): 60 mg (as sulfate) [c].

6.4.2.2 Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors

Tablet: 200 mg (scored); 600 mg.


efavirenz (EFV or EFZ) a
a >3 years or >10 kg weight.

Oral liquid: 50 mg/5 mL.

nevirapine (NVP) a Tablet: 50 mg (dispersible); 200 mg.

a > 6 weeks

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6.4.2.3 Protease inhibitors

Selection of protease inhibitor(s) from the Model List will need to be determined by each country after
consideration of international and national treatment guidelines and experience. Ritonavir is recommended for
use in combination as a pharmacological booster, and not as an antiretroviral in its own right. All other protease
inhibitors should be used in boosted forms (e.g. with ritonavir).

Solid oral dosage form: 100 mg; 300 mg (as sulfate).


atazanavir a
a >25 kg.

Tablet (heat stable): 300 mg (as sulfate) + 100 mg.


atazanavir + ritonavir

Tablet: 75 mg; 400 mg; 600 mg; 800 mg


darunavir a
a >3 years

Oral liquid: 400 mg + 100 mg/5 mL.


lopinavir + ritonavir (LPV/r) Tablet (heat stable): 100 mg + 25 mg; 200 mg + 50 mg.
Capsule containing oral pellets: 40 mg + 10 mg [c].

Oral liquid: 400 mg/5 mL.


ritonavir
Tablet (heat stable): 25 mg; 100 mg.

6.4.2.4 Integrase inhibitors

dolutegravir Tablet: 50 mg

Tablet (chewable): 25 mg; 100 mg.

Tablet: 400 mg
raltegravir*
*for use in pregnant women and in second-line regimens in
accordance with WHO treatemnt guidelines.

FIXED-DOSE COMBINATIONS

Tablet (dispersible, scored): 60 mg (as sulfate) + 30 mg; 120 mg


abacavir + lamivudine
(as sulfate) + 60 mg.

Tablet: 600 mg + 200 mg + 300 mg (disoproxil fumarate


equivalent to 245 mg tenofovir disoproxil).
efavirenz + emtricitabine* + tenofovir *Emtricitabine (FTC) is an acceptable alternative to 3TC, based
on knowledge of the pharmacology, the resistance patterns and
clinical trials of antiretrovirals.

Tablet: 400 mg + 300 mg + 300 mg (disoproxil fumarate


efavirenz + lamivudine + tenofovir
equivalent to 245 mg tenofovir disoproxil)

Tablet: 200 mg + 300 mg (disoproxil fumarate equivalent to


245 mg tenofovir disoproxil).

*Emtricitabine (FTC) is an acceptable alternative to 3TC, based


emtricitabine* + tenofovir† on knowledge of the pharmacology, the resistance patterns and
clinical trials of antiretrovirals.

† combination also indicated for pre-exposure prophylaxis

lamivudine + nevirapine + zidovudine Tablet: 30 mg + 50 mg + 60 mg [c]; 150 mg + 200 mg + 300 mg.


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WHO Model List of Essential Medicines 20th edition

lamivudine + zidovudine Tablet: 30 mg + 60 mg [c]; 150 mg + 300 mg.

6.4.2.5 Medicines for prevention of HIV-related opportunistic infections


isoniazid + pyridoxine + sulfamethoxazole +
Tablet (scored): 300 mg + 25 mg + 800 mg + 160 mg
trimethoprim

6.4.3 Other antivirals

Injection for intravenous administration: 800 mg and 1 g in 10-


mL phosphate buffer solution.
ribavirin*
Solid oral dosage form: 200 mg; 400 mg; 600 mg.

* For the treatment of viral haemorrhagic fevers


Tablet: 450 mg.
valganciclovir*
*For the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMVr).

Complementary list

Capsule: 30 mg; 45 mg; 75 mg (as phosphate).

Oral powder: 12 mg/ mL.


oseltamivir*
* severe illness due to confirmed or suspected influenza virus infection
in critically ill hospitalized patients

6.4.4 Antihepatitis medicines

6.4.4.1 Medicines for hepatitis B

6.4.4.1.1 Nucleoside/Nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors

Oral liquid: 0.05 mg/ mL


entecavir
Tablet: 0.5 mg; 1 mg

Tablet: 300 mg (tenofovir disoproxil fumarate – equivalent to


tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)
245 mg tenofovir disoproxil).

6.4.4.2 Medicines for hepatitis C

Based on current evidence, medicines in the following classes of direct acting antiviral medicines are included as
essential medicines for treatment of hepatitis C virus infection. WHO guidelines recommend specific
combination therapy utilizing medicines from different classes.

6.4.4.2.1 Nucleotide polymerase inhibitors

sofosbuvir Tablet: 400 mg

6.4.4.2.2 Protease inhibitors

simeprevir Capsule 150 mg

6.4.4.2.3 NS5A inhibitors

daclatasvir Tablet: 30 mg; 60 mg (as hydrochloride)

6.4.4.2.4 Non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitors

dasabuvir Tablet: 250 mg

6.4.4.2.5 Other antivirals

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Injection for intravenous administration: 800 mg and 1 g in 10-


mL phosphate buffer solution.

ribavirin* Solid oral dosage form: 200 mg; 400 mg; 600 mg.

* For the treatment of hepatitis C, in combination with


peginterferon and/or direct acting anti-viral medicines

Complementary List

Vial or prefilled syringe:

180 micrograms (peginterferon alfa-2a),


pegylated interferon alfa (2a or 2b) *
80 microgram, 100 microgram (peginterferon alfa-2b).

* To be used in combination with ribavirin.

FIXED-DOSE COMBINATIONS
Alternative combinations of DAAs from different pharmacological classes are possible.
ledipasvir + sofosbuvir
Tablet: 90 mg + 400 mg.

ombitasvir + paritaprevir + ritonavir Tablet: 12.5 mg + 75 mg + 50 mg

sofosbovir + velpatasvir Tablet: 400 mg + 100 mg

6.5 Antiprotozoal medicines

6.5.1 Antiamoebic and antigiardiasis medicines

Tablet: 500 mg (furoate).


diloxanide a
a >25 kg.
Injection: 500 mg in 100- mL vial.

o metronidazole Oral liquid: 200 mg (as benzoate)/5 mL.

Tablet: 200 mg to 500 mg.

6.5.2 Antileishmaniasis medicines

Powder for injection: 50 mg in vial (as sodium deoxycholate or


amphotericin B
liposomal complex).

miltefosine Solid oral dosage form: 10 mg; 50 mg.

paromomycin Solution for intramuscular injection: 750 mg of paromomycin


base (as the sulfate).
sodium stibogluconate or meglumine Injection: 100 mg/ mL, 1 vial = 30 mL or 30%, equivalent to
antimoniate approximately 8.1% antimony (pentavalent) in 5- mL ampoule.

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6.5.3 Antimalarial medicines

6.5.3.1 For curative treatment

Medicines for the treatment of P. falciparum malaria cases should be used in combination. The list currently
recommends combinations according to treatment guidelines. WHO recognizes that not all of the fixed
dose combinations (FDCs) in the WHO treatment guidelines exist, and encourages their development and
rigorous testing. WHO also encourages development and testing of rectal dosage formulations.

Tablet: 153 mg or 200 mg (as hydrochloride).


amodiaquine*
* To be used in combination with artesunate 50 mg.

Oily injection: 80 mg/ mL in 1- mL ampoule.


artemether*
* For use in the management of severe malaria.

Tablet: 20 mg + 120 mg.

Tablet (dispersible): 20 mg + 120 mg [c].


artemether + lumefantrine*
* Not recommended in the first trimester of pregnancy or in
children below 5 kg.

Injection: ampoules, containing 60 mg anhydrous artesunic acid


with a separate ampoule of 5% sodium bicarbonate solution.
For use in the management of severe malaria.
Rectal dosage form: 50 mg [c]; 100 mg [c]; 200 mg capsules
(for pre-referral treatment of severe malaria only; patients
artesunate* should be taken to an appropriate health facility for follow-up
care) [c].

Tablet: 50 mg.

* To be used in combination with either amodiaquine,


mefloquine or sulfadoxine + pyrimethamine.

Tablet: 25 mg + 67.5 mg; 50 mg + 135 mg; 100 mg + 270 mg.

artesunate + amodiaquine* * Other combinations that deliver the target doses required such
as 153 mg or 200 mg (as hydrochloride) with 50 mg artesunate
can be alternatives.
artesunate + mefloquine Tablet: 25 mg + 55 mg; 100 mg + 220 mg.

Tablet: 60 mg + 180 mg

artesunate + pyronaridine tetraphosphate a Granules: 20 mg + 60 mg [c].

a > 5 kg

Oral liquid: 50 mg (as phosphate or sulfate)/5 mL.

chloroquine* Tablet: 100 mg; 150 mg (as phosphate or sulfate).

* For use only for the treatment of P.vivax infection.

dihydroartemisinin + piperaquine phosphate Tablet: 20 mg + 160 mg; 40 mg + 320 mg


a a > 5 kg

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Capsule: 100 mg (as hydrochloride or hyclate).

doxycycline* Tablet (dispersible): 100 mg (as monohydrate).

* For use only in combination with quinine.

Tablet: 250 mg (as hydrochloride).


mefloquine*
* To be used in combination with artesunate 50 mg.

Tablet: 7.5 mg; 15 mg (as diphosphate).


primaquine* * Only for use to achieve radical cure of P.vivax and P.ovale
infections, given for 14 days.

Injection: 300 mg quinine hydrochloride/ mL in 2- mL ampoule.

Tablet: 300 mg (quinine sulfate) or 300 mg (quinine bisulfate).


quinine*
* For use only in the management of severe malaria, and should
be used in combination with doxycycline.

Tablet: 500 mg + 25 mg.


sulfadoxine + pyrimethamine*
* Only in combination with artesunate 50 mg.

6.5.3.2 For prophylaxis

Oral liquid: 50 mg (as phosphate or sulfate)/5 mL.

chloroquine* Tablet: 150 mg (as phosphate or sulfate).

* For use only in central American regions, for P.vivax infections.

Solid oral dosage form: 100 mg (as hydrochloride or hyclate).


doxycycline a
a >8 years.

Tablet: 250 mg (as hydrochloride).


mefloquine a
a >5 kg or >3 months.

Tablet: 100 mg (as hydrochloride).


proguanil*
* For use only in combination with chloroquine.

6.5.4 Antipneumocystosis and antitoxoplasmosis medicines

pyrimethamine Tablet: 25 mg.

sulfadiazine Tablet: 500 mg.

Injection:

80 mg + 16 mg/ mL in 5- mL ampoule;
80 mg + 16 mg/ mL in 10- mL ampoule.
sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim
Oral liquid: 200 mg + 40 mg/5 mL [c].
Tablet: 100 mg + 20 mg; 400 mg + 80 mg [c].

Complementary List

pentamidine Tablet: 200 mg; 300 mg (as isethionate).

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6.5.5 Antitrypanosomal medicines

6.5.5.1 African trypanosomiasis

Medicines for the treatment of 1 stage African trypanosomiasis st

Powder for injection: 200 mg (as isetionate) in vial.


pentamidine* * To be used for the treatment of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense
infection.

Powder for injection: 1 g in vial.


suramin sodium* * To be used for the treatment of the initial phase of
Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense infection.
Medicines for the treatment of 2 nd stage African trypanosomiasis

Injection: 200 mg (hydrochloride)/ mL in 100- mL bottle.


eflornithine* * To be used for the treatment of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense
infection.
Injection: 3.6% solution, 5- mL ampoule (180 mg of active
melarsoprol
compound).
Tablet: 120 mg.
nifurtimox* * Only to be used in combination with eflornithine, for the
treatment of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infection.

Complementary List [c]

melarsoprol Injection: 3.6% solution in 5- mL ampoule (180 mg of active


compound).
6.5.5.2 American trypanosomiasis

Tablet: 12.5 mg [c];100 mg.


benznidazole
Tablet (scored): 50 mg.

nifurtimox Tablet: 30 mg; 120 mg; 250 mg.

7. ANTIMIGRAINE MEDICINES

7.1 For treatment of acute attack


acetylsalicylic acid
Tablet: 300 mg to 500 mg.

ibuprofen [c] Tablet: 200 mg; 400 mg.

Oral liquid: 120 mg/5 mL [c]; 125 mg/5 mL [c].


paracetamol
Tablet: 300 mg to 500 mg.

7.2 For prophylaxis

o propranolol Tablet: 20 mg; 40 mg (hydrochloride).

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8. ANTINEOPLASTICS AND IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVES


Medicines listed below should be used according to protocols for treatment of the diseases.
8.1 Immunosuppressive medicines

Complementary List

Powder for injection: 100 mg (as sodium salt) in vial.


azathioprine
Tablet (scored): 50 mg.

Capsule: 25 mg.
ciclosporin Concentrate for injection: 50 mg/ mL in 1- mL ampoule for organ
transplantation.

8.2 Cytotoxic and adjuvant medicines

Complementary List

Capsule: 10 mg.
all-trans retinoid acid (ATRA)
- Acute promyelocytic leukaemia.

allopurinol [c] Tablet: 100 mg; 300 mg.

Powder for injection: 10 000 IU in vial.


asparaginase
- Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

Injection: 45 mg/0.5 mL; 180 mg/2 mL.


bendamustine - Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia
- Follicular lymphoma

Powder for injection: 15 mg (as sulfate) in vial.

- Hodgkin lymphoma
bleomycin - Kaposi sarcoma
- Ovarian germ cell tumour
- Testicular germ cell tumour

Injection: 3 mg/ mL in 10- mL ampoule.

Tablet: 15 mg.

calcium folinate - Early stage colon cancer


- Early stage rectal cancer
- Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia
- Metastatic colorectal cancer
- Osteosarcoma
- Burkitt lymphoma

Tablet: 150 mg; 500 mg.

- Early stage colon cancer


capecitabine - Early stage rectal cancer
- Metastatic breast cancer
- Metastatic colorectal cancer

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Injection: 50 mg/5 mL; 150 mg/15 mL; 450 mg/45 mL; 600 mg/60
mL.

- Early stage breast cancer


carboplatin - Epithelial ovarian cancer
- Nasopharyngeal cancer
- Non-small cell lung cancer
- Osteosarcoma
- Retinoblastoma

Tablet: 2 mg.
chlorambucil
- Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

Injection: 50 mg/50 mL; 100 mg/100 mL.

- Cervical cancer (as a radio-sensitizer)


- Head and neck cancer (as a radio-sensitizer)
- Nasopharyngeal cancer (as a radio-sensitizer)
cisplatin - Non-small cell lung cancer
- Osteosarcoma
- Ovarian germ cell tumour
- Testicular germ cell tumour

Powder for injection: 500 mg in vial.

Tablet: 25 mg.

- Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia


- Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
- Early stage breast cancer
- Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia
cyclophosphamide
- Hodgkin lymphoma
- Follicular lymphoma
- Rhabdomyosarcoma
- Ewing sarcoma
- Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia
- Burkitt lymphoma
- Metastatic breast cancer.

Powder for injection: 100 mg in vial.

- Acute myelogenous leukaemia


cytarabine - Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia
- Acute promyelocytic leukaemia
- Burkitt lymphoma.

Powder for injection: 100 mg in vial.


dacarbazine
- Hodgkin lymphoma

Powder for injection: 500 micrograms in vial.


dactinomycin
- Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia
- Rhabdomyosarcoma
- Wilms tumour

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Tablet: 20 mg; 50 mg; 70 mg; 80 mg; 100 mg; 140 mg.


dasatinib
- Imatinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukaemia

Powder for injection: 50 mg (hydrochloride) in vial.

- Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia


daunorubicin - Acute myelogenous leukaemia
- Acute promyelocytic leukaemia

Injection: 20 mg/ mL; 40 mg/ mL.

docetaxel - Early stage breast cancer


- Metastatic breast cancer
- Metastatic prostate cancer

Powder for injection: 10 mg; 50 mg (hydrochloride) in vial.

- Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma


- Early stage breast cancer
- Hodgkin lymphoma
- Kaposi sarcoma
doxorubicin - Follicular lymphoma
- Metastatic breast cancer
- Osteosarcoma
- Ewing sarcoma
- Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia
- Wilms tumour
- Burkitt lymphoma

Capsule: 100 mg.

Injection: 20 mg/ mL in 5- mL ampoule.

- Testicular germ cell tumour


- Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia
- Hodgkin lymphoma
etoposide
- Non-small cell lung cancer
- Ovarian germ cell tumour
- Retinoblastoma
- Ewing sarcoma
- Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia
- Burkitt lymphoma

Injection: 120 micrograms/0.2 mL; 300 micrograms/0.5 mL; 480


micrograms/0.8 mL in pre-filled syringe 300 micrograms/mL in 1- mL
vial, 480 mg/1.6 mL in 1.6- mL vial.

- Primary prophylaxis in patients at high risk for developing


filgrastim febrile neutropenia associated with myelotoxic chemotherapy.
- Secondary prophylaxis for patients who have experienced
neutropenia following prior myelotoxic chemotherapy
- To facilitate administration of dose dense chemotherapy
regimens

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Powder for injection: 50 mg (phosphate) in vial.

fludarabine Tablet: 10 mg

- Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

Injection: 50 mg/ mL in 5- mL ampoule.

- Early stage breast cancer


fluorouracil - Early stage colon cancer
- Early stage rectal cancer
- Metastatic colorectal cancer
- Nasopharyngeal cancer.

Powder for injection: 200 mg in vial, 1 g in vial.


gemcitabine - Epithelial ovarian cancer
- Non-small cell lung cancer

Solid oral dosage form: 200 mg; 250 mg; 300 mg; 400 mg; 500 mg;
hydroxycarbamide 1 g.

- Chronic myeloid leukaemia.

Powder for injection: 500 mg vial; 1-g vial; 2-g vial.

- Testicular germ cell tumour


ifosfamide - Ovarian germ cell tumour
- Osteosarcoma
- Rhabdomyosarcoma
- Ewing sarcoma

Tablet: 100 mg; 400 mg.


imatinib - Chronic myeloid leukaemia
- Gastrointestinal stromal tumour

Injection: 40 mg/2 mL in 2- mL vial; 100 mg/5 mL in 5- mL vial; 500


irinotecan mg/25 mL in 25- mL vial.

- Metastatic colorectal cancer.

Tablet: 50 mg.
mercaptopurine - Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia
- Acute promyelocytic leukaemia.

Injection: 100 mg/ mL in 4- mL and 10- mL ampoules.

Tablet: 400 mg; 600 mg.

- Testicular germ cell tumour


mesna
- Ovarian germ cell tumour
- Osteosarcoma
- Rhabdomyosarcoma
- Ewing sarcoma.

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Powder for injection: 50 mg (as sodium salt) in vial.

Tablet: 2.5 mg (as sodium salt).

- Early stage breast cancer


methotrexate
- Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia
- Osteosarcoma
- Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia
- Acute promyelocytic leukaemia

Capsule: 150 mg; 200 mg.


nilotinib
- Imatinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukaemia

Injection: 50 mg/10 mL in 10- mL vial; 100 mg/20 mL in 20- mL vial;


200 mg/40 mL in 40- mL vial.

oxaliplatin Powder for injection: 50 mg, 100 mg in vial.

- Early stage colon cancer


- Metastatic colorectal cancer

Powder for injection: 6 mg/ mL.

- Epithelial ovarian cancer


- Early stage breast cancer
paclitaxel - Metastatic breast cancer
- Kaposi sarcoma
- Nasopharyngeal cancer
- Non-small cell lung cancer
- Ovarian germ cell tumour

procarbazine Capsule: 50 mg (as hydrochloride).

Injection: 100 mg/10 mL in 10- mL vial; 500 mg/50 mL in 50- mL


vial.
rituximab - Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
- Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia
- Follicular lymphoma.

Solid oral dosage form: 40 mg.


tioguanine [c]
- Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
Powder for injection: 60 mg; 150 mg; 440 mg in vial
trastuzumab - Early stage HER2 positive breast cancer
- Metastatic HER2 positive breast cancer.

Powder for injection: 10 mg (sulfate) in vial.

- Hodgkin lymphoma
vinblastine - Kaposi sarcoma.
- Testicular germ cell tumour
- Ovarian germ cell tumour

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Powder for injection: 1 mg; 5 mg (sulfate) in vial.

- Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma


- Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia
- Hodgkin lymphoma
- Kaposi sarcoma
vincristine - Follicular lymphoma
- Retinoblastoma
- Rhabdomyosarcoma
- Ewing sarcoma
- Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia
- Wilms tumour
- Burkitt lymphoma.

Injection: 10 mg/mL in 1- mL vial; 50 mg/5 mL in 5- mL vial.


vinorelbine - Non-small cell lung cancer
- Metastatic breast cancer

Concentrate solution for infusion: 4 mg/5 mL in 5- mL vial.

zoledronic acid Solution for infusion: 4 mg/100 mL in 100- mL bottle.

- Malignancy-related bone disease

8.3 Hormones and antihormones

Complementary List

Tablet: 1 mg.
o anastrozole - Early stage breast cancer
- Metastatic breast cancer.

Tablet: 50 mg.
o bicalutamide
- Metastatic prostate cancer.

Injection: 4 mg/ mL in 1- mL ampoule (as disodium phosphate salt).

dexamethasone Oral liquid: 2 mg/5 mL [c].

- Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

Dose form
o leuprorelin - Early stage breast cancer
- Metastatic prostate cancer

Powder for injection: 100 mg (as sodium succinate) in vial.


hydrocortisone
- Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

Injection: 40 mg/ mL (as sodium succinate) in 1- mL single-dose vial


and
methylprednisolone [c] 5- mL multi-dose vials; 80 mg/ mL (as sodium succinate) in 1- mL
single-dose vial.

- Acute lymphoblastic leukamia.

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Oral liquid: 5 mg/ mL [c].

Tablet: 5 mg; 25 mg.

- Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia


o prednisolone - Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
- Hodgkin lymphoma
- Follicular lymphoma
- Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia
- Burkitt lymphoma

Tablet: 10 mg; 20 mg (as citrate).


tamoxifen - Early stage breast cancer
- Metastatic breast cancer

9. ANTIPARKINSONISM MEDICINES
Injection: 5 mg (lactate) in 1- mL ampoule.
o biperiden
Tablet: 2 mg (hydrochloride).

levodopa + o carbidopa Tablet: 100 mg + 10 mg; 100 mg + 25 mg; 250 mg + 25 mg

10. MEDICINES AFFECTING THE BLOOD

10.1 Antianaemia medicines

Oral liquid: equivalent to 25 mg iron (as sulfate)/ mL.


ferrous salt
Tablet: equivalent to 60 mg iron.

Tablet: equivalent to 60 mg iron + 400 micrograms folic acid


ferrous salt + folic acid
(nutritional supplement for use during pregnancy) .

Tablet: 400 micrograms*; 1 mg; 5 mg.


folic acid *periconceptual use for prevention of first occurrence of neural
tube defects

Injection: 1 mg (as acetate, as hydrochloride or as sulfate) in 1-


hydroxocobalamin
mL ampoule.

Complementary List

Injection: pre-filled syringe

1000IU/ 0.5 mL; 2000IU/ 0.5 mL; 3000IU/ 0.3 mL; 4000IU/ 0.4 mL;
5000IU/ 0.5 mL; 6000IU/ 0.6 mL; 8000IU/ 0.8mL; 10 000IU/ 1 mL;
o erythropoiesis-stimulating agents* 20 000IU/ 0.5 mL; 40 000IU/ 1 mL

* the square box applies to epoetin alfa, beta and theta, darbepoetin alfa,
methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta,and their respective
biosimilars.

10.2 Medicines affecting coagulation

Injection: ampoule or pre-filled syringe

20 mg/0.2 mL; 40 mg/0.4 mL; 60 mg/0.6 mL; 80 mg/0.8 mL; 100


o enoxaparin* mg/1 mL; 120 mg/0.8 mL; 150 mg/1 mL

*Alternatives are limited to nadroparin and dalteparin

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WHO Model List of Essential Medicines 20th edition

Injection: 1000 IU/ mL; 5000 IU/ mL; 20 000 IU/ mL in 1- mL


heparin sodium
ampoule.

Injection: 1 mg/ mL [c]; 10 mg/ mL in 5- mL ampoule.


phytomenadione
Tablet: 10 mg.

protamine sulfate Injection: 10 mg/ mL in 5- mL ampoule.

tranexamic acid Injection: 100 mg/ mL in 10- mL ampoule.

o warfarin Tablet: 1 mg; 2 mg; 5 mg (sodium salt).

Complementary List [c]

Injection: 4 micrograms/ mL (as acetate) in 1- mL ampoule.


desmopressin
Nasal spray: 10 micrograms (as acetate) per dose

heparin sodium Injection: 1000 IU/ mL; 5000 IU/ mL in 1- mL ampoule.

protamine sulfate Injection: 10 mg/ mL in 5- mL ampoule.

o warfarin Tablet: 0.5 mg; 1 mg; 2 mg; 5 mg (sodium salt).

10.3 Other medicines for haemoglobinopathies

Complementary List

Powder for injection: 500 mg (mesilate) in vial.


deferoxamine* * Deferasirox oral form may be an alternative, depending on cost and
availability.

hydroxycarbamide Solid oral dosage form: 200 mg; 500 mg; 1 g.

11. BLOOD PRODUCTS OF HUMAN ORIGIN AND PLASMA SUBSTITUTES


11.1 Blood and blood components

In accordance with the World Health Assembly resolution WHA63.12, WHO recognizes that achieving self-
sufficiency, unless special circumstances preclude it, in the supply of safe blood components based on voluntary,
non-remunerated blood donation, and the security of that supply are important national goals to prevent blood
shortages and meet the transfusion requirements of the patient population. All preparations should comply with
the WHO requirements.

fresh–frozen plasma

platelets

red blood cells

whole blood
11.2 Plasma-derived medicines

All human plasma-derived medicines should comply with the WHO requirements.
11.2.1 Human immunoglobulins

anti-D immunoglobulin Injection: 250 micrograms in single-dose vial.

Anti-rabies immunoglobulin Injection: 150 IU/ mL in vial.

Anti-tetanus immunoglobulin Injection: 500 IU in vial.

Complementary List

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WHO Model List of Essential Medicines 20th edition

Intramuscular administration: 16% protein solution.*


Intravenous administration: 5%; 10% protein solution.**
normal immunoglobulin Subcutaneous administration: 15%; 16% protein solution.*
* Indicated for primary immune deficiency.
**Indicated for primary immune deficiency and Kawasaki disease.
11.2.2 Blood coagulation factors

Complementary List

o coagulation factor VIII Powder for injection: 500 IU/vial.

o coagulation factor IX Powder for injection: 500 IU/vial, 1000 IU/vial.

11.3 Plasma substitutes


Injectable solution: 6%.
o dextran 70* * Polygeline, injectable solution, 3.5% is considered as
equivalent.

12. CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICINES


Fixed-dose combinations for non-communicable diseases may have advantages over the single medicines given
concomitantly, including increased adherence and reduced pill burden. The potential value of fixed-dose combinations
of currently listed essential medicines, with regulatory approval and demonstrated bioavailability for the management
of chronic non-communicable diseases, is recognized.
12.1 Antianginal medicines

Tablet: 1.25 mg; 5 mg.


o bisoprolol*
* o includes metoprolol and carvedilol as alternatives.

glyceryl trinitrate Tablet (sublingual): 500 micrograms.

o isosorbide dinitrate Tablet (sublingual): 5 mg.

verapamil Tablet: 40 mg; 80 mg (hydrochloride).

12.2 Antiarrhythmic medicines

Tablet: 1.25 mg; 5 mg.


o bisoprolol*
* o includes metoprolol and carvedilol as alternatives.

Injection: 250 micrograms/ mL in 2- mL ampoule.

digoxin Oral liquid: 50 micrograms/ mL.

Tablet: 62.5 micrograms; 250 micrograms.

Injection: 100 micrograms/ mL (as acid tartrate or


epinephrine (adrenaline)
hydrochloride) in 10- mL ampoule.

lidocaine Injection: 20 mg (hydrochloride)/ mL in 5- mL ampoule.

Injection: 2.5 mg (hydrochloride)/ mL in 2- mL ampoule.


verapamil
Tablet: 40 mg; 80 mg (hydrochloride).

Complementary List

20th WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (March 2017) page 34


WHO Model List of Essential Medicines 20th edition

Injection: 50 mg/ mL in 3- mL ampoule (hydrochloride).


amiodarone
Tablet: 100 mg; 200 mg; 400 mg (hydrochloride).

12.3 Antihypertensive medicines

o amlodipine Tablet: 5 mg (as maleate, mesylate or besylate).

Tablet: 1.25 mg; 5 mg.

o bisoprolol* * includes atenolol, metoprolol and carvedilol as alternatives.


Atenolol should not be used as a first-line agent in
uncomplicated hypertension in patients >60 years

o enalapril Tablet: 2.5 mg; 5 mg (as hydrogen maleate).

Powder for injection: 20 mg (hydrochloride) in ampoule.

Tablet: 25 mg; 50 mg (hydrochloride).

hydralazine* * Hydralazine is listed for use only in the acute management of


severe pregnancy-induced hypertension. Its use in the treatment
of essential hypertension is not recommended in view of the
evidence of greater efficacy and safety of other medicines.

Oral liquid: 50 mg/5 mL.


o hydrochlorothiazide
Solid oral dosage form: 12.5 mg; 25 mg.

Tablet: 250 mg.

* Methyldopa is listed for use only in the management of


methyldopa* pregnancy-induced hypertension. Its use in the treatment of
essential hypertension is not recommended in view of the
evidence of greater efficacy and safety of other medicines.

o losartan Tablet: 25 mg; 50 mg; 100 mg.

Complementary List

sodium nitroprusside Powder for infusion: 50 mg in ampoule.

12.4 Medicines used in heart failure

Tablet: 1.25 mg; 5 mg.


o bisoprolol*
*o includes metoprolol and carvedilol as alternatives.

Injection: 250 micrograms/ mL in 2- mL ampoule.

digoxin Oral liquid: 50 micrograms/ mL.

Tablet: 62.5 micrograms; 250 micrograms.

o enalapril Tablet: 2.5 mg; 5 mg (as hydrogen maleate).

Injection: 10 mg/ mL in 2- mL ampoule.

o furosemide Oral liquid: 20 mg/5 mL [c].


Tablet: 40 mg.

Oral liquid: 50 mg/5 mL.


o hydrochlorothiazide
Solid oral dosage form: 25 mg.

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WHO Model List of Essential Medicines 20th edition

o losartan Tablet: 25 mg; 50 mg; 100 mg

spironolactone Tablet: 25 mg.

Complementary List

dopamine Injection: 40 mg/ mL (hydrochloride) in 5- mL vial.

12.5 Antithrombotic medicines

12.5.1 Anti-platelet medicines

acetylsalicylic acid Tablet: 100 mg.

clopidogrel Tablet: 75 mg; 300 mg

12.5.2 Thrombolytic medicines

Complementary List

streptokinase Powder for injection: 1.5 million IU in vial.

12.6 Lipid-lowering agents

Tablet: 5 mg; 10 mg; 20 mg; 40 mg.


o simvastatin*
* For use in high-risk patients.

13. DERMATOLOGICAL MEDICINES (topical)

13.1 Antifungal medicines

o miconazole Cream or ointment: 2% (nitrate).

selenium sulfide Detergent-based suspension: 2%.

sodium thiosulfate Solution: 15%.

terbinafine Cream: 1% or Ointment: 1% terbinafine hydrochloride.

13.2 Anti-infective medicines

Cream (as mupirocin calcium): 2%.


mupirocin
Ointment: 2%.

potassium permanganate Aqueous solution: 1:10 000.

Cream: 1%.
silver sulfadiazine a
a >2 months.

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13.3 Anti-inflammatory and antipruritic medicines

Cream or ointment: 0.1% (as valerate).


o betamethasone a
a Hydrocortisone preferred in neonates.

o calamine Lotion.

o hydrocortisone Cream or ointment: 1% (acetate).

13.4 Medicines affecting skin differentiation and proliferation


benzoyl peroxide
Cream or lotion: 5%.

coal tar Solution: 5%.

fluorouracil Ointment: 5%.

o podophyllum resin Solution: 10% to 25%.

salicylic acid Solution: 5%.

urea Cream or ointment: 5%; 10%.

13.5 Scabicides and pediculicides

Lotion: 25%.
o benzyl benzoate a
a >2 years.
Cream: 5%.
permethrin
Lotion: 1%.

14. DIAGNOSTIC AGENTS

14.1 Ophthalmic medicines

fluorescein Eye drops: 1% (sodium salt).

o tropicamide Eye drops: 0.5%.

14.2 Radiocontrast media

Injection: 140 mg to 420 mg iodine (as sodium or meglumine


o amidotrizoate
salt)/ mL in 20- mL ampoule.

barium sulfate Aqueous suspension.

Injection: 140 mg to 350 mg iodine/ mL in 5- mL; 10- mL; 20- mL


o iohexol
ampoules.

Complementary List

barium sulfate [c] Aqueous suspension.

o meglumine iotroxate Solution: 5 g to 8 g iodine in 100 mL to 250 mL.

15. DISINFECTANTS AND ANTISEPTICS

15.1 Antiseptics

o chlorhexidine Solution: 5% (digluconate).

o ethanol Solution: 70% (denatured).

o povidone iodine Solution: 10% (equivalent to 1% available iodine).

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15.2 Disinfectants

Solution: containing ethanol 80% volume /volume

alcohol based hand rub Solution: containing isopropyl alcohol 75% volume/volume

o chlorine base compound Powder: (0.1% available chlorine) for solution.

o chloroxylenol Solution: 4.8%.

glutaral Solution: 2%.

16. DIURETICS

amiloride Tablet: 5 mg (hydrochloride).

Injection: 10 mg/ mL in 2- mL ampoule.


o furosemide Oral liquid: 20 mg/5 mL [c].
Tablet: 10 mg [c]; 20 mg [c]; 40 mg.

o hydrochlorothiazide Solid oral dosage form: 25 mg.

mannitol Injectable solution: 10%; 20%.

spironolactone Tablet: 25 mg.

Complementary List [c]

o hydrochlorothiazide Tablet (scored): 25 mg.

mannitol Injectable solution: 10%; 20%.

Oral liquid: 5 mg/5 mL; 10 mg/5 mL; 25 mg/5 mL.


spironolactone
Tablet: 25 mg.
17. GASTROINTESTINAL MEDICINES

Complementary List [c]

Age-appropriate formulations and doses including lipase, protease and


o pancreatic enzymes amylase.

17.1 Antiulcer medicines

Powder for injection: 40 mg in vial


o omeprazole Powder for oral liquid: 20 mg; 40 mg sachets.
Solid oral dosage form: 10 mg; 20 mg; 40 mg.

Injection: 25 mg/ mL (as hydrochloride) in 2- mL ampoule.

o ranitidine Oral liquid: 75 mg/5 mL (as hydrochloride).


Tablet: 150 mg (as hydrochloride).

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WHO Model List of Essential Medicines 20th edition

17.2 Antiemetic medicines

Injection: 4 mg/ mL in 1- mL ampoule (as disodium phosphate


salt).
dexamethasone
Oral liquid: 0.5 mg/5 mL; 2 mg/5 mL.

Solid oral dosage form: 0.5 mg; 0.75 mg; 1.5 mg; 4 mg.

Injection: 5 mg (hydrochloride)/ mL in 2- mL ampoule.

Oral liquid: 5 mg/5 mL [c].


metoclopramide a
Tablet: 10 mg (hydrochloride).

a Not in neonates.

Injection: 2 mg base/ mL in 2- mL ampoule (as hydrochloride).


Oral liquid: 4 mg base/5 mL.
ondansetron a Solid oral dosage form: Eq 4 mg base; Eq 8 mg base; Eq 24 mg
base.
a >1 month.
17.3 Anti-inflammatory medicines

Retention enema.

o sulfasalazine Suppository: 500 mg.

Tablet: 500 mg.

Complementary List

Retention enema.
o hydrocortisone Suppository: 25 mg (acetate).
(the o only applies to hydrocortisone retention enema).

17.4 Laxatives

o senna Tablet: 7.5 mg (sennosides) (or traditional dosage forms).

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17.5 Medicines used in diarrhoea

17.5.1 Oral rehydration

Powder for dilution in 200 mL; 500 mL; 1 L.

glucose: 75 mEq
sodium: 75 mEq or mmol/L
chloride: 65 mEq or mmol/L
potassium: 20 mEq or mmol/L
citrate: 10 mmol/L
osmolarity: 245 mOsm/L
oral rehydration salts glucose: 13.5 g/L
sodium chloride: 2.6 g/L
potassium chloride: 1.5 g/L
trisodium citrate dihydrate*: 2.9 g/L

*trisodium citrate dihydrate may be replaced by sodium


hydrogen carbonate (sodium bicarbonate) 2.5 g/L. However, as
the stability of this latter formulation is very poor under tropical
conditions, it is recommended only when manufactured for
immediate use.

17.5.2 Medicines for diarrhoea

Solid oral dosage form: 20 mg.


zinc sulfate* * In acute diarrhoea zinc sulfate should be used as an adjunct to
oral rehydration salts.

18. HORMONES, OTHER ENDOCRINE MEDICINES AND CONTRACEPTIVES

18.1 Adrenal hormones and synthetic substitutes


fludrocortisone
Tablet: 100 micrograms (acetate).

hydrocortisone Tablet: 5 mg; 10 mg; 20 mg.

18.2 Androgens

Complementary List

testosterone Injection: 200 mg (enanthate) in 1- mL ampoule.

18.3 Contraceptives

18.3.1 Oral hormonal contraceptives

o ethinylestradiol + o levonorgestrel Tablet: 30 micrograms + 150 micrograms.

o ethinylestradiol + o norethisterone Tablet: 35 micrograms + 1 mg.

levonorgestrel Tablet: 30 micrograms; 750 micrograms (pack of two); 1.5 mg.

ulipristal Tablet: 30 mg (as acetate)

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18.3.2 Injectable hormonal contraceptives

estradiol cypionate + medroxyprogesterone


Injection: 5 mg + 25 mg.
acetate

Injection (intramuscular): 150 mg/ mL in 1- mL vial.


medroxyprogesterone acetate Injection (subcutaneous): 104 mg/0.65 mL in pre-filled syringe
or single-dose injection delivery system.

norethisterone enantate Oily solution: 200 mg/ mL in 1- mL ampoule.

18.3.3 Intrauterine devices

copper-containing device

Intrauterine system with reservoir containing 52 mg of


levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system levonorestrel

18.3.4 Barrier methods

condoms

diaphragms

18.3.5 Implantable contraceptives

Single-rod etonogestrel-releasing implant, containing 68 mg of


etonogestrel-releasing implant etonogestrel.

Two-rod levonorgestrel-releasing implant, each rod containing


levonorgestrel-releasing implant 75 mg of levonorgestrel (150 mg total).

18.3.6 Intravaginal contraceptives

Progesterone-releasing vaginal ring containing 2.074 g of


micronized progesterone.
progesterone vaginal ring*
*For use in women actively breastfeeding at least 4 times per
day

18.4 Estrogens

18.5 Insulins and other medicines used for diabetes

Solid oral dosage form: (controlled-release tablets) 30 mg; 60


mg;
o gliclazide*
80 mg.

* glibenclamide not suitable above 60 years.

glucagon Injection: 1 mg/ mL.

insulin injection (soluble) Injection: 40 IU/ mL in 10- mL vial; 100 IU/ mL in 10- mL vial.

Injection: 40 IU/ mL in 10- mL vial; 100 IU/ mL in 10- mL vial (as


intermediate-acting insulin
compound insulin zinc suspension or isophane insulin).

metformin Tablet: 500 mg (hydrochloride).

Complementary List [c]

metformin Tablet: 500 mg (hydrochloride).

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18.6 Ovulation inducers


Complementary List
clomifene
Tablet: 50 mg (citrate).

18.7 Progestogens

o medroxyprogesterone acetate Tablet: 5 mg.

18.8 Thyroid hormones and antithyroid medicines

Tablet: 25 micrograms [c]; 50 micrograms; 100 micrograms


levothyroxine
(sodium salt).

potassium iodide Tablet: 60 mg.

o propylthiouracil Tablet: 50 mg.

Complementary List [c]

Lugol's solution Oral liquid: about 130 mg total iodine/ mL.

potassium iodide Tablet: 60 mg.

propylthiouracil Tablet: 50 mg.

19. IMMUNOLOGICALS

19.1 Diagnostic agents

All tuberculins should comply with the WHO requirements for tuberculins.
tuberculin, purified protein derivative (PPD)
Injection.

19.2 Sera and immunoglobulins

All plasma fractions should comply with the WHO requirements.

Injection.
Anti-venom immunoglobulin*
* Exact type to be defined locally.

diphtheria antitoxin Injection: 10 000 IU; 20 000 IU in vial.

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19.3 Vaccines

WHO immunization policy recommendations are published in vaccine position papers on the basis of
recommendations made by the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (SAGE).

WHO vaccine position papers are updated three to four times per year. The list below details the vaccines for
which there is a recommendation from SAGE and a corresponding WHO position paper as at 10 February 2017.
The most recent versions of the WHO position papers, reflecting the current evidence related to a specific
vaccine and the related recommendations, can be accessed at any time on the WHO website at:

http://www.who.int/immunization/documents/positionpapers/en/index.html .

Vaccine recommendations may be universal or conditional (e.g., in certain regions, in some high-risk
populations or as part of immunization programmes with certain characteristics). Details are available in
the relevant position papers, and in the Summary Tables of WHO Routine Immunization Recommendations
available on the WHO website at:

http://www.who.int/immunization/policy/immunization_tables/en/index.html.

Selection of vaccines from the Model List will need to be determined by each country after consideration
of international recommendations, epidemiology and national priorities.

All vaccines should comply with the WHO requirements for biological substances.

WHO noted the need for vaccines used in children to be polyvalent.

Recommendations for all

BCG vaccine

diphtheria vaccine

Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine

hepatitis B vaccine

HPV vaccine

measles vaccine

pertussis vaccine

pneumococcal vaccine

poliomyelitis vaccine

rotavirus vaccine

rubella vaccine

tetanus vaccine

Recommendations for certain regions

Japanese encephalitis vaccine

yellow fever vaccine

tick-borne encephalitis vaccine

Recommendations for some high-risk populations

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cholera vaccine

hepatitis A vaccine

meningococcal meningitis vaccine

rabies vaccine

typhoid vaccine

Recommendations for immunization programmes with certain characteristics

influenza vaccine (seasonal)

mumps vaccine

varicella vaccine

20. MUSCLE RELAXANTS (PERIPHERALLY-ACTING) AND CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS


atracurium
o Injection: 10 mg/ mL (besylate).

Injection: 500 micrograms in 1- mL ampoule; 2.5 mg


neostigmine (metilsulfate) in 1- mL ampoule.

Tablet: 15 mg (bromide).

Injection: 50 mg (chloride)/ mL in 2- mL ampoule.


suxamethonium
Powder for injection (chloride), in vial.

o vecuronium [c] Powder for injection: 10 mg (bromide) in vial.

Complementary List

Injection: 1 mg in 1- mL ampoule.
pyridostigmine
Tablet: 60 mg (bromide).

o vecuronium Powder for injection: 10 mg (bromide) in vial.

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21. OPHTHALMOLOGICAL PREPARATIONS

21.1 Anti-infective agents

aciclovir Ointment: 3% W/W.

azithromycin Solution (eye drops): 1.5%.

Ointment: 0.5% [c]


erythromycin*
*Infections due to Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoea.

o gentamicin Solution (eye drops): 0.3% (sulfate).

natamycin Suspension: (eye drops): 5%

o ofloxacin Solution (eye drops): 0.3%.

o tetracycline Eye ointment: 1% (hydrochloride).

21.2 Anti-inflammatory agents

o prednisolone Solution (eye drops): 0.5% (sodium phosphate).

21.3 Local anaesthetics

Solution (eye drops): 0.5% (hydrochloride).


o tetracaine a
a Not in preterm neonates.

21.4 Miotics and antiglaucoma medicines

acetazolamide Tablet: 250 mg.

latanoprost Solution (eye drops): latanoprost 50 micrograms/mL

o pilocarpine Solution (eye drops): 2%; 4% (hydrochloride or nitrate).

o timolol Solution (eye drops): 0.25%; 0.5% (as hydrogen maleate).

21.5 Mydriatics

Solution (eye drops): 0.1%; 0.5%; 1% (sulfate).

* [c] Or homatropine (hydrobromide) or cyclopentolate


atropine* a
(hydrochloride).
a >3 months.

Complementary List

epinephrine (adrenaline) Solution (eye drops): 2% (as hydrochloride).

21.6 Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) preparations


Complementary List

bevacizumab Injection: 25 mg/ mL.

22. OXYTOCICS AND ANTIOXYTOCICS

22.1 Oxytocics

Injection: 200 micrograms (hydrogen maleate) in 1- mL


o ergometrine
ampoule.

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Tablet: 200 micrograms.


- Management of incomplete abortion and miscarriage;
- Prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage
where oxytocin is not available or cannot be safely used
misoprostol
Vaginal tablet: 25 micrograms.*

* Only for use for induction of labour where appropriate


facilities are available.

oxytocin Injection: 10 IU in 1- mL.

Complementary List

mifepristone* – misoprostol*
Tablet 200 mg – tablet 200 micrograms.
Where permitted under national law and
where culturally acceptable. * Requires close medical supervision.

22.2 Antioxytocics (tocolytics)

nifedipine Immediate-release capsule: 10 mg.

23. PERITONEAL DIALYSIS SOLUTION

Complementary List

intraperitoneal dialysis solution


Parenteral solution.
(of appropriate composition)

24. MEDICINES FOR MENTAL AND BEHAVIOURAL DISORDERS


24.1 Medicines used in psychotic disorders

Injection: 25 mg (hydrochloride)/ mL in 2- mL ampoule.

o chlorpromazine Oral liquid: 25 mg (hydrochloride)/5 mL.

Tablet: 100 mg (hydrochloride).

o fluphenazine Injection: 25 mg (decanoate or enantate) in 1- mL ampoule.

Injection: 5 mg in 1- mL ampoule.
o haloperidol
Tablet: 2 mg; 5 mg.

risperidone Solid oral dosage form: 0.25 mg to 6.0 mg.

Complementary List

Injection: 25 mg (hydrochloride)/ mL in 2- mL ampoule.


chlorpromazine [c] Oral liquid: 25 mg (hydrochloride)/5 mL.
Tablet: 10 mg; 25 mg; 50 mg; 100 mg (hydrochloride).

clozapine Solid oral dosage form: 25 to 200 mg.

Injection: 5 mg in 1- mL ampoule.
haloperidol [c] Oral liquid: 2 mg/ mL.
Solid oral dosage form: 0.5 mg; 2 mg; 5 mg.

24.2 Medicines used in mood disorders


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24.2.1 Medicines used in depressive disorders


amitriptyline
o Tablet: 25 mg; 75mg. (hydrochloride).

fluoxetine Solid oral dosage form: 20 mg (as hydrochloride).

Complementary List [c]

Solid oral dosage form: 20 mg (as hydrochloride).


fluoxetine a
a >8 years.

24.2.2 Medicines used in bipolar disorders


carbamazepine
Tablet (scored): 100 mg; 200 mg.

lithium carbonate Solid oral dosage form: 300 mg.

valproic acid (sodium valproate) Tablet (enteric-coated): 200 mg; 500 mg (sodium valproate).

24.3 Medicines for anxiety disorders

o diazepam Tablet (scored): 2 mg; 5 mg.

24.4 Medicines used for obsessive compulsive disorders


clomipramine
Capsule: 10 mg; 25 mg (hydrochloride).

24.5 Medicines for disorders due to psychoactive substance use


Chewing gum: 2 mg; 4 mg (as polacrilex).
nicotine replacement therapy (NRT)
Transdermal patch: 5 mg to 30 mg/16 hrs; 7 mg to 21 mg/24 hrs.

Complementary List

Concentrate for oral liquid: 5 mg/ mL; 10 mg/ mL (hydrochloride).

Oral liquid: 5 mg/5 mL; 10 mg/5 mL (hydrochloride).


o methadone*
* The square box is added to include buprenorphine. The medicines
should only be used within an established support programme.

25. MEDICINES ACTING ON THE RESPIRATORY TRACT

25.1 Antiasthmatic and medicines for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease


Inhalation (aerosol): 50 micrograms (dipropionate) per dose;
o beclometasone
100 micrograms (dipropionate) per dose (as CFC free forms).
Inhalation (aerosol): 100 micrograms per dose; 200 micrograms
o budesonide [c]
per dose.

Dry powder inhaler: 100 micrograms + 6 micrograms per dose;


o budesonide + formoterol
200 micrograms + 6 micrograms per dose
Injection: 1 mg (as hydrochloride or hydrogen tartrate) in
epinephrine (adrenaline)
1- mL ampoule.

ipratropium bromide Inhalation (aerosol): 20 micrograms/metered dose.

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Inhalation (aerosol): 100 micrograms (as sulfate) per dose.


Injection: 50 micrograms (as sulfate)/ mL in 5- mL ampoule.
o salbutamol Metered dose inhaler (aerosol): 100 micrograms (as sulfate) per
dose.
Respirator solution for use in nebulizers: 5 mg (as sulfate)/ mL.

26. SOLUTIONS CORRECTING WATER, ELECTROLYTE AND ACID–BASE DISTURBANCES

26.1 Oral

oral rehydration salts See section 17.5.1.

potassium chloride Powder for solution.

26.2 Parenteral

Injectable solution: 5% (isotonic); 10% (hypertonic);


glucose
50% (hypertonic).
Injectable solution: 4% glucose, 0.18% sodium chloride
(equivalent to Na+ 30 mmol/L, Cl- 30 mmol/L).

glucose with sodium chloride Injectable solution: 5% glucose, 0.9% sodium chloride
(equivalent to Na+ 150 mmol/L and Cl- 150 mmol/L);
5% glucose, 0.45% sodium chloride (equivalent to Na+
75 mmol/L and Cl- 75 mmol/L) [c].

Solution: 11.2% in 20- mL ampoule


(equivalent to K+ 1.5 mmol/ mL, Cl- 1.5 mmol/ mL).
potassium chloride Solution for dilution: 7.5% (equivalent to K 1 mmol/ mL and Cl
1 mmol/ mL) [c]; 15% (equivalent to K 2 mmol/ mL and Cl
2 mmol/ mL) [c].

Injectable solution: 0.9% isotonic (equivalent to Na+ 154


sodium chloride
mmol/L, Cl- 154 mmol/L).

Injectable solution: 1.4% isotonic (equivalent to Na+ 167


mmol/L, HCO3- 167 mmol/L).
sodium hydrogen carbonate
Solution: 8.4% in 10- mL ampoule (equivalent to Na+
1000 mmol/L, HCO 3-1000 mmol/L).

o sodium lactate, compound solution Injectable solution.

26.3 Miscellaneous

water for injection 2- mL; 5- mL; 10- mL ampoules.

27. VITAMINS AND MINERALS

ascorbic acid Tablet: 50 mg.

calcium Tablet: 500 mg (elemental).

Oral liquid: 400 IU/ mL.


colecalciferol [c] Solid oral dosage form: 400 IU; 1000 IU.
* Ergocalciferol can be used as an alternative.

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Oral liquid: 250 micrograms/ mL (10 000 IU/ mL).


o ergocalciferol
Solid oral dosage form: 1.25 mg (50 000 IU).

Capsule: 200 mg.

iodine Iodized oil: 1 mL (480 mg iodine); 0.5 mL (240 mg iodine) in


ampoule (oral or injectable); 0.57 mL (308 mg iodine) in
dispenser bottle.

o nicotinamide Tablet: 50 mg.

pyridoxine Tablet: 25 mg (hydrochloride).

Capsule: 50 000 IU; 100 000 IU; 200 000 IU (as palmitate).
Oral oily solution: 100 000 IU (as palmitate)/ mL in multidose
dispenser.
retinol
Tablet (sugar-coated): 10 000 IU (as palmitate).
Water-miscible injection: 100 000 IU (as palmitate) in
2- mL ampoule.

riboflavin Tablet: 5 mg.

sodium fluoride In any appropriate topical formulation.

thiamine Tablet: 50 mg (hydrochloride).

Complementary List

calcium gluconate Injection: 100 mg/ mL in 10- mL ampoule.

28. EAR, NOSE AND THROAT MEDICINES [c]


acetic acid Topical: 2%, in alcohol.

o budesonide Nasal spray: 100 micrograms per dose.

o ciprofloxacin Topical: 0.3% drops (as hydrochloride).

Nasal spray: 0.05%.


o xylometazoline a
a Not in children less than 3 months.

29. SPECIFIC MEDICINES FOR NEONATAL CARE


29.1 Medicines administered to the neonate [c]

Injection: 20 mg/ mL (equivalent to 10 mg caffeine base/ mL).


caffeine citrate
Oral liquid: 20 mg/ mL (equivalent to 10 mg caffeine base/ mL).

Solution or gel: 7.1% (digluconate) delivering 4% chlorhexidine


chlorhexidine
(for umbilical cord care) [c].

Complementary List

o ibuprofen Solution for injection: 5 mg/ mL.

Solution for injection:


o prostaglandin E Prostaglandin E1: 0.5 mg/ mL in alcohol.
Prostaglandin E 2: 1 mg/ mL.
Suspension for intratracheal instillation: 25 mg/ mL or 80 mg/
surfactant
mL.
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29.2 Medicines administered to the mother

Injection: 4 mg/ mL dexamethasone phosphate (as disodium


dexamethasone
salt)

30. MEDICINES FOR DISEASES OF JOINTS


30.1 Medicines used to treat gout
allopurinol
Tablet: 100 mg.

30.2 Disease-modifying agents used in rheumatoid disorders (DMARDs)


chloroquine
Tablet: 100 mg; 150 mg (as phosphate or sulfate).

Complementary List

azathioprine Tablet: 50 mg.

hydroxychloroquine [c] Solid oral dosage form: 200 mg (as sulfate).

methotrexate Tablet: 2.5 mg (as sodium salt).

penicillamine Solid oral dosage form: 250 mg.

sulfasalazine Tablet: 500 mg.

30.3 Juvenile joint diseases

Suppository: 50 mg to 150 mg.


acetylsalicylic acid* (acute or chronic use) Tablet: 100 mg to 500 mg.
* For use for rheumatic fever, juvenile arthritis, Kawasaki disease.

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Table 1.1: Medicines with age or weight restrictions

artesunate + pyronaridine tetraphosphate > 5 kg


atazanavir >25 kg
atropine >3 months
benzyl benzoate >2 years
betamethasone topical preparations hydrocortisone preferred in neonates
cefazolin >1 month
ceftriaxone >41 weeks corrected gestational age
darunavir > 3 years
delamanid > 6 years
dihydroartemisinin + piperaquine phosphate > 5 kg
diloxanide >25 kg
doxycycline >8 years (except for serious infections e.g. cholera)
efavirenz >3 years or >10 kg
fluoxetine >8 years
ibuprofen >3 months (except IV form for patent ductus arteriosus)
mefloquine >5 kg or >3 months
metoclopramide Not in neonates
nevirapine > 6 weeks
ondansetron >1 month
silver sulfadiazine >2 months
tetracaine Not in preterm neonates
trimethoprim >6 months
xylometazoline >3 months

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Table 1.2: Explanation of dosage forms

A. Principal dosage forms used in EML – oral administration

Term Definition

Refers to tablets or capsules or other solid dosage forms such as 'melts'


that are immediate-release preparations. It implies that there is no
difference in clinical efficacy or safety between the available dosage
forms, and countries should therefore choose the form(s) to be listed
depending on quality and availability.
Solid oral dosage form

The term 'solid oral dosage form' is never intended to allow any type of
modified-release tablet.

Refers to:

· uncoated or coated (film-coated or sugar-coated) tablets that are


intended to be swallowed whole;
· unscored and scored*;
· tablets that are intended to be chewed before being swallowed;
Tablets · tablets that are intended to be dispersed or dissolved in water or
another suitable liquid before being swallowed;
· tablets that are intended to be crushed before being swallowed.

The term 'tablet' without qualification is never intended to allow any


type of modified-release tablet.

Refers to a specific type of tablet:


chewable - tablets that are intended to be chewed before being
swallowed;
dispersible - tablets that are intended to be dispersed in water or
another suitable liquid before being swallowed;
soluble - tablets that are intended to be dissolved in water or another
suitable liquid before being swallowed;
crushable - tablets that are intended to be crushed before being
swallowed;
Tablets (qualified)
scored - tablets bearing a break mark or marks where sub-division is
intended in order to provide doses of less than one tablet;
sublingual - tablets that are intended to be placed beneath the tongue.

The term 'tablet' is always qualified with an additional term (in


parentheses) in entries where one of the following types of tablet is
intended: gastro-resistant (such tablets may sometimes be described as
enteric-coated or as delayed-release), prolonged-release or another
modified-release form.

* Scored tablets may be divided for ease of swallowing, provided that dose is a whole number of tablets.

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Refers to hard or soft capsules.

Capsules The term 'capsule' without qualification is never intended to allow any
type of modified-release capsule.

The term 'capsule' with qualification refers to gastro-resistant (such


capsules may sometimes be described as enteric-coated or as delayed-
Capsules (qualified)
release), prolonged-release or another modified-release form.

Preparations that are issued to patient as granules to be swallowed


without further preparation, to be chewed, or to be taken in or with
water or another suitable liquid.
Granules
The term 'granules' without further qualification is never intended to
allow any type of modified-release granules.

Preparations that are issued to patient as powder (usually as single-


Oral powder dose) to be taken in or with water or another suitable liquid.

Liquid preparations intended to be swallowed i.e. oral solutions,


suspensions, emulsions and oral drops, including those constituted from
powders or granules, but not those preparations intended for oromucosal
administration e.g. gargles and mouthwashes.

Oral liquids presented as powders or granules may offer benefits in the


Oral liquid form of better stability and lower transport costs. If more than one type
of oral liquid is available on the same market (e.g. solution, suspension,
granules for reconstitution), they may be interchanged and in such cases
should be bioequivalent. It is preferable that oral liquids do not contain
sugar and that solutions for children do not contain alcohol.

B. Principal dosage forms used in EML – parenteral administration

Term Definition
Injection Refers to solutions, suspensions and emulsions including those
constituted from powders or concentrated solutions.
Injection (qualified) Route of administration is indicated in parentheses where relevant.
Injection (oily) The term `injection’ is qualified by `(oily)’ in relevant entries. Refers
Intravenous infusion to solutions and emulsions including those constituted from
powders or concentrated solutions.

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C. Other dosage forms

Mode of Term to be used


administration
To the eye Eye drops, eye ointments.
Topical For liquids: lotions, paints.
For semi-solids: cream, ointment.
Rectal Suppositories, gel or solution.
Vaginal Pessaries or vaginal tablets.
Inhalation Powder for inhalation, pressurized inhalation, nebulizer.

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Index
abacavir (ABC) 19 carboplatin 27
abacavir + lamivudine 20 cefalexin 10
acetazolamide 45 cefazolin 10
acetic acid 49 cefepime 13
acetylcysteine 4 cefixime 11
acetylsalicylic acid 2, 25, 36, 50 cefotaxime 11
aciclovir 19, 45 ceftaroline 12
albendazole 6 ceftazidime 12
alcohol based hand rub 38 ceftriaxone 11
allopurinol 26, 50 charcoal, activated 4
all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) 26 chlorambucil 27
amidotrizoate 37 chloramphenicol 13
amikacin 13, 17 chlorhexidine 37, 49
amiloride 38 chlorine base compound 38
amiodarone 35 chloroquine 23, 24, 50
amitriptyline 3, 47 chloroxylenol 38
amlodipine 35 chlorpromazine 46
amodiaquine 23 chlorpromazine 46
amoxicillin 9 cholera vaccine 44
amoxicillin + clavulanic acid 9 ciclosporin 26
amphotericin B 18, 22 ciprofloxacin 13, 49
ampicillin 10 cisplatin 27
anti-D immunoglobulin 33 clarithromycin 14
antitetanus immunoglobulin 34 clindamycin 14
antivenom immunoglobulin 42 clofazimine 16, 17
artemether 23 clomifene 42
artemether + lumefantrine 23 clomipramine 47
artesunate 23 clopidogrel 36
artesunate + amodiaquine 23 clotrimazole 18
artesunate + mefloquine 23 cloxacillin 11
artesunate + pyronaridine tetraphosphate 23 clozapine 46
ascorbic acid 48 coagulation factor IX 34
asparaginase 26 coagulation factor VIII 34
atazanavir 20 coal tar 37
atazanavir + ritonavir 20 codeine 2
atracurium 44 colecalciferol 49
atropine 1, 4, 45 colistin 16
azathioprine 26, 50 condoms 41
azithromycin 13, 45 copper-containing device 41
aztreonam 12 cyclizine 3
barium sulfate 37 cyclophosphamide 27
BCG vaccine 43 cycloserine 17
beclometasone 47 cytarabine 27
bedaquiline 17 dacarbazine 27
bendamustine 26 daclatasvir 21
benzathine benzylpenicillin 10 dactinomycin 27
benznidazole 25 dapsone 16
benzoyl peroxide 37 daptomycin 15
benzyl benzoate 37 darunavir 20
benzylpenicillin 10 dasabuvir 22
betamethasone 37 dasatinib 28
bevacizumab 45 daunorubicin 28
bicalutamide 31 deferoxamine 5, 33
biperiden 32 delamanid 17
bisoprolol 34, 35 desmopressin 33
bleomycin 26 dexamethasone 3, 4, 31, 39, 50
budesonide 47, 49 dextran 70 34
budesonide + formoterol 47 diaphragms 41
bupivacaine 1 diazepam 3, 5, 47
caffeine citrate 49 diethylcarbamazine 6
calamine 37 digoxin 34, 35
calcium 48 dihydroartemisinin + piperaquine phosphate 23
calcium folinate 26 diloxanide 22
calcium gluconate 4, 49 dimercaprol 5
capecitabine 26 diphtheria antitoxin 42
capreomycin 17 diphtheria vaccine 43
carbamazepine 5, 47 docetaxel 28
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docusate sodium 3 hydroxocobalamin 32


dolutegravir 20 hydroxycarbamide 29, 33
dopamine 36 hydroxychloroquine 50
doxorubicin 28 hyoscine butylbromide 3
doxycycline 14, 24 hyoscine hydrobromide 3
efavirenz (EFV or EFZ) 19 ibuprofen 2, 25, 49
efavirenz + emtricitabine + tenofovir 20 ifosfamide 29
efavirenz + lamivudine + tenofovir 20 imatinib 29
eflornithine 25 influenza vaccine 44
emtricitabine + tenofovir 20 insulin injection (soluble) 41
enalapril 35 intermediate-acting insulin 41
enoxaparin 32 intraperitoneal dialysis solution (of appropriate composition)
entecavir 21 46 49
ephedrine 1
epinephrine (adrenaline) 4, 34, 45, 47 iohexol 37
ergocalciferol 49 ipratropium bromide 48
ergometrine 45 irinotecan 29
erythromycin 45 isoflurane 1
erythropoiesis-stimulating agents 32 isoniazid 16
estradiol cypionate + medroxyprogesterone acetate 41 isoniazid + pyrazinamide + rifampicin 16
ethambutol 16 isoniazid + pyridoxine + sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim 21
ethambutol + isoniazid 16 isoniazid + rifampicin 17
ethambutol + isoniazid + pyrazinamide + rifampicin 16 isosorbide dinitrate 34
ethambutol + isoniazid + rifampicin 16 itraconazole 18
ethanol 37 ivermectin 6
ethinylestradiol + levonorgestrel 40 Japanese encephalitis vaccine 43
ethinylestradiol + norethisterone 40 kanamycin 17
ethionamide 17 ketamine 1
ethosuximide 6 lactulose 3
etonogestrel-releasing implant 41 lamivudine (3TC) 19
etoposide 28 lamivudine + nevirapine + zidovudine 21
fentanyl 2 lamivudine + zidovudine 21
ferrous salt 32 lamotrigine 5
ferrous salt + folic acid 32 latanoprost) 45
fifth generation cephalosporins 12 ledipasvir + sofosbuvir 22
filgrastim 28 leuprorelin 31
fluconazole 18 levamisole 6
flucytosine 18 levodopa + carbidopa 32
fludarabine 29 levofloxacin 17
fludrocortisone 40 levonorgestrel 40
fluorescein 37 levonorgestrel-releasing implant 41
fluorouracil 29, 37 levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system 41
fluoxetine 3, 47 levothyroxine 42
fluphenazine 46 lidocaine 1, 34
folic acid 32 lidocaine + epinephrine (adrenaline) 1
fomepizole 5 linezolid 16, 17
fosfomycin 15 lithium carbonate 47
fourth generation cephalosporins 13 loperamide 3
fresh frozen plasma 33 lopinavir + ritonavir (LPV/r) 20
furosemide 36, 38 loratadine 4
gemcitabine 29 lorazepam 5
gentamicin 14, 45 losartan 35, 36
gliclazide 41 Lugol's solution 42
glucagon 41 magnesium sulfate 5
glucose 48 mannitol 38
glucose with sodium chloride 48 measles vaccine 43
glutaral 38 mebendazole 6
glyceryl trinitrate 34 medroxyprogesterone acetate 41, 42
griseofulvin 18 mefloquine 24
Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine 43 meglumine iotroxate 37
haloperidol 3, 46, 47 melarsoprol 25
halothane 1 meningococcal meningitis vaccine 44
heparin sodium 33 mercaptopurine 29
hepatitis A vaccine 44 meropenem 12
hepatitis B vaccine 43 mesna 29
HPV vaccine 43 metformin 42
hydralazine 35 methadone 3, 47
hydrochlorothiazide 35, 36, 38 methotrexate 30, 50
hydrocortisone 4, 31, 37, 39, 40 methyldopa 35

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methylprednisolone 31 procaine benzylpenicillin 12


methylthioninium chloride (methylene blue) 4 procarbazine 30
metoclopramide 3, 39 progesterone vaginal ring 41
metronidazole 14, 22 proguanil 24
miconazole 36 propofol 1
midazolam 1, 3, 5 propranolol 25
mifepristone 46 propylthiouracil 42
miltefosine 22 prostaglandin E 50
misoprostol 46 protamine sulfate 33
morphine 1, 2 pyrantel 6
moxifloxacin 17 pyrazinamide 17
mumps vaccine 44 pyridostigmine 44
mupirocin 36 pyridoxine 49
naloxone 4 pyrimethamine 24
natamycin 45 quinine 24
neostigmine 44 rabies immunoglobulin 33
nevirapine (NVP) 19 rabies vaccine 44
niclosamide 6 raltegravir 20
nicotinamide 49 ranitidine 38
nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) 47 retinol 49
nifedipine 46 ribavirin 21, 22
nifurtimox 25 riboflavin 49
nilotinib 30 rifabutin 17
nitrofurantoin 15 rifampicin 16, 17
nitrous oxide 1 rifapentine 17
norethisterone enantate 41 risperidone 46
normal immunoglobulin 34 ritonavir 20
nystatin 18 rituximab 30
ofloxacin 45 rotavirus vaccine 43
ombitasvir + paritaprevir + ritonavir 22 rubella vaccine 43
omeprazole 38 salbutamol 48
ondansetron 4, 39 salicylic acid 37
oral rehydration salts 40, 48 selenium sulfide 36
oseltamivir 21 senna 4, 39
oxaliplatin 30 silver sulfadiazine 36
oxamniquine 7 simeprevir 21
oxazolindinones 16 simvastatin 36
oxygen 1, 2 sodium calcium edetate 5
oxytocin 46 sodium chloride 48
packed red blood cells 33 sodium fluoride 49
paclitaxel 30 sodium hydrogen carbonate 48
p-aminosalicylic acid 18 sodium lactate 48
pancreatic enzymes 38 sodium nitrite 4
paracetamol 2, 25 sodium nitroprusside 35
paromomycin 22 sodium stibogluconate or meglumine antimoniate 22
pegylated interferon alfa 2a 22 sodium thiosulfate 5, 36
penicillamine 4, 50 sofosbovir + velpatasvir 22
pentamidine 24, 25 sofosbuvir 21
permethrin 37 spectinomycin 15
pertussis vaccine 43 spironolactone 36, 38
phenobarbital 5 streptokinase 36
phenoxymethylpenicillin 12 streptomycin 18
phenytoin 6 succimer 5
phytomenadione 33 sulfadiazine 24
pilocarpine 45 sulfadoxine + pyrimethamine 24
piperacillin + tazobactam 12 sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim 15, 24
platelet concentrates 33 sulfasalazine 39, 50
pneumococcal vaccine 43 suramin sodium 25
podophyllum resin 37 surfactant 50
poliomyelitis vaccine 43 suxamethonium 44
polymyxins 16 tamoxifen 32
potassium chloride 48 tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 19, 21
potassium ferric hexacyano-ferrate(II) -2H 0 (Prussian blue)4 terbinafine 36
2
potassium iodide 18, 42 testosterone 40
potassium permanganate 36 tetanus vaccine 43
povidone iodine 38 tetracaine 45
praziquantel 6 tetracycline 45
prednisolone 4, 32, 45 thiamine 49
primaquine 24 thioguanine 30

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tick-borne encephalitis vaccine 44 vecuronium 44


tigecycline 16 verapamil 34, 35
timolol 45 vinblastine 30
tranexamic acid 33 vincristine 31
trastuzumab 30 vinorelbine 31
triclabendazole 6 voriconazole 18
tropicamide 37 warfarin 33
tuberculin, purified protein derivative (PPD) 42 water for injection 48
typhoid vaccine 44 whole blood 33
ulipristal 40 xylometazoline 49
urea 37 yellow fever vaccine 43
valganciclovir 21 zidovudine (ZDV or AZT) 19
valproic acid (sodium valproate) 6, 47 zinc sulfate 40
vancomycin 15 zoledronic acid 31
varicella vaccine 44

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