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5/13/2013

Power Electronics for Renewable and


Alternative Energy Systems

Presented by : Marcelo G. Simões

Outline of Presentation

Microgrids
Control of Microgrids
Power Electronics Challenges for Microgrids
Fundamental Power Electronic Circuits for
Renewable Energy
What is a Smart-Grid ?
Smart-Grid Initiative
Enabling Technologies
Path Forward

MICROGRIDS

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Concept of a Microgrid

A microgrid is a local electrical network that:


1. comprises power generation units, power consumption
units, and a means of delivering power to the consumption
units
2. may be connected to a larger utility power system
3. operates to balance the power supply and demand within
the microgrid

DC Microgrid

DC Microgrid – Cont.

A DC microgrid decouples frequency, voltage, and phase


of the various AC generation and consumption elements
in the microgrid by the use of suitable power converters.

The interface between each energy source and the DC


bus has a power electronic converter (a DC/DC converter,
or an AC/DC converter). Each of the converters may be
centrally dispatched in order to regulate the energy flow
in or out of the DC bus, or they may be droop-controlled
in order to share power in a distributed manner.

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AC Microgrid

AC Microgrid – Cont.
An AC microgrid uses alternating current in delivering
power from the generation units to the consumption units.
It includes transformers and power converters to interface
sources and loads, protection elements.

Types include single-phase, three-phase, and multi-phase


with different grounding options.

The operation of an AC microgrid is analogous to that of a


large scale utility system; it is relatively easy to achieve
power flow control, and one can use conventional protection
elements.

Hybrid DC/AC Microgrid

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Nested Microgrids
In certain cases, a sub-network may need to be operated at a
different voltage, at a different frequency, or at a greater degree
of reliability than the rest of the microgrid. Therefore, it is
possible to nest microgrids.

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CONTROL OF MICROGRIDS

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Control Methodology
Each source must have an equitable role in determining the
operation of the microgrid, typically consisting of this
hierarchy:

– an inner controller that regulates terminal quantities like voltage and


frequency, or current for grid-connected mode

– an outer controller that provides the references to the inner controller,


it could be a feedforward calculation of active and reactive power, or a
voltage that must be stabilized in the dc-link

– the microgrid may have a supervisory controller that updates set points
for the individual local controllers, depending on the state of the overall
microgrid.

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Control Methodology – Cont.


A source with a grid-
grid-forming control structure,
structure is a source
that actively regulates the voltage and frequency of the grid.
In grid-independent mode, there must be at least one source
with grid-forming control in the microgrid.

A source with a grid-


grid-following control structure,
structure is a source
that injects power into the microgrid at a voltage and
frequency that are regulated by other sources. Most
renewable power sources do not regulate their output
voltage and frequency, because they are energy-constrained.
A photovoltaic panel connected to a microgrid through a
power converter is an example of a grid-following source.

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Control structure: grid-forming AC source

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Control structure: grid-following AC source

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Supervisory Microgrid Control


The goal of the supervisory controller is to optimize the system
level operation rather than the instantaneous operation <
typically in the order of minutes based on:
– average voltages, average powers, available generation capacities,
operational statuses → determine set points (P* and Q*) to individual units.

Example, the supervisory controller may determine the optimal


use storage resources to ensure economic dispatch of the
various units in the microgrid
– When there is greater demand from the load relative to the supply, the cost
of generation is high; and when there is lower demand, the cost is low.

The supervisory controller can then command the energy


storage resources to charge when the cost is low and discharge
when the cost is high.

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Supervisory Microgrid Control – Cont.


As another example, the supervisory controller may observe that
there is not enough generation capacity available to support the
total load.

It can then command certain switches in the microgrid to open in


order to effect load shedding.

Supervisory microgrid coordination can manage contingency


events and ensure the highest reliability possible in the overall
system.

A microgrid supplying services to the distribution company, or


improving power quality indices, or communicating with local
dynamic generation (uch as hybrid electric vehicles), or
interacting with users, it is called a smart-
smart-grid.

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POWER ELECTRONICS
CHALLENGES FOR
MICROGRIDS

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Technology Challenges for Power


Electronics for Renewable Energy
Lack of standardization and interoperability among power
electronics components and systems. This increases the cost
of manufacturability and reduces volume and reliability.

Power electronics devices must be modular and scalable.


This will simplify applications and designs, leading to
increased use; higher production volumes will lower costs
and improve performance.

Current research focuses on power electronics subsystems


and component rather than the distributed energy system
package. Improvements in the system package are urgently
needed for distributed energy.

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Power Electronics Building Block


PEBB encompasses a broad domain, including functional building
blocks for both the power electronics and controller for high
power applications.
Standard functional blocks with standardized control and
communication interfaces, power electronics converters can be
developed for multiple applications with reduction of the cost.

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Integrated Power Electronics Module (IPEM)

• IPEM approach enables


dramatic improvement in
performance, reliability
and cost-effectiveness of
power electronic systems

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FUNDAMENTAL POWER
ELECTRONICS CIRCUITS
FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY

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Review : Power Electronics Topologies for


Renewable and Distributed Energy
3-Phase Inverter

3 Phase
Transformer Utility

PV or
Fuel Cell

Single stage PV/fuel cell power converters

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Power Electronics Topologies for Renewable and


Distributed Energy – Cont.

DC - DC Converter 3 - Phase Inverter

HF

Trans -

former Utility

PV or

Fuel Cell

Dual stage PV/fuel cell power converters

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Power Electronics Topologies for Renewable and


Distributed Energy – Cont.

Double PWM DC Link Converter

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Power Electronics Topologies for Renewable and


Distributed Energy – Cont.

Doubly Fed Induction Generator – High Power Electronics Applications

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Power Electronics Topologies for Renewable and


Distributed Energy – Cont.

Single stage battery energy storage power converters

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Power Electronics Topologies for Renewable and


Distributed Energy – Cont.

Dual stage battery energy storage power converters

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Power Electronics Topologies for Renewable and


Distributed Energy – Cont.

HF
Transformer

Battery DC
Bus

Isolated bidirectional converter with battery storage

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Generalized IPEM-based Power Electronics


Systems

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Typical Control Functions For Distributed Energy

Energy Systems Control Functions


Source Converter (IPEM 1) Grid Converter (IPEM 2) Concerns
PV MPPT Power flow to grid Temperature
Wind Generator speed, current, flux Power flow to grid High wind and
gusts
Microturbines dc bus voltage Power flow to grid Governor response
Fuel Cell dc bus voltage Power flow to grid Fuel flow
IC Engine dc bus voltage Power flow to grid Fuel Usage
BESS-Charge Charging current dc bus voltage Operational mode
BESS-Discharge dc bus voltage Power flow to grid Operational mode
Flywheel Generator flux, dc bus voltage Power flow to grid Safety

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Hierarchical Division of Control Functionalities

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IPEM-based Power Electronics and Control of a


PV System

iu vu

θ
I pv V pv

id iq vd vq

D DC D a ,b , c
Pout θ
I MPP id*
Pref Dd
iq*
Qref
Dq

Qout

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WHAT IS A SMART-GRID ?

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Historical Perspectives of the Electric Grid

Current electric grid : built about a century ago,


and has been growing in size and capacity
Transmission lines connect power sources to the
grid
– technologically updated with automation and human
monitoring over the last few decades.

Distribution lines, no significant changes


– They have been mostly taken as user end-points of
service

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Historical Perspectives of the


Electric Grid - Cont.

The last few years -> steady growth of distributed


generation
Higher penetration of renewable energy sources
Policies on electricity distribution have been
supporting needs for a “smart grid.”
Centralized power plants have enormous
economic constraints, and utilities have been
trying to use their assets more efficiently

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State of electricity infrastructure in US


Trend in electricity generation
– 19% projected increase from 2007 – 2030 in electricity
generation from coal fired plants
N From 2012 Billion kWh to 2594 Billion kWh in 2030 (in high growth scenario)

Electricity generation by fuel High growth of electricity


(2007) Coal generation by fuel (2030)
Coal
8%
Petroleum
19% 15% Petroleum
Natural Gas
49%
18% 47%
Nuclear Power Natural Gas
22%
2%
Renewable 19% 1%
Nuclear Power
Sources

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State of electricity infrastructure in US –


Cont.
Nature of crisis in transmission system

critical congestion area


where near term action is
essential
congestion area of concern
where additional analysis
and information is
required
conditional congestion
areas where additional
generation will introduce
major problems

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SMART-GRID INITIATIVE

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The Smart Grid Initiative


Title XIII of Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007

US policy for modernization of T&D infrastructure by:


N Increased digital information and controls
N Dynamic optimization of grid operations, including cyber security
N Deployment of distributed resources including renewables
N Incorporation of demand side resources, demand response, etc.
N Deployment of ‘smart’ technologies
N Integration of ‘smart’ appliances and consumer devices
N Deployment of storage and peak-shaving tech including PHEV
N Provision of timely info and control options to consumers
N Standards for communication and interoperability of equipment
N Identification and lower unreasonable barriers to adoption of smart grid
tech, practices, and services

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Cyber-Enabled Energy Management


Systems

• Achieve maximum energy


efficiency by a whole-building
perspective with inputs of electrical
and thermal consumptions, pricing
and weather data w/t compromising
consumers’ comfort.
• Coordinate the generation,
dispatch and storage of the electric
energy within the building and
enable integration with the electric
grid through a smart interface.

An Example of Residential Building Energy Management Systems

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Conceptual Model of Smart Grids

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Energy in U.S. Buildings


114+ million households and 4.7 million commercial
buildings

Consume 39 percent of total U.S. energy


– 68% total electricity, 36% total natural gas

GHG Emissions
– 38% of CO2, 49% of SO2, 25% of NOX

Low efficient space heating and cooling use 40⁺% energy

Fuel price keep increasing

Energy Efficient Buildings!

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Building Energy System—“A natural


expression of a cyber-physical system”

Overlapping and interacting


networks

Building users participation


Weather and pricing info

“A building energy system


presents a tight integration
of sensing, computation,
and actuation within
multiple physical domains.”

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Evolution of the Smart-Grid in US and EU

The US grid is composed of ~15,000 generators,


in about ~10,000 plants
– 3.95 million MWh (as of 2009), with approximately
160,000 miles of high voltage transmission lines

Unification of European grid achieved in parallel


with the economical unification of European
countries.
– European Network of Transmission System Operators for
Electricity (ENTSO-E), coordinates 41 Transmission System
Operators (TSOs) from 34 countries

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Evolution of the Smart-Grid in US and EU –


Cont.

Evolution of the smart-grid in US : innovations in


the transmission grid, such as installation of
power system stabilizers, phase shifting
transformers, flexible AC transmission system
devices (FACTS), and phasor measurement units
(PMUs).
– Advent of fast controls and advanced control room
visualization
– Public awareness and push for more renewable energy
sources in the grid

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Evolution of the Smart-Grid in US and EU –


Cont.

The figure provides a


timeline of some
events related to the
electricity grid with
several legislative
mandates which
provided various
opportunities for the
modernization of the
electric grid in US

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Evolution of the Smart-Grid in US and EU –


Some recent EU initiatives

Smart grid policies in Europe are relatively new,


at the same time the European grid is becoming
more interconnected.
The sense of ownership and contribution of each
individual country to the whole grid is different
from how the USA directs initiatives through its
DOE (Department of Energy).

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Evolution of the Smart-Grid in US and EU –


Some recent EU initiatives - Cont.
– European energy program for recovery (2009), has some
similarities to the US Stimulus fund
– An overall energy efficiency action plan (2007-2012)
establishes a firm objective of 20% improvement.
– European energy infrastructure package identifies smart
grids as the key infrastructure for energy modernization in
Europe.
– A Competitiveness and Innovation Framework (CIP) Program
(CIP) proposes an Intelligent Energy for Europe program
– European Energy Research Alliance (ERRA), accelerates
development of new energy technologies by maximizing
funding sources and facilities among participating countries.

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NIST Conceptual Model


: bulk generation, transmission, distribution, customers, service
provider, operations and markets

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Enabling Technologies

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Enabling Technologies: Distributed


Generation (DG)
DG or Distributed Energy Resources (DER) refers to small rating
electricity sources typically decentralized and located close to
end-user locations on the distribution side of the electric grid.
– Conventional as well as renewable energy sources
– Interconnection of DG/DER to the grid provides a variety of
advantages including on-demand power quality of supply, enhanced
reliability, deferrals in transmission investment, and avenues for
meeting renewable mandates in the face of growing disinvestments
in transmission assets
Above features cater to the smart grid philosophy. However, the
interconnection of DG/DER resources is a challenge due to the
safety, control, and protection issues associated with bi-
directional flows of electricity.
– In the US, Energy Policy Act of 2005, enacted by 109th Congress
recognized the IEEE 1547 Standard as the national technical standard
for interconnection of DG/DER to the electric grid.

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Enabling Technologies: Energy Storage

Electricity cannot be easily stored, especially in high


quantities
– must be converted into other forms such as mechanical or
electrochemical energy.
– Storage technologies are at the core of smart grids.
Storage, can be distributed in the grid:
– (i) makes the grid smarter and more efficient,
– (ii) enables load leveling and peak shaving, replaces spinning
reserve,
– (iii) improves grid reliability and power quality,
– (iv) produces ancillary services, supplying reactive power for
voltage regulation, and
– (v) supports T&D investment deferring.

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Enabling Technologies: Energy Storage


– Cont.
Comparison of discharge duration versus rated
power for some grid energy storage technologies

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Enabling Technologies : Power Electronics


Power electronics is fundamental in the development of smart
grids because a deeper penetration of renewable and alternative
energy sources requires sophisticated power converter systems.

Typically, a power converter is an interface between the smart


grid and local power sources

Sources such as solar (PV) and wind play a significant role as the
main sources for smart grids and are increasingly being
installed in residential and commercial locations (typically with a
power range of a few kW). The intermittent nature of these
sources affects the output characteristics of generator and
converter sets.

A power electronics converter is always needed to allow energy


storage during surplus of input power and compensation in
case of lack of input power.

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Enabling Technologies : Power Electronics -


Cont.
The following characteristics are important in power electronics
systems for smart grids:

– High efficiency: only negligible losses for conversion


– Optimal energy transfer: All renewable energy sources are energy
constrained. Thus, algorithms to achieve the maximum power point
must be considered
– Bidirectional power flow, to supply the local load and/or the grid.
– High reliability, i.e. continuity of service
– Synchronization capabilities: sources connected to the grid have to
be fully synchronized, thus ensuring high efficiency and eliminating
failures (standards such as IEEE 1547 must be incorporated to power
electronics interfaces)
– Low EMI, quality of the energy must respect electromagnetic
compatibility (EMC) standards

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Enabling Technologies : Power Electronics -


Cont.
Smart-metering: capable of tracking the energy consumed by the
load or injected into the grid.

Real-time information must be passed to an automatic billing


system capable of taking into account parameters such as
bought/sold energy in real-time, informing end-users of all
required pricing parameters

Communication: The intelligent functioning of the smart grid


depends on their capability to support communications at the
same time that power flows in the systems

Fault tolerance: A key issue is a built-in ability to avoid the


propagation of failures among the nodes and to recover from
local failures. This capability should be incorporated with
monitoring, communication and reconfiguration features of
power

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Enabling Technologies : Control,


Automation and Monitoring
Self-healing, self-organizing, and self-configuring capabilities.

Need of advanced sophisticated control, sensing, and


computer-oriented monitoring

Modern control techniques, for example agent-oriented


programming, artificial intelligence into distributed systems

Two-way communication ability of smart meters, allows the


transmission of delivered and generated energy data along with
actionable commands to customers.

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Enabling Technologies : Control,


Automation and Monitoring - Cont.

This figure illustrates different power electronics layers integrating


a cluster of producers and consumers into the public grid
Local protective functions
Smart metering

Interconnection

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Enabling Technologies : Control,


Automation and Monitoring - Cont.

Technologies such as WIFI, ZigBee, and HAN communication


systems,
– smart meters can now act as interfaces for energy management
entities, customers, and utilities

Smart meters improve the ability to identify voltage


deficiencies, harmonic distortion, and on-set equipment failure.

Daily energy usage and generation profiles are recorded for


system forecasting

Improvement for utilities to locate source of system distortions.


– Several utilities in the US and Europe have already seen improved
power quality because of the installation of smart meters.

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Enabling Technologies : Control,


Automation and Monitoring - Cont.
Sensors located throughout the distribution system
to identify and correct load and phase imbalance

Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) contributes


to all characteristics of the smart grid, such as
enabling active participation by consumers,
accommodating all generation and storage options

Data monitored through transmission lines, reactive


elements and loads, circuit breakers, switches, fuses
and transformers, and recently aggregated to PHEV.

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Enabling Technologies : Control,


Automation and Monitoring - Cont.
Vast raw data will have to be processed, aggregated, validated,
and transmitted for further processing and analysis.

Time-of-use (TOU) electricity rates promotie customer


participation in demand management .
– TOU rates use pre-determined time intervals during where electricity
use is recorded. Each time interval has a fixed price that is
proportional to the electricity availability during that same time
interval.

Real-time pricing informs the customer a time period ahead of


the electricity price so as to make rational decisions regarding
the consumption of electric energy.

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Enabling Technologies : Distribution


Automation and Protection

Smart grid technology requires protection and


automation of the distribution system and security.

Protection deals with the detection and clearance of


abnormal system conditions such as faults and
overloads.

Standard IEC 61850 (Communication Networks and


Systems in Substations) provides authoritative
information relevant to the design of substation
automation

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Enabling Technologies : Distribution


Automation and Protection - Cont.

Self-healing systems have been sought to be


incorporated into power systems, especially as the
complexity and interactions of several market players
significantly increases the risk for large scale failures.

Smart self-healing system should be based on a wide


area monitoring network that incorporates a wide
variety of sensors.

PMUs obtaining phasor measurements by


synchronizing with each other through the global
positioning service (GPS).

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Enabling Technologies : Communication

Signals may be submitted for processing

IEEE Standard 1451.4 requires analog sensors to have a


Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS) to provide calibration
information to the data acquisition system

Ranges of operation and bandwidth of these technologies vary a


lot, while others may be used for longer distances as from
houses to concentrators or between substations.

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Enabling Technologies : Communication -


Cont.
Communication technologies applied according to their characteristics;
ranges of operation and bandwidth of these technologies vary if for
longer distances as from houses to concentrators or between substations

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Enabling Technologies : Communication -


Cont.
Two-way communication enabled smart-appliances,
Smart meters for control of sources, loads and storage must be
implemented where both digital information and electric energy
flow through a two-way smart infrastructure

Communication protocols and media are under current R&D for


implementing in smart grids:
– BPL and PLC, which use existing power lines to transmit information;
– Ethernet, DSL and optic fiber, already in use for the Internet;
– ZigBee and WIFI, already used for home area network (HAN)
applications;
– WiMaX, a “super-WIFI”, with a much higher range;
– 3G, LTE/4G and other mobile telephone communication protocols

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Questions ?

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