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The Encyclopedia of
Drugs and Alcohol

The Encyclopedia of
Drugs and Alcohol

Written by Greg Roza

New York

p. [1. Copyright © 2001 by Rosen Book Works First Edition All rights reserved. Drugs—Encyclopedias. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Roza. Drugs—Encyclopedias—Juvenile literature. 2. except by a reviewer. cm.R698 2001 615'. RM301. Includes bibliographical references and index. Drug abuse—Encyclopedias.] I. Greg. Title.17 .1'03—dc21 00-045913 Manufactured in the United States of America . Inc. The encyclopedia of drugs and alcohol/Greg Roza. ISBN 0-531-11899-1 1. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without permission in writing from the publisher. 2.Published in 2001 by The Rosen Publishing Group. Drugs of abuse—Encyclopedias— Juvenile literature.

Table of Contents Introduction vi Entries 1 Where to Go for Help 183 Bibliography 186 Index 187 Photo Credits 203 Acknowledgments 203 v .

illegal as well as legal. Vol XII.” Psychiatric Times. in general.1 percent of twelfth graders smoke cigarettes daily. while the use of many illicit drugs appears to be on the decline. While simply knowing more about the dangers of drugs and the drugs themselves won’t make you impervious to substance abuse. it is obvious that other drugs—particularly alcohol. This is great news. Furthermore. but 1999 statistics report that 15. Some studies report that over half of drug-related emergency room cases are caused by prescription drug use and overdose (“Prescription Drug Use and Abuse. illicit drug use among high school students over the previous three years remained stable or declined (National Institute on Drug Abuse study. or increasing. and recreational—the extremely dangerous and the seemingly harmless. Education about the risks of drug use is the first step in reducing these statistics to a more acceptable percentage: zero.1. Again one must ask this question: Are these findings truly a reason to celebrate the effects of the “war on drugs”? Should we be content simply because statistics show that the monthly use of inhalants among twelfth graders is down to 5.3 percent? And isn’t 5. remaining stable. Drug use will remain a major problem until youthful Americans are helped to fully under- stand the dangers associated with drugs. anabolic steroids. when monthly inhalant use for eighth graders is at 10. The point is this: Statistics may claim that drug use is declining. Introduction Statistics for 1999 show that. Surface statistics can be misleading. vi . educated decisions about drug use. drug abuse is not only a problem with illicit drugs. it will help you to make informed. life-threatening chemicals still a reason for con- cern? Furthermore. The book you hold in your hands is a guide to common drugs: prescription. and MDMA (ecstasy)—are steadily becoming more and more popular with teens.6 percent. right? A reason to celebrate? Not so fast.6 percent of America’s twelfth graders inhaling dangerous. while statistics show that monthly marijuana use among twelfth graders has remained stable since 1997 at about 23 percent.9 percent of tenth graders and 23. Monitoring the Future). but the bottom line is that substance abuse and teen drug use are still problems in the United States. Teen use of cigarettes has been declining since 1996. marijuana use among tenth graders is slightly higher. For instance. No. January 1995). over-the-counter.

when used in a manner not recommended by a doctor––or when dosage instructions are ignored. Don’t allow a lack of knowledge to turn you into just another sta- tistic. Use this book to arm yourself with the knowledge to use the drugs you need correctly and to wisely avoid the drugs that can only hurt you. vii . Not all drugs are harmful to you. In fact. can become dangerous when abused—that is. All drugs. however. some drugs—like antibiotics and analgesics—are beneficial to many people on a daily basis.

Abstinence is at the center of twelve-step programs. People who become addicted to a substance have a compulsion to use it regardless of the con- sequences. especially for people who drink alcohol regularly. Although it is not known how acetaminophen works. Temperance Abstinence is also a key term in drug rehabilitation. In many cases. Abstinence is more than simply avoiding an excess of an activity. pain relievers) to avoid acetaminophen poisoning. A Abstinence Complete avoidance of an activity. which can lead to death. Acid See LSD. acetaminophen has little or no adverse effect on the stomach. In 1920. allergy remedies. abstinence is the only way to achieve a completely healthy system after having used drugs for an extended period of time. This amendment was so widely ignored that it was repealed thir- See also: teen years later in the Twenty-first Amendment to the Constitution. which help people to help themselves in reaching sobriety. A dose as large as fifteen grams or more can produce irre- versible liver damage. 2 . Unlike aspirin and ibuprofen. it is the absence of the activity altogether. Taking large doses of acetaminophen over long periods of time can lead to kidney disease. which prohibited the sale of alcohol. Abstinence Abstinence is a crucial part of many drug recovery programs. Acetaminophen An over-the-counter drug used for relieving pain and lowering fever. New research shows it to be beneficial in blocking the pain associ- ated with arthritis (inflammation of a joint) and osteoarthritis (degenera- tion of joint cartilage). and physical injuries. Abstinence from alcohol was the goal of the prohibition movement in the United States. such as Alcoholics Anonymous. This drug is comparable to. People should be careful not to use too many products containing aceta- minophen at one time (cold medicines. it is used successfully for relieving some symptoms of colds. the movement achieved the ratification of the Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution. When in recovery. allergies. but lacks the anti-inflammatory ability of. abstinence allows the user to rid his or her system of the drug and to fight the compulsion to use other drugs instead. aspirin and ibuprofen.

Also. Negative health effects can include heart disease. Detrimental factors that go hand-in-hand with an addictive personality include depression. low self-esteem. impulsive actions. can cause one’s physical well-being to deteriorate over a period of time. and/or alcohol can grams. psychological counseling. liver and kidney disease. including social pressure. An addiction is caused A by repeated participation in an activity until it becomes a harmful fixation Addictive in one’s daily life. especially in the case of drug and alcohol abuse. When associated with substance abuse.Addiction An unhealthy obsession with a certain activity or substance. Addiction. and carry out everyday activities. An addictive person often has more than one addiction (cross-drug addiction). Some researchers believe addictions may be hereditary. and other areas of everyday life. are different in people with addictions. It is not exactly clear how addictions develop. and even death. works to hide these addictions from others. They spend excessive time and money using the drugs 3 . drug rehabilitation pro. addictive personalities exhibit common characteristics. work. and availability of the substance or activity. nervous disorders. interact with family and friends. nervousness. or by using a particular substance so often that it Personality becomes difficult to live without that substance’s effect. Addictive Personality The compulsion to behave in a way that is harmful to one’s well-being. People addicted to drugs and/or alcohol develop a tolerance for the substance and experience withdrawal symptoms when they try to quit using it. such as norepinephrine. Addiction can also affect one’s ability to work. lung disease. it is believed that chemicals in the brain. school. go to school. per- sonality. lead to physical and psychological deterioration. and allows the addictions to affect relationships with family and friends. Drug abuse and alcoholism are common forms of addiction. but they can be initiated by a number of factors. and medical attention. Addiction to drugs and alcohol manifests in two ways: psychological dependence and physical dependence. Addictions manifest in a wide variety of people from all walks of life. Addiction to drugs Treatment for addictions include family intervention. and difficulty in coping with everyday life.

which are located above the kidneys. and heroin—are almost always mixed with other substances. a twelve-step program. to restore the heartbeat of patients suffering cardiac arrest. to prevent bleeding. Adrenaline The first step in coping with an addictive personality is ending the habitual presence of the object or event. Adrenaline increases heart and breathing rates. This reaction is often referred to as “fight or flight” because it prepares the body for immediate action. Drug users usu- ally cannot tell the difference. Adrenaline A hormone secreted by the adrenal glands. This is pri- marily done by dealers who want to increase their drug supply and thus their profits. caffeine and ephedrine are often added to certain amphetamines because they have similar effects on the body. They continue to use the drug despite knowing that it is harmful and despite repeated warnings from people close to them. When a person becomes frightened. as well as inability to sleep and decreased appetite. injured. Adrenaline is another name for the hormone epinephrine. which in turn release adrenaline into the sys- tem. It is used to treat shock. raises blood pressure. Adrenaline allows the body to respond to sudden stress. the brain sends a sig- nal to the adrenal glands. and slows the process of digestion to allow more blood to go to the muscles. These goals can be attained with the aid of alcohol and drug rehabilitation. For example. Adrenaline is made synthetically for medical purposes. such as amphetamines. What follow are ineffectual efforts to quit using. increase the amount of adrenaline that the adrenal glands release into the body. or angry. and mental activity. cocaine. It is equally important to become familiar with one’s addictive tendencies and to rid oneself of addictive behaviors. This can result in heightened alertness. Certain drugs. and a reduced partici- pation in society.These impurities make such drugs even more dangerous because one never knows exactly what one is taking. physical performance. Adulterant A psychoactive drug added to another drug to mimic its effects. threatened. and (in the form of mist inhalers) to treat respiratory problems such as asthma and croup. and the help of friends and family.A to which they are addicted and often begin using other drugs. extreme usage. creates extra glucose (a type of sugar made by the body for energy). 4 . Researchers have discovered that many ille- gal drugs—particularly amphetamines.

or pro- gressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (a viral infection of the brain). cytomegalovirus retinitis (an eye infection that can lead to blindness). diarrhea. Certain prescribed drugs can help prevent infections—particularly sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim (Bactrim)—but none is 100 percent effective. Some aerosols also contain butane (cigarette lighter fluid) and propane. AIDS patients can also develop HIV one or more of the following: Kaposi’s sarcoma (skin disease). The typi- cal symptoms of AIDS include swollen lymph nodes. an infection of the lungs. tuberculosis. Once HIV develops into AIDS. which act to propel Volatile Solvent the product from its container. Aerosol products such tions that would not normally be life-threatening. A person can be diagnosed HIV-positive and not develop AIDS for two to fifteen years. and thrush (infection of the mouth). The aerosol is then deeply inhaled. AIDS Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. appear with increasing regularity. or human immunodeficiency virus. anemia.Aerosol A mixture of tiny particles and gas dispensed from a pressurized container. HIV is commonly transmitted through unprotected sexual activity or when drug users share needles used to inject drugs into the body. weight loss. These infections are as spray paint are called opportunistic because they prey on weakened immune systems and sometimes inhaled for arise from organisms that normally live on the body. Products like deodorant and hair spray are sometimes sold in aerosol form. The effects of inhaling these chemicals are usually short-lived but can sometimes last up to an hour. or longer. As these infections a short-term high. the person is said to have AIDS. As the effects of HIV worsen. A Aerosol sprays—most notably spray paint and air fresheners—are AIDS abused as inhalants to achieve a high. Aerosol products contain fluorocar- See also: bons (also found in refrigerators and air conditioners). fever. fatigue. the breakdown of the human body’s immune system because of HIV. As yet. however. The leading cause of death among AIDS patients is Pneumocystis See also: carinii pneumonia. People who inhale aerosols often spray them into a paper bag or into a cloth to concentrate the substance. the person becomes unable to fight off infec. there is no cure for AIDS. 5 . the per- son can quickly contract any number of opportunistic infections.

are patterned after twelve-step programs. Amyl nitrite and butyl Akyl Nitrite nitrite are two types of akyl nitrite. Other effects may include a flushed sensation. and they are often combined with amphetamines and ecstasy to increase their effects. and a similar group called Alateen. but they can cause psychological dependence. which alcoholics themselves follow. teaches people how to deal with alcoholic relatives. speeding up the heart rate. Use of them often builds a tolerance to their ability to dilate the blood vessels. There is no evidence that akyl nitrites cause physical dependence. Founded in the 1930s. Unlike most inhalants—which act as depressants—akyl nitrites act as stimulants. and blackout. flammable liquid misused as an inhalant. allowing more blood to reach the heart. Many of the people who attend Al-Anon meetings exhibit the symptoms of a codependent personality. Some consider akyl nitrites club drugs. They dilate the blood vessels. dizziness.A Akyl Nitrite A yellow. Akyl nitrites have a sweet odor and are commonly found in liquid air fresheners. headache. coughing. and builds feelings of self-worth. Al-Anon A voluntary self-help group for the relatives of alcoholics. increased sensory awareness. Al-Anon is now a worldwide organization. New research has shown that akyl nitrites may be linked with immune system deficiencies. Akyl nitrites are also used as sexual stimulants because they enhance pleasure by affecting the amount of oxygen that reaches the brain. People attend Al-Anon meetings to discuss the difficulties and dangers of living with an alcoholic. deaths due to ingestion have been documented. Sharing problems helps to build an understanding of alcoholism as a disease. 6 . which usually lasts no longer than two minutes. Al-Anon. but there is no evidence to sup- port the idea of tolerance to the stimulative effects. nausea. or high. Inhaling akyl nitrites produces a lightheaded feeling. Although inhaling akyl nitrites has not been proven to cause sudden sniffing death.

cardiac arrhythmia. DWI (driving while intoxicated) is a particularly destructive problem in Alcohol abuse is the cause of many modern society. mood swings. particularly the brain. resulting in talkativeness. and heart. It numbs the nervous system. ulcers. liver. clubs). excessive alcohol consumption can lead to alcoholism as well as other severe ill- nesses. and some people find themselves drinking many times throughout the day. celebrations. including cancer and cirrhosis of the liver. and esophagus. nerve damage. loss of inhibitions. producing a relax- ing effect in the user. Prolonged. and impaired balance.Alcohol An intoxicating beverage that contains ethanol (ethyl alcohol). hepatitis. even when they are at work or school and while they are alone. 7 . There are two types of A alcohol: fermented alcohol and distilled alcohol. Alcohol can become highly addic- tive. blackout. heart failure. cirrhosis of the liver. Brain function is depressed as alcohol reaches the brain through the bloodstream. Physical effects include slurred speech. Large amounts of alcohol can cause memory loss. and cancers of the liver. The level of impairment depends on how much See also: Alcohol Poisoning alcohol is in the blood. stroke. As a legal drug. Alcoholic beverages are made primarily from grains and fruits. Alcohol Alcohol enters the blood through the small intestines and is metabo- lized by the liver. and in sites especially established for its consumption (bars. Blood Alcohol Level Alcohol is a depressant. illnesses. pancreas. depression. Small amounts may act as a stimulant. Alcohol is used in many situations by many different types of people. such as anemia. and emotional outbursts. hypertension. alcohol is widely accepted in social settings and is consumed at public and private events. brain damage. loss of coordination. coma. and death. Long-term use of alcohol can permanently dam- age organs of the body. however.

and. Certain drugs may be used to help alcoholics remain sober. sometimes. but it can happen at lower or higher levels depending on the 8 . Alcoholics develop a tolerance for alcohol. which range in severity from tremors and nausea to seizures and hallucinations. purple. cardiac arrhythmia. low blood pressure. it can deteriorate into a condition known as delirium tremens. they often experience withdrawal symptoms. counseling. Delirium tremens requires close medical supervision and is usually treated with sedatives and acetaminophen. including Antabuse and naltrexone. ben- zodiazepines. inability to See also: stand. A Alcoholics Anonymous See Twelve-Step Program. Alcohol poi- Alcoholism soning can result in unconsciousness and coma. Detoxification can include large doses of vitamins B and C. and family therapy sessions. family background. Alcohol poisoning can occur when the blood alcohol level is around . antipsychotic drugs to reduce hallucinations. slow or abnormal breathing. rehabilitation may include psychological testing. Alcoholics Anonymous Alcoholism A disease distinguished by the inability to stop drinking alcohol. Alcoholism is one of the most common forms of addiction. researchers believe many factors are involved. Many alcoholics have ben- efited from attending Alcoholics Anonymous meetings. approximately 8 percent of adults in the United States have alcohol problems. alcohol takes over the alcoholic’s life.30 percent. and professional or educational careers. Alcohol produces both psychological and physical dependence in long- term users. If alcohol withdrawal is untreated. clammy Alcohol skin. and heart failure. Normally enjoyed socially. even when alone. including personality. at all times of the day.When they stop drink- ing. It is marked by a lack of response to physical stimuli. After the withdrawal symptoms are relieved. and he or she drinks several times a day. family and social relationships. People with alcohol poi- Twelve-Step Program soning sometimes choke on their own vomit. Alcohol rehabilitation begins with medical attention for the withdrawal symptoms. and even genetics. walk. Alcohol Poisoning A condition that develops from drinking a large amount of alcohol in a short time. and talk clearly. Alcoholism affects every area of a person’s life: physical and mental health. Although the cause of alcoholism is unclear.

whereas others take them to stay awake. loss of coordina- tion. heighten See also: mental activity. anxiety. Some people take amphetamines to excel in athletics. Amphetamines can be taken orally. amphetamines have an opposite effect on children with hyperkinesis than they do on others. Long-term effects include paranoid schizophrenia. and for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Other short-term Club Drug effects include talkativeness.Treatment usually includes emptying the contents of the stomach to avoid further alcohol digestion. blurred vision. mood swings. long periods of sleep. Persons addicted to amphetamines may experi- ence both psychological and physical dependence. and users frequently build a tolerance for them. stroke. malnutrition. For reasons unknown to scientists. People who inject amphetamines also risk contracting HIV from infected needles. Withdrawal symptoms include severe exhaustion. People who use amphetamines experience extreme depression when the high wears off (known as a crash). extreme hunger. a brain disorder marked by constant activity and lack of concentration. aggressiveness. counseling.person. and decrease appetite. for patients with narcolepsy (sudden daytime sleep). hinder sleep. Drug rehabilitation includes detoxifi- cation. injected. and blocked blood vessels. Amphetamines are synthetic drugs that speed up the body for four to six hours by increasing the amount of adrenaline in the body. hallucinations. and twelve-step programs. and unconsciousness. Addiction to amphetamines can happen quickly. A Many of these cases result in death. or snorted. Amphetamine Amphetamine A type of stimulant that affects the central nervous system. depres- sion. or very high fever. 9 . Amphetamine abuse can also cause death from burst blood vessels in the brain. increased susceptibility to illness. Alcohol poisoning requires immediate medical attention. This type of drug is often taken illegally for a number of reasons. Amphetamines like methamphetamine and MDMA are taken strictly for their euphoric effects. heart failure. Amphetamines increase alertness and physical performance. Alcohol poisoning most often happens to people who are binge drinkers. euphoria. and psychotic reactions. increased breathing and heart rate. Amphetamines are commonly prescribed for three reasons: as an appetite suppressant.

Withdrawal symptoms can include restlessness. Other effects may include a flushed sensa- See also: tion. Overdose can result in unconsciousness. and death. Like all barbiturates. It is sometimes used as an anesthetic. Hypnotic-Sedative Amyl nitrite is sometimes prescribed for persons with coronary artery disease (obstruction of blood flow due to fatty deposits in the coronary artery) and angina pectoris (lack of oxygen to the heart due to constricted blood vessels) because it increases heart rate and lowers blood pressure. slurred speech. In addition to physical dependence. anxiety. Accidental overdose can occur when people who have developed a tolerance take large doses in attempts to attain the results they once achieved with regular doses. and convulsions. insom- nia. nausea. impaired perception. It dilates the blood vessels. Long-term effects of pro- longed use can include anemia. 10 . convulsions. Small doses can relieve tension. Amytal A barbiturate. and depression. Amyl nitrite can be found in a number of liquid air fresheners and is prescribed for var- Amyl Nitrite ious circulatory diseases. allowing more blood to reach the heart. tension. and reduced sensitivity to pain. staggering. increased sensory awareness. or ecstasy. People who take Amytal regularly can develop a tolerance for the drug. hypertension. coma. Unlike most inhalants—which act as depressants—amyl nitrite acts as a stimulant. impaired thinking. and even death. A Amyl Nitrite A yellow. It is used as an aphro- disiac (sexual stimulant) and is often sold illegally in sex shops. Persons addicted to Amytal are advised not to quit cold turkey because of the severity of the withdrawal symptoms. a prescription drug used primarily to treat sleeplessness. headache. flammable liquid commonly misused as an inhalant. coughing. Akyl Nitrite and blackout. Amytal abuse can result in psychological dependence. Amytal slows the central nervous system. it is known as a “popper” because it was once manufactured in glass vials that were broken (or popped) open and then inhaled. slowed reflexes and breathing. amyl nitrite should be avoided by people who have ane- mia or hypertension and by women who are pregnant. but also anxiety. but large doses can cause blurred vision. This drug can be taken orally in pill form or injected. As an inhalant. speeding up the heart rate. liver damage. Amyl nitrite is also considered a club drug and is often used to heighten the effects of amphetamines and MDMA. For the same reasons. dizziness.

Antidepressants are sometimes used to treat depression.Anabolic Steroid A type of steroid that mimics the male sex hormone testosterone. times used illegally by competitive bodybuilders. some types of breast cancer. Although research is still limited. Anabolic steroids help build muscle and tendon strength. When quitting. insomnia. sterility. permanently stunted growth in adolescents. Since these drugs stimulate the growth of muscles. They are some- rise among adolescents. Drug treatment for anabolic steroid addiction relies primarily on counseling. injuries to tendons and muscles. hypertension. since many become suicidal as the withdrawal symptoms set in. restlessness. Medical uses include treat- A ment of certain kinds of anemia. loss of appetite. and reduced sex drive. Anabolic steroids can be taken orally or by injection. users may experience withdrawal symptoms such as mood swings. severe burns. and analgesics are recommended for headaches and muscle pains. high cholesterol. aggressive behavior. mood swings. they are used illegally by athletes and bodybuilders to gain an Anabolic steroids edge on the competition. 11 . depression. and increased sexual impulses. Among the most common and problematic are jaundice from liver damage. increased facial hair and decreased breast size in women. the problem still lingers and is on the growth. Steroid Anabolic steroids have more than seventy psychological and physical side effects. People who inject anabolic steroids also risk contracting HIV from shared infected needles. Despite a ban on anabolic steroids by sports stimulate muscle organizations throughout the world. acne. reduction of the size of the testes and breast enlargement in men. anabolic steroids are believed to cause both physical and psychological dependence. Anabolic and AIDS. fatigue.

Anemia A condition marked by a decrease in the number of red blood cells or a depletion of hemoglobin. When anemia is allowed to worsen. Most analgesics can be taken safely for seven to ten days to treat pain caused by sickness and injury. the symptoms can become dangerous. Symptoms of anemia include fatigue. 12 . Opioid Analgesic naproxen). which means that it helps to reduce swelling. toxins. and drugs prevent the body from producing a sufficient quantity lead to severe fatigue of healthy red blood cells. found in common pain relievers and cold medicines. among other benefits. but it can also be caused by decreased red blood cell production and increased red blood cell destruc- Anemia. Doctors recommend these relatively safe over-the-counter drugs for short periods of time. Viruses. dizziness. potentially resulting in stroke or heart attack. Hemoglobin is the substance that carries oxygen from the lungs through the bloodstream to all parts of the body. The oldest and least expensive is aspirin. shortness of breath. yellow eyes and skin. and confusion. The second See also: type of analgesic includes ibuprofen and other similar drugs (ketoprofen. lightheadedness. A Analgesic A type of over-the-counter pain reliever. Acetaminophen is not an NSAID and lacks the anti-inflammatory abilities of the other two anal- gesics. Each of them can have negative effects on the body if taken in large doses or for an extended time. In anemia. of red blood cells. The most common cause of anemia is excessive bleeding. or a low level tion. Ibuprofen is also an NSAID but is thought to be gentler on the stomach than aspirin. which is found in red blood cells. can chemicals. but it is much easier on the stomach. Aspirin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). the blood cannot carry enough oxygen to enable the organs to function properly. Analgesic There are three main types of analgesic. bleeding gums. and even stroke. nausea. loss of appetite. weakness. The third type of analgesic is acetaminophen. It can result from the abuse of a large number of drugs.

hyperventila- tion. blurred vision. Anesthetics are usually used during surgery and other medical procedures. weakness. Some topical anesthetics are used to relieve the pain associated with arthritic conditions. local. Some surgeons still use it because it also tightens small arteries. throbbing neck. Antabuse The brand name of the drug disulfiram. Local anesthetics deaden sensation in particular areas of the body by interfering with pain signals sent by nerves to the brain. thirst. General anesthetics eliminate sensation throughout the body and are accompanied by unconsciousness. Perhaps the most notorious is cocaine. confusion. sweating. and topical. Local anesthetics can be injected into a specific area of the body or applied as a lotion as in the case of benzocaine.Anesthetic A drug that eliminates sensation in the body. headache. Worse reactions may include heart attack. nausea. Novocaine is a local anesthetic commonly used in dentistry. which once was popular as a local anesthetic but is rarely used today. Even small amounts of these two substances can cause flushing. When a person taking Antabuse ingests alcohol (including small quantities found in cough remedies). resulting in a buildup of a toxin called acetaldehyde in the bloodstream. profuse vomiting. until the medical world recognized how addictive these drugs can be. Some anesthetics are associated with a history of substance abuse. Topical anesthetics are lotions or ointments applied to an area to reduce or eliminate pain. acetaldehyde levels in the blood become five to ten See also: times higher than normal. Much like cocaine. the severity of which depends upon the amounts of Antabuse and alcohol involved. and cardiac arrhythmia. Nitrous oxide (“laughing gas”) is another anesthetic that has historically been mis- used. Others are mixed with mouthwash to deaden the pain of sore throats and mouths. Delirium Tremens This development results in what is known as the disulfiram-alcohol reaction. This type is most frequently used during major surgical operations. Antabuse hinders the metabolism of alco- hol. which is prescribed in pill form for alcoholics trying to quit drinking. although it is still customarily used as a dental anesthetic. reducing blood flow during surgery. There are three main Antabuse types of anesthetic: general. but they can also be used to A treat pain caused by certain illnesses and injuries. opium-based drugs were once commonly used as anesthetics. respiratory 13 .

Antacid The severity of these effects is designed to keep the alcoholic from drinking. Four main active ingre- dients are found in different types of antacid. Sodium bicarbonate (the active ingredient in baking soda) is effective and quick. This type should be avoided by people who have hypertension. Like calcium. and coma. These effects begin approximately fifteen minutes after consuming alcohol and last from half an hour to three hours. Calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate are also effective and fast- acting but can cause constipation. and death. Extended use of Antabuse does not cause tolerance. however. regardless of withdrawal symptoms. is often mixed with one of the other three. the more sensitive he or she will become to alcohol. Prolonged use of calcium antacids can cause kidney problems. magnesium can cause kidney stones. Symptoms include drowsiness. Magnesium is a mild laxative and is therefore often combined with alu- minum. The longer the patient takes Antabuse. Antacids come in pill. People who experience indigestion and heartburn (pain caused by the rising of stomach acid into the esophagus) also commonly take antacids. Aluminum salt. The stomach produces hydrochloric acid to digest food. aggressive behavior. heart failure. Extended use of aluminum antacids can lead to osteo- porosis (weak and brittle bones). Patients must be advised of the effects of mixing alcohol and Antabuse and should never be forced to take this drug. Antabuse should not be con- sidered a cure for alcoholism by itself. and liquid form. caplet. which counteracts the laxative effect. Antacids can relieve this pain by neutralizing the acid. This acid can cause discomfort and pain for people who have peptic ulcers (open sores in the lining of the stomach).A depression. Alcoholics should wait a week after their last drink before taking Antabuse to avoid the effects described. 14 . which can cause constipation. nausea. particularly kidney stones. Too much magnesium can cause a dangerous drop in blood pressure and respiratory function. Antacid A type of over-the-counter drug taken to neutralize acid in the digestive sys- tem. however. vomiting. it is most beneficial when combined with counseling and other rehabilitation methods. convulsions. because of the high salt content. paralysis. It is possible to overdose on Antabuse.

loss of concentration. Negative effects include slurred speech. Although antacids are not addictive. and even death. Barbiturates. have a high potential for abuse and are more likely than benzodiazepines to result in death in case of overdose. Although antianxiety drugs aid deep sleep. and tranquilizers. Antianxiety drugs help relieve stress by relaxing muscles. Older people who take these drugs may experience dementia. and severe mood swings. An overdose can lead to unconsciousness and death. 15 . Digestive problems that last longer than two A weeks are most likely a sign of a greater problem. Withdrawal symptoms resemble those of alcoholism and can include nervousness. Conversely. Before these drugs were commonly prescribed. Some antacids contain the chemical simethicone. Antianxiety drugs can cause both physical and psychological dependence after as little as two weeks. poor motor skills. confusion. barbiturates were used to treat anxiety disorders. Drug treatment for antianxiety addiction requires close medical attention. Benzodiazepine with- drawal is usually not as severe as barbiturate withdrawal. they should not be used for extended periods of time. which safely breaks up gas bubbles in the digestive system. dehydration. Typical antianxiety drugs include benzodiazepines. which can cause frequent waking and disruption of healthy sleep. Disruption of dreaming can cause one to feel sleepy and irritable the next day. reducing tension. the sleep during which dreaming takes place. sleeplessness. Delirium Tremens hypnotic-sedatives. memory loss. they also obstruct REM (rapid eye movement) sleep. people who quit using antianxiety drugs may experience more REM sleep than normal. such as panic See also: disorder and phobias. but symptoms may be experienced for up to a month. seizures. confusion. and consultation with a Antianxiety Drug doctor is recommended. depression. slowed breathing. as well as broken bones from accidents because of the inability to walk without help. Most people who become addicted to antianxi- ety drugs began taking them for medical purposes. and relieving insomnia. however. Antianxiety Drug A type of prescription drug used to treat anxiety disorders.

A Antibiotic
A type of drug used to fight bacterial infections. Antibiotics are of two main
types: bactericidal antibiotics, which kill bacteria, and bacteriostatic anti-
Antibiotic biotics, which prevent bacteria from multiplying.
Antibiotics are often given by injection to control the
infection and then continued orally. Treatment must
continue for several days after the infection is gone to
avoid a relapse. Antibiotics are sometimes taken as
a preventive course of action, as when someone
is exposed to meningitis (a bacterial disease
that affects the brain and spinal cord).
Many kinds of antibiotic are used for
bacterial infections all over the body. Some are
used to treat a wide variety of infections;
others are used for specific infections such as
tuberculosis. Antibiotics can have an abundance of
side effects, including diarrhea, nausea, vomiting,
sensitivity to sunlight, headache, rash, fever, and chills.
Antibiotics (pictured in More serious but rarer symptoms include hepatitis, a decrease
microscopic detail in white blood cell count, and damage to the eye, the ear, the kidney, the
above) kill bacterial brain, and the nerves. Allergic reactions to antibiotics, as with penicillin, are
infection, but overuse common, but sometimes the benefit outweighs the negative effects.
may lessen or even
eliminate their Because of the overuse of antibiotics in modern times, some forms of
effectiveness. bacteria have developed that resist antibiotics. Although new and more
powerful antibiotics are being developed, eventually bacteria will become
resistant to them, too.

A prescription drug designed to treat a variety of mental illnesses, particularly
depression, anxiety disorders, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (a condi-
tion in which one is burdened by unwanted thoughts or the compulsion to
See also: repeat certain activities because of an irrational fear). Antidepressants have
Ritalin recently been used for other illnesses, such as bulimia, cocaine cravings,
chronic pain, headache, and sleep disorders.
Antidepressants are believed to act by regulating the amount of neuro-
transmitters (chemical messengers) in the brain. After several weeks of tak-
ing an antidepressant, receptors in the brain work more efficiently because of
the modified presence of neurotransmitters.


Although the medical community has recently developed newer
versions of this type of drug, there are three main types of antidepressant:
tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and monoamine
oxidase inhibitors.
Sometimes drugs known as psychostimulants are used as antidepres- Antifungal
sants. Unlike the other antidepressants, these drugs take only about a day
to become effective and therefore have a high potential for abuse.
Except for a few extreme cases, tolerance and addiction to antidepres-
sants are rare. Most problems occur when a person fails to take a large
enough dose or abruptly stops using these prescribed drugs. At this point,
withdrawal symptoms may occur: nausea, vomiting, cramps, diarrhea, chills,
insomnia, and anxiety. These symptoms may last from three to five days. It
is also possible, however, to overdose on antidepressants.

A substance that defends the body from poisons. Antidotes act in one of
three ways: (1) they may chemically attack the poison, making it harmless;
(2) their action in the body may be the direct opposite of the action of the
poison, counteracting its effects; (3) they may prevent body cells from react-
ing to the effects of the poison.
Most antidotes are effective against only one type of poison and could
worsen the effects of other poisons.
An example of an antidote is the drug naloxone, which counteracts the
effects of morphine and heroin in cases of overdose. Another antidote is
antivenin, which is injected in cases of poisonous snakebite.

Antifungal Drug
A drug used to fight fungal infections on the skin or inside the openings of
the body.These drugs may be applied to the skin as a cream or lotion, taken
orally, or injected.
Fungal infections are caused by fungi spores that float in the air almost
everywhere in the world.These spores land on the skin or are inhaled. Most
fungal infections are relatively harmless, but some can cause severe infec-
tions, sometimes even in the lungs or liver.
Since fungal infections can go unnoticed for months or years, they can
be particularly difficult to treat. Antifungal drugs are also somewhat inef-
fectual and can take a long time to rid the body of infection. Often the drug
must be taken for weeks before progress is noticed, and even then the treat-
ment must be repeated.


A Antifungal drugs have an abundance of side effects, including rash,
chills, headache, fever, vomiting, lowering of potassium in the blood, and
blockage of testosterone production. Long-term effects may include kidney,
liver, and bone marrow damage.
Antihistamine People with impaired immune systems, such as those who have AIDS,
are more likely to contract fungal infections. The infection sometimes
moves through the body to the bones, kidneys, and central nervous system.
Thrush (infection of the mouth) is a particularly common fungal infection
in people who have impaired immune systems.

A type of drug found in over-the-counter and prescription
medications used to combat allergy symptoms,
including irritated eyes, runny nose, sneezing,
and hives. Antihistamines are found in allergy medica-
tions, but also in cold formulas, sleep aids, and motion
sickness drugs.
Histamine is a chemical the body releases when
it comes in contact with an allergen (something to
which the body is allergic), such as dust or pollen, an
insect bite, or a bee sting. Histamine receptors are
triggered by the allergen, and histamine is
released into the bloodstream. Histamine in turn
causes an allergic reaction. Dangerous reactions
may include low blood pressure, breathing
difficulty, and swelling in the throat that
can restrict breathing. Antihistamines block
histamine receptors, thus negating the effects
of allergens in the body.
Antihistamines have several other
effects on the body. They dry up the respiratory system, including runny
Antihistamines are noses, which is why they are commonly found in cold medicines. This can
helpful in treating
respiratory inflamma- be helpful to a cough caused by an allergy, but harmful in the case of a
tions caused by colds cough caused by a cold or viral infection, since antihistamines dry up
and allergies. respiratory fluids and make them harder to cough up.


These can be obtained only with a doctor’s prescription Antipsychotic because in rare cases they have been known to cause cardiac arrhythmia. especially for people operating motor vehicles or other heavy machinery. decreased white blood cells. Antipsychotic drugs are not a cure for mental illness. sleepiness. More serious side effects include seizures. These drugs are usually taken orally or injected. causing sleepiness in most people. sexual dys- function. difficulty in urinating. confusion. respiratory difficulty. antipsychotic drugs are divided into two categories: typical and atypical. but they are not believed to cause chemical dependence. including mania and manic-depressive disorder. Antihistamines also affect the central nervous system. and blurred vision. characterized by very high fever and muscle stiffness. Antipsychotic drugs are often successful in treating mental illnesses for an extended period of time. but especially schizophrenia. suppression of bone marrow growth. lightheaded- ness. dry mouth. constipation. coma. In rare cases. seizures. they merely relieve the symptoms. such as amphetamines. It is possible to develop a tolerance to antipsychotic drugs. which is why they are often found in sleep aids. drowsiness. These drugs can be used to treat dementia (decrease of mental ability and memory) in older people. blackout. difficulty in urinating. Typical antipsychotics are traditional drugs such as Thorazine. An overdose of this type of drug may result in confusion. blurred vision. 19 . facial tics. delirium. weight gain. people develop a potentially fatal condition called neuroleptic malignant syndrome. and death. Antipsychotic Drug A tranquilizer prescribed to treat mental disorders. but they may also have negative side effects: dry mouth. low blood pressure. which are not used as often as they once were. Most anti- psychotic drugs act by blocking the receptors of dopamine and other neuro- transmitters (chemical messengers) in the central nervous system. however. Drug Other side effects of antihistamines may include confusion. antipsychotics have been used to treat the effects of cer- tain drugs that affect the nervous system. rash. This can be dangerous. New antihistamines have been developed that do not A cause sleepiness. vomiting. Currently. nausea. muscle stiffness. In addition. and death. Atypical antipsychotics are newer versions such as Clozapine. cardiac arrhythmia. and depression.

taken orally. Antiviral drugs are used to fight many types of viral infections. upset stomach. Aspirin is often recommended for children and adults suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (extreme inflammation of the joints). pain and swelling. slurred speech. 20 . includ- ing anxiousness. nausea. can cause digestive problems. Aspirin should be avoided by people who have asthma. including heartburn. diar- rhea. like all NSAIDs. is an over-the-counter drug used to treat pain. Aspirin Aspirin. and ulcers. as it can intensify the symptoms. it is not recommended for people with hypertension or bleeding dis- orders. A Antiviral Drug A type of drug used to fight viral infections. viruses quickly build up a resistance to antiviral drugs. and bone mar- row and liver damage. and STDs. broken bones. and tremors. Since it thins the blood. vomiting. respiratory infections. or acetylsalicylic acid. Aspirin. Antiviral drugs disrupt infec- tions by hindering the processes that a virus goes through to reproduce Antiviral Drug within the body. Taken in very large doses for extended periods of time. increased temperature. particularly herpes (a term covering a variety of infections that result in painful blisters and open sores) and HIV. chicken pox. In AZT addition. headache. includ- ing influenza. aspirin is often administered to people suffering heart attack and coronary artery disease (obstructed blood flow in the arteries because of fatty deposits). and sometimes convulsions. life- threatening disease known as Reye’s syndrome (inflammation of the brain and rapid accumulation of fat in the liver). nerve damage. See also: Antiviral drugs are usually more toxic to human cells than antibiotics. These drugs may be applied to the skin as a cream or lotion. Since aspirin prevents normal blood clotting. A number of short-term side effects are related to antiviral drugs. hair loss. aspirin can cause temporary hearing loss and stomach irritation. This type of analgesic is also known as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) because it blocks the inflammation that naturally accompanies burns. sprains. kidney damage and kidney stones. Long-term effects may include seizures. or injected. which can result in nausea. People who take frequent doses over a short period of time run the risk of aspirin poisoning. anemia. and muscle strains. Children and teenagers who have influenza or chicken pox should not take aspirin because it could lead to a rare.

Recent studies in Asia. including headache. and anemia. nausea. from reproducing. In addition. HIV develops a resistance to AZT. Some people with HIV take AZT in pill form several times a day. considered the most harmful to some individuals. dizziness. A few overdoses have been reported. A AZT helps prevent HIV from reproducing. While not everyone experiences them. In almost every case. bone marrow damage. Researchers have discovered that HIV uses an enzyme called reverse tran- scriptase to reproduce. however. AZT can cause mild to severe side effects. no deaths have been reported. thus delaying the progres. Most of these studies focus on the growing effective drug for treating HIV. and sometimes seizures. AZT sion of the disease and the development of AIDS. Long-term effects may include hypertension. AZT is thought of as the most effective drug treatment for HIV.AZT An antiviral drug commonly prescribed to treat HIV infection. and drugs such as AZT interfere with this process. helps prevent the virus number of birth defects in babies born to women who take AZT. This can happen after only a few days or after years of use. Research shows that pregnant women with HIV who take AZT are one-third less likely to transmit the virus to the unborn child. loss of muscle. have shown the drug to be ineffective and even AZT. some researchers have reported that AZT can be more harmful for children than helpful. Most often. 21 . AZT and other drugs like it are known as reverse transcriptase inhibitors. the effects of AZT overdose are nausea and vomiting. vomiting.

barbiturates affect the central nervous system and depress brain functioning. People addicted Barbiturates are to barbiturates are advised not to quit cold turkey but to decrease the dosage sometimes used as under a doctor’s supervision until the symptoms are manageable.Barbiturate Synthetic depressant often prescribed as an antianxiety drug. although some can be injected into the body. particularly those used as anesthetics. severe paranoia. Barbiturates are prescribed to treat anxiety B Barbiturate disorders. Barbiturates have a high potential for drug abuse. which can result in unconsciousness. and death (approximately one-third of all drug- related deaths involve barbiturate overdoses). Larger doses can produce slurred speech. Users can rapidly build up a tolerance and require larger doses to achieve the high. Small amounts of barbiturates produce a calm- ness and sleepiness. This situation frequently leads to overdoses. The withdrawal symptoms of barbiturate addiction are severe. Most barbiturates come in pill form. and slowness of reflexes. an anesthetic. Similar to alcohol. and epilepsy. coma. and many others take them illegally to escape depression and other anxiety disorders. as bad as or worse than those of heroin addiction. lack of coordination. stag- gering. or just to get high. and help to relax muscles. violent behavior. and/or a hypnotic-sedative. mood swings. Many people become addicted to legally prescribed barbiturates. anesthetics to prepare patients for surgery. Prolonged use of barbiturates can lead to physical and psy- chological dependence. a deadly combination since both depress heart and lung functioning. fatigue. insomnia. and even death. 23 . Withdrawal symptoms can include convulsions. and depression. Another risk associated with barbiturate abuse is mixing them with alcohol. Other short- term effects can include difficulty in breathing. low blood pressure.

ringing in the ears. Like barbiturates. becoming potentially life-threatening. and there is somewhat less risk of death by overdose. Benzodiazepines are considered the safest of the hypnotic- sedatives because they are less disruptive to deep sleep. they should cut back slowly until the symptoms are manageable. 24 . and as a diet aid. Benzocaine led to the development of novocaine in the early 1900s. Other negative side effects can include slurred speech. which had been the anesthetic most doctors chose to use. Benzodiazepines remain in the system longer than other hypnotic-sedatives. These symptoms can cause a blockage of the airways. benzodiazepines are also used to treat epilepsy and as an anes- thetic. it numbs the back of the throat. People addicted to benzodiazepines are not advised to quit cold turkey. Unlike cocaine. and withdrawal symptoms similar to those of alcoholism. Despite their relative safety as depressants. Benzocaine is used to treat insect bites. Negative side effects of this drug may include allergy symptoms. Benzodiazepine Depressant frequently prescribed for insomnia and anxiety disorders. and hemorrhoids. As a result. and relax muscles. and swelling of the mouth and throat. and can be found in certain over-the-counter drugs. This drug is used to treat minor pain and itching. and mood swings. minor wounds. As a cough remedy. benzocaine is only applied to the skin. They depress central nervous system activity and brain functioning. In large doses. sunburn. confusion. Unlike novocaine and other anesthetics. their effects are less euphoric in nature. and even death. and anxiety. coma. benzocaine is not addictive. and death. they are more often prescribed for sleeplessness and anxiety than other depressants. benzodiazepines have a high potential for substance abuse. Rare side effects include drowsiness. and some long-lasting types can be particularly dangerous for older people. tolerance. Long-term use quickly leads to physical and psycho- logical dependence. In small doses. such as rash. benzodiazepines reduce stress. hives. Both of these anesthetics were derived from cocaine. they can result in unconsciousness. Instead. seizures. itching. The drug is usually taken in pill form. depression.B Benzocaine Benzocaine A local anesthetic similar to novocaine. memory loss. since the withdrawal symptoms can lead to extreme paranoia. slowed breathing. never injected. promote sleep. it numbs the taste buds.

Birth defects caused by drug use range from low birth weight to malformations to miscarriage (delivery of fetus before it can live outside the womb). Alcohol Poisoning Date-Rape Drug depression. Most research on binge drinking focuses on college students because it has become so common in that population. sexual assault. and other crime-related activities. youth- related alcohol advertising. Happy hours. Binge drinking often leads to unwanted pregnancies and the trans- mission of STDs when people neglect safe-sex practices. The fetus is highly vulner- able to birth defects when its organs are developing. and a wide variety of health risks. Some binge drinkers have taken five or more drinks in a short period of time on several occasions. vomiting. Binge drinking Alcohol can lead to a multitude of physical. and fraternity/sorority initiations are some of the causes that lead to widespread college binge drinking. keg parties. vandalism. 25 . Drugs taken after this stage may not Fetal Alcohol Syndrome have an obvious effect on the newborn. DWI (driving while intoxicated)-related accidents and deaths. Drinking ten ounces of whiskey in one sitting. absence from school or work. and social problems: Alcoholism poor educational and athletic performance. their effects are heightened and can become even more dangerous. drink specials. but defects may still manifest themselves as the child grows in the form of learning disabilities and emo- tional problems. emotional. When combined with other narcotics. and severe hangover. drinking contests. violence. suicide. Binge drinking often occurs in “party” or social situations when many young people are gathered together and in a festive mood. accidental death. Benzodiazepines are not considered “party” drugs because they lack the euphoric effects of depressants like barbiturates. for example. is more harmful to your body than drinking ten ounces in one week. mental. from seventeen to See also: fifty-seven days after fertilization. Binge drinking is more injurious than drink- ing the same amount spread over several occasions. Birth Defects Unborn children can develop numerous birth defects when the mother uses/abuses drugs and alcohol during pregnancy. injury to self and others. however. B Birth Defects Binge Drinking Consuming multiple alcoholic drinks one after another on at least one occa- sion. Short-term effects of binge drinking include nausea. See also: impaired mental and physical abilities.

anemia. B Blackout Women who smoke cigarettes commonly have babies who have low birth weight and who are smaller than average babies. a blackout is a temporary loss of consciousness caused by lack of oxygen reaching the brain. or fear. or nausea. however. Blackout Also called fainting. Other drugs. people who experience frequent or occasional blackouts should see a doctor. but results are inconclusive. cardiac arrhythmia. 26 . alcohol is considered the most common date-rape drug. Some may need prescribed drugs to raise blood pressure. For this reason. sex hormones. lung diseases. that lead to birth defects. Drinking alcohol during pregnancy is the primary cause of birth defects. weakness. and alcohol. An alcoholic blackout is similar to amnesia. Marijuana is believed by some researchers to lead to birth defects. have been proven to cause birth defects. mother’s drug and straining while trying to urinate or defecate (usually in the elderly). Some drugs (especially those that are inhaled) cause blackouts because they decrease the amount of oxygen the brain receives. Medical authorities recommend that women consult their doctors before taking drugs while pregnant and abstain from any substance that may endanger the life of their unborn child. and a blackouts. anticancer drugs. particularly ephedrine and salt tablets. They can be caused by sudden stress. A developing fetus is highly vulnerable to Low blood pressure and restricted breathing are the essential causes of birth defects. which is different from a regular blackout. particularly cocaine and heroin. stroke. diseases.The person may continue to interact and communicate with others but not remember his or her actions the next day. pain. Excessive alcohol consumption and binge drinking can lead to an alcoholic blackout. and anticonvulsant drugs can also cause them. Some researchers think that even caffeine can cause birth defects. heart causes such defects. Blackouts are usually preceded by dizziness. Others may need more serious attention. exercise. diabetes mellitus. coughing fits. antibiotics. heart failure. Since fainting is sometimes a sign of a more serious problem. stand- alcohol abuse frequently ing up too quickly. It is not only illicit or social drugs. others (particularly depressants) lower blood pressure. injuries.

Blood alcohol level (BAL) is measured in milligrams of alcohol per deciliter of blood. Someone B Breast-Feeding who has a BAL of 0. Law enforcement officials commonly check an individual’s BAL when suspecting DWI. Blood alcohol level can be measured by a Breathalyzer or similar device.05 has 50 milligrams of alcohol per deciliter of blood. See also: Breathalyzer  Bong See Pipe. Breast-Feeding Feeding a baby from a mother’s breast rather than from a bottle. During breast-feeding. As a result. 27 .Blood Alcohol Level A measure of the amount of alcohol in the bloodstream. The following table shows the effects of different BAL percentages on the body. mothers are cautioned against taking unnecessary medications. substances in the mother’s system are passed to the child.

chest pain. Bronchitis can eventually develop into asthma or pneumonia. and BAL is computed from this reaction. cocaine. or respiratory infection. Chemicals within the unit react to alcohol in the breath sample. Acute bronchitis usually lasts for a short time. The device consists of an electronic component and a tube into which the subject blows. and possibly even cardiac arrest. etc. making it easier to cough up. People with chronic bronchitis sometimes develop emphysema. A woman dependent on these drugs can pass the dependence to her child. Chronic bronchitis can result in shortness of breath. lack of appetite. upset stom- ach. and fever.) often display restlessness. but a nursing mother should always check with her physi- cian first. antibiotics 28 . respiratory failure. The main symptoms of bronchitis include a persistent cough that brings up mucus. It is also best to avoid smoking altogether when breast-feeding. Mothers taking drugs while breast-feeding should watch out for negative side effects in the baby. LSD. Bronchitis can be caused by cigarette and marijuana smoking. Breathalyzers and other similar devices have been used since 1962 in law enforcement. This causes abnormal levels of mucus to be produced by the bronchial tubes. Cigarette smoking is the main cause of chronic bronchitis—a case that per- sists for several months and recurs over the span of a few years. Bronchitis may be treated with a number of drugs that expand the bronchial tubes to allow easier breathing and some that loosen mucus buildup. Drinking alcohol while breast-feeding can interfere with a baby’s sleep and can cause lack of nourishment. Women who drink heavily while breast- feeding in the first twelve months of the baby’s life risk causing the child brain damage as well as disrupting their ability to care for the baby.B Breathalyzer It is acceptable to use certain over-the-counter and prescription drugs while breast-feeding. The babies of breast-feeding mothers who use illicit drugs (marijuana. Bronchitis Short-term or long-term inflammation of the mucous linings of the lungs. inhaling harmful fumes and volatile solvents. and poor appetite. Breathalyzer A device used to measure blood alcohol level. drowsiness. who may experience withdrawal symptoms between feedings. especially during DWI traffic stops and arrests. If an infection develops. heroin. including rash. and poor disposition.

and sometimes blackout. it speeds up stimulant. irritability. restlessness. and seizures. stupor.”. speeding up the heart rate. allowing the heart rate and blood more blood to reach the heart and lowering blood pressure. Butyl nitrite can be found in a number of liquid air fresheners. On the street. hallucinations. is considered an aphrodisiac (sexual stimulant). People with a history of seizures should not take this drug. nausea. and in video head cleaner. Bupropion B Butyl Nitrite A prescription drug originally used as an antidepressant (particularly one called Wellbutrin). constipation. Bupropion is taken orally and becomes effective in one to two weeks. butyl nitrite is particularly harmful to people with heart conditions. Acute bronchitis often clears up within a few weeks.can be prescribed. nausea. Chronic bronchitis is a permanent condition. efficiently treating depression. it is often called “Rush” or “Locker Room. Bupropion does not lead to chemical dependence. Butyl Nitrite A yellow. pressure of users. It is currently used more often to help people quit smoking tobacco (particularly in a product called Zyban). sleepiness. Bupropion is a stimulant that changes the levels and effects of certain neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) in the central nervous system. confusion. in rare cases. An overdose of bupropion may cause blurred vision. vomiting. coughing. flammable liquid commonly misused as an inhalant. headache. coma. similar to but less potent than amyl nitrite. dizzi- ness. cardiac arrhythmia. For this reason. bupropion may also cause side effects: dry mouth. Less common side effects include hallucinations. insomnia. heart failure. tremors. an overdose has led to low blood pressure. dizziness. and death. Besides its helpful effects. Other effects may include flushing. and weight loss. It dilates the blood vessels. 29 . It is not known why the drug prevents cravings for nicotine. It is also considered a club drug and is used to heighten the effects of amphetamines and ecstasy. and seizures. Butyl nitrite is a Unlike most inhalants—which act as depressants—butyl nitrite acts as a stimulant. fever. increased sensual awareness. See also: Akyl Nitrite Butyl nitrite. mania. vomiting. nausea. headache. blackout.

It is also used to treat asthma. Caffeine is sometimes prescribed to treat migraine headaches because it constricts the dilated blood vessels that cause migraines. caffeine is considered the most popular drug C Caffeine in the world. resulting in extra energy and alertness. The table on the left illustrates the caffeine content in common beverages and drugs. Caffeine has been found to cause lack of attention and hyperactivity in children. but rather a social drug. sleeplessness. and irritability when they go without caffeine for as little as a few hours. some individ- uals may experience a short-term rise in blood pressure. People may expe- rience withdrawal symptoms including headache.Caffeine A mild stimulant found in more than sixty plants. since it widens con- stricted bronchial tubes. Although there is no evidence that habitual caffeine use leads to cardiovascular diseases. Although caffeine is believed to be relatively safe. Caffeine. it has a number of negative side effects. and headache. anx- iety. Consumption of caffeine can lead to mood swings. An ingredient in a wide variety of products. This effect usually lasts only a few hours and has not been found to be overly dangerous to health. It is sometimes prescribed for certain heart conditions and is found in some over-the-counter analgesics. however. Caffeine speeds up the central nervous system. digestive problems. is rarely considered a medica- tion. restlessness. People who consume coffee every day. 31 . Regular use of caffeine can lead to physical and psychological dependence. and users can develop a tolerance for caffeine. may eventually need to drink more for the caffeine to have the same effect. fatigue. for example.

Nearly one- third of all cancer cases are caused by tobacco products. Malignant cancer can result in death despite medical care. X rays and other radiation. a combination of methods is employed to treat cancer. Cancer cells multiply to form tumors and take over healthy cells around them. Carcinogen Any environmental toxin that causes cancer by changing the genetic material in human cells. viruses. overtaking nearby healthy cells. it can metastasize. esophagus. and most commonly. ultravi- olet radiation from the sun. Environmental toxins that cause cancer are called carcinogens and include X rays. chemicals. and parasites. trachea. treatment for cancer often includes a wide variety of drugs. Cancer is identified by Cannabis Sativa the abnormal growth of cells. pancreas. larynx. or spread Chemotherapy rapidly. Cancer develops for a number of reasons. lungs. tongue. 32 . Smoking is one of the most common—and most avoidable—causes of cancer. viruses. Tobacco can cause cancer of the mouth. Even secondhand smoke can cause cancer. chemicals. and pancreas. bladder. through the body. liver. esophagus. C Cancer Cancer Any of approximately one hundred diseases marked by abnormal cell growth caused by a change in the cells’ genetic material. Carcinogens include ultraviolet radiation from the sun. throat. Excessive alcohol con- sumption can lead to cancer of the mouth. gums. In addition to radiation therapy and sur- gery. and par- asites. Cancerous tumors are classed in two basic types: benign (not dangerous to health) and malignant (dangerous to health because of the potential of See also: spreading). Most often. which multiply See Marijuana. kidney. Once malignant cancer develops. rapidly.

If the heart is not restarted quickly. heart valve defects. hypothermia (body temperature dropping below ninety-five degrees Fahrenheit). Some common carcinogens can be avoided by not C BCardiac smoking. or irregularly. It can also be caused by a malfunctioning thyroid gland. caffeine. The number one cause of cardiac arrhythmia is heart disease. heart attack. Cardiac arrhythmia occurs when something interferes with this elec- trical system. Cardiac arrest often results in death. can be administered to stabilize the heart. abstaining from alcohol. and fatty foods. The two main types of cardiac arrhythmia are tachycardia (faster than normal heartbeat) and bradycardia (slower than normal heartbeat). some synthetic sweeteners. loss of blood. making the heart beat faster. Some common carcinogenic substances include tobacco products (which contain at least forty-three carcinogens). If CPR does not work. electrocution. asbestos. Heartbeat is controlled by a system of nerves in and around the heart. Someone who experiences cardiac arrest loses consciousness and will also stop breathing. 33 . As a result. such as lidocaine. the blood becomes overly acidic. Other drugs. During cardiac arrest. a number of people who have recovered from cardiac arrest die within a year because of permanent damage to the heart and brain. sometimes directly into the heart. and by alcohol. includ- ing coronary heart disease (obstructed blood flow because of fatty deposits in the arteries that supply blood to the heart). stress. Carcinogens are found in many areas of life and in many forms. Cardiac Arrhythmia An abnormal heartbeat caused by a disruption of electrical impulses in the heart. and other drugs. alcohol. slower. eating a high-fiber/low-fat diet. other methods of restarting the heart include defibrillation (applying electric shock to the heart) and an injection of adrenaline. The human heart beats approximately sixty to one hundred times a minute. CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) should be administered immedi- ately to a person suffering from cardiac arrest. and drug overdose. and heart failure. Potential causes include heart attack. brain damage may result from lack of oxygen. however. Cardiac Arrest An abrupt stop in the pumping of the heart. Even when the heartbeat can be restored. and wear- Arrhythmia ing sunscreen when in the sun for extended periods of time. sodium bicarbonate (the chemical in baking soda) is often given intra- venously to balance the acidity.

Sometimes electric shock is administered to halt an abnormal heart rhythm (defibrillation). receives. faintness. The body’s central nervous Researchers believe that all addictive substances affect the way neuro- system. chest pain. and feelings of pleasure and pain. is comprised transmitters work in the CNS. this is usually done in the case of bradycardia. 34 . interprets messages. When this process is triggered in the brain by an external stimulus. For instance. creating a system through which information is passed. Between these cells. emotional responses. dizziness. palpitations (a fluttering or pounding heartbeat). causing the neurons to release higher neurons (illustrated above). breathing difficulty. an individual experiences an emotional response or a physical reaction. Either reaction alters the way the brain sends. Central Nervous System (effects of drugs on) The central nervous system (CNS) is made up of the brain and spinal cord. These “keys” and “locks” form a system that conveys messages throughout the CNS. The CNS controls the amounts of the neurotransmitter. Some drugs can help relieve arrhythmia but are unpredictable. some even cause worse arrhythmia. Neurotransmitters and neurons fit together like keys in locks. The neurotransmitters are “keys” that fit perfectly in specific “locks” on the neuron called receptors. but this method cannot prevent arrhythmia. as in coronary heart disease. C B Central Arrhythmia can result in irregular heartbeat. A pacemaker can be implanted in the body to keep the heartbeat regular. dopamine affects motor functioning. and heart failure. are chemi- cals called neurotransmitters. unconsciousness. Sometimes no treatment is neces- Nervous System sary. and spinal cord. or blocking the neurotransmitter’s effects functions of the brain and altogether. in spaces called synapses. which are released by the neurons. The CNS contains billions of cells called neurons. Cardiac arrhythmia is usually a sign of a worse condition. or CNS. A drug can fool the brain into thinking that of billions of cells called it is actually a neurotransmitter. and treat- ment depends on what that condition is. These chemicals—such as sero- tonin and dopamine—help transmit messages from one nerve cell to the next. Certain types of arrhythmia can be corrected with surgery.

People become dependent on drugs and alcohol for various reasons: to get a high. Chemical dependence can lead to a number of negative side effects. In addition. When cocaine. inability to keep a job. and the person is essentially fooled into altered feelings. poor memory. 35 . depression. Other drug rehabilitation methods include intervention. and death. the cells Dependence of the CNS adapt to the situation and build up a tolerance to the presence of the drug. a sudden absence of the drug leads to withdrawal symptoms.This raises the amount of dopamine in the brain to very high levels. recurring acci- dents. and liver disease—as well as psychological problems such as depression and anx- iety. disappointment. emotional denial when con- fronted. medical care. hep- atitis. and physical and/or psychological treatment may be helpful in kicking the habit. family abandonment. and neglect work and school. They may become so obsessed with the drug of choice (even though they may know its risks) that they will do anything to obtain it. In addition. binge drinking. Chemical dependence may be physical or psychological. heart disease. and blackouts. if the drug is used frequently over time. counseling. People who become dependent on drugs and alcohol gradually withdraw from life the more addicted they become. and twelve-step programs. lung disease. for example. hyperactivity. and anger. manipulate friends and family mem- bers. this is a cocaine high. including lie. Chemical Dependence A condition characterized by an obsession with intoxication by drugs and/or alcohol. reaches the brain. brain damage. Chemical dependence can cause physi- cal problems—for example. overdose. it prevents neurons from removing dopamine from the synapses. Chemical dependency is often a sign of another problem. listlessness. C BChemical Eventually. depression or anxiety. to obtain relief from physical and men- tal pain. Chemical dependence can also lead to such complications as HIV. detoxification. Signs of chemical dependence include mood swings. frequent sickness or claims of sickness. people with a chemical dependency can develop tolerance to the substance and withdrawal symptoms when they try to stop using it. to escape from reality.

to intermittent doses for weeks. Many kids see adults drinking and smoking on televi- sion and in real life and think that they will be adult by doing the same. or years. hair loss. Some think it looks cool or begin doing drugs out of boredom or to satisfy their curiosity. Treatment schedules can also vary. or during surgery. low blood cell count. Chemotherapy is often combined with surgery and radiation treatment.. Research has shown that kids who use cigarettes and alcohol are more likely to use marijuana. skin rash. Other are seeking relief Children may be intro. Unfortunately. Children today are influenced in many ways by drugs. at home. in a doc- tor’s office. loss of appetite. others con- through a friend or tinue to use recreational drugs. radio. kids who use marijuana are more likely to use other addictive drugs. Anticancer drugs act in several ways to change the DNA of cancer- ous cells and prevent them from replicating.g. especially rapidly dividing cells (e. and print advertising presents use of alcohol and cigarettes as ways to fit 36 . and some develop physical and/or psychologi- close relative. deficient immune system. through injection. vomiting. to a single dose. kidney failure.C B Chemotherapy Chemotherapy The treatment of cancers or infections with drugs that have a toxic effect on the source of the sickness. in an outpatient loca- tion. Children and Drugs Children begin using drugs for numerous reasons. from several doses in a day.Television. most of these drugs also affect healthy cells. duced to drug use Although some kids stop using drugs after experimenting. cal dependence. chemother- apy can be conducted at a hospital. and can cause side effects that include nausea. or orally. Depending on the situation. months. and low sperm count. from their troubles or a way to show their independence. not just because of peer pressure. Chemotherapy can be administered by an IV drip. hair).

Chloral hydrate is one of the oldest hypnotic-sedatives. People who take this drug usually fall asleep within an hour. an enjoyable job.into fashionable society. or anesthetics. extreme fatigue. vomiting. insomnia. music lessons. stomach pain. Even caffeine is touted as a hip and trendy drug to consume. Individuals can build a tolerance for it and eventually need to increase the dosage to attain the same results. includ- ing alcoholics. and death. brothers. Chloral hydrate can produce similarly negative effects when taken with other drugs such as tranquilizers. nausea. Drugs have become exceedingly C B Chloral easy for children to obtain. dizziness. seizures. social gatherings. Chloral hydrate can be taken orally or rectally. Chloral Hydrate A hypnotic-sedative primarily prescribed to treat insomnia. It is also used to help patients relax before surgery or as a minor pain reliever following sur- gery. Overdose symptoms include confusion. lightheadedness. and so on. Children often see their parents. family outings. reli- gious functions. Parents should warn their kids about the dangers of drugs at an early age and provide healthy options to fill their time: sports. unconsciousness. chloral hydrate depresses the central nerv- ous system. hallucinations. and other rela- tives using social drugs. It is also important for parents to be vigilant for signs of drug use so they can prevent it from becoming a serious problem. they may experience withdrawal symptoms such as confu- sion. barbiturates. 37 . alcohol. tremors. coma. further perpetuating the cycle of addiction Hydrate found in many families. sisters. and diarrhea. Side effects of chloral hydrate may include rash. vomiting. When they try to stop using chloral hydrate. low body temperature. stomach pain. less common side effects are con- fusion and hallucinations. staggering. Chloral hydrate can lead to physical and psychological dependence. The drug is commonly abused by people who have difficulty in sleeping. slurred speech. nausea. com- munity projects. Like all hypnotic-sedatives. and anxiety or excitement. and other drugs (especially benzodiazepines) are more often used. cardiac arrhyth- mia. nervousness. Kids whose parents have a history of addiction are more likely to develop their own addiction.

C B Cigarette/ Cigarette/Cigar Tobacco wrapped in paper or tobacco leaf for smoking. Cigarettes have had a long history in Cigar the United States. while cigars are primarily smoked without filters. illustrated by the time line below. 38 . Cigarettes commonly have filters through which the smoke passes before it is inhaled. they continue to be the subject of much controversy today.

Clozapine An antipsychotic drug used to treat schizophrenia and other mental illnesses. 39 . but the scar tissue remains. and vomiting blood. difficulty in urinating. Cirrhosis is often painless and difficult to detect in its early stages. increased heart rate. the accumulation of harmful fluids in the abdomen. nightmares. cardiac arrhythmia. low blood pressure. the development of liver scarring usually stops. Liver transplant is pos- sible. muscle and joint pain. fever. Once cirrhosis is diagnosed. respiratory problems. and death. Cirrhosis of the liver is most often the C B Clozapine result of alcoholism. clumsiness.Cirrhosis of the Liver A disease that causes the liver and sometimes the kidneys to harden and become permanently scarred. It is taken orally. low blood pressure. Negative side effects of Clozapine may include dry mouth. and seizures. causing high blood pressure in the vessels of the liver. Cirrhosis prevents the liver from performing vital bodily functions such as producing proteins (which help the body fight infection) and removing harmful substances from the blood. delirium. anxiety. Users can build a tolerance for it. seizures. blackout. blackout. vomiting. chest pain. changes in vision. and death. a decrease in white blood cells. but it can also be caused by the use of certain drugs. The worst cases often result in death. nausea. coma. sweating. People with acute cirrhosis become weak and disoriented. An overdose of Clozapine may result in sleepiness. More serious side effects include extremely high fever. by exposure to certain chemicals. but it is not believed to cause chemical dependence. In many cases. cardiac arrhythmia. The scar tissue it forms restricts blood flow. or by chronic hepatitis. drooling. but the “new” liver can develop cirrhosis if the person does not stop drinking or if the underlying cause of the disease is not addressed. constipation. the earliest sign of liver disease is jaundice. Clozapine adjusts the levels of certain neurotransmitters (chemical messen- gers) in the central nervous system. This drug is usually used after other antipsychotic drugs have failed. sexual dysfunction. A small number of cases of cirrhosis of the liver can be controlled by diet and abstinence from alcohol. drooling. confusion. facial tics. but there is no cure. weight gain. This can result in internal bleeding.

40 . These drugs produce varying effects—ranging from increased heart rate and a boost of physical energy to decreased heart rate and a sensation of detachment from reality— but are grouped together because they are used frequently by club crowds. they are out- lined in the chart below.C B Club Drug Club Drug A type of drug commonly used at dance clubs and raves (all-night dances held in secret locations) for their resulting euphoria. Illicit drugs as well as prescription drugs are abused in clubs.

intestinal damage. users often take more to avoid the depression (called a crash) that com- monly sets in. and seizures.Today it is an ille- gal drug used primarily in a social setting. The initial effects wear off in twenty to forty minutes. Long-term effects include heart attack (often fatal). suicidal tendencies) are treated with antidepressants. addictive stimulant with a long history of abuse. even though use of Cocaine is a highly the drug has been discontinued. causes some people to use it many times a day. fatigue). and vio- lent behavior. Short-term effects include increased heart rate and blood pressure. decreased appetite. resulting in withdrawal symptoms (depression. Cocaine can also cause a “crawl- ing” sensation beneath the skin. even when they are at work or alone. 41 . injected. cocaine generates a sense of profound alertness in its users. C B Cocaine Cocaine A strong stimulant made from the leaves of the South American coca plant. nervousness. Some psychological disorders related to cocaine addic- tion (depression. These symptoms can continue for months. however. sleeplessness. after the high has worn off. Frequent cocaine users develop a tolerance for the drug. Cocaine is highly addictive. Affecting the central nervous system. addiction. accompanied by intense feelings of well-being and power. Cocaine is a powder that is most often snorted but can also be taken orally. All of these drugs can lead to physical and psychological dependence and withdrawal symptoms.Treatment for cocaine addiction includes counseling and psychotherapy in a residential drug-treatment facility or hospital. or freebased. Most can lead to death from overdose or mixing too many together. nerve damage. a sign of nerve damage. Frequent users can develop extreme cases of depression and psychosis. hallucina- tions. Cocaine was long used as a local anesthetic in the United States and was even marketed as a “health drink” by Coca-Cola in 1885.

blurred vision. This condition can be described as a compulsive behavior because the person feels compelled to put the needs of others ahead of his or her own. Codependence is a complicated disorder that may develop from a number of familial and/or social difficulties. codeine eases (moderate) pain and creates a sense of well-being. and seizures. coma. Codeine is derived from opium. A codependent is often obsessed with taking care of another person. mental abuse. Like all opiates. and diarrhea. weakness. long-term use can build tolerance. opiates like morphine act in the same way but are much stronger than codeine. restlessness. seizures. ignoring his or her own physical and emotional needs. vomiting. Codependence A compulsive desire to please others. especially acetaminophen. Less common side effects include hallucinations. which may produce nausea. constipation. C B Codeine Codeine An opioid analgesic that is often prescribed as a painkiller and cough suppressant. and Opiate/Opium vomiting. Codeine can cause the following side effects: sleepiness. 42 . Long-term use of codeine can lead to liver and kidney damage (especially when combined with acetaminophen) and stomach bleeding (especially when combined with aspirin). Codeine is contained in some over-the-counter cold medica- tions and is commonly combined with other drugs. See also: dizziness. aches. The symptoms generally last for two to four days. It is possible to overdose on codeine. but the person may feel generally unwell for a longer time. but it is also synthetically manufactured from a similar drug. but not nearly as severe as. runny nose. It can be taken orally or injected. lethargy. dry mouth. depression. morphine. violence. Although it has the lowest potential of the opiates for psychological and physical dependence. confusion. numbness. Even when a rela- tionship becomes extremely unhealthy—because of drug use. dizziness. and death. catering to. and making excuses for specific individuals with their own problems. those of heroin addiction. they may include muscle cramps. Codeine withdrawal symptoms are similar to. rashes. cardiac arrhythmia. nausea. and so on—the codependent refuses to seek help. thinking he or she is doing what is best for the loved one. which is derived from the poppy plant. Codependents learn to cope with emotional pain and stress by giving in to.

such as breathing. A coma is the result of an injury or disturbance to the area of the brain that controls consciousness. as a result of blood moving to the internal organs and away from the skin. With other drugs. particularly an addiction to drugs or alco- hol. reduced blood flow to the brain. Some patients wake up having lost the ability to communicate but are aware of what is going on around them. stroke. 43 . The term “cold turkey” arose from the condition of the skin of an addict who quits abruptly—cold. In mild forms of coma. This is a recommended method of quitting some drugs. Coma can also be caused by poisonous substances in the body. A person may remain in a coma for days. This disruption can result from a head injury. the individual may even respond to stimulus by mumbling a few words or moving slightly. Others come out of a coma with few or no complications. An enabler allows a friend or family member to continue destructive behavior. A person in a coma may exhibit some signs of life. Coma A state of unconsciousness characterized by lack of responsiveness to bodily needs (such as a full bladder) and external forces (like a pinch or shout from another person). even years. however. since drugs and alcohol are essentially toxins. as with barbiturates. blinking. Cold Turkey Abruptly halting a habitual activity. Drugs and alcohol are often deeply C Coma involved in codependent relationships. A person who continually allows another to avoid responsibility and even helps him or her in indirect ways is called an enabler. and seizure. including those caused by advanced kidney and liver disease and by diabetes. brain death. particularly the inner brain stem. clammy. and yawning. users are not advised to go cold turkey because of the severe withdrawal symptoms that occur. weeks. Drug overdose and exces- sive alcohol consumption can cause coma. and with goosebumps. from stupor to coma. the brain stops functioning altogether. and the patient can be kept alive only by the use of a respirator and drugs. rather than getting the help that is needed. particularly nicotine. In the worst case. A disruption of this area of the brain can cause various levels of confusion and unre- sponsiveness. Some regain consciousness but are mentally and physically impaired. or may never regain consciousness.

tranquilizers. Codeine- based cough suppressants can also cause dizzi- ness. Sometimes expectorants and suppressants are found in the same med- icine. work to control the coughing reflex. the user may still feel the need for it in order to function. especially alcohol. Cough Remedy Over-the-counter drug. constipation. Cough remedies that contain codeine are sometimes used as a Cough remedies are substitute by heroin addicts because codeine has similar effects if enough is typically expectorants. nausea. codeine is potentially addictive. Expectorants cause the lungs to produce a watery secretion. often in liquid or syrup form. both of which can cause drowsi- ness. which nervous system depressants. ingested.” meaning that more phlegm is brought up out of the lungs with each cough. Behavior Drug and alcohol abuse can also be the focus of compulsive behavior. despite the nega- tive consequences. mixed with other drugs. which may seem pointless since the suppressant cancels the ability of the expectorant to clear the lungs of fluid. 44 . used to treat coughs caused by colds. A narcotic. Suppressants help to stop dry coughs by affecting the part of the brain that controls the coughing reflex. Suppressants may contain either antihista- mines or codeine. Codependents are said to exhibit compulsive behavior by remaining devoted to people who are harmful to them. Both antihistamines and codeine can have negative effects when which facilitate coughing. and light- headedness. C Compulsive Compulsive Behavior Any action or process an individual feels compelled to continue regardless of circumstances. It is best to use an expectorant for chest congestion and a suppressant for a dry cough. Although the drug may not be physically addictive. making the cough more “productive. vomiting. People who become psychologically dependent on a drug feel an overpower- ing desire to continue using it. and other central or suppressants. There are two main types of cough remedies. and a cough remedy containing it should not be used for an extended period of time.

Crack is C “Crack Baby” made by mixing cocaine and sodium bicarbonate (the active ingredient in baking soda) with water and then boiling the mixture until a white paste is left. Acting as a stimulant on the central nervous system. 45 . this can lead to financial ruin. leading quickly to addiction. The effects of crack are essentially the same as cocaine. At $5 to $20 a rock. smok- ing as much as fifty rocks. neglected to take into consideration that most tested mothers had abused a variety of drugs—not just crack or cocaine—and had contracted STDs before or during pregnancy. Some users smoke crack nonstop for several days. Some researchers have estimated that nearly 160. Users try desperately to avoid the crash by using more of the drug. crack creates extreme euphoria that is highly addictive. They also tend to be more tense than healthy babies. in addition to physical and psychological dependence. fatigue. It was originally thought that babies born addicted to crack frequently had heart and lung defects and a variety of mental problems. and may develop learning disabilities. in fact. crack is much easier for young people to find and purchase. depression. however. The research.” which are placed in a pipe and smoked. however. lethargy. Other researchers contend that there is no direct link between cocaine and crack use and birth defects. and social consequences. users experience a crash—profound anxiety. Crack is more dangerous than cocaine for a number of reasons. law- breaking. health risks.Crack Crack was invented by dealers as a safer form of freebase cocaine—one that is less flammable than those mixed with ether and volatile solvents. it is believed to be the most addic- tive drug on earth. “Crack Baby” A term coined in the 1980s to describe an infant born to a mother who smoked crack cocaine during pregnancy. are more intense. and paranoia. are weaker. It should be mentioned. and extreme excitability to certain stimuli such as loud sounds and sudden movements. and do not last nearly as long (fifteen minutes). Cheaper than cocaine. except they begin sooner (eight to ten seconds).000 babies are born addicted to crack in the United States every year. New studies show that babies born to mothers who used cocaine and crack during pregnancy twitch and tremble and are less content than other newborns. “Crack babies” are said to display states of agitation. This paste is dried and broken into “rocks. When a crack high wears off.

from depression and anger. and it becomes even harder to achieve a satisfying high. As a result. This situation results in physical and psychological dependence. These cravings persist until the user gets more of the drug or until the body once again accustoms itself to its absence. and fatigue. This situation is the main factor in many drug addictions. that the mothers involved in these tests used more than just cocaine or crack during pregnancy. including hunger. Various drug rehabilitation methods. Gradually their bodies build a tolerance for it. and twelve-step programs. having grown accustomed to the presence of the drug. may not function properly when the drug is absent. Users enjoy the high—and dislike the crash—so much that they sometimes take enough of the drug to remain on an extended high. for example) create intense sensations of pleasure and well-being in the user. These are the physical and psychological characteristics of withdrawal and can lead to powerful cravings for the drug. and with- drawal symptoms. in addition to other long-term health risks. nausea. Cravings make recovery very difficult for people who are addicted to drugs or alcohol. Users may also experience anger. cravings are an indication of psychological and physical dependence. overdose. 46 . As the drug leaves the body and these feelings wear off. The body. to nausea and headaches. users often experience the abrupt onset of powerfully negative feelings and physical side effects. This abrupt drop from an intense high to an equally intense low is called a crash. users may experience a variety of negative physical sensations.CCrash however. headache. therapy. can help to manage cravings. and depression. counseling. including detoxification. Crash Some drugs (cocaine and crack. Craving A strong yearning for something. irritability. In drug abuse. called euphoria. After using a drug for an extended period of time. users feel an overpowering hunger for it.

cocaine. property damage. amphetamines. may be subject to the same punishment as users. Domestic abuse. and homicide. and prostitution. alcohol. The social drugs tobacco and alcohol cannot be purchased by those who are underage (cigarettes cannot be bought by those under eighteen. Statistics show that users of certain drugs— such as methamphetamine. but associate with others who do. Drug trafficking and dealing are also illegal activities and generate other. sexual assault. a legal social drug. Athletes sometimes face drug charges for abusing performance-enhancing drugs such as anabolic steroids. transport. sell. sexual abuse. 47 . See also: Drug abusers can become self-centered. gang fighting. and nitrous oxide—are subject to criminal prosecution. the legal drinking age is twenty-one). especially when they are desperate Date-Rape Drug for drugs to feed their cravings. heroin. opioid analgesics. Some people commit crimes in trying to raise money to buy drugs. These crimes include fighting. personal injuries. or possess. DWI is an alcohol-related crime. gang activity. and other crimes are precipi- tated by alcohol. In addition. people who do not possess or use drugs. to name just a few. Simply using drugs makes a person more likely to commit crimes.Crime (related to drug use) Crime is related to drug use in many ways. has a long list of criminal consequences. and deaths. Drug convictions often go hand in hand with other crimes: weapons possession. robbery. Alcohol. causing property damage. primarily violent crimes. People who misuse and/or illegally sell prescription drugs—barbiturates. Certain drugs—such as marijuana. and PCP—are the most likely to be involved in violent activities. homicide. and LSD—are illegal to produce or C Crime cultivate. assault. parole violation.

healthy life. Cross-drug addiction is an addiction to more than one substance. Likewise. For instance. for example. for example. people who quit smoking have been known to eat more. Substitution refers to switching addictions. that drinking alcohol can trigger a desire to smoke cigarettes. that alcoholics under thirty are usually addicted to at least one other substance or behavior. Addiction Triggers are drugs that provoke users to begin using a second drug. Research has shown. Psychological counseling or twelve-step programs may help people regain a normal. Studies show. substitution. Cross-drug addiction can be divided into three categories: triggers. people addicted to diet pills may become obsessed with losing weight by not eating or eating very little (anorexia). and concurrent use. Concurrent use means that a person is addicted to two or more substances at the same time. C Cross-Drug Cross-Drug Addiction A broad term referring to addiction to multiple drugs. This can happen when someone quits a certain substance and then desires a new substance to fulfill the function of the first. Cross-drug addiction is often the result of an addictive personality and a sign of a greater problem. 48 .

allergic reactions. Similar to methadone but less effective. More severe side effects may include breathing diffi- culty. Darvon can cause constipation. Rohypnol—known as the date-rape drug—is illegal in the United States but is a prescription drug in eighty other coun- tries. Commonly used to ease the pain of injury. it is also sometimes used to help manage the withdrawal symptoms common to the use of morphine. fatigue. and sweating. dizziness. cold and clammy skin. low blood pressure. Ketamine. Darvon can quickly lead to physical and psychological dependence. Rohypnol is ten times stronger than Valium. which is most often combined with aspirin and/or caffeine. muscle spasms. fatigue. Many drugs are called date-rape drugs simply because they reduce awareness and weaken personal judgment. Darvon is prescribed to relieve moderate to severe pain. primarily synthetic drugs with powerful side effects. All these drugs are highly 50 . memory loss. seizures. and its effects last from three to four hours.DDarvon Darvon The brand name for the synthetic opioid analgesic propoxyphene. those of heroin addiction. Rohypnol and GHB are known to cause amnesia. however. heroin. an effective hypnotic-sedative. and unconsciousness. nau- sea. an anesthetic. barbiturates. convulsions. seizure. dizziness. confusion. cardiac arrhythmia. nausea. to avoid the withdrawal symptoms. vomiting. Darvon should not be mixed with other central nervous system depressants (especially alcohol. unconsciousness. drowsiness. creates a floating sensation in the user and disassociation in personal behav- ior. and other narcotics). but not nearly as severe as. So is GHB. Certain drugs. are notorious in date-rape. Darvon comes in pill or cap- sule form. Most med- ical professionals recommend cutting down slowly rather than quitting cold turkey. Alcohol and barbiturates are the most commonly used date-rape drugs. Date-Rape Drug A drug used to incapacitate a person with the intent of sexual assault. All of these drugs can cause loss of inhibitions. and death. decreased appetite. Darvon acts as a depressant on the central nervous system. and other narcotics. Ketamine can also cause hallucinations and is used frequently as a club drug. Users can develop a tolerance for it after only a week. confusion. Like most narcotics. and blackout. An overdose can cause slow breathing. In addition to reducing pain. coma. difficulty in speaking or moving. liver damage. Withdrawal symptoms related to Darvon addiction are similar to. dry mouth.

and stimulants. Depending on the drug. Its officials conduct investigations and arrests of individuals and organizations involved in growing. These drugs are even more dangerous when combined with alcohol (date- rape drugs are often slipped into an individual’s drink). Mere possession of Rohypnol is punishable by up to three years in jail. the Drug-Induced Rape Prevention and Punishment Act was Dealer passed. or DEA. help local. The DEA works with local.addictive and can result in withdrawal symptoms if taken over time. and federal law enforcement agencies to accomplish a number of goals: investigate and prosecute persons and organizations that violate controlled-substances laws in the United States. hallucinogens. dealing is punishable with fines and jail time more severe than for simple possession. narcotics. state. halted respiration. This act includes a number of laws governing the manufacture and distribution of controlled substances such as anabolic steroids. merely giving illegal drugs to another person is considered dealing. investigate and prosecute criminals and drug gangs responsible for illegal activities related to drug trafficking (including violent tactics like intimidation). To the law. and analyze drug statistics in order to develop Administration. effective drug legislation. and foreign governments to reduce The Drug Enforcement the availability of drugs. coma. Conviction can bring a prison sentence up to twenty years. Dealing/Dealer The act of selling illegal drugs. making it a federal offense to drug a person with the intent of sex- ual assault. depressants.S. and death. state. More serious side effects include seizure. federal. and the person who sells them. and dealing illegal substances for profit within and outside the United States. enforces the drug laws The DEA works under and upholds the guidelines of the Controlled of the United States. D Dealing/ In 1996. Substances Act of 1970. Department of Justice) is a division of the federal government whose pur- pose is to enforce the drug laws of the United States. manufactur- ing. DEA The Drug Enforcement Administration (established in 1973 under the U. Law enforcement officers are trained to 51 .

pseudoephedrine. These signs include having large quantities of the drug—but in small. wealthy or poor. from wealthy businessmen to children in See also: elementary schools. deal drugs. For example. In between these extremes are dealers of different ranks. the effects of the drug may become See also: inadequate to fight congestion. saleable portions—and having a suspiciously large quantity of money. A doctor should be consulted for treatment of chronic conges- tion and/or allergies. D Decongestant watch for signs of drug use and also signs of dealing. dealers who own the drugs they sell Drug Trafficking often make the most money from drug transactions—approximately 50 per- cent—if they have dealers working for them. Drug dealing has also led to numerous gang-related problems. can rapidly cause physical dependence and should be discontinued after three days. Other dealers simply carry and/or sell drugs at a local level. and may be young or old. as gangs battle for selling territory and drug profits. which reduces swelling and the amount of mucus produced by the nasal lining. drug sales. or sprays. including nervousness. Decongestants can have a number of negative side effects. This may lead to use of the drug for weeks Diet Aid or months. Decongestants constrict the blood vessels in the nasal membranes. Some dealers work for other people in a Crime long chain of command. cardiac arrhythmia. and phenylpropanolamine. 52 . With continued use. and insomnia. Decongestant drops. making as little as 3 percent of the total profit. drug dealers from other countries also make a huge profit on U. Decongestants are from all walks of life sold as pills and drops. Drug dealers and gangs sometimes employ children (ten years old and younger) to sell drugs because the punishment for youthful offenders is much more lenient than for adults. The active ingredients in decongestants include Drug dealers come ephedrine. Drug dealing has been estimated to generate over $100 billion a year in the United States. Decongestant Over-the-counter or prescription drug taken to alle- viate nasal congestion from colds and allergies. often in small denominations. People from all walks of life.S.

Decriminalization Term for a movement advocating removal of felony status for possession of certain drugs. sleepless- ness. California. sweating. confusion. Colorado. This condition can last from three to ten days. however. and Oregon. Occurring between two and ten days after a person stops drink- ing. Minnesota. North Carolina. delirium tremens can result in death from the development of pneumonia or from heart failure. the person can experience car- diac arrhythmia. 53 . decriminalization is a large issue in the debate on the worthwhile uses of marijuana. In rare cases in which a patient has a preexisting medical condition. Currently. substance addiction. acetaminophen. Those against the decriminalization of marijuana. manufacture. uncontrollable shaking. The patient should receive close medical supervision and injec- tions of antianxiety drugs. Nebraska. hallucinations. believe that it may lead to a rise in criminal activity. eleven states have decriminalization laws: Alaska. Maine. and severe panic attacks. con- vulsions. substituting at most a misdemeanor citation and/or a D Delirium Tremens minimal fine. and vitamins A and B. and depression. delirium tremens (or DTs) manifests as anxiety. As it worsens. Ohio. Mississippi. fever. Delirium tremens is usually treated with rest and rehydration because of fluid loss.” For example. marijuana is not only safe but holds great potential as a prescription drug. tremors. and sell drugs and participate in drug trafficking. and the decriminalization of more harmful drugs. Decriminalization would uphold felony status for dealers who grow. Proponents of marijuana decriminalization maintain that in relation to drugs such as heroin and cocaine. One of the ideas behind this movement is that the United States is spending too much time and money on a battle that cannot be won—the “war against drugs. Delirium Tremens The severe withdrawal symptoms alcoholics commonly experience when they quit drinking (similar symptoms develop in people who quit using bar- biturates). New York.

Demerol can be a very effective analgesic. These drugs are often referred to as “new heroin” because the effects are similar to those of heroin but more deadly. blurred vision. and it is commonly used to treat moderate to severe pain. benzodiazepines. sometimes even high. People using this drug can develop tolerance after only a week. barbiturates. When injected. syrup. As a central nervous system depressant. If taken too quickly or in frequent doses. Users often feel very relaxed. troubled breathing. cardiac arrhythmia. Narcotics are prescribed to relieve pain and sometimes to treat certain withdrawal symptoms. Depressant Any drug that slows the functioning of the central nervous system. or injection. breathing dif- ficulty. headache. fatigue. and muscle spasms. and inhalants. confusion. On occasion. Its effects last three to four hours. Demerol can be given as a pill. low blood pressure. Demerol designer drugs have been known to cause brain damage and other physical problems. vomiting. Demerol is less effective and may cause confusion. Depressants include alcohol. light- headedness. Negative side effects include dizziness. tremors. extreme sleepiness. euphoria. Most medical profession- als advise addicts to cut down slowly rather than quit cold turkey. convulsions. and sweating. hallucinations. Barbiturates. it is used to deaden the pain of child- birth. Demerol can quickly cause physical and psychological dependence. bluish skin. An overdose of Demerol can result in cold. narcotics. and 54 . to avoid the withdrawal symptoms. depressants also slow heart rate and respiration. and seizures. and death. heart attack. constipation. slowed movements. D Demerol Demerol The brand name for the synthetic opioid analgesic meperidine. Demerol can cause swelling at the site. and hypnotic- Delirium Tremens sedatives are prescribed to treat anxiety disorders and as sleep aids. orally.When injected. loss of inhibitions. In addition to slowing the central nervous system. faint- ing. coma. however. Other side effects of depressants include slurred speech. mood swings. Demerol is similar to but not as strong as morphine. nausea. Withdrawal symp- toms are similar to those of morphine addiction. rash. dry mouth. Demerol is frequently used as a basis for more dangerous designer drugs. clammy. it can result in mood swings. and anesthesia. cardiac arrhythmia. benzodiazepines. Demerol causes sedation. depression. Less common but more severe side effects are disorientation. it can make the baby sluggish and hinder its breathing. hypnotic- See also: sedatives.

coma. and death. More severe symptoms may See also: include suicidal tendencies. and possibly death. and experiences mood swings. and slowed actions and thinking. Electroconvulsive therapy (an electric shock that induces brain seizures to fight depression) is sometimes used in conjunction with other treatment. and familial troubles. as can withdrawal from cer- tain drugs. Furthermore. The depressed person is usually irritable and/or anxious. tragic events. Drug reha- bilitation for depressant addiction may include detoxification. visions of death. 55 . People addicted to depres- sants often keep using them to avoid the withdrawal symptoms. Depression Intense feelings of sadness. convulsions. Symptoms of depression vary depending on its severity. In addition. loss of interest in social activities and friends. As the user builds a tolerance. An overdose of depressants or use of two or more depressants at the same time can lead to unconsciousness. tremors. Depressants can cause physical and psychological dependence. social misfortune. Depression of this kind can be a sign of a deeper psychological problem. negativity. but all cases have some symptoms in common. Other symptoms include crying fits. extreme weight loss/gain. hallucinations. but it is not always necessary. withdrawn or shy. and despair. and twelve-step programs. psychological illnesses. certain pre- scription and illegal drugs can cause depression. difficulty feeling emotions other than sadness and guilt. Depressant withdrawal symptoms can be extremely difficult to handle and may include insomnia. Many situations and illnesses can cause depression. and it is often dif- ficult to isolate the exact cause. Often depression is a result of a combination of these causes. larger doses may be required to achieve the desired effect. pes- simism. delusions. and Antidepressant withdrawal from life (hiding away). hallucinations. the episodes can recur several times. a death in the family—but it can start with no apparent reason or last for an inappropriate time (from six months to a year). Depression can originate when a person experiences a tragic or sad event—for instance. Depressants are often prescribed. Treatment for depression may include hospitalization. anxiety. poor appetite. Some causes include hormonal imbalances. dif- ficulty falling/staying asleep. physical illnesses and injuries.paranoia. The two main types of treatment are psychotherapy and drug treatment. counseling. but they are also widely used in social settings. heredity. indecisiveness. D Depression This often leads to overdose.

snorted as a powder. a synthetic opioid analgesic originally used as an anesthetic. Detoxification may involve a variety of treatments. nausea. energetic. Designer drugs are either stimulants or depressants and can be ingested See also: Demerol in pill form. as it does little by itself to curb long-term drug use. paranoia. It is extremely dangerous. or China White. confusion. The first fentanyl analog was alpha-methylfentanyland. is the risk of drug poisoning. Side effects of designer drugs vary. Other common types of designer drugs are meperidine analogs. These drugs. and many overdoses result from injecting it. psychological testing. These analogs are often called “new heroin” and are known to cause brain damage. are designed to make the user feel euphoric. permanent brain (pictured above) has damage. irritability. chills. MDMA. violent tendencies. and/or carefree. dizziness. hallucinations. drooling. dry mouth. D Designer Designer Drugs Modified versions of illegal drugs made in underground laboratories with the intent to create drugs not specifically listed as controlled substances by Drugs the DEA. blurred vision. muscle tension. however. Detoxification applies primarily 56 . Perhaps more dangerous. greatly increased in Designer drugs can cause physical and psychological dependence. impaired speech. sweating. increased heart rate. Medical detoxifica- tion is only the first step in an effective drug-treatment program. The best known analogs are those derived from fentanyl. or analog. Still others are methamphetamine analogs such as MDMA (perhaps the most popular designer drug) and PCP analogs. Detoxification See also: Drug Rehabilitation The process of freeing someone from a physical dependence on an addictive substance. tremors. and counseling. often classed as club drugs. as severe withdrawal symptoms. anxiety. creating a new substance. Designer drugs are manufactured by changing the molecular structure of an original drug. smoked in a pipe. emotional sensitivity. paralysis. They are more potent—and dangerous—than the drugs they are designed to mimic. and death. clenched teeth. increased itching. as well recent years. or ecstasy. such as med- ical treatment. or injected. depression. but they may include sleeplessness. sense of weightless- Use of the designer drug ness.

It is also used as a diet aid and occasionally to treat depression. paranoia. Long- term effects can include malnutrition. When trying to quit Dexedrine. and twelve-step programs. In rare cases. Extended use of Dexedrine can lead to physical and psychological dependence. the process of helping individuals through the acute physical cravings they may suffer when they first stop using drugs and/or alcohol. restlessness. Tolerance can develop quickly. loss of appetite. unconsciousness. kidney damage. coma. Larger doses can result in cardiac arrhyth- mia. Drug rehabilitation may include detoxification. sweating. headache. long but disrupted sleep. counsel- ing. irri- tability. and death from heart failure. some detoxification programs gradually decrease the daily dosage of the drug over a period of weeks. excessive fever. people can take Dexedrine as a medication for many years. Others abuse it as a diet aid. weight loss. cardiac arrhythmia. includ- ing intense hunger. rapid heartbeat and respiration. cramps. and stroke. vomiting. however. in some cases of heroin addiction. and aggressive behavior. Dexedrine The brand name of the amphetamine dextroamphetamine. high blood pressure. lung problems. or burst blood vessels in the brain. Some people crush the pills into powder and snort it for a quick. schizophrenia. individuals are prescribed the drugs methadone or laam to gradually curb their cravings for heroin. convulsions. used to treat nar- colepsy (sudden daytime sleep) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). addicts usually experience moderately severe withdrawal symptoms. hypertension. For D Dexedrine example. depression. diarrhea. others cannot take it for long because of adverse reactions. intense high sim- ilar to cocaine. vio- lence. The drug comes in pill or syrup form. blood vessel damage. hallucinations. Dexedrine has a history of being abused. and death. Negative side effects include nausea. irritability. An overdose may result in confusion. violent behavior. Dexedrine is a central nervous system stimu- lant and causes increased energy and sometimes euphoria. and paranoia. Like other amphetamines. To avoid intense withdrawal symptoms. 57 . tremors. hallucinations. Like other amphetamines.

kidney damage. Of the two forms of diabetes. heart attack. or by failure of the pituitary gland to release that hormone into the bloodstream. hypertension. resulting in excessive urination. Injecting too much 58 . and exercise to avoid complications. requires the use of nausea. stroke. and lack of energy. simulating an insulin deficiency. which naturally holds water in the system. Other drugs stimulate the production of vasopressin in the pituitary gland. which produces vasopressin. which causes the body to develop resistance to its effects. resulting in dehydration and thirst. or death). People with Insipidus diabetes insipidus lack the hormone vasopressin. nerve damage. cataracts.Without the sugar insulin to stabilize needed for energy. Other Diabetes mellitus symptoms include blurred vision. follow a regi- mented diet. confusion. Treatment most often entails using a synthetic form of vasopressin. People with diabetes mellitus either lack insulin and have difficulty metabolizing sugar. Drug use. the body begins to burn fat cells. which produces toxins blood sugar levels. the kidneys excrete more water to flush it from the body. the person can lapse into a diabetic coma. fatigue. The person may feel thirsty from the loss of water and hungry from the loss of calories. Insulin. produced by the pancreas. diabetes insipidus is the more rare. See also: Diabetes insipidus may be caused by inactivity of the hypothalamus Diabetes Mellitus gland. D Diabetes Diabetes Insipidus A disease characterized by the inability of the kidneys to retain sufficient levels of water in the body. which builds up in the blood. or they have too much insulin. called ketones. and brain tumor can also cause the disease. usually in nasal spray form. Diabetes mellitus must be treated to keep blood sugar at a safe level in order to prevent long-term complications (retinal damage. Diabetics must inject insulin approximately four times a day. Diabetes Mellitus A disease characterized by excessive sugar in the blood- stream. Without it. and in worse cases low blood pressure. With higher-than-normal levels of sugar in the blood- stream (hyperglycemia). If the symptoms continue. and coma. injury to the brain. the kidneys excrete large amounts of urine. helps cells to use sugar to create energy. causing excessive urination.

insulin, which results in hypoglycemia (a lack of sugar in the blood), can
lead to dizziness, confusion, unconsciousness, and seizures. Diabetics are
advised to carry a sugar source to counteract an insulin overdose should
the need arise.
Diet Aid
Scientists believe that diabetes mellitus is caused by a combination of
environmental and hereditary factors. The condition can remain hidden for
years, but some things—including obesity, pancreatitis, some drugs, infec-
tions, and pregnancy—can cause it to manifest.

Diet Aid
Any drug taken to help suppress appetite. Many of these drugs can be
bought over the counter, but some require a prescription. Diet aids are taken
orally, as a pill, gum, or a lozenge.
Two main active ingredients are found in over-the-counter diet aids.
Phenylpropanolamine, a stimulant similar to amphetamines, is used as both
an appetite suppressant and a decongestant. It increases heart rate, sup-
presses appetite, and provides additional energy. Negative side effects may
include dry mouth, nausea, headache, hallucinations, anxiety, and insomnia.
People with hypertension should avoid this drug; dangerous complications
may occur, especially stroke. Diet aids with phenylpropanolamine may help
with weight loss when taken in conjunction with a low-calorie diet and exer-
cise, but the effects usually stop after a month or so.
Benzocaine is a local anesthetic similar to novocaine. By numbing the
taste buds, Benzocaine makes eating less pleasurable, thus helping users to
cut down on the amount of food they eat. This drug often comes in lozenge
form and is placed under the tongue before meals. Benzocaine can cause
allergic reactions, resulting in rash, closure of airways, circulatory difficul-
ties, or death.
Prescription diet aids affect the levels of certain neurotransmitters in
the central nervous system, particularly serotonin, which affects mood and
appetite. Reactions to these drugs differ, and they may not help all people.
Weight loss usually occurs in the first six months of use. It is not advised to
stay on them for longer than a year. Some prescription diet aids, particu-
larly dexfenfluramine, have been taken off the market because of heart valve
complications that may arise from use.


The brand name of the opioid analgesic hydromorphone. Similar to mor-
phine, Dilaudid is prescribed to treat moderate to severe coughing and
severe pain from burns, cancer, heart attack, injury, and surgery. Dilaudid is
seven to ten times more powerful than morphine and begins acting sooner.
It does not last as long, however, and results in less nausea and vomiting.
Dilaudid is more likely than morphine to lead to difficulty in breathing. It
comes in pill, syrup, and intravenous form.
Dilaudid has a long list of negative side effects: constipation, drowsiness,
difficulty in thinking, mood swings, nausea, vomiting, troubled breathing,
and anxiety. Less common side effects include blurred vision, chills,
cramps, rashes, diarrhea, difficulty urinating, disorientation, depression,
lightheadedness, fainting, hallucinations, headache, insomnia, blood pres-
sure fluctuations, tremors, cardiac arrhythmia, dizziness, sweating, and
numbness. Large doses may cause slowed breathing. Dilaudid increases the
effects of alcohol and could lead to dangerous complications, including
death. An overdose of Dilaudid can cause bluish, cold, and clammy skin;
sluggishness; labored breathing; weakness; low blood pressure; slow heart rate;
heart attack; coma; and death.
Taking Dilaudid regularly can lead to physical and psychological depend-
ence in as soon as a few days. Tolerance can develop quickly, and withdrawal
symptoms are similar to those of morphine.

Distilled Alcohol
Alcohol made primarily from fermented grains or fruits. The grain or fruit is
crushed and mixed with water.The mixture is then heated to boiling.The vapors
from the boiling mixture are collected, forming a liquid—distilled alcohol.
The amount of alcohol in a distilled drink is that drink’s “proof.” In the
United States, a drink’s proof is twice the amount of alcohol contained in
it (a drink that is 100 proof contains 50 percent alcohol).
Whiskey, the most popular form of distilled alcohol in the United
States, is made from barley, corn, or rye. Most whiskey is from 80 to 100
proof. Vodka, a colorless alcohol, is made from barley, corn, rye, or
potatoes, and varies from 80 to 100 proof. Other forms of distilled alcohol
include liqueur, rum, brandy, and cognac.


Dimethyltryptamine is a hallucinogen similar to, but not as popular as, LSD.
DMT occurs naturally in the seeds and bark of some South American trees
and has a long history as a hallucinogenic snuff and drink used by the native
Indians. DMT can also be made synthetically. It is usually smoked but can
also be snorted and injected. A DMT high is powerful and begins within sec-
onds of consumption. Unlike that of LSD, which lasts for eight to twelve
hours, a DMT high lasts for about thirty minutes, earning the nickname
“businessman’s trip.”
The effects of DMT are very similar to those of LSD and psilocybin but
can be more powerful and frightening. Side effects include dry mouth,
dilated pupils, nausea, vomiting, anxiety, increased blood pressure,
increased pulse, laughing, hallucinations, hallucinations while eyes are
closed (called the “kaleidoscope effect”), difficulty talking, relaxation,
difficulty in concentrating, excitability, panic, cardiac arrhythmia, and
extreme paranoia. The greatest danger associated with DMT are accidents
(sometimes fatal) that occur when the user loses control or believes he or
she can do things that defy reality. DMT is not believed to cause chemical
dependence, but it can quickly lead to tolerance. Usually the first use is the
most intense.
Unlike LSD and psilocybin, DMT is not frequently used as a “party
drug” because it acts so quickly and does not last very long (users report
feeling as if they were high for hours). DMT often results in bad trips
because of the sudden loss of control it induces. Users often feel dislocated
from reality or transported to a new reality, sometimes depicted as a brief
encounter with insanity. Most drug users who take DMT are experienced
hallucinogen users, not experimental drug users.

A neurotransmitter (chemical messenger) in the central nervous system
similar to adrenaline. Dopamine affects the way we feel pleasure and pain.
It also affects the processes that control movement.
Some drugs raise the level of dopamine in the brain, stimulating
feelings of euphoria and excitement. When these drugs leave the body,
the amount of dopamine in the brain drops off, causing the individual to
experience a crash.
Some drugs, like cocaine, achieve a high by preventing dopamine from
passing on from the synapse between neurons (the messenger cells of the
central nervous system) by binding to dopamine receptors. Others, like


drops. It is very important to follow dosage instruc- tions with all drugs. Patients are advised to follow their doctor’s instructions when taking prescription drugs. some people prey on unsus- A dose can be pecting women by placing mood-altering drugs in their drinks in order to measured by the number of pills to be sexually assault them. See also: Dose Date-Rape Drug The amount of a drug taken at a specified time. Pharmacokinetics Soft Drug 62 . This type of action is subject to criminal prosecution.This is a dangerous action that can result in serious consequences. Taking too much may result in an overdose. Taking too little of a drug may render it ineffective. Both processes can lead to drug tolerance if allowed to continue for a period of time. recreational drugs. Types of drugs include prescription drugs. taken at a specific time. or by Pharmacodynamics their effects on the body. Dosage is expressed in sev- eral ways. by the illness they treat. etc. persons should read and follow the directions and precautions on the package to avoid dangerous complications. Drug See also: Drug Abuse A chemical that modifies the way the body and its organs work or hinders Drug Interaction FDA the way an illness affects the body. Gateway Drug over-the-counter drugs. Similar complications can occur when the drug is taken at the wrong time or taken too often. D Dose amphetamines. Dose can also be meas- ured in regard to its effects on the body. either by putting it in food or drink or by replacing one drug with another that might have a different effect. and illegal drugs. capsules. Drugs are catego- Hard Drug rized in three ways: by chemical components.Weight is most frequently measured in milligrams. When taking over-the-counter drugs.Volume of liquids is measured in milliliters. The term “dose” can also refer to giving a drug to a person surreptitiously. For example. which can be positive or negative. Withdrawal symptoms occur when a person addicted to these drugs tries to quit because the dopamine levels in the brain remain very low without the drugs. usually expressed in number of pills. stimulate the neurons and increase the amount of dopamine in the brain.

and other substances. 63 . Drug Abuse The use of a drug—legal or illegal—for a purpose other than that for which it was initially prescribed or suggested. Drugs called placebos affect the user’s mental outlook. and even over-the- counter drugs. Drug abuse occurs in all levels of the population and all walks of life. molds. anxiety. Modern scientists have discovered countless ways to replicate natural sub- stances and create new drugs—legal and illegal. social. sudden changes in behavior or personality. Drug abuse can ulti- mately lead to physical. occur naturally in plants. animals. depres- sants. they are carried to different organs via the bloodstream. without necessarily making a physical change in the body. mental. Drugs can be taken in several forms: as a pill. Medically. or by smoking. Taking too much of any drug can D Drug Abuse result in overdose. Prescription drugs can pose a large problem with regard to experimentation. capsule. When drugs enter the body. such as marijuana and penicillin. or the compulsive use of a drug resulting in physical or psychological dependence. The signs of drug abuse are numerous. Few drugs have no potential for abuse. alcohol. Some common drugs of abuse are stimulants. the use of legal drugs (in a manner in which they were not intended to be used) to relieve personal problems or to achieve an altered physical or mental state. they may include depression. Others alter the chemical activity within cells. prescription drugs. Some attach themselves to receptors in the central nervous system. LSD. poor school and/or work performance. by injection into a vein or muscle. syrup. The body eliminates drugs primarily through the kidneys and urine. and addiction.The term generally applies to a prac- tice that is considered improper or dysfunctional by society. and familial problems. Drug abuse can be the experi- mental use of recreational drugs. marijuana. the drug dose often depends on the ail- ment or the severity of the condition. tablet. Drugs act by influencing the cells of the body. Drug abuse does not involve only illegal drugs. Many drugs. although it does not necessarily include drug addiction. as a suppository (via the anus). are made in laboratories. anabolic steroids. emotional. lethargy. and insomnia. talkativeness. It is not merely a problem found in cites and in areas of low socioeconomic circumstances. improper use. or liquid (orally). opiates. aggressive behavior. Some drug categories contain substances that are both found in nature and manufactured. such as LSD. such as opiates and nicotine. Synthetic drugs.

family counseling sessions. when one mixes two depressants. psychotherapy. thus caus- ing other drugs to be metabolized too quickly or too slowly. There are several forms of drug interaction. nicotine can speed up the action of the liver. detoxification. and illegal drugs. Drug treatments include counseling (one-on-one. and twelve-step programs such as Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous.D Drug Drug Interaction Changes in a drug’s effect on the body from the presence of a second drug or a food. medical treatment. Sometimes these interactions are beneficial. The purpose of drug treatment is to end addiction to drugs and alcohol. Drug interactions can result from mixing prescription Interaction drugs. Some forms of penicillin do not work well when taken after eating because the food prevents them from being absorbed from the stomach and small intestine into the bloodstream. Sometimes food can hamper a drug’s effectiveness. always check with your physician before mixing drugs. job and life-skills seminars. For example. The liver acts to change the structure of (or metabolize) drugs as they pass through it so they can be eliminated from the body by the kidneys. Some 64 . regardless of how the person undergoing treatment feels about it. Side effects can be dangerous. making some analgesics less effective. such as alcohol and barbiturates. To avoid dangerous drug interactions. over-the-counter drugs. Drugs with opposite effects can cancel each other out. thus causing other drugs to remain in the system too long. Some drugs either speed up or slow down the liver’s functioning. In addition. however. small group. Two drugs with similar properties can cause the reactions to intensify. large group). Drug Rehabilitation The process of helping someone who is addicted to legal or illegal drugs to “kick the habit” through a variety of programs and treatments. some drugs can affect the rate at which the kidneys eliminate waste from the body. they are harmful. most often. and always reveal all drugs you are currently taking before your physician prescribes new drugs. for example. People with chest colds should avoid cough remedies that contain both expectorants (drugs that help bring up fluids from the lungs through coughing) and suppressants (drugs that inhibit the cough reflex) because they negate each other. social drugs.

The duration of treatment programs depends on the specific situation and progress. Hair tests are the least dependable. Professional. hair. Relapse is common among heavy drug users. Monitoring methods include frequent counseling sessions and periodic drug testing. and high school athletes are sometimes tested for drugs. Drug Testing Also called drug screening. and hair. and alcohol. urine. D Drug Testing No single treatment plan is appropriate for everyone. or criminal prosecution.people require strong persuasion to enter drug-treatment programs and/or facilities. Drinking large amounts of water prior to urine tests See also: may affect the results. Blood tests are the most effective but the least com. amateur. perhaps because of cost. effective treatment is not necessarily voluntary. Others have random drug tests throughout the year. which enable them to monitor their own progress with the aid and support of oth- ers with similar addictions. and treatment should be systematically monitored. tested for substance use and/or abuse They can detect long-term drug use but not recent use (in the previous through urine. less common Individuals can be drug tests include saliva and fingernail tests. but they can be beaten by abstaining from drug use a week before the test. including performance-enhancing drugs such as anabolic steroids. This is done for safety and legal reasons. assessed. opiates. Sometimes that persuasion comes in the form of family and/or friend intervention. Recovery from drug addiction is often a long process involving multiple methods of treatment and numerous treatment sessions. drug testing includes several methods of determining if someone (often an employee) has been using such drugs as marijuana. individuals should be encouraged to attend self-help or twelve-step programs. the most common. The main types of drug tests are blood. barbiturates. week) and are not affected by temporary abstinence. Effective drug treatment must meet multiple criteria and usually addresses medical and psychological problems as well as work-related and legal obstacles. but most treatments last from three months to a year. Urine tests are perhaps and blood tests. amphetamines. employer mandate. and modified to ensure a greater probability of success. Breathalyzer mon. cocaine. In addition to formal drug-treatment programs. Some companies test candidates for drugs before hiring them. 65 .

D Drug
Many products are available that help users beat drug tests (especially
for marijuana use). These either mask the results of the test or help to flush
the substance from the body before the test (in the case of urine tests).
Certain shampoos help users beat hair tests. Most of these products are not
100 percent dependable.
Drug Trafficking
A system of processes—including cultivation, produc-
tion, transportation, and dissemination—that provide
illegal drugs to locations around the world. Most drug
trafficking was once primarily an internal problem (run
by organized crime families, prison gangs, motorcycle
gangs, and other violent groups), but it is now a problem
that often originates in foreign countries. Drugs are pro-
duced in such countries as Colombia, Mexico, Nigeria,
Jamaica, and the Dominican Republic and smuggled into
the United States by planes, ships, trucks, and other
means. At that point the drugs pass along a chain of deal-
ers to be sold on a local level.
The DEA struggles to contain drug trafficking year
after year. It sometimes works with foreign governments
to help bring drug cartel leaders to justice. But drug traf-
ficking groups have become exceedingly violent in the
past twenty years, and many are considered terrorists.
Since drug trafficking generates millions of dollars a year,
the cartels often have modern, high-tech equipment with
which to conduct business, including planes, ships, com-
munications devices, and weapons. This makes
it harder and more dangerous for American authorities to stop them. In
addition, when one group of drug traffickers is broken up, another quickly
Some drug smugglers
takes its place.
swallow drugs so
that they will remain
undetected in


Driving while intoxicated (sometimes DUI, or driving under the influence)
is a criminal charge filed against someone who is arrested for driving a
motor vehicle while intoxicated on alcohol. In the United States, over 20 per-
cent of all traffic fatalities are caused by drunk drivers.
The DWI laws of every state but two (Massachusetts and North
Carolina) make it a crime to drive with a blood alcohol level (BAL) at or
above the legal level for that state, but the laws differ from state to state. In
most states, drivers are convicted of DWI if their BAL is at or above .10
percent, although the level in many states is .08 percent. The level for
minors (usually people under twenty-one) in most states is .02 percent. In
October 2000, a federal law was enacted requiring all states to meet the .08
BAL within four years or suffer the loss of federal funds. In most states, a
first-time DWI conviction results in the suspension of the driver’s license
for one month to a year, depending on the state. Fines for drunk driving
range from $500 to $1,000. Presently, fourteen states have mandatory jail
or community-service time for first offenders. Repeat offenders face stiffer
jail sentences and fines, in addition to the suspension or revocation of their
driver’s license.
Forty states and Washington, DC, have a DWI law called administra-
tive license suspension. This means that law enforcement authorities can
immediately suspend a driver’s license if the person fails or refuses to take
a Breathalyzer test.


E Ecstasy
A disease characterized by difficulty in breathing because of damaged alve-
oli (tiny air sacs in the lungs). Emphysema causes deterioration of the usu-
ally rigid walls of the alveoli, resulting in narrowed air passages and labored
breathing. In addition, large pockets of carbon
dioxide form inside the lungs, obstructing the
natural flow of oxygen and carbon dioxide that
occurs during respiration. This disease may
develop for years unobserved. Emphysema is
one form of chronic obstructive pulmonary dis-
ease (obstruction of the airways); the other is
chronic bronchitis.
Emphysema is essentially caused by the
release of toxic enzymes into the bloodstream
that destroy the alveoli walls. A body chemical
called alpha1-antitrypsin prevents these enzymes
from damaging the alveoli. Some people have a
deficiency of alpha1-antitrypsin (a hereditary
condition) and as a result develop emphysema. The number one cause of Image of lungs with
emphysema, however, is cigarette smoking, which also prohibits alpha1- alveoli damage caused
antitrypsin from functioning correctly. Other factors that may play a role in by emphysema.
the development of emphysema include air pollution and infections.
The symptoms of emphysema include shortness of breath,
chronic bronchitis, an enlarged chest (from the trapped pockets of carbon See also:
dioxide), persistent coughing, heart disease, frequent colds, and a bluish Tobacco
skin color from lack of oxygen in the blood. Because damaged lung tissue
cannot be repaired, emphysema is incurable. If it is caught soon enough,
preventive measures can be taken to lengthen the patient’s life. Smokers
must stop smoking immediately. Some drugs help reduce the amount
of fluid in the body, and some widen the air passages to make breathing
easier. In advanced cases, death occurs eventually from heart failure or
respiratory complications.


and slow the aging process. The drug comes in tablet or pill form and is found in some over-the-counter cold. Endorphins provide a natural high in times of stress or pain. Ephedrine A stimulant similar to amphetamines and adrenaline found in decongestants. Runners are said to achieve this type of “endorphin high” after running long distances. and can be particularly harmful when mixed with other stimulants such as caffeine. and cardiac arrhythmia. paranoia. alter mood. and insomnia. Ephedrine is believed by some to heighten athletic performance. allergy. Ephedrine provides its users with extra energy and increases alertness. Larger doses of the drug do not necessarily affect the body twice as much as a single dose. endorphins can sometimes kill cancer cells. improve memory. breathing difficulty. diabetes. It also suppresses appetite. resulting in a temporary sense of euphoria. ephedrine can produce a feeling of euphoria. muscle spasms. and asthma med- ications. anxiety. particularly herbal stimulants. It can also be found in powder form. memory loss. They also give the immune system a boost when it is really needed. scientists discovered opiate receptors in the central nervous system. diet aids. tremors. and bronchodilators (drugs that relax bronchial muscles to ease breathing). they experience withdrawal symptoms because of the absence of endorphins. but no solid evidence supports this notion. They soon realized that natural chemicals in the body very similar to morphine—endorphins—bind to the same receptors. Researchers believe that addiction to opioid analgesics and the tolerance that accompanies it may be the result of the narcotic’s suppression of endor- phins. Negative side effects include sweating.E Endorphins Endorphins A group of neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) in the body that relieve pain. help cope with stress. Ephedrine is found in a number of abused substances. although deaths have been linked to abnormally large doses (ten to twelve pills with eight milligrams of ephedrine each). Endorphins act as natural analgesics to block pain from injury. dry mouth. People with heart conditions. When people stop using a narcotic drug. or high blood pressure should not take ephedrine. People with asthma sometimes use it to open up the bronchial airways. More serious effects may include high blood pressure. confusion. Derived from the ma huang plant found in China. increased heart rate. 70 . dizziness. In 1973.

it is highly flammable. Ether was used for years as a component of freebase cocaine. and even static electricity can make it explode. at least for a few years. and frequent accidents occurred while preparing and smoking the drug. Although ether is generally safe to use. Some drugs increase the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain (as cocaine does 71 . a colorless liquid that produces uncon- sciousness when inhaled. Euphoria can occur naturally as a result of personal achievements. however. Parkinson’s disease is a slowly degenerative dis- ease of the central nervous system characterized by rigid muscles and shak- ing. While experimenting with ergot. LSD enhances the neurotransmitter serotonin. which is a freebase form of cocaine mixed with sodium bicarbonate (the active ingredient in baking soda) instead of ether. altering the way a person feels. brain tumors. scientists discovered a derivative called LSD. Prescription drugs containing ergot. Instead of affecting dopamine. Ether was used commonly in surgery until the 1930s but has been replaced by safer anesthesia. Certain neurotransmitters increase confi- dence and happiness. Euphoria Intense feelings of well-being and confidence. Certain injuries and illnesses can also cause euphoria. a hallucinogenic drug. and multiple sclerosis. help increase levels of dopamine in the central nervous system. Many drugs cause users to feel euphoric. but it was not used as an anesthetic until the early 1840s. sometimes to the point of blissful emotions. Ether The first general anesthetic. particularly bromocriptine. A modern equivalent of ether freebase cocaine is crack. particularly as a medica- E Euphoria tion for Parkinson’s disease. Ether. Certain drugs increase levels of neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) in the central nervous system. it is valued for its medical benefits. as with winning an athletic competition or getting a promotion at work. Although ergot is a strong poison. because the ingredients (ether and ammo- nia) are highly flammable. easing the negative effects of Parkinson’s disease. however. has been used in a medical capacity since 1275. especially head injuries.Ergot A fungus that causes a disease in rye and other cereals. It is caused by a deficiency of the neurotransmitter dopamine. It was extremely dangerous.

however. Experimentation The act of trying a substance (or trying drugs and alcohol in general) for the first time to see how it affects the body. including physical and psychological depend- ence. and a long list of physical illnesses.” and psychological problems such as depression and anxiety. This sit- uation often leads to physical and psychological dependence as the user takes more and more of the substance to achieve euphoria and avoid the crash. Certain substances are typi- cally used to experiment with drug use. can be considered experimental when the user has never taken it before.The term “experimentation” implies a willingness to try new things. familial con- frontations. loss of friends. poor work/school performance. however. regardless of how “experienced” he or she is with drugs and alcohol. All recreational drug users begin at the experimental stage. 72 . and/or a sense of innocence about the effects of one’s actions. E Experimentation with the neurotransmitter dopamine) and synthetically create feelings of euphoria. including a sense of curiosity or adventure. peer pressure and/or the desire to “fit in. the person often expe- riences a crash as the level of neurotransmitter drops off drastically. lack of edu- cation about the substance. Experimentation for some may be merely a passing inclination. When the drug leaves the body. Any drug. These drugs are considered gateway drugs because they often lead to the use of hard drugs. particularly marijuana and alcohol. a youthful recklessness. for others it can lead to serious health and social consequences. overdose. It is initiated for several reasons.

transdermally (through the skin via a patch). and Cosmetic Act. cardiac arrhythmia. headache. The FDA regulates approximately $1 trillion worth of products every year. An overdose of fentanyl can result in dizziness. sweating. and radiation-emitting products (like microwaves).000 FDA investigators work year-round to ensure that products are fit for sale and consumption. which is a part of the Department of Health and Human Services. mood swings. drowsi- ness. A synthetic opioid analgesic that is 50 to 100 times more potent than morphine but does not last as long. the FDA is a part of the Public Health Service. F FDA FDA The Food and Drug Administration is a government consumer protection agency that regulates food. seizures.000 products are taken off the market each year because the FDA has determined that they are unfit for sale. confusion. nausea. respiratory depression. euphoria. Fentanyl is used as a general anesthetic during sur- gery and is preferred to morphine because it is safer for the heart. medical products. A large team of scientists continuously conduct experiments on new and old products to ensure that they meet standards. Other side effects include dry mouth. bad dreams. memory loss.The drug can be taken intravenously. 74 . low blood pressure. anxiety. cosmetics. the national blood supply. or orally in the form of a lozenge. It is pre- scribed to alleviate chronic pain from injury and cancer. Backed primarily by the Food. Some 3. Drug. More than 1. Fentanyl is a depressant that relieves pain and produces uncon- sciousness. and tremors. rash. animal feed and drugs. vomiting. ensuring that all of these products are safe for use and consumption. A doctor in the FDA performs tests on cells Fentanyl to check the effectiveness of a drug. constipation. hallucinations. prescription and over-the-counter drugs. as well as various health laws. Veterinarians also prescribe fentanyl as a pain reliever for dogs and cats. depression.The FDA also makes sure all products are labeled with the information consumers need to make informed choices about the food and drugs they purchase.

Fermented Alcohol Alcohol made by adding yeast to certain substances that contain sugar. respiratory paralysis. Fentanyl analogs. This drug should not be mixed with alcohol. and either dry or sweet. Beer usually contains between 2 and 6 percent alcohol. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Also known as ARBD (alcohol-related birth defects). restlessness. tranquilizers. Fentanyl can result in physical and psychological dependence after pro- longed use. loss of appetite. Fentanyl analogs can be injected. Other types of fermented alcohol include ale. fever. and sake. fetal alcohol syndrome is a condition in some infants born to mothers who drank excessive amounts of alcohol during pregnancy. and death. coma.unconsciousness. Beer is a carbonated fermented alcohol made primarily from barley malt. but some are dark brown or even black in color. or pink. trembling. hard cider. Wine can be red. but FAS results when pregnant women drink large amounts of alcohol or are binge drinkers. 75 . or snorted. and insomnia. stomach cramps. irritability. These derivatives of fentanyl are often considered club drugs and can be found at raves or all-night dance parties. Fentanyl has been known to be abused by medical professionals because it is easy to find in hospitals. the first of which was China White. nausea. Fetal alcohol effect (FAE) is a less severe version of the same condition. vomiting. a Japanese drink made from fermented rice. pro- Syndrome fuse sweating. Most beers have a golden color. a person may experience the following F Fetal Alcohol withdrawal symptoms: diarrhea. or other fruits. It has also generated great concern as the basis for designer drugs. white. runny nose. and sudden death. Most wine has an alcohol content between 7 and 24 percent. increased heartbeat. Small amounts of alcohol may not cause birth defects. Wine is primarily made from grapes but can also be made from apples. cherries.Yeast causes sugar to ferment. or antihistamines. Upon halting its use. are very similar to heroin but far more potent and deadly. Winemakers crush the fruit and then ferment the juice. smoked. Negative effects of fentanyl derivatives include depressed respiration. which changes the sugar into ethyl alcohol and car- bon dioxide gas.

malformed facial fea- tures. and death. the person feels as if he or she is “tripping” (high on a hallucinogen). and perceptual (sensory distortions and hallucinations).000 infants are born each year with FAS. as can stress. but they are rare. hyperactivity. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is the number one prevent- able cause of mental retardation. Drugs such as marijuana and alcohol can trigger flashbacks. mental defects. cerebral palsy. During a flashback. immune system defects. fear. difficulty in learning and con- centrating. somatic (physical reactions like tremors. There is no cure for FAS. approximately 5. fatigue. Flashback A situation experienced by persons who frequently use hallucinogens (especially LSD). Flashbacks can happen weeks. and dizziness). and loneliness). months. indicating poor brain development). even though not currently using a hallucinogen. hearing and visual problems. epilepsy. E FFlashback Infants with FAS can develop a wide variety of mental and physical defects: chronic illness. or years after using a hallucinogenic drug. heart failure. mental retardation. small body and body parts (espe- cially the head. but it is preventable simply by avoiding alcohol during pregnancy. heart defects. 76 . kidney failure. exercise. These instances are usually not as intense as the original high but can seem like a frightening loss of control. nau- develop a variety of physical and sea. Approximately 30 to 40 percent of babies born to mothers who drank dur- ing pregnancy have FAS. Flashbacks Children born with fetal are categorized in three groups: emotional (characterized by intense feelings alcohol syndrome can of panic. central nervous system defects. and anxiety. low birth weight.

Making freebase cocaine entails mixing cocaine powder with water. Crack is a freebase form of cocaine that was invented by dealers as a safer form of the drug. 77 . Creating freebase cocaine can be as dangerous as smoking it. When it does. and ether. Freebasing is also believed to be more addictive and makes the user more aggressive and paranoid than snorting or injecting. Cocaine has anesthetic qualities.Freebase The process of purifying cocaine to make a more powerful drug for smoking. The freebase is allowed to dry completely and is placed in a pipe to be smoked. and many people have died from explosions when mak- ing freebase cocaine. Ether is a strong anesthetic and can cause unconsciousness if inhaled. and smoking it can scorch the lungs without the user’s knowing it. Crack is mixed with sodium bicar- bonate (the active ingredient in baking soda) instead of ammonia and ether. E F Freebase ammonia. The high from smoking cocaine is more intense than from snorting or injecting it. white crystals are left over. this is freebase. Ether is also highly flammable. Ammonia is a volatile solvent and can be harmful if touched or inhaled. The ether is removed from the mixture and set aside to evaporate.

for example. to ease the effects of alcohol withdrawal. and is a valuable medical tool. There does seem to be a connection. however. Studies of the drug present contradictions concerning its effects and safety. Some researchers believe. causing a drunken feeling. GHB is a depressant comparable to alcohol. but also. GHB has also been found to lower cholesterol and improve memory. GHB Gamma-hydroxy-butrate. Research is ongoing in this area. between nicotine and alcohol. and not necessarily the drugs themselves. GHB is a clear liquid and can be taken orally or intravenously. vomiting. GHB was ini- tially used as an anesthetic. Others report that it is a dangerous social drug and can result in dizziness.Gateway Drug A drug that leads to the use of other. It also has been used as a child- birth aid. especially dopamine. but lacking alcohol’s tendency to cause stupor. This may be a result of an addictive personality. nausea. cigarettes. drugs. 79 . but the reason for the relationship has not yet been discovered. as an antianxiety drug. It has since been used to treat insomnia. Parkinson’s disease (characterized by rigid muscles and shaking). heroin. often more harmful. a natural metabolite found in mammals. Many researchers think that the connections between gateway drugs (inhalants. and hallucinogens) may be the result of patterns of behavior. A majority of people addicted to alcohol are also addicted to nico- tine. GABA is the most common neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. it keeps the system functioning properly by affecting the release of other neurotransmitters. smoking marijuana may cause higher levels of certain chemicals to develop within the brain. perhaps leading to a greater desire to alter one’s perceptions and emotions with the aid of drugs. Although people with addictive per- sonalities may be more likely to develop cross-drug addictions—and some may like to experiment more than others—it still is not clear if one drug can cause an individual to start using other drugs. These chemicals build up in times of stress. alcohol. and more recently to increase growth hormone levels. that smoking marijuana can lead to G E Gateway Drug the abuse of hard drugs. Some researchers insist that GHB is primarily harmless. and schizophrenia. nar- colepsy (sudden daytime sleep). lacks negative side effects (such as physical dependence and tolerance). is closely related to the neurotransmitter (chemical messenger) GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid). First derived synthetically from GABA in the early 1960s. and marijuana) and harder drugs (cocaine.

Glutethimide is usually taken orally. and physical and psycho- logical dependence. 80 . Higher doses can result in unconsciousness. Negative side effects include rash. hallucinations. GHB has been abused as a date-rape drug and is illegal in several states. bluish skin. Withdrawal symptoms may include fast heartbeat. weakness. can be more difficult to treat than barbiturate overdose and can result in slurred speech. Like all depressants. nightmares. fever. seizures.G E Glue Sniffing cardiac arrhythmia. Glutethimide and methaqualone (Quaalude) were developed in the 1960s as barbiturate alter- natives but were found to be more dangerous and addictive. fever. This drug can cause physical and psychological dependence in as little as seven days and should not be used for chronic sleeping problems. vomiting. A glutethimide overdose. less addictive drugs. Some studies have reported withdrawal symptoms. troubled breathing. including anxiety. insomnia. Some people abuse GHB for its alcohol-like effects. Glutethimide A hypnotic-sedative that was once commonly used to treat insomnia but has been replaced by safer. stomach cramps. and death. weakness. nausea. and trouble sleeping. seizures. Glue Sniffing See Inhalant and Volatile Solvent. dizziness. or mixing it with other central nervous system depressants like codeine or barbiturates. and vomiting. A GHB overdose is not believed to be exceedingly harmful. and trouble concentrating. coma. glutethimide causes sedation and can reduce anxi- ety. muscle spasms. Users can also develop a tolerance for glutethimide. memory loss. Known facts about the drug are that it can cause sedation and eupho- ria in small doses and amnesia in large doses. nausea. unco- ordinated movements. blurred vision. coma. although it can result in deep unconsciousness. muscle pains. heart failure. For this reason. seizures. slow heartbeat. and death. cardiac arrhyth- mia. respiratory depression. confusion. depressed respiration.

They are called pseudo or false hal- lucinations because the people who experience them generally know they are not real. but an experi- ence of this kind can be quite frightening and is sometimes known as a “bad trip. smell. H E Hallucination Hallucination A state in which a person sees or hears something that is not actually pres- ent. People suffering from delirium sometimes think they see things that are not really there. the effects may begin within thirty minutes to an hour and can last six to twelve hours or longer. and touch) but are very rare. psilocybin. including marijuana. People sometimes take these drugs with the intention of experiencing hallucinations. Depending on the drug. alco- hol (during withdrawal).” Hallucinations may be caused by marijuana and inhalants. Hallucinogens—psychedelic drugs. People with schizophrenia and manic- depressive disorder often report hearing voices. including those sub- jected to sensory deprivation (a state of being removed from all sensory stimulus. Hallucinogen See also: A drug that produces hallucinations. for example. as with some prisoners in solitary confinement) and those subjected to intense physical stress or illness (as pneumonia). including LSD. and mescaline—cause hallucina- tions in addition to other side effects. by alcohol Certain Native American groups use the withdrawal. hallucinogen peyote in religious rituals. Other drugs may also have hallucinogenic effects. Particular drugs can cause hallucinations. and certain prescription drugs. Auditory hallucinations are the most common. and psilocybin. These hal- lucinations may entail a crossover of the senses. Hallucinations are usually a sign of mental disorder. and even by certain prescription drugs. mescaline. someone listening to music may believe they see colors or shapes moving in time to the beat. Hallucinogenic drugs include LSD. People suffering from extreme physical conditions may also have hallucinations. Hallucinations can also occur with the other senses (taste. 82 . pey- Delirium Tremens ote.

if someone is depressed before taking a hallucinogen. can indirectly cause death. People who sober up before going to bed are less See also: likely to wake up with a hangover. psychological dependence. stomach cramps. euphoria. Hallucinogens disrupt neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) in the central nervous system. Characteristics of a hangover include headache. While all alcohol can produce a hangover. he or she is apt to be more depressed afterward. irritability. panic. nausea. suicide. The best remedy for a bad trip is to spend time in quiet surroundings with people the individual trusts. and the type of alcohol. There is no surefire way to avoid a hangover other than not drinking or drinking in moderation. the severity of the symptoms depends on the amount consumed. drinking several glasses of water before bed may 83 . These episodes are particularly frightening because it takes six or more hours for most hallucinogens to wear off. depression. fatigue. paranoia. anxiety. Hangovers can last a few hours or most Alcoholism of the day. These drugs tend to intensify emotions. Alcoholics may experience more aggressive cases of hangover because of the related withdrawal symptoms. The best remedy is rest. Since alcohol is a diuretic (a substance that removes larger-than-normal amounts of water from the body in the form of urine). People who take hallucinogens—especially inexperienced users who are not prepared for the effects—may have a “bad trip. Chronic use may cause permanent brain damage. a H E Hangover distorted view of reality. mental confusion. In addition to hallucinations. vomiting. however. especially accidental deaths triggered by unrealistic beliefs and dangerous behavior (believing you can fly or cross a busy street without getting hurt). Hallucinogens do not normally lead to overdose-related deaths. altering the way one perceives the world. flashbacks. dilated pupils. Hangover Unpleasant physical aftereffects sometimes experienced upon waking up the morning after drinking a large quantity of alcohol. loss of control. the time in which it was consumed. dehydration. violent behavior. increased heart rate. Their use. mood swings. and depression. learning disabilities.” A bad trip can result in extreme paranoia and psychotic behavior that may last for days after the drug wears off. and psychotic episodes. dizziness. and tolerance. Drug rehabilitation for hallucinogen abuse may include counseling and group therapy. hallucinogens cause restlessness. impaired memory skills.

hash oil can be made by heating hashish. all drugs can be harmful if taken in large enough quantities or for an extended period of time. Hash does not burn See also: as easily as marijuana but is often more potent. which supposedly lead to physical and mental damage more often than so-called soft drugs. and depression the morning after using the drug. is a tarry resin made from marijuana. methamphetamine. stems.) Other drugs have been known to cause symptoms similar to an alcohol hangover. The boundary between soft drugs and hard drugs is hazy at best. Some so-called soft drugs. The ether is extracted and allowed to evaporate. H E Hard Drug help ease the effects of a hangover. headaches. (This process is extremely dangerous. this substance is gathered together into different sized chunks. or hash. and it pro- duces vapors. sticky liquid collected from heating and pressing hashish. overdose. tolerance. Similar to freebase cocaine. until a dark. can lead to the same results as hard drugs (physical and psychological dependence. not smoke. Taking aspirin or acetaminophen before bed has also been known to lessen the symptoms of hangovers. Marijuana leaves.) Hash oil is heated and inhaled. for instance. but cigarettes are the single largest cause of lung cancer in the United States. as it can result in dangerous complications. It is then broken into smaller pieces and smoked in a pipe or taken orally. usually square bricks. and flowers are pressed and rolled. cocaine. often by hand. Hashish/Hash Oil Hashish. Many drug abuse experts believe that by categorizing drugs as soft or hard. For instance. water. and PCP are commonly considered hard drugs. They also lead to overdose and death more often than soft drugs. it does not burn like marijuana and hashish. Heroin. In truth. marijuana smokers have reported fatigue. sticky by-product is left. leaving behind hash oil. and explosions are common when preparing hash oil. or death). It is sometimes used to coat cigarette papers and 84 . such as alcohol. Mixing acetaminophen and alcohol has been shown to cause irreversible liver damage. Tobacco. After a great deal of work. may be considered a soft drug by many. we are des- ignating which drugs are okay for young people to experiment with and which should be avoided altogether. ether is highly flam- mable. THC Hash oil is the thick. (Caution: It is not recommended to mix any drug with alcohol. and ether. Hard Drug A general term for drugs that are believed to be more harmful than others.

It can also be mixed with food and eaten. mental abuse (teasing. many fraternities and sororities now have hazing guidelines. excessive exercise). Depressant withdrawal can cause an increased heart rate. demeaning public displays. but it is very expensive and not very common. heart failure. Most groups are reluctant to drop hazing altogether because it is a traditional part of the fraternity and sorority experience. even in young. Some hazing events get out of control because of the involvement of drugs and alcohol. and other dangerous or humiliating activities. harmful practical jokes. Most can cause cardiac arrhythmia. which often lead to serious accidents and even death. 85 . In fact. and college fraternities when initiating new members. Depressants like barbiturates and nar- cotics can dangerously slow the heart to the point of cardiac arrhythmia and heart failure. like requiring a pledge to carry your books to and from class every day for a week or staging mean- ingless scavenger hunts. and stroke. military personnel. however. and some concerned parental and gov- ernmental groups are trying to have it abolished altogether. physically fit individuals. It may include physical abuse (“paddling.” branding. Inhalants can cause differing results depending on the drug. hypertension. Fraternity and sorority hazing. Some speed up the heart rate while others slow it down. Stimulants like amphetamines and cocaine cause the heart rate to speed up and the blood pressure to rise. Hazing is an act of power over others for the simple purpose of degrading them. ridicule. has become a particularly large problem over the last decade. Hazing can also be good-natured and harmless. Hazing can also affect scholastic and work performance. sometimes to the point of heart failure. Prolonged use of alcohol can cause coronary heart disease (blockage of the coronary arteries). Hash oil is considerably more potent than marijuana and hashish. Heart (effects of drugs on) Drugs affect the heart in different ways. H Heart Hazing Rituals—often cruel and illegal—sometimes held by college and high school athletes. As a result.then smoked with tobacco or marijuana. most states have developed antihazing legislation. Hallucinogens and PCP may also increase heart rate. Many hazing events promote binge drinking and other reckless behavior. enforced alcohol stunts (“keg stands” and “funnels”).These drugs have been known to cause fatal heart attacks. harassment).

avoid stress. or within a few hours. Treatment for a heart attack is based on quick action. Heart attack is one of the leading causes of death in America. anxiety. pain reliev- ers (particularly morphine and nitroglycerine). diabetes mellitus. weakness. and shortness of breath—may begin a few days before the heart attack. oxygen. These symptoms— especially chest pain. smoking. other drugs to help stabilize the patient and dissolve blood clots. In a mild heart attack. and surgery. Patients who survive a heart attack usually develop long-term complications. aspirin is often given to people who are having a heart attack because it helps blood pass through blocked arteries. People who smoke are twice as likely to suffer a heart attack and are more likely to die suddenly from one. Severe heart attacks can cause death suddenly. exercise. eat a healthy diet. especially if you have heart problems. and/or jaw. vomiting. and heart failure. The symptoms of a heart attack are pain in the chest. Heart Attack A heart attack (myocardial infarction) is a restriction of the flow of blood. Even secondhand smoke increases the risk of developing heart disease. and take certain prescription drugs. back. Marijuana is believed to carry similar risks. hypertension.H E Heart Attack Smoking tobacco is one of the leading causes of heart disease. Cigarette smoke also increases the possibility of con- tracting coronary heart disease. fatigue. Heart attacks can cause cardiac arrhythmia. Those with high blood pressure. Conversely. drug use (particularly stimulants like cocaine and methamphetamine). particularly heart valve damage. cold and clammy skin. People must be careful when using prescription and over-the- counter drugs as well. Always check with your doctor before taking any medications. nausea. being male. for instance. Initial treatment includes aspirin to help thin the blood and reduce blood clots. difficulty in breathing. car- diac arrest. People who survive a heart attack should stop smoking. old age. Heart attacks are most often caused by clots blocking the flow of blood in the coronary artery. resulting in the death of heart muscle from lack of oxygen. and lack of exercise. atherosclerosis (narrowing of the arteries caused by a high amount of cholesterol in the bloodstream). and unconsciousness. Other people live up to ten years after a heart attack. should avoid aspirin because it thins the blood and may cause heart complications. the individual may not even notice the symp- toms. Other risk factors include a family history of heart disease. sweating. 86 . arms.

unprotected sex. flu symptoms. loss of breath during simple activ- ities. Acute hepatitis. Again. and sharing needles to inject drugs into the body. breathing difficulty (some can breathe only while sitting up). coma. overactive thyroid gland. Heart failure can occur in the right or left side of the heart. It causes jaundice. and pain in the abdomen. in fact. heart failure can become dangerous. hypertension. indigestion. Hepatitis most often results from viral infection caused by poor hygiene (such as the failure to wash hands). however. loss of appetite. and blood transfusions (primarily in underdeveloped nations). and can result in organ damage. waking at night gasping for breath. and excessive See also: Cardiac Arrest alcohol consumption. birth defects involving the heart.Heart Failure A condition characterized by the heart’s inability to pump enough blood to the organs. weight gain. more severe cases (known as chronic active hepatitis) may result in anemia. resulting in a lack of oxygen. Chronic hepatitis is a condition that lasts for at least six months and perhaps for many years. sore muscles. emphysema. sweating. but it may also include hospitalization. lung scarring. certain medications. anemia. Symptoms are the same as those of acute hepatitis. It can also be caused by certain chemicals and poisons. heart attack. and death.The heart does not actually stop dur- H E Hepatitis ing heart failure. lasts for a few weeks or months. nausea. the more common form. alcoholism. cardiac arrhythmia. loss of appetite. Acute hepatitis can become severe. this illness is often very mild and difficult to detect. certain drugs. drug overdoses (acetamino- phen. and swollen ankles and legs. mild forms may not even require treat- ment. it is not usually a life-threatening condition. viral infections of the heart. Hepatitis Inflammation of the liver. The symptoms of heart failure include fatigue. Most cases are relatively mild and may not even be diagnosed. Treatment focuses on the underlying cause. for example). and surgery (as in the case of heart valve disease). When treated properly and promptly. however. chronic bronchitis. liver failure. enlarged heart. fluid in the lungs. The causes of heart failure include coronary artery disease (lack of blood reaching the heart because of blocked arteries). There are two kinds of hepatitis: acute and chronic. heart valve disease. If not treated. and cirrhosis of the liver. sometimes resulting in permanent liver damage. diabetes. vomiting. 87 .

These products are usually safe when taken in moderation. Extreme overdoses have resulted in death. giving the user an energy boost. safe. Extreme cases are treated with drugs to reduce swelling and other symptoms. Those who have hepatitis caused by drug use should abstain from using drugs and alcohol. cardiac arrhythmia. dizziness. euphoria. Some users become psychologically and physically depend- ent on the effects. sexual stimulants. Herbal stimulants are often advertised as an all-natural. insomnia. he or she may become a “carrier. The most common medical uses for herbal stimulants are as a decongestant to treat asthma and allergies. and nerve damage. Negative side effects or ecstasy. these uses are highly controversial within the medical community. a sense of increased strength. a liver biopsy provides the only sure diagnosis. or ecstasy). and muscle injury.H Herbal In both types. Achieving a high on herbal stimulants. nausea.” or someone Stimulants who can infect others with the illness. shortness of breath. Even when a person recov- ers from viral hepatitis. liver failure. herbal stimulants mimic tingling sensations. Herbal stimulants typically cause The effects of some increased energy. herbal stimulants are drugs that stimulate the central nervous system. ginseng. heart attack. however. sense of awareness.” (usually a result of too large of a dose) include nervousness. These preparations are known to cause intoxication. a heightened those of the drug MDMA. and are sold as “herbal ecstasy. and diet is sometimes modified. ginger. stroke. often entails taking larger doses and mixing products. Most herbal stim- ulants contain a mixture of over-the-counter stimulants (particularly caf- feine and ephedrine but also nightshade. Herbal Stimulant Manufactured from plants. or to increase physical performance. Hepatitis A and B are now pre- ventable by vaccination. More severe side effects include hypertension. and sometimes even hallucinations. particularly those who take them for an energy boost. 88 . vomiting. irritability. and pen- nyroyal). intermittent “rushes” (euphoric peaks). and legal high. They are considered club drugs and are sometimes called “herbal ecstasy” (their effects are similar to MDMA. ginkgo. some people take them as diet aids. however. loss of appetite.

If a person shares a needle with someone who is infected with hepatitis (which can lead to cirrhosis of the liver) or HIV. inability to concentrate. coma. Withdrawal symptoms begin about four hours after the last dose. low heart rate. When these effects disappear. Heroin leads to physical and psychological dependence in as little as two to three days. fatigue. Injecting heroin can lead to skin infections and abscesses as well as bone infections. and twelve-step programs. and hallucinations. muscle and stomach cramps. insomnia. seizures. detoxification. kidney failure. and death. Heroin creates intense euphoria and Methadone Naltrexone generates a loss of concern for the environment around the user. but it is not life-threatening. disorientation. See also: Heroin quickly affects the central nervous system. as well as state governments. hyperventilation. retinal damage. fluid in the lungs. and hot and cold flashes. and low heart rate. constipation. pneu- monia. breathing difficulty. an impaired immune system. itching. A white or brown powder. High The state of being intoxicated by a drug. sweating. this drug can be snorted. these diseases can be transmitted. flushed skin and warm- ness. halted breathing. long-term stays in treatment centers. sleepi- ness. goosebumps. The symptoms of a high depend on the drug. Other short-term effects include dry mouth. unconsciousness. stomach spasms.Herbal stimulants continue to receive attention from the FDA. smoked. More severe effects include extreme weight loss. 89 . Treatment for heroin addiction may include maintenance drugs. nausea. H High Heroin A synthetic opiate derived from—but more powerful than—morphine. and death. diarrhea. but general characteristics include euphoria. vomiting. flulike symp- toms. both decreasing pain Laam and increasing sensations of pleasure. increased heart rate. the user crashes and strongly desires another heroin high. infection of the heart. anxiety. drowsiness. Heroin withdrawal can be severe (resulting in frequent relapses). confusion. sensations of heaviness. bluish skin and lips. peak after thirty-six to seventy-two hours. A heroin over- dose can result in muscle spasms. therapy. heroin is one of the strongest narcotics. In fact. Users build a tolerance for it and soon need more to attain the effects they once did with smaller doses. or injected. and last from seven to ten days. hyperactivity. coma. Symptoms of heroin withdrawal include shivering. calmness. because of the growing number of accidents and deaths that have resulted from overuse.

Eventually this leads to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). to drugs used to treat The symptoms of HIV include fever. Medical professionals commonly wear latex gloves when coming into contact with 90 . which sometimes makes users feel as if they are floating and distant from the people and objects around them. which activate other cells in the immune system. To prevent the spreading of HIV.” when someone intoxicated on hal- lucinogens. a crash is the negative side effect of coming down from a high. HIV can be transmitted from a pregnant mother to her unborn baby. By Protesters in South Africa destroying helper T lymphocytes. Once a person has contracted HIV. HIV Human immunodeficiency virus is an infection of the blood that gradually destroys white blood cells needed to fight infections. direct contact with infected blood can result in the transmission of the virus. people infected with HIV. HIV cannot be transmitted by casual contact or through the air. Sometimes they linger and worsen.The opposite of a high might be a “bad trip. particularly LSD. possibly resulting in death. Some people with HIV can go up to fifteen years or longer without serious complications. These symptoms may last for about two weeks after contracting the virus and then disappear for years. HIV can be transmitted through sexual intercourse. HIV prevents the body from protecting demand affordable access itself against infections and cancers. for which there is no cure. Many people contract HIV from sharing needles used to inject illegal drugs into the body. Transmission requires contact with bodily fluids. the virus multiplies and destroys white blood cells called helper T lymphocytes. The term “high” refers primarily to the effects of smoking mar- ijuana. being high is generally used in a positive context. Treatment for HIV includes a number of antibiotics and antiviral drugs that prevent the virus from reproducing. is having difficulty dealing with the experience. The most common of these drugs is AZT. In drug-user lingo. infected and unin- fected people should practice safe sex or abstain from sex altogether. rash. and swollen lymph nodes. HIV is transmitted in three ways: First. Third. a breakdown of the body’s immune system. Second. Most cases (95 to 100 percent) even- tually develop into AIDS. H HIV Appropriately named. Drug users are cautioned against reusing or sharing needles.

Hydrocodone A synthetic opioid analgesic similar to codeine and used as a pain reliever and a cough suppressant. constipation. or ibuprofen. and attics. and slows respiration. vomiting. blackout. It can lead to physical and psychologi- cal dependence. muscle spasms. possess. slow breathing. seizures. Huffing See Volatile Solvent. These types of marijuana can be grown in closets. and death. basements. Withdrawal symptoms are similar to those of codeine. HIV testing is common in order to determine whether or not an individual is infected. cold and clammy skin.bodily fluids. nausea. sleepiness. or sell marijuana in the United States. An overdose of this drug causes weakness. Medical professionals advise against quitting this drug cold turkey because of the severity of the withdrawal symptoms. impaired mental abilities. hydrocodone may cause dizziness. It is often cheaper than marijuana that comes from other countries. as well as tolerance. Although it is illegal to grow. anxiety. coma. depres- sion. usually for personal use. rash. Hydrocodone has recently been the subject of controversy because more and more people are abusing it. decreases heart rate. confusion. Homegrown H Hydrocodone A term for marijuana grown in a local area or in small quantities. after only three to five days. Many homegrown crops are hydro- ponically grown. making the plants easier to conceal. Like all depressants. This form of marijuana may be stronger than normal because of selective breeding. This drug comes in pill form but is sometimes crushed and snorted by people who abuse it. mood swings. Hydrocodone is commonly prescribed for back pain and migraine headaches and is often combined with acetaminophen. hydrocodone slows the central nervous system. and breathing difficulty. it is estimated that 50 percent of the marijuana in this country is homegrown. or grown primarily in water/nutrient solutions without soil. In addition to relieving pain. aspirin. difficulty in urinating. mainly because the chain of drug dealers is shorter and fewer people take a cut of the profits. 91 . More serious side effects may include cardiac arrhythmia and unconsciousness.

fatigue. These symptoms manifest as fatigue. kidney failure.H Hypertension Hypertension High resting blood pressure. separated by a slash (e. certain prescription drugs may be ordered. These values are represented with the systolic value first. Essential hypertension is not curable. stress. smoking tobacco. and the person may be admitted to a hospital for testing. Treatment for mild hypertension includes weight loss and dieting. certain drugs (particularly cocaine). When untreated for an extended time. excessive salt intake. Approximately 10 percent of hypertension cases (secondary hypertension) are caused by kidney disease. hypertension can lead to seizures. and kidneys. heart. as outlined in the table below. the diastolic second. and blurred vision. High blood pressure is normal for someone engaged in physical exer- tion. Side effects of mild hypertension may include headaches. heart attack. lack of exercise. vomiting. Patients should quit smoking and/or drinking. confusion. Most hypertension cases (essential hyperten- sion) have no specific cause. Hypertension occurs when a person is at rest. and also stop taking any potentially harmful drugs. and nosebleeds.g. It can range from mild to severe. dizziness. Mild hypertension can go unnoticed for a long time. In the worst cases. nausea. eyes. hypertension can cause damage to the brain. anxiety. Blood pressure is measured with two values: Systolic pressure is the pressure when the heart contracts.. 92 . stroke. heart failure. coma. obesity. diastolic pressure is the pressure when the heart relaxes. and alcoholism. but it is manageable. hormonal disorders. 120/80). difficulty in breathing. In more severe cases. Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (ml Hg) because the earliest devices used mercury-filled tubes to measure blood pressure levels. and death.

by people with anxiety disorders. and sleep aids. tranquilizers. This group of drugs includes barbitu- H Hypnotic- rates. irritability. A hypnotic-sedative overdose. slowed breathing. Withdrawal symptoms related to hypnotic-sedatives can be quite severe. but rather to cut back slowly. dizziness. increased heart rate. muscle spasms. can result in blackout. antianxiety drugs. seizures. or a mixture of these drugs and alcohol. euphoria. and many of them are frequently prescribed for insomnia and anxiety disorders. sweating. nausea. Delirium Tremens sedatives are abused by people who have trouble sleeping. Hypnotic. some indi- viduals do not feel healthy for a month after quitting hypnotic-sedatives. and by others who enjoy the high these drugs give them. The effects may include slurred speech. by heroin addicts (who mix them with heroin to increase the effects). and memory loss. halluci- nations.Hypnotic-Sedative Any drug that produces relaxation in small doses (sedative) and intoxication and sleep in larger doses (hypnotic). even life-threatening. anxiety. They can cause See also: physical and psychological dependence and can lead to tolerance. mood swings. loss of coor- dination. and are similar to alcohol withdrawal. insomnia. benzodiazepines. Symptoms can last a week or longer. coma. Hypnotic-sedatives have a high potential for abuse. and death. nausea. Sedative Hypnotic-sedatives are central nervous system depressants. paranoia. Symptoms of withdrawal include restlessness. Many physicians advise not to quit these drugs cold turkey. and death. slowed heart rate. vomiting. The withdrawal symptoms related to barbiturate use are among the most severe. confusion. tremors. 93 . vomiting.

it is much cheaper. This drug. and arthritis and similar conditions. leaving a white substance that looks like ice crystals. diarrhea. Like aspirin. Ice causes intense euphoria. Ice is preferred by some drug users because it is more easily smoked than methamphetamine in powdered form. broken bones. the user can experience a crash as powerful as the high. and fluid retention. shock. People who drink alcohol are at a greater risk of upset stomach. I Ibuprofen Ibuprofen is primarily used to treat fever. Because it is an NSAID. Negative side effects of ibuprofen may include cramps. and nausea. headache. and increased energy. seizures. involving profound depression and withdrawal symptoms. menstrual pain. ringing in the ears. decreased appetite. also called crystal meth. is made by dissolving methamphetamine in water and letting the water evaporate. It can also cause hypertension. Persons who are allergic to aspirin may also be allergic to ibuprofen. Its effects are nearly the same as those of methamphetamine. heartburn.) Less common side effects may include dizziness. It may also cause ulcers. insomnia. often leading to fainting. but they set in more quickly and can last up to twenty-four hours. Like methamphetamine. “Snot” is the term for a freebase form of ice. ibuprofen may be somewhat gentler on the stomach. and death. and mild to moderate pain due to injury. When the drug wears off. Ice A form of methamphetamine that is smoked. drowsiness. and nervous disorders. ibuprofen also reduces swelling from burns. indigestion.Ibuprofen An analgesic commonly found in over-the-counter drugs and pain relievers. 95 . Two drugs very similar to ibuprofen are ketoprofen and naproxen. and it is powerfully addictive. coma. ibuprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). breathing difficulty. but it is more dangerous because the effects last much longer. and liver damage from taking ibuprofen. sprains. cardiac arrhythmia. Ice is often compared to cocaine and crack. itching. ice can quickly lead to physical and psychological dependence. (Although it is very similar in nature to aspirin. An allergic reaction to ibuprofen may include rash. and restriction of air passages. ulcers.

they can spread the virus. Some alcohol-related condi- tions may also cause immunodeficiency disor- ders. white blood cells protect the body The prolonged use of many kinds of illegal drugs (and legal drugs like from infections. allowing infections and other diseases to occur more frequently and to last longer. and others) share their drug needles. and fungi that cause illnesses. which is essen- tially a hyperactive immune system. An immunodeficiency disorder is any of a large group of conditions characterized by a failure of the immune system. parasites. If HIV-positive users of illegal drugs (heroin. and lymph nodes. which can cause immuno- deficiency disorders. spleen. bone marrow. the body’s natural reaction to the introduction of foreign materials. Drugs called immunosuppressants are used to purposely weaken the immune system during organ and tissue transplants. particularly antibi- otics. Such disorders can be spread through the use of certain drugs. 96 . Sharing needles can also result in chronic hepatitis. system. I Immune Immune System (effects of drugs on) The immune system is made up of many types of cells that protect the body from bacteria. or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. several organs also System make up the immune system. An immunodeficiency disorder can cause fatal complications because it decreases the body’s ability to protect itself from disease. including the thymus. Some drugs may cause an allergic reaction. This is to counteract rejection. methamphetamine. Other drugs are typically used to aid the immune system in fighting infections and sickness. viruses. tobacco and alcohol) reduces the immune system’s ability to fight infections and illnesses. In addition to cells. antihistamines. as well as the development of cancerous tumors. and anticancer drugs. Chemotherapy may also As part of the immune cause diseases of the immune system. which eventually develops into the fatal disease AIDS. particularly cirrhosis of the liver and hepatitis.

Inhalants act as depressants on the central nervous system. Inhalants are commonly used by young people (twelve to sixteen) because they are legal and easy to find. distorted perception. The short-term effects of inhalant abuse include lightheadedness. The high attained from inhalants is almost immediate and can last from a few seconds to a few hours depending on the substance. anemia. cardiac arrest. Hundreds of products on the mar- ket are misused as inhalants. numbness. Inject To put drugs—legal and illegal—into the body using a syringe. liver and kidney damage. spasms. Inhalants can cause psychological dependence. A syringe is a tube with a narrow nozzle fitted with a needle to penetrate the skin. cardiac arrhythmia.Inhalant Substance that produces intoxicating effects when its fumes are breathed in. Little or no physical dependence occurs. hallucinations. lung damage. blackout. Sudden Sniffing Death The various sources and effects of inhalants are outlined in the table below. but they can create a tolerance in some users. numbness. floating sensations. and nausea. These substances I Inject are absorbed by the tissues in the throat and lungs and carried rapidly to all parts of the body through the blood. headache. Long-term effects may include severe brain and central nervous system damage. Treatment for inhalant abuse most often entails calculating and See also: managing organ damage and psychological counseling. Injected drugs enter the bloodstream 97 . and bone and bone marrow damage. euphoria. and a rubber seal that can be depressed to inject drugs into the body or with- drawn to extract blood from the body.

I Insulin more quickly than drugs taken in other manners. the quickest method of administering drugs. The purpose is to help the individual recognize his or her problem by com- municating about it in a straightforward. alcohol. and as a result begin acting more quickly. sweating. Too much insulin can cause hypoglycemia. Diabetics are cautioned to carry a sugar source with them to counteract the effects of an insulin overdose. yet compassionate manner. An intravenous injection goes directly into a vein.The more often drugs are injected. or other self-destructive activity. but these reactions are rare. Intervention The process of confronting individuals with their self-destructive behav- ior—often the abuse of drugs and/or alcohol—and urging them to seek help to regain their physical and mental health. Drug users who share needles to inject drugs are at risk of contracting viruses. Insulin A hormone secreted by the pancreas that prevents glucose (sugar) from building up in the bloodstream.” Injecting a drug into a muscle is called intramuscular injection. With the aid of insulin. the more difficult injections become because of the buildup of scar tissue. glucose is absorbed by the liver and by cells to be stored and used when the body needs extra energy. Drug users call this “mainlining. Synthetic insulin can also cause allergic reactions. 98 . particularly hepatitis and HIV. interventions are usually organized by friends and family mem- bers of persons addicted to drugs. Repeated injections tend to cause open wounds that may become infected. stern. dizziness. resulting in weakness. and even coma. Habitual heroin users often have rows of scar tissue (or “needle tracks”) up and down their arms and legs. When the pancreas produces little or no insulin—resulting in hyperglycemia—a person develops diabetes mellitus. Insulin is manufactured synthetically for people who have diabetes mellitus and who must inject it several times a day to keep their blood sugar at a safe level. A subcutaneous injection is an injection beneath the skin. It involves a longer needle to reach the muscle and is used primarily when large amounts of a drug are needed. where the drug is absorbed by small blood vessels into the bloodstream. Often the first step of drug reha- bilitation. including rash and breathing difficulty.

These and other poisons may cause hallucinations. Stimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine can cause accelerated heartbeat. but compas- sionate and respectful. cardiac arrhythmia. This process is designed to prompt the individual to see his or her behavior as destructive and unhealthy. The effects of intoxication from drugs depend on the substance. blackout. 99 . but they must be well organ- ized. hyperactivity. cardiac arrest. loss of inhibitions. the more alco- hol it takes to produce intoxication. such as those in Asian cultures. inter- vention often causes the individual to think hard about his or her actions and the effects they have on others. Generally speaking. anxiety. they are still poisoning themselves and run the risk of permanent damage and death. especially when the group has not planned what to say. and many other side effects. the heavier a person is. While not always immediately successful. Depressants such as alcohol and barbiturates cause slurred speech. Studies have shown that some ethnic groups. what should be said. nausea. Some people make medical or counseling plans for the individual ahead of time. Alcohol and most drugs are actually poisons. depression. slowed breathing and heart rate. Intoxication usually refers to the effects of alcohol consumption. vomiting. heart fail- ure. Although people may take drugs to relax or have a good time. and where and when the intervention should be I Intoxication held. However. As the word suggests. as well as a source of pain for the people close to him or her. people react differently to alcohol consumption. mood swings. increased energy. memory loss. who should be invited (the more caring people the bet- ter). Intoxication See also: The effects of using drugs and alcohol. or of how intoxicated he or she is. and even death if the dose is large enough. Those who drink more often have higher alcohol tolerance levels. Plans should include a meeting of friends and family members to dis- cuss the problem. Intervention groups usually have a leader or speaker. Interventions can be highly successful. have lower alcohol tolerance levels and become intoxicated more quickly. intoxication Alcohol Poisoning involves the toxic results of introducing a poison into the body. Blood alcohol level is a measure of how much alcohol a person has in the blood- stream. seizures. dizziness. This person should not be confrontational. and death. Poorly planned interventions can go awry.

101 . including infection and blood type incompatibility with maternal blood. When bilirubin excre- tion is impeded for any reason. causing jaundice. Conditions resulting in jaundice include anemia. Jaundice can occur from overproduction of bilirubin. These are preferred by some drug users because they last much longer and are more easily shared with a group. Bile is a yellowish fluid J Jaundice secreted by the liver into the intestines to aid in the digestion of fats.Jaundice A yellow discoloration of the skin and eyes caused by abnormally high lev- els of a bile pigment called bilirubin in the blood. liver failure. or joint. and cirrhosis of the liver. damaged red blood cells. and replacing it with marijuana. Eliminated from the body through the kidneys. Some newborns have jaundice caused by various conditions. Joints are made by placing finely chopped marijuana on a thin piece of paper and rolling it into a cigarette. Bilirubin. the inability of bilirubin to pass from the liver cells into bile. it builds up in the blood. Joint A marijuana cigarette. removing the tobacco. Since jaundice is a sign of some greater problem. A blunt is a larger type of joint made by cutting a cigar open. or a blockage of the bile ducts flowing out of the liver. gallstones or tumors in the bile ducts. bilirubin gives urine a dark brown color. is actually a waste product found in bile and is normally excreted with bile into the intestines. The individual may need surgical treat- ment. produced by the breakdown of hemoglobin (the substance in red blood cells that carries oxygen). hepatitis. The ends of a joint are usually crimped or twisted to keep the drug from falling out. most often to remove bile duct blockage. medical aid is usually needed to determine the cause. Joints are preferred by many drug users because they are less conspicuous than pipes and are sometimes mistaken for regular cigarettes. Marijuana is often smoked by rolling it into a cigarette.

While on ketamine. and increased blood pressure. paranoid delusions. This drug comes in liquid and pill form. Ketamine can lead to physical and psychological depend- ence after only a week of use. decreased heart rate and blood pressure. It can be injected or taken orally. but is sometimes crushed and snorted. A ketamine high lasts for only about an hour. amnesia. which can result in accidents and injuries. vomiting.Ketamine An anesthetic used primarily by veterinarians. Ketamine is chemically similar to PCP but is considered safer. floating sensations. nausea. Ketamine has also reportedly been abused as a date-rape drug. although it is sometimes used for humans. and tolerance can develop in those who use it frequently. but ketamine usually does not affect respiration. Ketamine is consid- K Ketamine ered a “gentle” anesthetic that usually does not depress respiration. blackout. especially small children and the elderly. 103 . out-of-body experiences. depressed respiration. can cause hallu- cinations and paranoia. Ketamine is a strange drug that seems to defy categorization. euphoria. It is considered a hypnotic-sedative that relieves pain by causing a “disso- ciative” feeling. Users may feel as if events are not actually happening to them. Ketamine is a type of anesthetic that. users may have no idea what is happening to them. and possibly death. meaning that it causes users to feel as if the mind is separated from the body. when abused. In larger doses it leads to powerful hallucinations (more potent than LSD). Small doses lead to numbness. increased heart rate.

tiny tubes through which blood passes. Certain antibiotics and anticancer drugs also can cause kidney problems. Someone with one or two dysfunctional kidneys (often a fatal condition) may need to have a kidney transplant. Some drugs. Drugs and alcohol reach the liver via the bloodstream. and fats in the blood. caused by many diseases and certain drugs (such as heroin and analgesics). The kidneys filter the blood and excrete waste products in the form of urine. These drugs are used to treat people who retain too much water in the body. water. pro- longed or excessive drug use can cause kidney damage. such as caffeine and alcohol. The liver changes (or metabolizes) drugs and alcohol into substances that can easily be filtered out of the blood by the kidneys. and waste products are taken out of (and sometimes put back into) the blood. or have suffered heart failure or certain kidney and liver disorders.K IKidneys Kidneys (effects of drugs on) The body has two kidneys. Since the kidneys filter drugs from the body in the form of urine. have a diuretic effect. A person can live with only one kidney. results in the loss of valuable proteins and the retention of high levels of salts. organs located below the liver and spleen near the back of the abdomen. The donor is usually a close relative. The tubules are where salts. A con- dition called nephrotic syndrome. Most kidney dam- age occurs in the tubules. water. Certain drugs called diuretics cause the kidneys to remove more water from the blood than normal. 104 . Renal failure (failure of the kidneys) can occur after taking excessive amounts of analgesics for a long time.

a narcotic similar to heroin). and continues for a longer time. Sometimes eating foods high in fiber and drinking large amounts of liquids will relieve constipation without the need for laxatives. It also suppresses heroin withdrawal symptoms such as increased blood pressure. which in turn draws water into it. Withdrawal from laam is similar to heroin. Some stimulate intestinal contraction. There are several kinds of laxatives. potentially making their use less appealing. and craving for heroin. Laxative A drug that treats constipation (difficulty in eliminating feces). vomiting. may include low blood pressure. Laam treatment can go on for years. nausea. Side effects of this drug. as well as tolerance. sets in less quickly. This schedule is designed to prevent abuse of laam. headache. allowing the user to go to work and carry on everyday activities such as driving a car. tremors. “Laughing Gas” See Nitrous Oxide. however. making it softer and easier to pass. Laam is a more recent maintenance drug than methadone and has certain advantages over it. expelling feces more quickly. has fewer narcotic effects.L I Laam Laam Levo-alpha-acetyl-methadol is an opioid analgesic similar to methadone. Laam can also lead to physical and psycho- logical dependence. but it is less severe. usually every two or three days. 106 . after all. to avoid overdose (which can result in coma and death). weakness. vomiting. Some add bulk to feces. dizziness. making it softer and eas- ier to pass. laam relieves pain and depresses the central nervous system much as morphine does without causing euphoria or sedation. cramps. Laam lasts longer than methadone. People who are prescribed laam must report to clinics to receive their regular dose. nausea. In prescribed doses. and has less potential for abuse. Laam is a maintenance drug used by people addicted to opiates (particularly heroin) to prevent relapse. Others increase the amount of salt in the feces. diarrhea. fever. which is considered a positive side effect since it reduces the high received when the individual takes narcotic drugs. and sweating (it is. and to avoid its being sold on the street as a heroin alternative.

Dennis Peron. a legal drug. argue that medicinal use of drugs like marijuana is unnecessary and that the prisons would be even more crowded because of violent crimes committed by drug users. where certain drugs (particularly marijuana and hash) are legally sold. and use. making some drugs legal. Others are interested in a more con- trolled form of legalization. the use of more harmful drugs. They declare that any money made from taxation of drugs Cannabis Cultivators’ would be spent on drug rehabilitation and similar social programs. Another argument highlights the potential increase in profits from the regu- lated production. Many believe that the medicinal use of illegal drugs such as marijuana is reason enough to legalize them. and and founder of the child drug use. taxation. cramps. there would be more prison space for people who commit more violent crimes. Some even claim that legalization would reduce drug addiction rates simply by taking the mystery and thrill out of obtaining and using drugs. and the person should consult a doctor. homelessness. Negative side effects of laxative use include diarrhea. and improper vitamin absorption in the intestines. Others urge that if drugs were legalized. Both sides of the legalization issue see this example in a differ- ent light. Perhaps the most notable example of legalization is the situation in the Netherlands. They also Club. sell. sale. crime. Legalization See also: Gateway Drug A movement to end or modify legislation against drug distribution and possession. while others would remain con- trolled substances. Opponents of drug legalization declare that it would lead to an increase Advocate for the legal- ization of marijuana in addiction rates. Groups in favor of legalization maintain that the “war on drugs” is unsuccessful and results in a waste of tax dollars. or at least decriminalize them. and advertise- ment of certain drugs. Constipation that lasts longer than a week may be a sign of a more L Legalization serious problem. Some groups seek to make all drugs (both hard and soft drugs) legal to manufacture. Proponents of legalization note that Holland’s “harm reduction” legislation seeks to reduce the time and money wasted on the incarceration 107 . Others point out the high number of health and social prob- lems related to the consumption of alcohol. Some laxatives may cause physical dependence and should not be used for longer than a week.

tremors. Opponents of drug legalization point out that the Netherlands is considered the “drugstore of Europe. in small doses it causes sleepiness. Librium can be taken orally or injected.” where soft and hard drug activities alike are ignored by officials. 108 . It is also sometimes used to alleviate the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. It is also used to relieve pain of sunburn and hemorrhoids. injected. clumsiness. blurred vision. See also: Delirium Tremens Librium The brand name of the benzodiazepine chlordiazepoxide prescribed to treat anxiety disorders and insomnia. slurred speech. tremors. L I Librium of people who buy and sell “soft drugs” comparable to alcohol and tobacco. Negative side effects of the drug may include nausea and vomiting. lack of coordination. vomiting. and death. anxiety. mainly dealers and traffickers in hard drugs. bluish skin. Lidocaine is sometimes given intravenously after a heart attack to reduce the chance of cardiac arrhythmia and other complications. coma. Withdrawal symptoms include cramps. as well as high crime statistics. They say it helps to differentiate between recreational drug users who pose no real risk to society. Like all depressants. Negative side effects may include drowsiness. rash. intoxication. Lidocaine A local anesthetic used to numb body parts before minor surgery. drowsiness. anxiety. and in larger doses it can cause unconsciousness. and seizures. They claim that this has led to some of the highest addiction rates in the world. It can also be injected into the spine during childbirth to reduce pain. confusion. memory loss. nausea. insomnia. depression. mood swings. or applied to the skin as a lotion. and those who represent a criminal element. blackout. confusion. Medical professionals recommend against quitting Librium cold turkey because of the severity of the withdrawal symptoms. which can be similar to those of alcohol and barbiturate withdrawal. It acts as a hypnotic-sedative. Taking Librium regularly for about two weeks can result in physical and psychological dependence. headache. breathing difficulty. and seizures. hallucinations. cardiac arrhythmia. Lidocaine can be taken orally. muscle spasms. breathing difficulty. as well as tolerance. sweating. Librium slows the central nervous system. An overdose of Librium can result in weakness. trembling. cramps.

heart problems or kidney problems. Long-term use of lithium can result in thy- roid problems. however. In addition. including goiter. kidney damage. People with thyroid disorders. diffi- culty in concentrating. drowsiness. the blood of poisonous substances. the liver detoxifies. anxiety. Lithium typically acts as a mild tranquilizer and acts to reduce excess See also: nerve activity by balancing the levels of neurotransmitters (chemical mes. Lithium. Hypnotic-Sedative frequent urination. hep- atitis. seizures. rash. and can worsen certain kidney problems. coma. and fainting. and death. bluish skin. 109 . eliminating them through the kidneys. Since it is more effective on manic disorders. lack of coordination. dizziness. and death. Lithium is similar to sodium and was L I Liver actually used as a salt substitute in the early 1900s until it was found to cause deaths in heart patients. cardiac arrhythmia. nausea. lithium is sometimes mixed with antidepressants (such as Prozac) to treat manic-depressive dis- order. Many poisonous substances (including drugs and alcohol) are processed in the liver. vomiting. leading to dehy- dration. seizures. nausea.Lithium A metallic element of the periodic table. Antipsychotic Drug sengers) in the central nervous system. and tremors. rash. stupor. Lithium is taken orally and may take one to three weeks to affect the patient. mood swings. cardiac arrhythmia. lithium has been used as a seda- tive and antidepressant for centuries. trouble sleeping. blurred vision. People who frequently consume poisonous substances run the risk of developing liver diseases such as cancer. Lithium can cause a patient to lose too much salt. trouble in urinating. blackout. Less common side effects may include acne. low blood pressure. weakness. Lithium is not believed to be habit forming and has no withdrawal symptoms. or cleanses. thirst. or dia- betes should avoid using lithium. tumors. Drugs and alcohol can become even more toxic when acted upon by the liver. As a drug it is primarily used to treat patients with mania and bipolar disorder (mood swings between depression and mania). It changes nutrients into chemicals the body can use to aid growth and preserve health. fatigue. coma. vomiting. is known to stop acting for patients with more per- sistent cases of mania and depression. A lithium overdose can result in slurred speech. Negative side effects include diarrhea. cirrhosis. Liver (effects of drugs on) The liver is an organ below the lungs on the right side of the body that metabolizes the nutrients and vitamins in foods and beverages. low blood pressure. diarrhea. and others.

low blood pressure occurs most commonly from Hypertension standing up too quickly. Younger people normally have low blood pressure. Negative side effects may occur upon initially taking this drug but commonly disap- pear after continued use or after reducing the dosage. insomnia. An overdose of lorazepam can cause sleepiness. and seizures.Withdrawal symptoms are similar to those of alcohol and barbiturate withdrawal: sweating. blackout. including fat accumulation in the liver. inflammation of the liver (hepatitis). Lorazepam See also: A benzodiazepine that acts as a tranquilizer as well as a sedative. rash. The drug is taken orally or injected. People with 110 . Like most depressants. nausea. and alco- hol. vomiting. Low blood pressure can cause dizziness and blackout from lack of oxy- gen reaching the brain. headache. low blood pressure. but it can also be caused by injuries involving blood loss. nausea. This may result in a hepatic coma. rash. cramps. stupor. A damaged liver is less able to rid the body of harmful substances. and memory loss. it may be necessary to perform a liver transplant to save the life of the patient. a potentially fatal condition characterized by sleepiness. People who abuse alcohol (or even use it regularly) can suffer permanent liver damage. the older people get. nausea. and hand tremors. vomiting. Lorazepam can cause physical and psychological dependence. confusion. It is also prescribed to help control epileptic seizures. shock. lorazepam slows the central nervous system. as well as tolerance. heart attack. L ILorazepam Perhaps the most damaging substance for the liver is alcohol. low blood pressure. coma. These side effects may include sleepiness. large doses of certain drugs. vomiting. but in moderate doses it usually does not affect breathing and heart rate. and it is not always a cause for alarm. the higher their blood pressure usually rises. diabetes. When the liver becomes irreparably damaged by alcohol (or other poisons). depressed respiration. tremors. lack of coordination. depression. and death. low blood pressure. Lorazepam injections have been known to cause hypertension. The severity depends on duration of use and size of doses. confusion. weakness. Low Blood Pressure See also: Also called hypotension. and short-term memory loss. Some people naturally have low blood pressure. and scarring of the liver (cirrhosis). Lorazepam Antianxiety Drug is most often prescribed for anxiety disorders and depression but is some- Hypnotic-Sedative times used as a presurgery anesthetic.

Luminal is also used to prevent seizures in people who have epilepsy and to treat a seizure in progress. LSD is considered a recreational drug and is most often taken in social circles and large groups. but users do not usually suffer withdrawal symptoms. or added to drinks. and panic attacks. insomnia. The best remedy for a bad trip is a quiet room and the company of a friend. increased heart rate. The drug begins act- ing thirty to ninety minutes after consumption and can last up to twelve hours. nervousness. particularly from accidents and delusion-generated injuries. can cause dilated pupils. a hypnotic-sedative used to treat insomnia and anxiety. Treating chronic or problematic low blood pressure is a matter of treating the underlying cause. it can lead to death indirectly. The drug is taken orally or injected. loss of appetite. fever. easy bruising or bleeding. which may involve intense para- noia. tremors. and most people quit using it after a short period of experimentation or a longer period of habitual use. breathing difficulty. even experienced users can have bad trips. dizziness. headache. LSD is not addictive. Luminal slows the central nervous system. LSD use can lead to tolerance in as little as three days. nausea. increased blood pressure. unpredictable mood swings. It is widely used as a club drug and is often found at concerts and raves (all-night dances). sweating. frightening hallucinations. Negative side effects may include sleepiness. especially inexperienced ones. increased energy. depression. and hallucina- tions. months. L I Luminal LSD Lysergic acid diethylamide is a hallucinogenic drug manufactured from ergot. intoxication. Although LSD use does not cause death directly. poor coordination. nightmares. fear. depression. applied to small squares of paper or sugar cubes to be eaten.blood pressure lower than normal live longer on average than those with normal or high blood pressure. A few drops are very potent. The effects of LSD are unpredictable. swollen face and tongue. LSD is a liquid that is dropped on the tongue. People who use this drug may experience flashbacks weeks. Like all depressants. called a trip. hives. or years after they stop using it. vomiting. paranoid delusions. An LSD high. burning at 111 . dry mouth. undergo particularly “bad trips” because they are not prepared for the intensity of the effects of LSD. Some users. Luminal The brand name of the barbiturate phenobarbital.

Even secondhand smoke can cause these ailments when a person is subjected to it for an extended period of time. and death. low blood pressure. and abscesses in the lungs. barbiturates. fatigue. The number one cause of lung cancer is smoking tobacco. confusion. MDMA. Long-term use can lead to liver damage.L I Lungs injection site. seizures. delirium. muscle spasms. low blood pressure. Depressants such as hypnotic-sedatives. In fact. which is usually less dangerous than depressed respiration. Other lung diseases caused by cigarette smoke include chronic bronchitis. can develop lung problems like pneumonia. stimu- lants like amphetamines. In high doses. Cigarettes and other tobacco products cause the buildup of tar and other harmful chemi- cals in the lungs. pneumonia. and herbal stimulants can increase respiration. hallucinations. hallucinations. especially heroin. benzodiazepines. pulmonary embolism (blood clot in an artery of the lung). including about forty carcinogens. blackout. tranquilizers. and asthma. delirium. cocaine. decreased heart rate. Withdrawal symptoms include anxiety. any inhaled drug can have this effect on the body. heart failure. Inhalant abuse can result in burned lung tissue or lung tissue that becomes coated with the inhaled substance. nausea. these drugs can cause blackout from a lack of oxygen reaching the brain and halted respiration. cardiac arrhythmia. Lungs (effects of drugs on) Different drugs have a variety of negative side effects on the lungs. tremors. decreased breathing. slow heart beat. pneumonia. difficulty in concentrating. insomnia. An overdose of Luminal results in slowed or halted breathing. Long-term marijuana use is believed to have the same effects on the lungs. vomiting. emphy- sema. sometimes causing the user to take larger doses. Luminal can lead to physical and psychological dependence in just two weeks. and anemia. People who abuse narcotics. Prolonged use can lead to tolerance. dizziness. 112 . and narcotics can slow the rate of respiration and make breathing difficult. deep sleep. and death. alcohol. confusion. coma. headache. At the other end of the spectrum. which can result in overdose. causing death from a lack of oxygen reaching the brain. since it naturally takes the place of oxygen entering the lungs.

gambling. Most manic episodes last from a week to a few months and often result in depression. particularly one Antabuse that blocks heroin cravings and reduces the potential for relapse. it can lead to delusions of power. Alcoholics Laam are sometimes prescribed drugs when trying to quit drinking alcohol. However. but it takes one to two weeks to act. wealth. the person may display frequent impatience. Methadone Naltrexone Maintenance drugs may also be considered antidotes because they counteract the effects of more harmful substances. Maintenance Drug See also: Prescription drug that helps a person maintain sobriety. people with mania sometimes even believe they are God. Mania can also lead to addiction to drugs. Lithium is used in cases of bipolar disorder. People who develop mania are usually happier and more active than normal at first. from mania to depression. He or she may have delusions of persecution and see and hear things that are not really present. bipolar disorder involves recurring onsets of mania and depression. increased activity. especially lorazepam. euphoria. and even sex. and anxiety Hallucination for no apparent reason. such as twelve-step programs and counseling. If the disorder is allowed to progress. Some benzodiazepines are also helpful in treating mania.M I “Magic “Magic Mushroom” See Psilocybin. and intellect. This may make mania difficult to diagnose initially. Mania usually manifests as a symptom of bipolar disorder. lack of sleep or interest in sleep. As the disorder develops. Lithium is particularly helpful in treating mania. happiness may give way to irritability and even aggression. Treatment for mania is usually based on prescription antianxiety drugs. Mushroom” Mainline See Inject. a condition distinguished by extreme mood swings. Lithium lessens the mood swings 114 . Mania See also: A mental disorder characterized by excessive activity. and vio- lent outbursts. This method of treatment is often combined with other methods. Formerly known as manic-depressive disorder. alcohol. difficulty in concentrating.

or THC. and some researchers believe that heavy marijuana use can result in permanent brain damage. Some long-term effects are similar to those of smoking tobacco: deterioration of lung tissue. not a physical one. Marijuana produces lightheadedness or a high in its users. and shape of its leaves. Marijuana is considered a recreational drug. 115 . but some extreme users report interrupted sleep and edginess when they quit. people with mania are admit- ted to a hospital for observation. anxiety. Users most often inhale the smoke produced from burning this drug—either as a joint or in a pipe—but it can also be ingested. only one is responsible for the feeling of light- headedness—tetrahydrocannabinol. one that is usually shared with others in social surroundings. and frequent chest colds. and buds (flowers) of the hemp plant (Cannabis sativa). In rare cases. Although it contains more than 400 chemicals. THC suppresses the neurons in the informa- tion-processing system in an area of the brain called the hippocampus.between mania and depression. smoking marijuana can become habitual. Addiction to marijuana is primarily a psy- chological problem. and depres- sion. stems. but the negative effects can last up to two days. loss of coordina- tion. Treatment possibilities include outpatient and residential programs. Short-term effects of smoking marijuana include increased heart rate. For some. Withdrawal symptoms do not occur when the drug is discontinued. Marijuana M Marijuana The leaves. group counseling. individual counseling. distorted perception. A marijuana high lasts two to three hours. The hemp plant can be often in conjunction with twelve-step programs. seeds. Other types of treatment easily identified by the include home or family-based treatment for youths. chronic bronchitis.

mem- ory loss. The effects begin in thirty minutes and last four to six hours. It is still unclear if it causes physical dependence and withdrawal symptoms. is a stimulant commonly known as ecstasy. and because it makes users especially friendly. It is chemically similar to methamphetamine and is a hallucinogen similar to mescaline.M I MDMA MDMA MDMA. arrhythmia. More Ecstasy is commonly serious effects may include anxiety. muscular tension. and cardiac found in pill form. and brain damage. increased sexual impulses. MDMA sometimes causes death when a user dances for hours in a hot club and becomes dehy- drated to the point of exhaustion and heart failure. It is considered a club drug because of its hallucinogenic properties and the extra energy it gives its users. MDMA was originally manufactured in 1913 as a diet drug but was quickly found to be unpredictable and disappeared for decades. and talkativeness. MDMA is not a designer drug (because it is listed as a controlled substance). dehydration. and similar drugs reappeared in the 1960s and quickly became known as “love drugs” because they typically enhance a person’s sense of compassion. or methylenedimethoxyamphetamine. insomnia. MDMA can lead to psychological dependence and tolerance. Legalization Cocaine was considered an effective anesthetic and analgesic until it was replaced by safer. paranoia. Other side effects of MDMA include increased heart rate. An MDMA overdose results in high blood pressure. hyperactivity. heart failure. seizures. increased body heat. MDMA. panic attacks. 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine. hallucinations. illegal substances. Although it is often manufactured in underground labs. increased confidence. heat stroke. MDA. Recent research has revealed that long-term MDMA use causes depression. MDMA affects the way a neurotransmitter (chemical messenger) called serotonin acts in the central nervous system. or injected. nervousness. or 3. Opioid analgesics similar to heroin 116 . blackout. It is a derivative of a similar drug called MDA. and death. less addictive drugs. euphoria. Medicinal Uses of Illegal Drugs See also: Many illegal drugs were first developed to be used as medicinal drugs but Decriminalization were found to be unsafe and were labeled controlled. snorted. The drug comes in powder or pill form and can be swallowed.

The drug is also helpful in treating nausea and loss of appetite. More serious effects may include fever. Meprobamate can lead to physical and psychological dependence. although it is not successful in all patients. breathing difficulty. Meprobamate comes in pill form and is used less frequently today. hallucinations.(like morphine and codeine) are still used as powerful pain relievers and cough suppressants. blurred vision. fatigue. and LSD were originally developed for legitimate purposes but were deemed unsafe and illegal after extensive testing. Hypertension Meprobamate An antianxiety drug used to treat anxiety. The use of marijuana and synthetic cannabis derivatives is currently a widely debated topic. and muscle spasms. the negative side See also: effects of chemotherapy. It has been used to treat the side effects of cancer treatment. but they are highly regulated because of their addictive qualities. euphoria. 117 . nausea. confusion. and death. Side effects include dizziness. Marijuana has been found to be an effective treatment for a number of ailments and diseases. and loss of appetite. irritability. Like most depressants. confusion. The drugs M I Meprobamate PCP. nausea. bluish skin. Chronic seizures (epilepsy) have been treated with marijuana. numbness. slow heartbeat. vomiting. tremors. blurred vision. People who take large doses of meprobamate to achieve a high may experience slurred speech. confusion. breathing difficulty. meprobamate slows down the central nervous sys- tem. and other diseases that cause chronic pain. coma. and blackout. methamphetamine. nausea. and seizures. and euphoria. and dizziness. seizures. blackout. Meprobamate overdose causes weakness. This drug is combined with aspirin to treat moderate pain and anxiety and is sometimes used before surgery. Rohypnol is a powerful hypnotic-sedative that is illegal in the United States but is legally sold in Mexico. and Europe. swollen ankles. cardiac arrhythmia. Meprobamate is a tranquilizer similar in effect (but not composition) to barbiturates. vomiting. extreme confusion. bruising. headache. slurred speech. It is rarely used as a sleep aid. Marijuana decreases ocular pressure in people who have glaucoma and can sometimes cure patients of this condition. and may include tremors. but not as potent. AIDS. weakness. tremors. South America. multiple sclerosis. rash. tension. Users can develop tolerance to it and experience withdrawal symptoms when they quit after long-term use. diarrhea. Withdrawal symptoms are similar to those of alcohol and barbiturates.

but it may cause psychological dependence. to avoid overdose (which can result in coma and death). but methadone is also used in larger who are breaking an doses as a pain reliever after surgery. lack of coordination. and respiration. Peyote itself contains some fifty psychoactive ingredients (chemicals that affect the mind). and subjectively spiritual experiences. members of certain Native American religious groups may possess it for religious practices. tered orally to people This use is as a maintenance drug. This schedule is designed to prevent methadone abuse.The hallucinations are consid- ered spiritual visions. and even injected. “bad trip” (an unpleasant hallucinogen high). 118 . and to avoid it being sold on the street as a heroin alternative. heartbeat. A mescaline overdose may result in paranoid delusions. Mescaline was one of the first hallucinogens to be syntheti- cally manufactured in labs. and possibly death. While it is illegal for most people to possess mescaline. mood swings. Mescaline is usually taken orally in the form of peyote “buttons” (dried top parts of the cactus plants). Mescaline does not cause physical depend- ence. but it can also be made into a powder and put into capsules. Methadone An opioid analgesic used by people trying to Methadone is adminis- break addiction to opiates (particularly heroin) to help prevent relapse. These groups have been using peyote and similar hallucinogenic substances for hundreds of years. smoked. Mescaline produces effects similar to amphetamines by increasing blood pressure. Other side effects include itching.M I Mescaline Mescaline A hallucinogen found in cactus plants—most notably peyote—that grow in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. (although in rare cases individuals are given a take-home supply). confusion. People who are prescribed addiction to heroin or methadone must report to clinics to receive their regular dose every day other opiates. feelings of empathy with others. It is also similar to LSD (although far less potent) in that it causes hallucinations by altering the levels of certain neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) in the central nervous system. includ- ing mescaline. vomiting (most often from its offensive taste). body temperature. No withdrawal symptoms occur. It takes about an hour to affect the user and lasts about twelve hours. as well as tolerance.

anxiety. potentially making narcotic use less appealing. confusion. seizures. paranoia. brain damage. Methamphetamine is made in underground labs from over-the-counter drugs (ephedrine. Withdrawal symptoms include extreme depression. Methamphetamine use can lead to physical and psychological depend- ence. stroke. seizures. nervousness. may include low blood pressure. for example) and other ingredients (hydrochloric acid. hal- lucinations. MMetham- and craving for heroin. sets in less quickly. a narcotic similar to heroin). lung problems. headache. loss of appetite. antifreeze) that are easy to obtain. numbness. tremors. Methamphetamine An illegal synthetic amphetamine. muscle spasms. Withdrawal from methadone is also similar to that of heroin. and it is possible to drive a car and work at a job while on this drug. but it is less severe. increased heartbeat. Methadone treatment can be an ongoing process. and hunger. lye. aggressive behavior. kidney damage. but others praise it for its ability to help heroin addicts lead normal lives. talkativeness. vomiting. smoked. A methamphetamine high can be very exhilarating and can kick in very quickly (often called a “rush”). The effects of long-term methamphetamine use include blood vessel damage. Methadone relieves pain and depresses the central nervous system as morphine does without causing euphoria or sedation (in prescribed doses). and continues longer. nausea. and depression. liver damage. It also suppresses the heroin withdrawal symptoms of increased blood pressure. Side effects. damaged immune system. schizophrenia. chronic depression. vomiting. snorted. The effects last eight to twenty-four hours. and blackout. insomnia. and paranoid delusions. cramps. Critics say that methadone treatment is replacing one addiction with another. phetamine dizziness. or injected. More serious effects may include cardiac arrhythmia. It can be taken orally. depending on the form and dosage. itching. chronic hallucinations. after all. false sense of power. aggressive behavior. mood swings. weakness. fever. and death. as well as tolerance. which is considered a positive side effect since it reduces the high obtained when the individual takes narcotic drugs. A methamphetamine overdose results in high fever. battery acid. Methadone can also lead to physical and psychological dependence. When 119 . extreme rise in body temperature. however. People can function safely on methadone. heart failure. Side effects of this drug include increased alertness. fatigue. sometimes lasting up to ten years. This drug is a powerful stimulant that speeds up the central nervous system similar to the way adrenaline does. and sweating (it is. nausea. malnutri- tion.

chocolate. Most problems occur when the patient fails to take a large enough dose or abruptly stops using MAOIs. MAOIs also keep the body from metabolizing certain compounds. These foods can cause hypertensive crisis. MAOIs are used when other antidepressants have failed because they are more dangerous and unpredictable. Short-term side effects include cardiac arrhythmia. MAOIs can have negative and fatal reactions when mixed with other medications. MAOIs raise the levels of certain neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) in the brain that naturally fight depression and other mental illnesses. soy sauce. It is often abused as a club Oxidase Inhibitor drug for these reasons. At this point. insomnia. Methamphetamine is taken for the intense sense of euphoria it gives its users and its ability to increase physical stamina. Tolerance and addiction to MAOIs are rare. vomiting. dizziness. and anxiety. muscle cramps. constipation. meat tenderizers. yogurt. a very dangerous and rapid form of hypertension. sour cream. chicken liver. excessive sweating. especially other antidepressants. monosodium glutamate. certain types of beans. and others. beer. cramps. This situation often leads to methamphetamine relapse during drug rehabilitation. including nausea. It commonly takes two to three weeks for the positive effects of MAOIs to set in. and sexual dysfunction. In addition to raising the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain. insomnia. People taking MAOIs are also instructed to carry an MAOI antidote in case of emergency. including aged cheeses and meats. weight gain.M Monoamine it wears off. however. MAOIs do not lead to sedation as often. chills. salted fish. 120 . Unlike other antidepressants. diarrhea. Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor (MAOI) A class of antidepressants used to treat depression. People taking MAOIs for depression are placed on a restrictive diet that avoids a long list of foods. over-ripe fruits. and they usually crave more of the drug to avoid depression and withdrawal symptoms. withdrawal symptoms may occur. thus making some foods toxic. users experience a profound crash.

Long- term effects may include malnutrition. blackout. seizures. coma.Morphine A quick-acting opioid analgesic used to treat moderate to severe pain due to heart attack. surgery. coma. cramps. It can be taken orally or injected. vomiting. itching. headache. low blood pressure. sweating. impaired immune system. blurred vision. low blood pressure. In addition to pain relief. Since antihistamines cause sleepiness. stomach cramps. People experi- encing chronic pain due to injury or cancer can quickly form an addiction to morphine. tremors. and tremors. Negative side effects are rare but may include blurred vision. people who plan on driving a motor vehicle (or any other vehicle) should not use them. and boats. difficulty in concentrating. and cancer. Withdrawal symptoms are the same as those of heroin abuse and include nausea. short-term side effects of morphine include fatigue. headache. nausea. cardiac arrhythmia. euphoria. and confusion. weakness. confusion. dry mouth. which is sometimes snorted by abusers. vomiting. rash. Morphine is Sickness Drug usually given only as a last resort because it is a strong depressant that can slow breathing and heartbeat. bluish skin. planes. and infec- tion of the heart valves. as well as tolerance. and death. breathing difficulty. More serious effects may include hallucina- tions. dizziness. vomiting. and death. sweating. and related sicknesses while traveling in cars. cardiac arrhythmia. constipation. These drugs work best when taken thirty minutes to an hour before traveling. A morphine overdose can result in muscle spasms. breathing difficulty. serious injury. It also comes in powder form. Morphine use can lead to physical and psychological dependence. This drug also typically M Motion makes patients feel carefree as it makes pain less bothersome. 121 .Treatment for addiction often includes maintenance drugs such as methadone or laam. and cardiac arrhythmia. blackout. cramps. Motion Sickness Drug Antihistamines—prescription and over-the-counter drugs—that help prevent nausea. constipation.

Naltrexone Naltrexone binds to opioid receptors in the brain. blackout. Narcotic An addictive drug—primarily an opiate—used to treat pain. constipation. Additional side effects may include rash. insom- nia. euphoria. such as codeine and morphine. 123 . It has no withdrawal symptoms. flushed skin. blocking the high from narcotics and alcohol. seizures. as with fentanyl. Efforts to cancel out the effects of this drug by taking narcotics can result in coma or death. smoked. Naltrexone does not block the impairment caused by consuming alcohol. vomiting. it won’t “sober you up”). It N comes in pill form. thus blocking the pleasure in using them. loss of appetite. In excess doses. Narcotics are depressants. hallucinations.Naltrexone A prescription drug used to treat narcotic addiction and alcoholism. An overdose of narcotics can result in slowed breathing. as well as their pleasurable effects. coma. chills. while others are synthetically manufac. decreased heart rate. smoke opium from a pipe and a bong in an opium itching. low body temperature. fluid in the lungs. throughout the world. Naltrexone should not be considered a cure for alcoholism or addic- tion to narcotic drugs. Naltrexone blocks narcotic and alcohol cravings. anxi- ety. two men Other side effects include pain relief. Opiates are used tured.” Here. just the euphoric effects (in other words. It can help overcome these addictions when it is part of a drug rehabilitation program including counseling and twelve-step pro- grams. nal- trexone can cause liver damage. Some narcotics. or injected. and a single dose lasts for twenty-four hours. The term “opioid analgesic” refers to narcotics medically used to treat moderate to severe pain. Naltrexone treatment should begin only after the person is no longer dependent on narcotics or alcohol because it can trigger withdrawal symp- toms. headache. blurred vision. These drugs can be taken orally. dens. dizziness. are illegal and have lit- tle or no medicinal significance. such as heroin. fever. around the user. Most of these symptoms are rare and should disappear shortly after beginning treatment. it is not addictive. causing often smoked in “opium low blood pressure. cramps. Some are natu- rally derived from the poppy plant. and cardiac arrhythmia. confusion. diarrhea. depressed breathing. and death. Since naltrexone does not induce a high. nausea. breath- ing difficulty. which slow the central nervous system. and a lack of concern for events happening den in Thailand. and fatigue. depression. constipation. mood changes.

Narcotics Some people abuse narcotics because of chronic pain. Long-term effects may include anemia. Withdrawal symptoms include restlessness. counseling. blackout. Other side effects may include blurred vision. swollen lips. and brain damage. An overdose of Nembutal can result in kidney failure. This drug is also used to treat insomnia. Less common but more severe effects may include allergic reaction. insomnia. and diarrhea. Like all depressants. drowsiness. and users quickly build a tolerance. Narcotics Anonymous See Twelve-Step Program. which is used to treat and prevent seizures. slowed reflexes. closing of the throat. breathing difficulty. delirium. and lymph node infections. Nembutal slows the central nervous system. dizziness. maintenance drugs. coma. scar tissue on the arms and legs. anxiety. aching muscles.These symptoms usually occur four to six hours after last using the drug and can last up to two weeks or more. Nembutal can cause physical and psychological dependence. 124 . It is better to cut back gradually. as well as toler- ance. fever. Doctors advise against quitting Nembutal cold turkey because the withdrawal symptoms can be quite severe. weak pulse. sweating. and death. Nembutal The brand name of the barbiturate phenobarbital. Treatment for narcotic addiction may include detoxification. Withdrawal symptoms include anxiety. and night- mares. increased Opiate/Opium heartbeat. rapid breathing. N Long-term effects of narcotic abuse can include lung problems. depressed respiration. and bruising. liver damage. low blood pressure. resulting in decreased blood pressure. and high blood pressure. anxiety. headache. nausea. tremors. and fever. impaired immune system. confusion. Narcotics can lead to physical and psychological dependence in as little as two days. anxiety. pneumonia. Needle Tracks See Inject. and twelve-step programs (Narcotics Anonymous). and slowed heartbeat. and depression. sweating. others use ille- Anonymous gal and prescription narcotics for their euphoric effects. The use of needles to inject narcotics can result in hepatitis and HIV (from sharing infected needles). itching. slurred speech. irritability. Withdrawal from narcotics can be quite severe but See also: Maintenance Drug is not life-threatening. heart attack. vomit- ing. skin infections. goosebumps.

extra alertness. fatigue. Nicotine is actually a powerful poison. muscle relaxants. peptic ulcers (sores in the lining of the stomach). particularly sedatives. anxiety. Hypnotic-Sedative ily. Belladonna is 125 . eggplants. Nicotine causes some people to use tobacco products for many years and is subsequently the main cause of many long-term problems. headache.These same plants also have a history of being abused for their euphoric effects. insomnia. as little as two drops could be fatal. barbiturates. Withdrawal symptoms may include drowsiness. When tobacco is smoked or chewed. and an energy boost.Nicotine The drug found in tobacco to which people become addicted. narrowed blood vessels. headaches. including tomatoes. difficulty in concentrating. including coronary heart disease. nicotine enters the bloodstream Nightshade and speeds up the central nervous system in about eight seconds. Nightshade A large group of plants that contain a poisonous substance called solanine. rapid/slow heartbeat. Nicotine is a stimulant found in tobacco plants. hypertension. Some nightshade plants are used to make certain prescription drugs. and even seizures. Tobacco is also a member of the nightshade family. and anesthetics. Some deriv- atives of nicotine are used as strong pesticides. Belladonna (Italian for “beautiful lady”) was once used as a cosmetic by women to dilate the eyes. high blood pressure. and alcohol. and sometimes blackout. nausea. New See also: smokers must build a tolerance for nicotine before the toxic symptoms pass. and certain peppers. the side effects of smoking include increased heartbeat. cancer. sweating. irritability. potatoes. See also: Many common plants and vegetables are members of the nightshade fam. as well as tolerance. It can be found in sedatives. The levels of solanine in these vegetables are so low that they are harmless. or more so. seizures. vomiting. Excessive nicotine intake can result in vomiting. Nicotine can lead to physical and psy- chological dependence. Cigarette/Cigar These symptoms (sometimes called nicotine intoxication) include vertigo. hand tremors. asthma medications. Some researchers believe it is as addictive as heroin. Nicotine is one of the most widely used drugs in the world and one of the most addictive. and (rarely) death. and disorders of the reproductive system. Nicotine withdrawal can be quite difficult to manage. For people who have built a tolerance to nicotine. Most cigarettes contain approximately one milligram of nicotine. vomiting. nausea. but it can also be synthetically manufac- N tured. and relapse often occurs.

a nightshade overdose can result in seizures. Inhaling nitrous oxide (and all inhalants) can deprive the body of oxygen. odorless gas used as an anesthetic by physicians and dentists Sudden Sniffing Death because it temporarily eliminates pain. N sometimes used to treat eye diseases. to pre- vent their abuse. People who inhale the gas straight from the tank have been known to suffer frostbite of the nose. 3. resulting in damage to bone marrow and the nervous system and causing loss of sensation in the extremities. nausea. lips. shock. and cardiac arrhythmia. Nitrous oxide is frequently abused as an inhalant. and kidney and liver damage. or “whip-its. diarrhea. such as keeping certain products in a locked cabinet. sometimes permanent.” could once be obtained eas- ily by young children and teens. Belladonna was abused in medieval times as a hallucinogen. delirium. and vocal cords. Even though it is considered a weak anesthetic. Nitrous oxide can cause disorientation that sometimes results in physical injury and accident. headache. Nitrous Oxide See also: A colorless. Nitrous oxide is also known as “laughing gas” because people become euphoric and silly when inhaling it. and is believed to be an antidote to opium-based drugs. hallucinations. 6. Similar to belladonna is a plant called jimsonweed. and paralysis. fever. 4. causing permanent damage. coma. 2. Prolonged use of nitrous oxide can interfere with the action of vita- min B12 in the body. In the past few years stores have instituted precautions. slow or rapid pulse. Nitrous Oxide The side effects of nightshade include low body temperature. unconsciousness can result if enough is inhaled. vomiting. lack of coordination. Used as a propellant in aerosol products. miscarriages. Nitrous oxide can cause cardiac arrhythmia or cardiac arrest. Chronic nitrous oxide abuse has been shown to cause birth defects. 5. Several dangers are associated with this anesthetic when abused as an inhalant: 1. resulting in unconsciousness or even death. blackout. slowed breathing. and death. cramps. nitrous oxide. stomach cramps and pain. weakness. Although rare. 126 . Since users become anesthetized. they may not realize that they are injured.This drug increases heart rate.

Sometimes it is mixed with epinephrine. menstrual pain. Rare side effects may include drowsiness. itching. These chemicals cause inflammation and send pain signals Aspirin to the brain when someone is injured. especially aspirin. Novocaine A local anesthetic. and anxiety. NSAIDs may also cause indigestion. such as lidocaine. Novocaine was initially derived from cocaine in 1905. Negative side effects of novocaine may include allergy symptoms. ringing in the ears. are less irritating to the stomach than aspirin. cocaine was the anesthetic most doctors chose to use. broken bones. Novocaine is used to numb body parts before minor sur. and diarrhea. Alone. and other injuries. headache. in addition to relieving pain. Prior to that time. can cause digestive problems. The only over-the-counter analgesic that is not an NSAID is acetaminophen. becoming potentially life- threatening. particu- larly peptic ulcers (open sores in the lining of the stomach). Novocaine has been largely replaced by anesthetics that work faster and last longer. nausea. and swelling of the mouth and throat. All NSAIDs. N They are also used to treat chronic back pain. such as ibuprofen. NSAIDs act by blocking the production of body chemicals called See also: prostaglandins. Some NSAIDs. such as rash. hives.Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug One of several over-the-counter analgesics that. These symptoms can cause a blockage of the airways. novocaine is not addictive. Aspirin is the oldest and best known NSAID. reduce swelling from burns. Unlike cocaine. sprains. Taking NSAIDs with food may reduce the occurrence of digestive problems. 127 . novocaine wears off in Adrenaline about fifteen minutes. See also: gery and is most often used in dentistry. this combi- nation produces analgesia (pain relief) for approximately forty-five minutes. Novocaine and pain resulting from minor surgery. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are particularly helpful in the treatment of arthritis (painful inflammation of the joints).

Many other opiates are derived from morphine. and severe diar- rhea. including codeine. including morphine and codeine. Morphine. A strong depressant. sticky liquid known as raw opium. Opioid Analgesic A narcotic prescribed to treat moderate to severe pain. like heroin (one of the A close-up of the most powerful opiates). persistent cough. or they can be synthetically con- structed in labs. 129 . Opium is actually a combination of many chemicals. Opiates act by affecting the same receptors that endorphins do. and are used as presurgery relaxants. The juice of the poppy plant is collected and dried to form a thick. These drugs and poppy plant. their derivatives are often abused for the high they produce. The most common ones are morphine and codeine. Raw opium can be turned into a Opiate/Opium brownish powder called refined opium. known as opioid analgesics.Opiate/Opium Opium is a drug made from a milky substance produced by unripe poppy plants. O brown. a yellowish powder. espe- cially in China. Opiates can be naturally derived from opium and morphine. Opiates (also called narcotics) are drugs derived from opium. These drugs may See also: also be prescribed as cough remedies or as presurgery relaxants. where it was commonly smoked. it was popular as a pain reliever and recreational drug in the 1800s. like fentanyl. It can also be taken orally or injected. are commonly prescribed to treat moderate to severe pain. Opiate/Opium gesics can be taken orally or injected. All opiates have the potential of being highly addictive. are illegal in the United States. Others. is extracted from raw opium during the refining process. Opioid anal. Some opiates.

often fatal. Overdoses can happen for a number of reasons. Some can cause an overdose if too much is taken. Typical over-the-counter drugs include analgesics. permanent organ damage. cold medicines. cardiac arrhythmia. sometimes fatal disease known as Reye’s syndrome in children who have influenza or chicken pox. For example. blackout. they may experience an overdose. breathing difficulty. others can cause addiction if taken for an extended period of time. Most drugs have the potential to cause ail- ments in at least some people. coma. Some people overdose pur- posely to commit suicide. results in too large a dose. allergy medicines. either accidentally or inten- tionally (in the case of suicide). The FDA. Over-the-Counter Drug A drug that can be obtained without a doctor’s prescription. Since most drugs are poisons. sleep aids. however. 130 . it can cause a rare. they can cause Overdose dangerous. The results of an overdose depend on the drug. not knowing when to stop. Drug abusers sometimes take an excess of a drug. Small children may overdose on prescription drugs when adults do not store the drugs properly. The FDA also takes into consideration the drug’s potential for abuse. When they take larger doses to achieve results they once obtained with normal or prescribed doses.O Overdose The toxic effects of taking too much of a drug. while aspirin is considered a very safe over-the-counter drug. It should be kept in mind that over-the-counter drugs can be danger- ous if not taken according to the directions on the package. People who frequently take particular drugs can build a tolerance for them. diet aids. and antacids. Some common effects of overdose include heart rate fluctuations. The FDA decides which drugs are safe for over-the-counter sale and which should be classified as prescription drugs. seizures. Always read the directions and precautions on the packages of over-the-counter drugs before taking them. motion sickness drugs. must decide if the risks of any given drug are small enough to let the population have access to it. and death. heart failure.

A synthetic opioid analgesic whose effects are similar to those of morphine.
Oxycodone is usually combined with an analgesic—especially acetaminophen
(Percocet) and aspirin (Percodan)—to treat moderate to severe pain, as well Oxycodone
as chronic pain. This drug is also helpful in relaxing people who are in pain.
It is taken orally.
Like all depressants, oxycodone slows the central nervous system.
Negative side effects include drowsiness, dry mouth, double vision, constipa-
tion, difficulty in urinating, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, euphoria, rash, itch-
ing, cardiac arrhythmia, and breathing difficulty. An overdose of oxycodone
can cause drowsiness, cramps, nausea, vomiting, weakness, dizziness, bluish
skin, low blood pressure, breathing difficulty, halted respiration, liver damage
(often fatal), seizures, blackout, coma, and death. Long-term use of
oxycodone can result in lung problems, anemia, and heart damage.
People who take medications that contain oxycodone for chronic pain
can quickly become addicted. The drug can cause physical and psychological
dependence, as well as tolerance. Withdrawal symptoms are similar to those
of morphine.


Phencyclidine, or PCP, was developed in the 1950s as an anesthetic but was
discontinued when physicians realized that it caused psychotic episodes in
patients. PCP has since become one of the most dangerous street drugs. It PCP
can be taken orally, smoked, snorted, or injected. On the streets, PCP is often
mixed with other drugs, such as marijuana, cocaine, and crack.
It is difficult to categorize PCP because it has characteristics of several See also:
kinds of drugs: hallucinogens, depressants, stimulants, analgesics, and anesthet- Adulterant
ics. In very low doses, it can have similar effects to marijuana, including lack
of coordination and slurred speech. The larger the dose, however, the more
dangerous and uncontrollable the side effects. Medium-sized doses can
cause increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, lack of coordination,
shallow breathing, sweating, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, blank stare, drool-
ing, dizziness, confusion, and numbness. High doses can cause low blood
pressure, muscle spasms, heart failure, lung failure, dangerously high fever,
stroke, seizures, blackout, coma, and death. Large doses can cause psychotic
behavior that lasts for two or three days, or longer. Regardless of the dose,
PCP is known to cause bizarre and aggressive behavior in its users: violent
mood swings, delusions, hallucinations, savage outbursts, inability to feel
pain, schizophrenia, and jumbled speech. PCP use can lead to senseless,
often fatal accidents (burns, car accidents, drownings) when users experi-
ence complete detachment from reality.
Long-term effects of PCP use include memory loss, speech defects,
depression, malnutrition, loss of motor skills, mood swings, flashbacks, and
schizophrenia. Prolonged use of PCP can also lead to psychological depend-
ence. Users can build a tolerance for PCP, causing them to use increasingly
larger doses. This can result in overdose, which is often fatal.

Peer Pressure
Feeling obligated to do what a peer group is doing in order to fit in. Peer
pressure generally refers to teens who feel compelled to do things they
would not do under normal circumstances. Most people, especially teens,
have a desire to be a part of a group of people who share the same likes and
dislikes and enjoy the same activities. When trying to fit into one of these
groups, some people may feel pressure to try certain activities (often drug,
alcohol, and tobacco experimentation), perhaps believing they will be rejected
if they don’t follow the group.


P Peer pressure is of two types: negative peer pressure and positive peer
pressure. Negative peer pressure, the kind already mentioned, is what most
people think about when they hear the term “peer pressure.” Many teens
must deal with negative peer pressure at some point. They should remem-
Penicillin ber that while everyone wants to be a part of a group, true friends would
never expect them to do something they don’t want to do.
Positive peer pressure refers to a situation in which friends urge a per-
son to try something positive that he or she may
not have thought of or had the courage to try
before. For instance, someone who has never
played a sport—and has never desired to do so—
may enjoy playing softball only after being per-
suaded to join a summer team with friends.

Any of a group of antibiotics derived from certain
molds and used to treat infections, including
pneumonia, bronchitis, syphilis, and gonorrhea.
Penicillin drugs were the first antibiotics ever
developed. In 1928, a British scientist named Sir
Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin acci-
dentally. He found mold growing in a plate con-
taining bacteria. The mold had destroyed the
bacteria around it. Penicillin was field-tested
during World War II and helped save the lives of
many enlisted men.
Penicillin fights infections by destroying
bacteria and preventing them from reproducing.
Certain types of bacteria have developed resist-
ance to penicillin. Scientists have countered this
Alexander Fleming, the by developing synthetic penicillin drugs, but some strains of bacteria have
discoverer of penicillin, at grown resistant to these as well.
work in his laboratory. Some people are allergic to penicillin, experiencing rash, vomiting, and
diarrhea when taking it. An allergic reaction to penicillin may also cause
See also: constriction of the airways to the lungs and low blood pressure, which can
STD result in dizziness, blackout, and death if not treated immediately.

See Oxycodone.


binds to the receptors nor- mally reserved for the neurotransmitter (chemical messenger) called dopamine. Drugs known as agonists stimulate receptors. sublingually (under the tongue). Metabolism refers to the way drugs are chemically altered in the body. by injection. mimicking the effects of a natural substance in the body. Pharmacodynamics also includes the time it takes for drugs to affect the body. rectally. For instance. but initiate chemical reactions in certain areas of the body. opioids bind to the same receptors as endorphins. affinity (how strongly the drug is attracted to the receptor). 135 . called antagonists. bind to receptors and block other natural substances from reaching those receptors. for example. Some drugs do not directly affect receptors or enzymes. Cocaine. antacids react with stomach acid and not with receptors.Percodan See Oxycodone. and both have an analgesic (pain-relieving) effect on the body. Peyote P Pharmacokinetics See Mescaline. and the effects of different doses. Distribution refers to the speed or slowness with which a drug makes its way through the body. transdermally (through the skin). potency (the amount of the drug needed to have an effect). Elimination refers to the way the body rids itself of drugs. Some drugs are selective and affect only a specific organ. Pharmacodynamics A term describing the way drugs affect the body. Others affect the body as a whole. Absorption refers to the rate and the extent to which a drug is taken in by the bloodstream. Most drugs cause changes in the body by attaching themselves (or binding) to certain receptors in the central nervous system. effi- cacy (the maximum effect the drug can have). or by inhalation (through the lungs). Drugs may also affect enzymes in the body in the same way. This in turn causes the individual to feel an excess of the euphoric effects that dopamine usually has on the body. Administration describes how a drug enters the body: orally. Pharmacokinetics A term describing how the body deals with drugs. causing a buildup of dopamine in the central nervous system. Enzymes carry drugs to different areas of the body. Others.

or stem. When the use is stopped abruptly. diarrhea. these effects depend on the particular drug but may include sweating. The stem sometimes ends in a mouth- piece that is placed between the lips when inhaling. Some. are Chemical Dependence not believed to be physically addictive. a stem. 136 . Placebo injections may be saline water. nausea. a container of water. seizures. headache. with no effect on the body. can cause life-threatening withdrawal symptoms. A water pipe—also known as a hookah or bong—is constructed of a bowl. shaking. vomiting. resulting in tolerance and in withdrawal symptoms when use is stopped. stomach cramps. have withdrawal symptoms that are severe but not life-threatening. hallucinations. See also: Not all drugs lead to physical dependence. Physical The body becomes accustomed to the presence of some drugs and Dependence eventually needs higher doses to achieve the same results. Detoxification is a common treatment for physical dependence. Some. Others. through which the smoke is drawn. producing smoke to be inhaled. Placebo pills are often made of sugar. The smoke passes though the water to be cooled before it is inhaled. P Physical Dependence Habitual use of a drug can cause a person to become physically dependent on it. including tremors. Withdrawal symptoms that are difficult to withstand often lead to drug relapse. negative physical effects (withdrawal symptoms) occur. Pipe An instrument used to smoke tobacco and some drugs. like heroin and opium-based Delirium Tremens Psychological Dependence drugs. given to patients instead of an actual drug. like alcohol and barbiturates. and sometimes cocaine and crack. and fatigue. particularly marijuana and hashish. Most pipes have a bowl in which the substance is placed to be burned. and coma. The bowl is connected to a length of hollow tubing. Pipes are used to smoke a variety of drugs. insomnia. Placebo A substance. and sometimes an additional stem or flexible tube. like marijuana.

Inhalant Pneumonia can stem from some other affliction. Some even originate in the body itself. Drugs are often administered. Prolonged exposure to harmful chemicals in the workplace is another common cause of poisoning. cancer. absorbed through the skin. Some researchers believe that merely expecting the Poison/ Poisoning “medication” to help causes the natural pain relievers in the body. Poison/Poisoning A substance that causes illness when taken into the body. 137 . More severe cases may require oxygen therapy and artificial ventilation (use of a machine to aid respiration). Poisons can be swallowed. The effectiveness of a drug can be based on its “placebo effect. called endorphins. and NSAIDs or acetaminophen to reduce fever. chills. and inhaled. Symptoms of pneumonia include fever. People with pneumonia may be able to rest at home but are often hos- pitalized for rest and treatment. It can be the result of not reading labels on products. More serious symptoms include fluid in the lungs. Placebos are effective when the patient expects certain results. and persistent coughing that produces a mucus called sputum. and some foods. including antibiotics or antifungal drugs. the effects the patient believes will happen. for instance alcoholism. AIDS. or children coming into contact with poi- sons they do not recognize. Changes come about as a result of a psychological state of mind and a trusting relationship between P patient and doctor. Poisoning can be either acute (a large amount of poison entering the body in a short time) or chronic (small amounts of poison entering the body over a long period). injected. chest pain. Accidental poisoning is one of the most common types of poisoning. industrial Overdose chemicals. and pleurisy (inflammation of the membrane lining the lungs). taking too large a dose of a drug. breathing difficulty. kidney disease. Drugs and alcohol are considered poisons.” that is. Poisons can be See also: found in hundreds of household products. to begin acting. natural substances. or diabetes. Some cases of See also: pneumonia can be caused by inhaling harmful chemicals or from smoking. Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of death in the United States. Pneumonia Inflammation of the lungs from a viral or bacterial infection.

the reaction can be intensified. breathing difficulty. Taking two or more drugs can have Drug Interaction a number of results. in which a tube is inserted into the stomach and the contents are removed. such as cocaine. water should be flushed over the area immediately. Use Treatment for poisoning depends on the poison. CPR may be necessary. Others exper- iment with drug combinations to see what happens or to achieve highly euphoric or intoxicating sensations. Chronic poisoning can cause permanent Polysubstance organ damage. With drugs that produce sim- ilar effects (like alcohol and barbiturates). Some people find it necessary to take two or more prescription or over- the-counter drugs. when they build a tolerance for heroin. resulting in dangerous complications. The drugs can cancel each other out and have no effects. Polysubstance use may also have unpredictable effects on the user. Some common effects include cramps. and a new way to achieve that high is sought. headache. For poisons that come into contact with the skin or eyes. nausea. Hospital treatment may include a process called gastric lavage. fatigue. confusion. A physician should be consulted before taking any drug and especially when mixing two or more drugs. vomiting. “Poppers” See Amyl Nitrite. but not for caustic substances or for people who are unconscious or having a seizure. coma. For example. although this type of reaction is rare. people addicted to heroin often begin using other drugs.This is generally because the high from the initial drug is no longer satisfying. Polysubstance Use See also: Use of more than one drug at one time. 138 . cardiac arrhythmia. blackout. dizziness. seizures. Sometimes induced vomiting is recommended. causing dangerous complications or no effects at all. People who use illegal drugs may begin using two or more drugs when a tolerance is built for the initial drug. P Symptoms of poisoning depend on the substance and the individual. Other methods include antidotes and intravenous fluids to keep the patient hydrated and urinating to help eliminate the poison from the body. or death.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome premature birth. and the state in which the individual is arrested. Drug use at this stage can cause pregnant women can low birth weight. monetary fine. and miscarriage. it can also lead to miscarriage. For instance. both mother and child).Possession A legal term that refers to the ownership of illegal drugs. as well as miscarriage. In many states. Drug use at the end of a cause serious problems pregnancy can result in low birth weight. As pregnancy continues. difficult or painful delivery (for in their children. See also: ing withdrawal symptoms). the quantity of the drug. which can affect the development of the baby. and other health problems for the baby (includ. Punishment for possession may include a verbal warning. They impair the formation of organs at an early stage of fetal development. Pregnancy (effects of drugs on) While some drugs are considered safe to use dur- ing pregnancy. probation. 139 . Drug use can impair the mother’s health. Most sub- stances that enter the mother’s bloodstream will also enter the baby’s bloodstream and can directly affect the baby’s health. The consequences of a possession charge depend on Pregnancy the drug. possession of marijuana is usually—but not always—considered a lesser crime than posses- sion of a hard drug such as heroin or LSD. early birth. and jail time. for example). merely being in the com- pany of someone who is in possession of illegal drugs (even if you are unaware of that situation) makes you guilty of possession as well. stillbirth. Birth Defects Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is the most common cause Breast-Feeding of mental retardation in babies. babies gain weight Drug use among and their organs continue to develop. Drugs and alcohol affect several stages of pregnancy. pregnant women who use drugs run the risk of harming their unborn baby. repossession of property (automobile. This can result in malformed organs and fea- tures. physical defects. People found with illegal drugs on their person (or in their cars or houses) are considered P guilty of possession. and withdrawal symptoms.

benzodiazepines. unpredictable. 140 . Prescription Drug See also: Codeine A drug that cannot be legally obtained without the permission of a medical professional. Prevention A general term describing programs designed to help bring an end to illicit drug use.). Avoidance of all drugs is best. the legal consequences of using illicit drugs. Even secondhand smoke can cause birth defects of the heart. Women should consult a doctor as soon as they know they are pregnant and should stop taking any unnecessary drugs. Many prescription and over-the-counter drugs do the same. opioid analgesics. Most drug prevention programs focus on young children and teens. probation. Prescriptions also tell patients how large a dose they should take. Some drugs that normally require a prescription can be found in over-the-counter drugs (or nonprescription drugs) but in very small doses. and for how long. and tranquilizers. combining educational techniques with “scare tactics” (visiting prisons. and work in conjunction with schools. powerful. P Pregnant women who smoke cigarettes commonly have babies with low birth weight. lungs. while involving students in hands-on activities and antidrug use community projects. After consultation. Drug Most (if not all) illegal drugs negatively affect the development of the fetus. and face. how often. barbiturates. Some examples of prescription drugs include antibiotics. DARE (Drug Abuse Resistance Education). which allows a pharmacist to give the patient the drugs indicated. These defects may be the result of carbon monoxide in the bloodstream. brain. and the benefits of leading a life free from drugs. hypnotic-sedatives. commonly abused. One of the most popular school drug-prevention programs. Certain drugs may require a prescription because they are habit-forming. or used to treat an illness that must be supervised by a doctor. etc. uses local law enforcement officials to help educate young students on the dangers of drug use. nicotine may prevent the fetus from receiving enough Prescription blood by constricting the blood vessels in the placenta. These programs stress the harmful effects of drugs. a doctor may fill out a prescription for a patient. Some school-based programs focus on children and teens who have already experimented with drugs.

The Volstead Act or A man smashing a keg National Prohibition Act (passed by Congress in 1919) provided enforce- of beer during ment guidelines for the Eighteenth Amendment. Youth offender programs are designed to incarcerate young drug users. or sale of alcohol. which was ratified on January 29. drug use in the workplace is largely controlled with frequent drug testing and severe penalties (demo- tions and firing) for those who use drugs. edu- cational seminars. methadone clin. government soon decided to enforce abstinence from alcohol across the nation. Prohibition ics). 1920.S. 141 . medical professionals had begun to caution the country about negative health effects of drinking alcohol. Drinking alcohol also began to gain a reputation as a morally corrupt pas- time. but also to identify teens with the potential to become drug users and to edu- cate them to the dangers of drug use. Other drug prevention programs include health care programs designed to help people defeat drug habits and to remain abstinent. drug screening centers. dealers. failed to stamp out the consumption of alcohol in the United States. transportation. for both teens and adults. Last. and clinics P that supply aid to those who need health care (for example. and drug traf- fickers are also considered valuable tools in drug prevention. The most famous prohibition legislation is the Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution. The Eighteenth Amendment. These programs may include government-funded drug rehabilitation centers. In the years leading up to the enactment of the Eighteenth Amendment. Law enforcement and punishment for drug users. Prohibition A law forbidding the production. Medicaid benefits. many Americans (known as bootleggers) continued to produce and transport alcohol to establishments that came to be called speakeasies. Speakeasies were notorious for wild parties involving alcohol. the Prohibition of Alcohol. Prohibition. 1919 and went into effect on January 29. Over the next thirteen years. however. and dancing. The U. music.

Prozac is used to treat depression. loss of appetite. a special diet is not necessary (as with monoamine oxidase inhibitors). followed by self-induced vomit- ing). Others have reported alcohol cravings while taking Prozac. insomnia. anxiety. Prozac Since then. and an overdose is usually not fatal. dry mouth. temperance movements in the United States have pressured the government to reenact a similar form of prohibition. however. as well as the inability of the government to curtail alcohol production and consumption. Congress passed the Twenty-first Amendment. Some people have reported experiencing violent behavior and suicidal tendencies while taking Prozac. however. P Because of a change in public opinion. seizures. headache. have placed more stringent restrictions on the pro- duction and sale of alcohol than others. Some states. cramps. weight loss. The Eighteenth Amendment is the only amendment ever to be repealed. and rash (sign of an allergic reaction). Prozac may cause tolerance after approximately 142 . although it is not believed to cause cancer. the Repeal of Prohibition. Prozac is considered safer and more effective than other antidepressants because it causes fewer side effects. some researchers believe these reactions may be a result of depression and not Prozac. diarrhea. It is not recommended to take Prozac for longer than six months. and mania. Researchers believe that a lack of serotonin can lead to depression and other psychological disorders. Sexual dysfunction is the most commonly reported side effect. particularly nausea and Prozac comes in pill form vomiting (which should disappear after the first few days). Prozac works by raising the levels of sero- tonin in the central nervous system. sleepiness. in 1933. but without success. however. Prozac can also result in negative side effects. and bulimia (excessive eating. Other side effects may include sweating. obsessive-compulsive disorder. and is taken orally. The long-term effects of Prozac are not yet fully understood. constipation. Prozac The brand name of the antidepressant fluoxetine (specifically a selective sero- tonin reuptake inhibitor). Prozac has been found to encourage tumor growth in cancer patients. Prozac is taken orally and usually takes one to four weeks to become effective. nervousness.

are perhaps the most common negative effect.” negative mental effects. Mushrooms containing psilocybin are usually dried and eaten. extreme sensations of compassion for others. visual disruptions (even when eyes are closed. or even years after they stop using it. called the “kaleidoscope effect”). mood swings. as a result of impaired judg- ment and altered perceptions. and a general loss of control. and out-of-body experiences.” This drug may also cause nausea. Lights and colors may seem brighter. and objects may seem to move or “breathe. although researchers are not sure exactly how.six months. Prozac is not believed to cause chemical dependence. slight rise in blood pressure and body temperature. Psilocybin has been synthetically manufactured in labs since the 1950s. depression. at which point the individual could relapse into depression. nor does it cause with- drawal symptoms when use is stopped abruptly. poor perception of time. Like all hallucinogens. new perception. thinking. The following drug 143 . or per- ception. Psilocybin is not believed to cause chemical dependence. Overdose on this drug is highly unlikely. Larger doses may cause more disruptive side effects. even experienced users). Psychoactive drugs may cause changes in mood. relaxation. First-time users who are not prepared for the effects of psilocybin may experience a “bad trip. Psychoactive Drug A drug (prescribed or recreational) that affects an individual psychologically. psilocybin is taken by many to induce hallucinations and euphoria. either alone or mixed with food. includ- ing attacks of paranoia and feelings of anxiety or fear (although this can happen to anyone using the drug. it is believed to be safer than most hallucinogens. Psilocybin and a closely related chemical called psilocin disrupt levels of serotonin and other neuro- transmitters (chemical messengers) in the central nervous system. behavior. They act by affecting the levels of neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) found in the central nervous system. Accidents. Users report unique feelings of awareness. but people who take psilocy- bin for an extended period of time may experience flashbacks weeks. feelings of power. P Psychoactive Psilocybin Drug A hallucinogen found in certain mushrooms. vomiting. Although psilocybin is comparable to LSD and peyote. There are no known long-term effects. nervousness. anxiety. They are some- times crushed to form a powder that can be snorted. months.

144 .These rehabilitation methods may include counseling. depressants. benzodiazepines. and improved physical and/or mental perform- ance (perceived or actual). absence from work/school. problems with family and friends. and twelve-step programs. Psychological dependence can hinder many areas of a per- son’s life. antidepressants. These desired effects may include reduced anxiety and/or tension. Psychological Dependence Psychological Dependence The urge to continue using a particular drug because of an effect it has on the user. Most drug reha- bilitation programs are designed to help manage the results of psychological dependence. euphoria and/or intoxication. resulting in depression. hypnotic-sedatives (including barbiturates. and tranquilizers). opioid analgesics. stimulants. medical treatment. Psychological dependence can dominate a per- son’s life. and other social and per- sonal difficulties. compulsive behavior. and hallucinogens. almost all drugs—especially recreational Chemical Dependence drugs—have the ability to cause psychological dependence. P categories contain psychoactive drugs: alcohol. especially when obtaining and using the drug in question is all the individual can think about. See also: Unlike physical dependence.

vomiting. when there was a shortage of this drug. 146 . They are usu- ally more expensive and less effective (because of resistant strains of malaria). delirium. which made them even more dangerous and resulted in many overdoses. that can result in death). seizures. nausea. Quaaludes were once commonly prescribed as tranquilizers to reduce tension but have been replaced by safer. and decreased breathing. and the effects last four to eight hours. Quaalude withdrawal is said to be more severe than heroin withdrawal. A number of synthetic versions of quinine have been developed since World War II. A derivative of quinine (quinidine) is sometimes used to treat cardiac arrhythmia. Some people have even smoked a mixture of marijuana and Quaaludes. lack of coordination. slurred speech. but are less dangerous than quinine. Through the 1960s and 70s. Like all depressants. especially in tropical loca- tions. coma.Withdrawal symptoms may include anxiety. as well as tolerance. and intoxication in higher doses. An overdose of Quaaludes can result in cold and clammy skin. decreased heartbeat. and death. They were sometimes mixed with alcohol to achieve heightened intoxication. Much like the withdrawal symp- toms of barbiturates.Q Quaalude Quaalude The brand name of the hypnotic-sedative methaqualone. resulting in relaxation in lower doses. shallow breathing. Other side effects include euphoria. and possibly death. insom- nia. mood swings. less addictive drugs. Quaaludes have been illegal in the United States since 1984 and are considered to have no medicinal value. Methaqualone and glutethimide were developed in the 1960s as barbiturate alternatives but were found to be more dangerous and addictive. depression. Quaaludes slow down the central nervous system. blackouts. Quaaludes can be taken orally or injected. which is commonly mixed with alcohol to give it a bitter taste. dizziness. Quinine can also be found in a product called tonic water. Prolonged Quaalude use can result in physical and psychological depend- ence. cardiac arrhythmia. Quaaludes were abused by young people seeking an intense high. This drug reduces fever due to malaria and helps kill certain parasites in the blood. Quinine A drug derived from the bark of the cinchona tree used primarily to treat malaria (a disease transmitted by mosquitoes. Low doses of quinine are sometimes used to treat nighttime leg cramps. lack of inhibitions.

Rare side effects may include breathing difficulty. muscle cramps. rash. vomiting. and coma. hives. swelling around the eyes and mouth. hypoglycemia. diffi- culty sleeping. changes in color vision. hunger. Q Quinine and increased heart rate. heart problems. increased heart rate. Negative side effects of quinine may include cramps. mood swings. nausea. seizures. double vision. Scraping the bark of the cinchona tree in order to derive quinine. anxiety. cardiac arrhythmia. blackout. double vision. dizziness. sleepiness. diarrhea. and ringing in the ears. 147 . headache. hearing problems. confusion. blood in the urine and stool. difficulty in concentrat- ing. blurred vision. cold and clammy skin. A quinine overdose may result in blindness. fever and chills.

This results in a buildup of dopamine in the synapses. 149 . Neurotransmitters and receptors fit together like keys in locks. nasal membrane) that convert external stimuli into electrical impulses. For example. Recovery A term referring to the process of ending a drug addiction and attaining a state of sobriety. In the case of the nar- cotic morphine. Most receptors accept only one type of neurotransmitter. tongue. or attach. These keys and locks form a system that conveys messages throughout the nervous system. Although receptors have natural purposes. themselves to certain receptors.Receptor Nerve cells in the sensory organs (skin. doctors have used this situation to advantage. When this process is triggered in the brain by external stimuli. on the other hand. for example. Recovery usually entails a number of drug rehabilitation programs and methods. See also: ing the way neurotransmitters work. or a particular area on R Receptor the surface of neurons (nerve cells) that helps convey information from neuron to neuron with the aid of neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) and other chemicals. an individual experiences an emotional response or a physical reaction. narcotics bind to the same receptors to which endorphins bind. eyes. is commonly abused for its euphoric effects and has no medical value. influenc. or spaces. ears. Receptors can be thought of as openings on each neuron into which neurotransmitters and hormones fit. between neurons. some drugs take advantage of them. since mor- phine is a valuable tool in treating moderate to severe pain. causing a cocaine high. binds to Central Nervous System dopamine receptors. The narcotic heroin. Cocaine. Many drugs bind. Both substances result in a reduction of pain and even a state of euphoria. causing similar reactions within the body.

mood swings. Depending on the drug. Relapse Drug addictions can be very difficult to overcome. or a bar. despite modern drug reha- bilitation methods and programs. is usually not life-threatening but can be quite severe and may include flulike symptoms such as nausea. Q RRecreational Recreational Drug Use Sometimes called social drug use or social drinking. depression. Relapse may occur when addicts cannot withstand the physical and psychological effects of withdrawal. partic- ularly alcohol.). and depression. Recreational drug users usually do not exhibit the problems that afflict habitual or addicted drug users (absence from work. Twelve-step programs such as Alcoholics Anonymous provide drug users with an ongoing forum to discuss the difficulties of remaining sober. twelve-step programs may help overcome the urge to begin using drugs again. fatigue. withdrawal from society. vomiting. despite knowing the dangers associated with drug use. however. and depression. Most recreational drugs are also considered gateway drugs. may relapse months. even years after the withdrawal symptoms have disappeared. 150 . Withdrawal from nar- cotics. small gatherings. These symptoms can last two weeks or longer and are often the reason for relapse. See also: This type of drug use usually begins with experimentation (perhaps as a Stages of Drug Use result of negative peer pressure). Recreational drug use usually pertains to people who drink alcohol or use soft drugs with friends. family hardships. The reasons for this development may include social pressures. withdrawal symptoms can range from mild to life-threatening. but it can develop into a more dangerous problem. frequent use of drugs while alone. Others may simply enjoy the euphoric or intoxicating effects so much that they cannot refrain from using drugs. Some people. for example. For these people. this term refers to the use of drugs and alcohol in a social setting. even after experiencing rehabilitation and dangerous compli- cations. lack of responsibility. headaches. often at Drug Use parties. tobacco. he or she is said to have a relapse. etc. falling grades. and marijuana. When a person who is going through or has finished drug rehabilitation begins using drugs again.

Ritalin is a central nervous system stimulant that reduces hyperactivity and increases concentra- Q R Ritalin tion in people who have attention deficit disorder (ADD) or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). mood swings. trouble in con- centrating. In rare circumstances. weight loss. and teens. even though it is diffi- cult to obtain without a prescription. delirium. patients have developed liver damage. nervousness. vomiting. irritability. Negative side effects of Ritalin include nausea. and users may experience Ritalin is primarily depression and other psychological difficulties when the drug wears off.Ritalin The brand name of the prescription drug methylphenidate. drowsiness. vomit- ing. and hair loss. People abuse Ritalin to improve their physical or mental performance or to stay awake longer. Withdrawal symp- toms of Ritalin usually include depression. muscle spasms. and fatigue. insomnia. hallucina- tions. Some patients report the development of tics and uncontrollable movements (clinically known as Tourette’s syndrome). dizziness. and changes in blood pressure. This drug is most often taken orally. Its stimulant properties make it appropriate for treating narcolepsy (sudden daytime sleep). Ritalin can potentially lead to physical and psychologi- cal dependence. In prescribed for children rare cases Ritalin abuse has been linked to death. rash. anemia. and coma. An overdose of Ritalin can result in nausea. fever. cardiac arrhythmia. euphoria. cardiac arrhythmia. but this method has been found to block blood vessels in the eyes and lungs. It has recently been discovered that Ritalin affects the brain similarly to cocaine and amphetamines and may lead to future addictions. stuttering. Like these illegal drugs. however. as well as tolerance (addiction rates are lower for children than they are for adults). often results in a crash. it can be injected into the body. stomach cramps. Ritalin has become a commonly abused drug among children and teens. headaches. loss of appetite. A Ritalin high. Ritalin is some- times abused for its euphoric effects. seizures. 151 . those who have ADD and ADHD are pressured to give their med- ication to others who will abuse it. confusion.

and confusion. anxiety. coma. Rohypnol is used to treat the withdrawal symptoms of other drugs. nausea. Other side effects include intoxication. Frequent use of Rohypnol can result in physical and psychological dependence. and seizures. rarely. Like all hypnotic-sedatives. sleepiness. tingling in the hands and feet. blackout. takes about thirty minutes to affect the user. euphoria. and can last up to eighty hours depending on the dose. muscle cramps. poor motor skills. headache. This drug is taken orally. it can be deadly when mixed with other drugs. numbness. vomiting. which is marketed in Latin America and Europe as a sleep aid but is illegal in the United States. Although Rohypnol rarely results in death from overdose. irritability. dizziness. death. Rohypnol produces relaxation in small doses and sedation in larger doses. delusions. especially when combined with other depressants. and. hallucinations. decreased blood pressure. A Rohypnol overdose may include drowsiness. Treatment for Rohypnol addiction may include detoxification with a drug called phenobarbital. tremors. Rohypnol is sometimes mixed with other drugs (such as heroin and alcohol) to enhance the high of both drugs. amnesia. In some countries. respi- ratory depression. sluggishness. confusion. Withdrawal symptoms may include headache. putting the user into an apathetic state. loss of inhibitions. hallucinations. another benzodiazepine. aggressive behavior. slipped into drinks with the intent of sedating a person before sexual assault. Rohypnol is similar to the tranquilizer Valium but about ten times more pow- erful. confusion. 152 .Q R Rohypnol Rohypnol The brand name of the benzodiazepine flunitrazepam. This drug is also known as a date-rape drug.

Q S Seconal Seconal The brand name of the barbiturate secobarbital. which generally occurs in about five minutes. Although secondhand smoke is less concentrated than smoke directly inhaled from a tobacco product. and be at higher risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). a person may experience tin- gling. Young children exposed to it can develop respiratory infections. 154 . lung cancer. Seconal is used to treat insomnia and to calm and sedate patients before surgery and dental operations. It can be taken orally or injected. strange lights and euphoria. constricted arteries. others may have one and never experience another. for example. Mainstream smoke is the smoke exhaled by a smoker. Epilepsy is a condition character- ized by recurring seizures. hallucinations. Some people have seizures all their lives. and blackout. and ear infections. Strange sensations may be experienced before and after a seizure. especially by a nonsmoker. asthma.These effects can be pleasurable or frightening. People who inhale secondhand smoke (called passive smokers) are subject to the same dangers as regular smokers. After a seizure. There are two types of secondhand smoke. confusion. passive smokers can develop respiratory problems. persistent coughs. more frequent colds. secondhand smoke Nicotine is tobacco smoke that is involuntarily inhaled. people do not usually remember what happened when they regain consciousness. reduced lung volume. which is very similar to Amytal. Sidestream smoke is the smoke that comes from a burning tobacco product. Seizure Abnormal electrical activity in the brain. Secondhand Smoke See also: Sometimes referred to as environmental tobacco smoke. Depending on the severity of the seizure. convulsions (jerking muscles). and cardiovascular problems after long exposure. Secondhand smoke has been found particularly dangerous for very young children. odd smells or tastes.

insomnia. infection of the tissues surrounding the brain. chills. 155 . tremors. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) A class of antidepressants used primarily to treat depression. vomiting. Luminal is an anticonvulsant. ingestion of toxic substances. adverse reactions to drugs. brain tumor. nervousness. diarrhea. cramps. Reuptake Inhibitor People with psychological problems such as obsessive-compulsive dis- order and depression are believed to have insufficient levels of serotonin and other neurotransmitters. Short-term effects of SSRIs include nausea. social phobias. and sexual dysfunction. At this point. headache. withdrawal symptoms may occur. lack of oxygen reaching the brain. Serotonin A substance in the body that has several functions. hypoglycemia. Researchers believe that Mania Selective Serotonin serotonin affects one’s moods and perception of the world. Seizures have many causes. including high fever. including nausea. having fewer and less harmful side effects. and anxiety. loss of coordination. SSRIs raise the levels of the neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) in the brain that the body uses to fight depression and other mental ill- nesses. and bulimia. SSRIs are also used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (being burdened by unwanted thoughts and/or the compulsion to repeat certain activities due to an irra- tional fear). See also: ing blood loss due to injury. Tolerance and addiction to SSRIs are rare. Most problems occur when the person fails to take a large enough dose or abruptly stops using an SSRI. one of which is reduc. head injury. kidney failure. It commonly takes two to three weeks for the positive effects of SSRIs to set in. Drugs used to treat chronic seizures are called anticonvulsants. liver failure. jitteriness. alleviating negative psychological problems. SSRIs are relatively safer than other antidepressants. panic disorder. Serotonin also acts as a neurotransmitter Antidepressant (chemical messenger) in the central nervous system. hyperglycemia. insomnia. Reports of overdoses are rare. diar- rhea. stroke. and withdrawal SSerotonin from drugs. Doctors sometimes prescribe drugs that increase amounts of serotonin.

When used as a sleep aid. paranoia. It is considered unpredictable until a doctor can discover exactly what causes it. rash. Severe side effects are considered life-threatening. anemia. (General signs of drug use may include sudden occurrences of anger and mood swings. Side effects can be mild. wearing sunglasses often. borrowing money frequently. cause drowsiness. poor hygiene. drowsiness is a side effect because it is not the effect the drug was intended to produce. There are two main types of side effects. When used to treat allergies. allergic reactions. such as headache or upset stomach. mood swings.Q S Side Effect Some recreational drugs are believed to alter perceptions by affecting the way serotonin acts. or severe. kidney dis- ease. The first is called the pre- dictable side effect. and swelling of the face and lips. Common unpredictable side effects include jaundice. it is also usually unavoidable. Mild side effects. The second type is the unpredictable side effect. which occurs in a minority of people taking the drug and is caused by factors in the patient. and altered perceptions by raising the levels of serotonin in the central nervous system. absence from work/ school. poor physical condition. Hallucinogens such as LSD and MDMA are known to cause hallucinations. a side effect is most often considered a negative development. Side Effect A reaction to a drug in addition to the effect the drug is intended to pro- duce. Signs of Drug Use The following table is a list of potential signs of intoxication. however. Antihistamines. lack of responsibility. depending on the condition the drug is being used to treat. and lying. stealing. are usually harmless.) 156 . drowsiness is the intended reaction. Also known as an adverse drug reaction. for example. An example of a predictable side effect is low blood pressure as a result of taking an opioid analgesic. moderate. which medical professionals expect when most people take a particular drug. A particular drug reaction can be categorized either as an intended reaction or an adverse drug reaction. Although this type of side effect is predictable.

Q S Signs of Drug Use 157 .

The buds of the female plant have the highest concentration of THC and are therefore more valuable to grow- ers and users. 158 .”) The sinsemilla plant. This causes development of larger buds. Q S Sinsemilla Sinsemilla Female marijuana plants that have not been pollinated by male plants. or flowers. the active ingredient in marijuana. Female marijuana plants have a higher concentration of THC. (Sinsemilla is Spanish for “without seeds. Marijuana cultivators have learned that by killing the male plants they can grow female plants without seeds.

Q S Slang Terms 159 . or street.Slang Terms Most drugs have a slang. name by which they are known to users and dealers. This table lists common illicit drugs and their slang names.

Prescription sleep aids include hypnotic-sedatives. Some people (particularly the elderly) may experience negative side effects. Antihistamines naturally cause sleepiness. Mild sleep aids can be purchased in pharmacies. Smoke/Smoking See also: The dense. sometimes resulting in overdose. blurred vision. Joint the solid particles can be very harmful to the lungs. tranquilizers. benzodi- azepines. and accidents resulting from a lack of coordination. When inhaled. Drugs that are com- monly smoked to induce intoxication and/or euphoria include marijuana. barbiturates. such as constipation. and chloral hydrate. toxic vapors caused by burning a drug. Pipe Smoking most frequently refers to cigarettes and tobacco. and peyote. and other narcotics. especially other depressants such as alcohol. Smoking any drug can lead to lung damage. PCP. Sleep aids can cause physical and psychological dependence. Cigarette smoking is the most common cause of lung cancer. opium. respiratory problems. and cardiovascular problems. Of these. ringing in the ears. Over-the-counter sleep aids contain antihistamines. among other negative side effects. benzodi- azepines are most commonly prescribed for insomnia and are considered the least dangerous. SSleep Aid Sleep Aid A drug used to treat insomnia or anxiety disorders that prevent sleep. Withdrawal from sleep aids can result in insomnia and anxiety. 160 . Sleep aids should not be taken for longer than two to three weeks and should not be taken every night. crack. Other drugs that can be smoked include methamphetamine. antidepressants. which are primarily used to treat allergy symptoms. Tolerance to sleep aids can result in a dangerous increase in dosage. freebase cocaine. Smoke is made up of solid and gas particles. psilocybin. or the act of inhaling Ice those vapors. Sleep aids should not be mixed with other drugs.

but it is also used to describe abstinence from any intoxicating drug. and permanently damaged nasal membranes. By categorizing drugs as either soft or hard. overdose. headache. many drug abuse experts believe we are desig- nating which drugs are okay for young people to experiment with. for instance. Snorted drugs affect the user more quickly than those that are swallowed. Some S Soft Drug users crush drugs that come in pill form so that they can be snorted.Snort To inhale sharply through the nose. Marijuana. The boundary between soft drugs and hard drugs is hazy at best. sore throat. might be considered a soft drug by many. or death). tolerance. The truth is that all drugs can be harmful if taken in large enough quantities or for an extended period of time. and which should be avoided altogether. Other drugs that are sometimes snorted include caffeine. People who are members of Alcoholics Anonymous strive for sobriety as a way of life after having abused alcohol for a period of time. Certain drugs (especially cocaine) are snorted and absorbed into the bloodstream through the nasal linings. This term is most often used to describe a person who is not intoxicated on alcohol. They might also lead to overdose less often. They supposedly lead to physical and mental damage less often than hard drugs. Soft Drug A general term applied to drugs that are believed to be less harmful than others. 161 . Sobriety refers to the state of being sober. Snorting drugs can lead to nosebleeds. but cigarettes are the single largest cause of lung cancer in the United States. ephedrine. and tobacco are sometimes referred to as soft drugs. Sober/Sobriety Someone who is sober is not under the influence of any intoxicating or euphoric drugs. Some so-called soft drugs can lead to the same results as hard drugs (physical and psychological dependence. Tobacco. alcohol. and methamphetamine.

162 . STDs can be spread during illicit drug use. These factors often result in the transmission of STDs. especially when sharing needles to inject drugs. this table focuses on teen drug use. as well as carelessness with regard to safe sex. S Stages of Drug Stages of Drug Use The following table outlines the stages of drug use. Use See also: AIDS STD HIV A sexually transmitted disease is a disease spread during unprotected sex. The following table describes the most common STDs. Some STDs are life-threatening. While these general stages pertain to most drug users (teens and adults). Drug use has been found to increase sexual activity in general.

and the development of sexual traits. metabolism. SSteroid Steroid A type of medication similar to the hormones secreted by the adrenal See also: glands. Some hormones also allow the body to withstand pain from injury or illness. 163 . The adrenal glands are located above the kidneys and reproductive Anabolic Steroid organs and secrete dozens of these hormones to regulate several functions of the body. including the immune system. salt and water bal- ance.

heart attacks. chronic depression. cocaine. osteoporosis. and suppress appetite. Corticosteroids act like the hormones cortisone and hydrocortisone to control inflammation and pain. joint damage. This type of steroid has no potential for substance abuse. Stimulants prescribed to treat obesity speed up the central nervous system. People who take cor- ticosteroids regularly have been known to exhibit one (rarely more) of the following symptoms: accumulations of fat in the abdomen. hyperten- sion. slow-healing wounds. and are the most commonly prescribed steroids for medical conditions. Long-term side effects may include nerve damage. irritability. Narcolepsy (sudden daytime sleep) is also treated with stimulants. Stimulants can also cause nervousness. lung problems. easy bruising. although researchers do not know exactly why or how they seem to have a calming effect on these children. provide extra energy. nicotine. Most stimulants increase concentration and physical performance and reduce sleepiness (and are often abused for these reasons). muscular weakness. are very similar to the hormone testosterone. The last type. and seizures. Birth control pills are estrogenic steroids. heart failure. Estrogenic steroids are similar to the hormones estrogen and proges- terone. and PCP. diabetes. anabolic steroids. malnutrition.S Stimulant There are three types of medical steroids. 164 . insomnia. cataracts. Some stimulants are used to treat hyperactivity in children. and death. Estrogenic steroids are prescribed for women whose ovaries have been removed for medical reasons. Stimulant Any drug that speeds up the central nervous system. MDMA. sweating. which is produced in the male testes. kidney damage. Anabolic steroids help build muscle and tendon strength and are used medically to treat patients with cancer and AIDS. hyperglycemia. liver damage. usually by injection. face. Other stimulants are used to improve breathing in people experiencing respiratory problems. weakened immune system. and neck. Stimulants include caf- feine. fever. Stimulants act by increasing certain neurotransmitters (chemical messen- gers) in the central nervous system. cardiac arrhythmia. black- out. Anabolic steroids have a high potential for substance abuse. amphetamines. aggressive behavior. hypertension. some diet aids. Corticosteroids are used medically. hallucinations. which are produced primarily by the ovaries. and mood swings.

the user usually experiences an equally intense crash involving depression and fatigue. the most popular stimulant in the world. difficulty in moving and eating. Many regain the ability to take care of themselves. Long-term care for stroke patients includes hos- pital care and physical rehabilitation and reconditioning. soda. slurred speech. Since a stroke results in dead brain tissue. When the high wears off. tea. Stimulant highs—espe- cially those associated with cocaine and amphetamines—can be intensely euphoric. Stroke may be caused by hypertension. The symptoms of stroke take from a few minutes to a few days to develop. Withdrawal symptoms may include sleepiness. Initial treatment for a stroke may include drugs designed to break up clots in the brain. confu- sion. headache. is present in coffee. although it is sometimes used to unblock arteries that might cause future strokes. difficulty swallowing. eating. including difficulties with speech and language. and overdose. Stimulants often cause extreme mood swings. swelling of the brain. anxiety. breathing difficulty. high cholesterol. loss of vision. and depression. Those who survive a stroke often suffer long-term side effects. A stroke can result in weakness. coma. surgery is usu- ally not helpful. atherosclerosis (blocked arteries). permanent paralysis. 165 . headache. This can lead to physical and psychological dependence. Amphetamines (especially methamphetamine and MDMA) are abused by people who go to raves (all-night dances) and parties because of the extra energy they provide and their euphoric effects. but they usually develop quickly. whereas others suffer permanent physical and psychological damage. and uncontrollable mood swings. paralysis (often on one side of the body). Strokes range from mild (some- times barely noticeable) to severe. Many users try to Q S Stroke avoid the crash by taking larger doses of the drug more often. tolerance. Stroke victims often need to relearn how to do simple tasks such as talking. About a third of all strokes result in no detrimental effects. blackout. depression. even when they are at work. Stroke Damaged brain tissue resulting from interrupted oxygen supply to the brain (usually as a result of a blood clot) or a ruptured blood vessel that causes bleeding in the brain. Most stimulants are considered recreational drugs or drugs of abuse. Caffeine. Some people use cocaine many times a day. however. smoking. Cocaine (once a popular anesthetic) is a widely abused drug in the United States. and walking. and chocolate. dizziness. and old age. diabetes mellitus. and death (strokes lead to death in one-third of all cases). heart disease. hunger.

Inhalants are particularly dangerous to young children and teens because they are so easy to obtain. Synthetic Drug A drug that is chemically produced in a laboratory rather than produced in nature. even if used only once. They can also be made to duplicate natural drugs. Inhalants are considered the most dangerous of abused substances. Inhalants can also cause Sniffing Death sudden death by disrupting normal heart functioning. Many illicit drugs are also synthetic. stimulants. someone who mixes a glass of alcohol with a single dose of Valium (both depressants) will experience effects several times more powerful than either of the drugs taken by itself. Nearly every inhalant can cause SSD. Q S Sudden Sudden Sniffing Death (SSD) A condition that results from the abuse of inhalants. and bacteria). Many stores are keeping the most commonly abused substances behind the counter. 166 . particularly designer drugs.). animals. They can be found in over a thousand household products. SSD can occur when the inhaled substance takes the place of oxygen in the lungs and central nerv- ous system. hallucinogens. molds. leading to cardiac arrest. Synergism See also: The interaction of two or more drugs with a combined effect that is greater Polysubstance Use than their individual effects. Synthetic drugs can be produced for less money and in greater quantities than naturally occurring drugs (those found in plants. Taking more than one drug at a time can easily result in overdose and death. Some are designed to produce the benefits of natural drugs without the negative side effects. Synergism usually occurs with two drugs of the same class (depressants. etc. This results in suffocation and death. For instance. The majority of medicines today are synthetically manufactured.

is often used synonymously with sobriety. Thorazine acts by affecting the levels of certain neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) in the central nervous sys- tem. blackouts. there is still an active temperance movement in the United States. and although it is still being researched. it is sometimes used to treat the nausea associated with chemotherapy. Like most antipsychotic drugs. an area of the brain that is responsible for memory. It is sometimes used to treat nausea and hiccups. rash. Its former name was the National Temperance League. Thorazine The brand name of the mild antipsychotic drug called chlorpromazine. 168 . and hash oil. sleepiness. informs the public about alcohol-related problems as well as the consequences of drinking alcohol. and other vital life processes. Many anti-alcohol groups promoted temperance and abstinence as the path to a healthy and moral life. nasal congestion. The first antipsychotic drug. learning. swollen breathing passages. poor coordina- tion. A synthetic version of THC called dronibinol has been developed. Thorazine is taken orally or injected. restlessness. The term “temperance. The essential idea behind the term is not necessarily abstinence. constipation. muscle spasms. dizziness. sexual dysfunction. THC is believed to suppress activity in the hippocam- pus.T Temperance Temperance Restraint in using alcohol (and other recreational drugs). hashish. Today. founded in 1895. and it probably increases levels of dopamine in the brain. used to treat delusions and hallucinations from schizophrenia. Researchers are still studying how THC acts in the brain. Thorazine may result in any of the following side effects: dry mouth.” however. THC Short for tetrahydrocannabinol. Thorazine is now used less often than it once was because it causes extreme drowsiness. difficulty in urinating. Temperance was a popular term during Prohibition. It is the chemical responsible for the psychoactive effects of marijuana. THC may also destroy nerve cells in the hippocampus. and jaundice. blurred vision. facial tics. The American Council on Alcohol Problems. It may function somewhat like opiates. mania. swollen lips and tongue. THC is the active ingredient in marijuana. but rather moderation. and other mental illnesses.

tension the same side effects listed above. dyes. swamp gas. headache. pneumonia. radioactive material. tar (a carcinogen). Withdrawal symptoms related to tobacco use include irritability. Approximately forty chemicals in tobacco smoke are carcinogens. ammonia (a strong cleanser). 169 . high or low body tempera- ture. Researchers have determined that smoking a single cig- arette takes approximately five minutes off of your life. and death. While Thorazine may cause tolerance. emphysema. cigars. popular crop in the ease. vomiting. An overdose of tobacco is nearly impos. blackout. carbon monox- ide (in car exhaust fumes). T Tobacco Tobacco A plant whose dried leaves are used to make cigarettes.000 chemicals. blocked blood vessels. Cigarette smoking is the most common cause of lung cancer in the United States. Other chemicals in tobacco smoke are also found in volatile solvents. These symptoms can be difficult to manage for long-time smokers and often result in tobacco relapse. many of which are extremely harmful. and difficulty in concentrating. Tobacco smoke contains more than 4. increased blood pressure. nausea. and chewing tobacco. throat. coma. it is not believed to cause chemical dependence. and these side effects usually disappear with use. increased heart rate. Tobacco is a stimulant that has no medical use and causes a long list of negative side effects: headaches. and cyanide (a powerful poison). Long-term side effects include chronic bronchitis. dizziness. New smokers often experience nausea and headaches but quickly develop a tolerance for tobacco. Tobacco contains nicotine (an insecticide). batteries. diarrhea. seizures. deep sleep. cardiac arrhythmia. although the chemicals in tobacco can certainly kill when taken in interests and the anti- smoking movement. and gums. and breathing difficulty. An overdose of Thorazine may cause uncontrollable movements. Tobacco use can quickly lead to physical and psychological dependence. extreme dizziness. stomach ulcers. cancer of Because tobacco is a the lung. moth- balls. arsenic (rat poi- son). insecticides. increased respiration. rubber. cold and clammy skin. especially since tobacco is a legal product that is easy to obtain. alcohol. anxiety. and wax. exists between economic sible. sleepiness. Secondhand smoke is very dangerous to young children and can cause United States. mouth. lead and other metals. hunger. high enough doses. and heart dis. lighter fluids and fuels.

Toxin A poison produced by a living organism. the ability to metabolize the drug increases because of its frequent presence in the body. refers to the condition in which the body no longer responds to the taking of a particular drug. the number of receptors the body has for the given drug decreases as the drug is used more often. drugs produced from the cells of living organisms (usually horses). Antitoxins may cause allergic reactions. Toxic/Toxicity Something that is toxic is poisonous. but it may also refer to the negative effects of a poi- son. This happens in the cases of antibiotics and chemotherapy. like some kinds of mushrooms. These toxins can infect human beings if the organism dies and is broken apart. Many antitoxins are produced by inject- ing the toxin into a living animal. such as poisonous snakes and spiders. Toxicity refers to the extent to which something is poisonous. Second. or a drug overdose. 170 . These substances are then removed from the animal and used as medicine. but this is rare. Researchers believe tolerance to drugs and alcohol is the result of two changes in the body that occur after prolonged use of a specific drug. Many drugs are said to be toxic substances because they have poisonous effects on the body (“toxic” is the root of the word “intoxication”). a form of tolerance. After using a particular drug for weeks or months. Resistance. Toxins can be countered with antitoxins. Exotoxins come from the surface of the organism that produces them. Toxins can come from certain animals. Physicians often decide to increase the dosage before halting treatment altogether or prescribing an alternate drug. First. Others come from plants. causing the animal’s body to naturally cre- ate an antitoxin. toxin. This development plays a large role in many instances of addiction.T Tolerance Tolerance Tolerance occurs when the body becomes less responsive to a substance after it is used for an extended period of time. An endotoxin is a toxin that remains inside the organism that produces it. some people feel a need to use greater amounts more often to achieve the effects first experienced. most often bacteria.

Certain transplants. and bone marrow. are much more common and less dangerous than others. modern medicine has come a long way toward perfecting the transplant of organs and tissue. aggressive behavior. Organs that are transplanted include heart. The healthy organ may come from a living relative. See also: Depressant Transplant A surgical process during which a diseased or malfunctioning organ is replaced with a healthy organ. of advances in medicine. usually those who have died in accidents. from someone who has recently died. The person who receives the trans- plant is known as the recipient. such as skin and cornea. Valium. improved Transplants have become more successful donor/recipient matching (blood type and other concerns). hair. This procedure is usually performed when an organ is damaged or diseased beyond repair. usually healthy relatives. and improved in recent years because surgical techniques. 171 . mania. kidney. schizophrenia. pancreas.Three medical advances over the last few decades have made transplants safer and more successful: immunosuppressant drugs that reduce the number of transplant rejections (when the immune system of the recipient attacks the new organ as if it were a disease). skin. Since the 1960s. lung. cornea. manic-depressive disorder. meprobamate. Tranquilizers can be either antianxiety drugs (lorazepam. Xanax) or antipsychotic drugs (Thorazine. Many donors are living people. lithium).Tranquilizer A hypnotic-sedative that is used to treat nervous conditions like anxiety. the source of the transplant is known as the donor. TTransplant and other mental illnesses. liver. from another area of the patient’s body. and the patient’s life is at stake. or in the case of tissue transplant (also called skin graft). such as heart and liver transplants. Other donors are the recently deceased. although it can still be a dan- gerous procedure.

An overdose of a TCA can result in cardiac arrest and death. While cases of tuberculosis have declined over the past 100 years. T Tricyclic Tricyclic Antidepressant (TCA) One of the first types of antidepressant developed. These partic- ular neurotransmitters are what the body naturally uses to fight depression and other mental illnesses. In America. At this point. Most problems occur when the person fails to take a large enough dose or abruptly stops using a TCA. chills. Tuberculosis is spread through the air. including weight gain. tuberculosis has resurfaced as a complication of AIDS. particularly by coughing. and sexual dysfunction. blurred vision. Because of the side effects. It is primarily used to treat depression but has also been found to be successful in treating other ill- nesses. The disease. Tuberculosis can then develop as a result of an impaired immune system or because of old age. it is still a problem in some countries. TCAs have many potentially harmful side effects. called TB for short. When contracted. Trip/Bad Trip See Hallucinogen. constipation. and LSD. and anxiety. diarrhea. confusion. High. memory loss. It commonly takes two to three weeks for the positive effects of a TCA to set in. including nausea. has been around for centuries and occurs par- ticularly in urban areas and underdeveloped/overpopulated areas of the world. withdrawal symptoms may occur. 172 . the bacteria can remain dormant in the lungs for years. sleepiness. Tolerance and addiction to TCAs are rare. hypertension. insomnia. especially selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Although they are among the most dependable antidepressants for mild to moderate depression. particularly obsessive-compulsive disorder (being burdened by Antidepressant unwanted thoughts or the compulsion to repeat certain activities). dry mouth. Tuberculosis A contagious disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. cramps. tuberculosis is most often destroyed by the immune system. In a small percentage of cases. vomiting. TCAs raise the levels of certain neurotransmitters (chemicals that carry messages from one nerve cell to the next) in the brain. doctors often prescribe other antidepressants.

” or mentors. painful uri. bladder problems. More experienced members often become “sponsors. abdominal pain. poor appetite. collapsed vertebrae. to the less experienced members and are called upon whenever the need arises. The development of modern prevention. including a persist- ent cough that produces mucus and sometimes blood. sober (or to stop behaving in a destructive manner). and weight loss. Program nation. fever. two barbi- turates. most people recover from tubercu- losis within one year. Twelve-Step Program Voluntary behavior and/or drug rehabilitation program based on continued Professor Albert abstinence from an addictive substance and/or behavior. and treatment techniques have reduced the threat. the person experiences night sweats. leg paralysis. Treatment for tuberculosis usually entails a group of antibiotics. Members of these pro- grams depend on each other for support and advice. although in some countries TB is still a problem. enlarged neck veins. Tuberculosis begins as a general feeling of illness. kidney damage. fatigue. Twelve-step pro- grams are considered a spiritual environment but do not prescribe any par- ticular religion. The success of Calmatta. Surgery is rarely necessary but is sometimes used to drain fluid from certain areas of the body or to correct damage to the spine. Many years ago. Worsening conditions include air or fluid between T Twelve-Step the lungs and the chest wall. Members are guaranteed anonymity and are usually known 173 . bacteriologist twelve-step programs strongly depends on the individual’s desire to stay who developed the tuberculosis vaccine BCG. nausea. It can be taken orally or injected. With proper treatment. As the disease devel- ops. fluid in the membrane around the heart. coma. poor blood circulation. This drug is used to treat insomnia and to calm patients before surgery and dental opera- tions. tuberculosis (once called consumption) often resulted in death. Tuinal A combination of Amytal and Seconal. breathing difficulty. sterility. arthritis. and death. diagno- sis. and an infection of the brain that can lead to headaches.

Having had a spiritual awakening as the result of these steps. Made a list of all persons we had harmed. 3. and became willing to make amends to them all. 10. Humbly asked Him to remove our shortcomings. Made direct amends to such people wherever possible. 8. and to another human being the exact nature of our wrongs. except when to do so would injure them or others. Twelve- step programs are often recommended by legal and medical professionals for people who have trouble breaking addictions to drugs and alcohol. Made a decision to turn our will and our lives over to the care of God as we understood Him. 11. Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is the original twelve-step program. 5. 9. Admitted to God. Overeaters Anonymous (OA). In founding AA. and Dr. and Gamblers Anonymous (GA). Bob established the basic principles behind all such pro- grams. Bill W. Sought through prayer and meditation to improve our conscious con- tact with God as we understood Him. 6. others are discus- sion-based meetings where any member can speak to the group. Bob. 1. Some meetings are led by speakers. 7. and may be one of many rehabilitation methods the person encounters on the road to sobriety. Twelve Steps The following are the guiding principles on which twelve-step programs are based. Other twelve-step programs include Narcotics Anonymous (NA). These steps are personalized for Alcoholics Anonymous. 4. These two men learned that helping others achieve and maintain sobriety is an active and effective way to maintain personal sobriety. estab- lished in 1935 by two former alcoholics known only as Bill W. 174 . 2. to ourselves. We admitted we were powerless over alcohol—that our lives had become unmanageable. Were entirely ready to have God remove all these defects of character. Came to believe that a Power greater than ourselves could restore us to sanity. 12.T Twelve Steps by first names only. and Dr. Made a searching and fearless moral inventory of ourselves. we tried to carry this message to alcoholics and to practice these principles in all our affairs. Continued to take personal inventory and when we were wrong promptly admitted it. praying only for knowledge of His will for us and the power to carry that out. but the word- ing differs slightly from one type of program to another.

cramps. depression. blurred vision. low blood pressure. Valium has a history of abuse that peaked in the late 1970s when it was a popular drug of abuse because of its ability to relieve tension and depres- sion and make everyday problems seem less important. blackout. cardiac arrhythmia. fatigue. Like all hypnotic-sedatives. tremors. This tranquilizer is also pre- scribed to treat alcohol withdrawal. This often results in overdose and death. coma. nausea. low blood pressure. and muscle spasms. clumsiness. hallucinations. vomiting. constipation. Valium can lead to physical and psychological dependence in as little as two weeks. headache. tremors. nausea. confusion. Valium See also: may result in negative side effects. depressed respiration. and death. gradual tapering off is recommended because of the potentially severe withdrawal symptoms. vomiting. An overdose of Valium may result in sleepiness. slurred speech. confusion. muscle spasms. rash. Withdrawal symptoms include insomnia. breathing difficulty. poor coordination. 176 . In addition to alleviating anxiety disorders. and seizures. Valium is taken orally or injected. People who become addicted to Valium are not advised to quit cold turkey. V Valium Valium The brand name of the benzodiazepine diazepam. depression. dry mouth. sexual dysfunction. cramps. seizures. Valium causes relaxation in smaller doses and sedation in larger doses. including sleepiness. used to treat mild to moderate anxiety disorders and insomnia. dizziness. and memory loss. it should not be taken for longer than four weeks. This drug is some- times mixed with other depressants (particularly alcohol) to enhance the feelings of intoxication. sweating. difficulty in urinating. Antianxiety Drug slurred speech.

Viagra helps to increase the V Viagra flow of blood into the penis. vomiting. and death (usually from heart complications during sexual activity). bronchitis. Viagra is taken orally. and sensitivity to light. Less com- mon side effects may include migraine. Most side effects are mild and disap- pear shortly after beginning to take Viagra. cardiac arrhythmia. upset stomach.Viagra The brand name of the drug sildenafil citrate. difficulty breathing. Men who are capable of achieving erection without Viagra can become psychologically dependent on this drug when they abuse it. heart failure. tremors. Viagra should not be taken by people who have a history of heart disease. rash. seizure. flush- ing. low blood pressure. or prolonged and painful erections lasting four hours or more. and they may eventually need it to achieve Viagra helps to increase erections. sexual experiences. anxiety. diarrhea. Priapism usually happens in men who take Viagra as a recreational drug. nausea. disruptions in color vision. hyperglycemia. ringing in the ears. Viagra may have negative side effects. cardiac arrest. infection of the urinary tract. dizziness. making erection possible. In addition to helping impotent men achieve erection. sweating. dry mouth. This drug has also been known to cause a condition called pri- apism. including headache. making erection possible. anemia. arthritis. Viagra has been abused by men who go to dance clubs and raves blood flow to the (all-night dance parties) because they believe it heightens the pleasure of penis. which is used to treat male impotence (inability to achieve an erection). depression. nasal congestion. See also: Club Drug 177 .This drug is designed to be used by men (primarily older men) who have trouble achieving erection. insomnia.

Some chemicals coat the lungs and prevent oxygen from entering the bloodstream. Solvent fumes are absorbed through the tissues of the throat and lungs and rapidly reach the brain through the blood. floating sensation. and lungs. air freshener). lung damage. Some individuals who abuse inhalants develop a permanent tingling or loss of feeling in their extremities from nerve damage. cardiac arrhythmia. mouth. and death.These effects are See also: Sudden Sniffing Death greatly intensified when the substance is concentrated on a rag or in a paper bag and deeply inhaled (called “bagging” or “huffing”). Inhaling volatile solvents can lead to blackout. numbness. Volatile solvents inhaled for their intoxicating effects include aerosols (spray paint. nail pol- ish remover. 178 . sometimes to the point of unconsciousness. euphoria. and gasoline. After only six months of abuse. Volatile solvents act as a depressant on the central nervous system. users can develop permanent damage to the organs of the body. even the first time they are used. butane (cigarette lighter fluid). propane. kidney damage. weakness. liver damage. Volatile solvent abuse is considered to be the most dangerous inhalant abuse. coma. This causes breathing and heart rate to slow. Other short-term effects may include drunkenness. V Volatile Solvent Volatile Solvent A type of product often misused as an inhalant. Even when used properly in a well-ventilated room. Volatile solvents can also burn the tissues of the nose. cardiac arrest. these products can produce lightheadedness in people working with them. spinning sensation. and nausea. and bone and bone marrow damage. paint thinner. anemia. Long-term effects can include severe brain and central nervous system damage. throat.

anxiety. Withdrawal occurs because the body becomes accustomed to the presence of a drug after a period of time. Other drugs—like alcohol and See also: barbiturates—can cause life-threatening withdrawal symptoms. Withdrawal from some drugs—like narcotics—can be extremely uncomfortable but is not life-threatening. fatigue. for example. nausea. caffeine withdrawal. sleepiness. Withdrawal The physical and psychological effects experienced when a person abruptly stops using a drug that causes chemical dependence. and in some cases for a month or up drinking coffee. the body develops cravings for it that manifest as feelings of physical and mental illness. Sometimes the user builds a tolerance for the drug. 180 . irritability. Withdrawal symptoms can individuals who give last from a few days to a few weeks. and irritability. Still other Delirium Tremens drugs may have very mild withdrawal symptoms. vomiting. “Whip-Its” See Nitrous Oxide. headache. depression. is common among decreased appetite. When use of the drug is halted. insomnia. Withdrawal symptoms depend on the specific drug but may include flulike symptoms. includes headache. fever. Caffeine withdrawal diarrhea. sweating. and weight loss or gain.W Wellbutrin Wellbutrin See Bupropion. longer. resulting in the need for larger doses.

vomiting. Xanax can lead to physical and psy- chological dependence.They may include drowsiness. slurred speech. On rare occasions. confusion. abdominal cramps. This drug is taken orally and may take a few days to a few weeks to begin working. nausea. dizziness. vomiting. PMS. and death. Side effects related to Xanax often occur with first use but disappear See also: after a few days. a tranquilizer prescribed to treat anxiety and panic disorders. tremors. sweating. poor coordination. poor coordination. memory loss. dry mouth. hallucinations. increased heartbeat. cardiac arrhythmia. insomnia. low blood pressure. nausea. A Xanax overdose may result in sleepiness. and seizures.Xanax The brand name of the benzodiazepine alprazolam. and depression (related to anxiety disorders). muscle cramps. blurred vision. and breathing difficulty. Antianxiety Drug cramps. coma. blackout. Withdrawal symptoms usually include insomnia. Xanax is used to treat X Xanax pain from cancer (combined with opioid analgesics). headaches. confusion. 181 . When taken for a prolonged period.

Z Zyban Zyban See Bupropion. 182 .

NY 10016 (212) 870-3400 A m e rican Cancer Society 1599 Clifton Road NE Atlanta. VA 23454-5617 (800) 344-2666 A l c o h o l i c s A n o ny m o u s 468 Park Avenue South New York.A n o n / A l at e e n Fa m i l y G r o u p H e a d q u a r t e r s 1600 Corporate Landing Parkway Virginia Beach. MN 55012-0011 (800) 257-7800 Nat i o n a l C l e a r i n g h o u s e f o r A l c o h o l a n d D r u g I n f o r m at i o n P.O. GA 30341 (800) CDC-1311 183 . Box 11 Center City. GA 30329-4251 (800) ACS-2345 H a z e l d e n Fo u n d at i o n P.O. Box 2345 Rockville.Where to Go for Help Organizations A l . MD 20847-2345 (800) 729-6686 Office on Smoking and Health C e n t e r s f o r D i s e a s e C o n t r o l a n d P r e ve n t i o n Mail Stop K-67 4770 Buford Highway NE Atlanta.cancer.

Hotlines Heroin Hotline (800) 9-HEROIN (43-7646) M e n t a l H e a l t h C r i s i s H o t l i ne (800) 222-8220 Nat i o n a l I n s t i t u t e o n D r u g A bu s e R e f e r r a l (800) 662-HELP (4357) 184 .

A .org/ Te e n C h a l l e n g e : Wo r l d Wide Netwo r k http://www.hc-sc. o r g http://www.about.dare.nih. E . R .com/ Alcohol and Other Drugs––Health Canada 185 .webmd. c o m S u b s t a n c e A bu s e http://substanceabuse.teenchallenge.htm D.streetdrugs.html Nat i o n a l Fa m i l i e s i n A c t i o n Nat i o n a l I n s t i t u t e o n D r u g A bu s e We b M D RxList––The Inter net Dr ug Index http://www.Web Sites A b o u t . o r g p r e s c r i p t i o n a bu s e . A m e r i c a s t r e e t d r u g A l c o h o l a n d S u b s t a n c e A bu s e Merck Manual Home Edition Online http://www.

Brecher. Boston: Little. Boston: McGraw-Hill College.D. Goode. Charles B.. New York: Random House. ed. Metuchen. and the Way They Act. American Medical Association Home Medical Encyclopedia. Erich. 186 . Richard A. Alfred. Robert. 1972. Licit and Illicit Drugs. 1992. New York: Facts on File.Their History and Origins.D. Bibliography Berkow. 1999. Robert. Clayman.VA: University Press of Virginia. Charlottesville. Brown. The Merck Manual of Medical Information. Drugs in American Society. eds. The Encyclopedia of Drug Abuse. 2000. Burger. Spears.. M. M. ed. and Sidney Cohen. New York: Pocket. 1989. Drugs and People: Medications. Edward M. 1986. NJ: Scarecrow.. O’Brien. The Slang and Jargon of Drugs and Drink. 1986.

23. 127. 114. 8. 9. 164. 137. 7. 139. 104. 6. 168. 104 twelve-step programs. 48. 39. 64. 165 23. alcoholics. Alateen. 103. 173 95. 9. 109. 144. 6. 63. 10 85. 96. 97 anesthetics/anesthetic. 2. 16. 141. antidotes. 13. 4 Amytal. 96. See LSD. 4. 11. 110. 137 41. 65. 13–14 146. 21. 156. 17. 161. 155 alcoholism. heightened/increased. 23. adrenal glands. 159. 124. 170 acetaminophen. 29. 7. alcohol. 87. 17–18. 85. 31. 127. 171 65. 59. 170. 11. 120. 123. 117. 11. 174. 176. 6 77. alprazolam. 125. 5. 109. 125 antifungal drugs. 157. AIDS. 50. 11. 97. 6 24. 151. 7 antianxiety drugs. 10. 9. 26. 6. 70. 10. 133. 37. 152 acid. addiction. 130. 3–4. 16. 112. 15. 112. 134. 33. 96. 164 131. 8. 29. 163 62. 74. Al-Anon. alcohol poisoning. 108. 65. 137 187 . 118. 20. 140. 20. 124. 53.Index A abstinence. 13 142. 15. 14 analgesics. 64. 118. 70. 50. 79. 172 alertness. 26. 26. 6. 178 anabolic steroids. 2. 134. 77. See also anticancer drugs. 26. 39. 155. 126. 33. 114. 119 amyl nitrite. 154. 87. 165 adrenaline. 130. 120. 96. 18. 70. 127. 131. as side effect. 131. 19. 20. 43. 116. 53. 47. 8. 137. acetaldehyde. 61. 138 9. 101. 54. 75–76. definition/explanation of. 59. 10. 5. 90. 50. 79. 4. 164 addictive personality. 7. 2. 18. 95. 63. 80. 2. 114. 6. 103. 126. 171 13–14. 87. 57. 79 effects/dangers of. 29. 12. 12. 138. amphetamines. 8–9 160. 42. 161. 41. 133. 119 anemia. 21. 159. 28. dangers of. 2. 26. 3. 160. 4 59. 64. 57. 135 alcohol. explanation of. 142. 16–17. 133. 177. 56. 159 adulterant. 97. 3. aggressiveness. 104. 173 aerosol. Antabuse. 119. 8. 178 akyl nitrites. 71. 90. 137 amnesia. 11. 9. 156. 135 as withdrawal symptom. 51. help/treatment for. 127. 8. 98. 119. 5. 28. 10. 166. 24. 41. 14. 8. 164 as result of overdose. 93. 4. angina pectoris. 96. 172 151. 14–15. 181 84. 70. 152. 12. 10. 159. 114 antibiotics. 92. 31. 11. 173 150. 117. 47. 90. allergic reactions. 99. Alcoholics Anonymous. antidepressants. 180 antacids. 91. 119. 26. anticonvulsant drugs. 4.

110. 53. 41. 28. 152. 168. 109. 12. 151 and blackouts. 36. 59. blood alcohol level. B 121. 95. 164. 146. 124. 10. 110. 123. 154. 140 16. antihistamines. 70. 123. 130. 20. 54. 4. 99. 11. 55. 9. 95. 117. 164 disorders. 154 124. 50. bilirubin. 110–111 disorder (ADHD). 124. treatment as result of overdose/poisoning. 142. 119. 89. 15. 88. 117. 80. 111. 169. 26. 39. 42. 54. 59 124. 180 birth defects. 9. 176. 31. 15. treatment of. 119. 20. appetite. 108. 116. 151 147. 85. belladonna. 70. 169 effects/dangers of. 4. 4. barbiturates. 75. 111. 28. 50. 25. 109. 84. 74. 116. 72. 138. antivenin. of. 97. 151 8. asthma. 133. 120. 19. 21. 125. 117. 181 75. 86. 23. 75. 142. 114. 75. 115. 144. 118. 144. 5 antipsychotic drugs. 169 atherosclerosis. 17 111. 20. 123. 180 as result of overdose. 133. 160 Bactrim. 20. 126. as side effect. 45. 91. 55. 25. attention deficit disorder (ADD). 19. 18–19. 29. 108. 181 as withdrawal symptom. benzocaine. anxiety. 20. 180 bleeding. 99. 147. 114 152. 9. 108. 70. 29. 10. 35. 143. 50. 27. 134. 106. 165. 28. 156. 9. 95. 61. 85. 54. 83. 172. 117. 131 31. binge drinking. 37. 103. 176. 90 140. blackouts. anxiety disorders. 124. 88. 65. 154. 8. 57. 91. decreased/loss of. 103. 64. 112. 160. 24. 26. 35. 6. 80. 178. 9. 60. 15. 60. 171 140. 31. 39. 126. 8. 119. 165. 10. 124. 181 39. 173. 127. 127. 90 112. high/increased. 99 aspirin. 112 56. 131. antiviral drugs. 112. 43. 20 arthritis/rheumatoid arthritis. 59. 91. 136. 109. 121. low. 119. 86. bipolar disorder. 37. as withdrawal symptom. 25. 111. 116. 130. 146. 24–25. 37. 39. 110. 125. 8. 76. 57. 159. 168. 152. 165 blood pressure. 177 benzodiazepines. 45. 2. 85 112. 125. 13. 2. 23. 12. 101 17. 109. 146. 50. 63. 125. treatment of. 108. 176 188 . excessive/bleeding appetite suppressants. 96. 87. 41. 26 attention deficit hyperactivity explanation of. 93. 160. 110. 93. 108. 177 67. 61. 57. 108. 93. 124. 35. 7. 99. as side effect. 24. 23. 112. 70. blood pressure. AZT. 114 173. 127. 21. 121. 93. 93. 47. 171 53. 176. 110. 24. 39. 44. 125–126 92. 21. 138. 25–26. 160. 143. 131. 10. 155. 50. 160.

86. 95. 7. 88. 117. 119. 39. 70. 56. 54. 69. 29. 36. 7. bronchodilators. 112. 138 central nervous system. 125. 155 children and drugs. 17. 91. 115. 7. C 120. 74. 172. 176. 27. 117. 178 bong. 74. 54. 155. 147 as withdrawal symptom. 146. 142. 172 caffeine. 112. 29. 160. drugs on. 116. 60. 19. 54. 138. 154. 135. 60. 7. 54. 18. 57. 33–34. 33. 119. 125. 133. 89. 60. 117. 121. 178 57. 121. 39. 147. 99. 169. 97. 45. 8. 70 168. 143. 19. 134. 131. 18. 108 189 . 50. difficulty in/restricted. 170 bulimia. 29. 109. 80. 131. 121. 143. 119. 39. 169. 41. 121. 151. 29. 19. 42. 169 Breathalyzer. 96. 56. 123. 177 chemotherapy. as result of overdose/poisoning. 137. 36. See marijuana. 28. 23. 89. 26. 50. 4. 177. 21. 67 as side effect. 99. China White (alpha-methyl- 88. 87. 52. 97. 60. treatment of. 126. 131. 28. 83. 110. See pipe. 4. 34. 118. butyl nitrite. 116. 97. 61. 156. 70. 115. poisoning. as result of overdose/ 123. 37. slowed. 18. 36–37 bupropion. 108. 108. 121. 19. 111. 117. 169. 23. 126. 117. 75 cancer. breathing. chlordiazepoxide. 10. 124. 161. 124. 180 134. 180 fentanyland). 142. 110. 142. 121. 32. breathing. bronchitis. 19. 54. 13. 126. 109. breast-feeding. 50. 177. 16. 83. 124. as withdrawal symptom. 37. 181 80. 92. 159 as side effect. 165. 29 chills. 151. 33. 50. 116. 106. 92. 18. 152. 70. 84. 26 112. 24. 178 168. 181 carcinogens. 95. 109. 60. 104. 126. 123. 19. 131. 24. 181 106. 53 124. 33. 108. 123. 23. 91. 111. 160 90. 123. cardiac arrest. 178. 71 chemical dependence. 31. 112. 147. 9. 35. 164. 177. 96. 37. 146 brain damage. 6. 108. 97. 56. 91. 15. 130. 166. 87. bradycardia. 63. 33. 159. 165. 10. Cannabis sativa. 34 86. 20. 37. 32–33. and blackouts. 61. cardiac arrhythmia. 109. 169 bone marrow damage. 99. 108. 146. 130. 34–35. 93. 54. 164. 123. 120. 16. as side effect. 29. 177. 162. 26. 35. 178 bromocriptine. 60. 98. 112. 80. 181 119. 27–28 146. effects of as side effect. chloral hydrate. 16. 178 126. 74. 28–29. 164. 117. 161. 176. 91. 176. 8. 85. 50. 173 88. 71. 112. 166. 121. 70. 137. 39. 169. 164. 39. 31.

135. 125. 25. 123. 126. treatment of. 84. 59. 51. 29. 80. 121. 176. 176 as side effect. 44. 61. 176. 42. 42. 86. 136. 28. 160. 10. 110 as side effect. 151. 93. 23. 10. 9. 106. 42–43. as result of overdose/poisoning. 108. chlorpromazine. 116. 53. 20. 155. 110. 23. 41. 64. 55. 13. 109. 24. 125 from withdrawal. 6. 57. 83. 120. cirrhosis of the liver. 42. 117. 71. 108. 109. 60. 110. 139–140. 74. 173 as withdrawal symptom. 93. 133. as side effect. 51 codependent personality. 44. 50. 120 121. 144. 115. 24. 168. 8. 14. 16. 10 165. 64. compulsive behavior/compulsion. 147. 19. 89. 172. 36. 112. 60. 50. 133. 114. 121. 169 108. 44. 181 86. 165 cigarettes/cigars. 123. Clozapine. 54. 181 53. 117. 108. 160. 109. 160. 29. 60. 116. 133. 61. 50. 57. 9. 50. 89. 91. 84. 53. club drugs. 95. counseling/therapy. 130. 117. cocaine. 40–41. 54 coma. 56. 74. 91. 129 9. 137. 29. 127. 15. 136 coughing. 123. 14. 172 cough remedies. 11. 14. 159 Controlled Substances Act of codependence. 71–72. 3. 138. 133. 57. 25. 40. 151. 98. 39. 29. 44 1970. 19. 87. 112. 169. 43. 87 131. 151. 56. 42. 118. 176. 47. 142. 146. 88. 149. 157 121. 7. 147. 69. 33. 181 118. 54. 117. 176. 13. 85. 161. 106. 86. 39 39. 75. as result of overdose. 10. 19. 121. 55. 10. 93. 173 3. 91. 89 35. 112. 165 constipation. 69. 70. 50. coronary artery disease. 56. 152 159. 79. 15. 74. 147. 129. 168. 112. 19. 6. 146. 168 confusion. 161. 80. 124. 119. 65. 41. 63. 91. 50. 101. 47. 44. 117. 7. coronary heart disease. as result of overdose/poisoning. 46. 28. concentration. 79. 45. coordination. 117. 152. 152. 4. 24. 178. 164. 28. 24. 39. 118. 57. 37. as withdrawal symptom. 54. 24. 172. 43. 95. 16. 123. 77. 181 96. 138. 111. 91. 8. 41. as result of overdose/poisoning. 38. 13. 55 7. 57 124. 99. 80. 84. 131. 19. 47. 154 cold turkey. 15. 10. 160. 169 35. 111. 112. 93. 37. 34. 58. 10. 110. 190 . 12. 2. 48. 6 convulsions. 107 effects/dangers of. 92. 50. 124. 58. 20. 138. 14. 37. 88. 151. 23. 154. 92. 152. 125. 29. 109. 126. loss of. 89. 26. 54. codeine. 85. 42. 80. 46. 37. 39. 176 129. loss of/difficulty in. quitting. 92. 154. 110. 108.

53. 119. 10. 89. 55. 45. 161. 23. 133. 178. 121. 150. 23. decongestants. 15. 121. 47 124. accidental. 120. 146. as side effect. 151 cravings. 47. 151. as result of overdose/poisoning. 160. 99. 19. 168 cross-drug addiction. 51. 176. 74. 106. 2. 91. 60. 61. 144. 136. 133 110. 114. 51. 176. 165. 109. 160 108. 125. 126. 142. 118. 121. 124. 39. 25. 172. 3. 72. 56. 112. 95. 138 152. 57. 159. 57. 54 depressants. D 129. 25. 71. 49–50. 152. 173 23. 47. 10. 79. 157. 13–14.” 45–46 114. 123. 77. crack. 45. 42. 83. 131. 112. 70. 115. 37. crash. 133. 106. 152. 25. 33. 59. 114. 115. 89. 29. 143. 51. 84. 54. 69. 144 60. 16. 63. 114. 44. Darvon. 56. 133. 15. 166. 152 121. 57. 93. 118. 56. 45. 7. 155. dehydration. 99. 7. 65. 23. Education). 60. 172. 91. 9. 85. 51–52. 54. 131. 15. 91. 124. 80. 24. cramps. 130. 47. 181 108. 77. 133. 25. 16. 55. 24. 144. 74. 110. DEA (Drug Enforcement 157. 66 depression. 53. 42. 50. 50 108. 46 146. 6. 136. 116 172. 15. 178 Administration). 103. treatments of. 53. 165 53. 92. 7. 141 as result of overdose. 111. 106. 10. 177. 134. 111. 89. 67. 93. 55. 35. 19. 166. 29. 146. 83. crime. 46. 146. 116. 58. 3. 74. 103. 109. 95. 119. 110. 120. 138. 80. 17. delirium tremens. 142. 181 191 . 25. 97. 123. as result of overdose/ 176. 24. 124. 63. 64. 123. 66. 70. 83. 123. 169. 112. 111. 123. 99. 56. 119. 120. 176 DARE (Drug Abuse Resistance effects/dangers of. 176. 26. 4. 108. 24. 80. 164. 107 119. 57. 88. 58. 146 as withdrawal symptom. decriminalization. 90. 97. 42. 108. 50. 117. 131. date-rape drugs. 3. 126. 177 poisoning. 26. 84. 87. 29. 35. 103. 110. 151. 41. 121. from withdrawal. 181 55. 80. 112. 181 delirium. dealing/dealers. 19. 19 croup. 46. 59. 39. 62. 53 114. 109. 4 Demerol. 116. 107 119. 124. 111. 155. 147. alcohol-related. 126. 83. 142. 46. 47. 91. 123. 88 75. 110. 106. 83. 11. 9. 108 death. explanation of. 164. 29. 85. 115. “crack baby. 95. 180 delusions. 51. 133. 99. 79 dementia. 95. 15. 82. 6. as side effect. 140 54–55. 76. 8. 120. 75.

123. 8. as result of overdose/poisoning. 110. 176. 35. 30. 51 diet aids/pills. diabetes insipidus. DWI. drug use. 181 as result of overdose. 120. 119. 95. 14. 124. 61. 63. 177. 108. 55. 20. Dexedrine. 42. 42. 41. 121. 47. 141 110. 131. 37. 86. 61. 46. 55. as withdrawal symptom. 39. 87. 98. 44. 25. 137. 168. 57. 27. 19. 54. 28. 172. 56. 112 159. 7. 6. 109. 159 drug rehabilitation. 181 106. 52. 74. 108. 56. 98. 29. 64. 93. 131. 119. 53. 64–65. 56. 12. definition/explanation 169. 89. 156–157 172. 75. 24. 60. 106. 168. 42. 109 as withdrawal symptom. 53. 43. drug abuse. 176. 83. 117. 17. 48. 131. 8. 99. 111. as side effect. 37. 149. 134. 89. 168 diabetes. 133. 14. 123. 64 Dilaudid. 141. 2. 42. 124. 50. 79. 156. 92. 109. 98. 60. 89. 3. 57. 9. drug interaction. 142. 57 dronibinol. 151. 59. 37. 74. 79. 146. 9. 4. as side effect. 7. 116. diarrhea. 144. 131. 70. 169. 13 107. 91. 152 diabetes mellitus. 70. 54. 83. 164 as result of overdose. 46. drug testing. 57. drowsiness. 60. 76. 34. disulfiram-alcohol reaction. 67 192 . definition/explanation 95. 66. 111. 70. 149. 141 29. 131. 50. definition/explanation of. as withdrawal symptom. 155. 130. 88. 152. 62–63 127. 162 147. 150. 24. 34. 136. 13 150. 116. 147. drug. 120. 59 dose. 62 dextroamphetamine. 164 explanation of. 46. 80. 51. 136. 180 177. 124. 50. 165 drug trafficking/traffickers. 125 as side effect. 9. 134. definition/ 88. 173 dizziness. 19. 180 Drug-Induced Rape Prevention diazepam. 124. 152 dopamine. 26. 57. 165. 166 DMT (dimethyltryptamine). 168. disulfiram. 21. 121. 16. drug abuse/use. 60. 109. distilled alcohol. 71. 159 56–57. signs of. 54. 35. 60 35. 127. 59. 109. 26. 63 as withdrawal symptom. 165 74. 70. 19. 65–66. 168 dexfenfluramine. 61–62. 58 108. 169 dry mouth. 142. 59. 123. 89. 95. 57 72. 151. 126. 181 designer drugs. 176. 10. 28. 117. 138. 177 of. of. 135. 155. 176 and Punishment Act. stages of. 58–59. 75. 50. detoxification. 43. 120. 47. 151.

89. 80. 75 enabler. 25. 13. 131. 9. 74–75. 88 37. 119 117. 16. 138. 74. 121. 26. 125. 80. 77 63. 88. 162 G GABA. 119. 125. 46. fluoxetine. 135. 72. ether. epinephrine. 138 ginkgo. 129. 61. 55 fentanyl. 84. 4. 75 endorphins. 120. 45. 24. 144. 159 as result of overdose/poisoning. Sir Alexander. 126. 6. 4. 24. 4 56. 40. 39. 7. 111. 109. 143 83. epilepsy. 70. 112. 117. 150 fatigue/exhaustion. 133. 126. of. 52. 75–76 ephedrine. 119. 28. 134 106. definition/explanation experimentation/experimenting. 133. 30. 88. 54. 165. 143. 50. 71. 151. 79. 69. 159 150. 87. 152. 112. 116. ginseng. 111 133. 36. 176 glue sniffing. flushed sensation/flushing. 4. 71–72. 89. 161 as result of overdose. 180 193 . 40. 160. 111. 44 fetal alcohol effect (FAE). 46. 161. 151. 29. “fight or flight” reaction.E FDA (Food and Drug ecstasy. 124. 9. 150. Administration). 88. ergot. 70. 130 electroconvulsive therapy. 89. flunitrazepam. 54. 45. 103. 18. 140. 50. 76. 129. 178 freebase. 111. 79–80. 19. 9. 7 as withdrawal symptom. 150. 57. 89. 136. 169 fermented alcohol. 29. 123. 88 83. 127 80. glutethimide. 84 106. 95. 71. 10. ginger. 83. 56. 146. 123. 31. Fleming. 142 135. 10. 45. 123. 93. 74. 161. 75. 84. 149 (FAS). 124. 177 165. 79 F gateway drugs. glucose. See also MDMA. 154 as side effect. 6. 154. 159 emphysema. 11. 119. 123. volatile solvents. 50. 138. 23. 180 euphoria. 164 ethanol. 110. 80. 159. 88 as side effect. 89. 114. 98 133. 41. 149. 97. fever. 151. 117. 77. 23. 147. GHB. fetal alcohol syndrome 137. 152 121. 72. 92. 70 . 119. 116. See inhalants and as withdrawal symptom. 146. 124. 123. 57. flashbacks. 53. 117.

85. 110. 31. heart attack. 116. 61. 119. 11. 85 98. 143. 83. 87–88 . 151 heart failure. 151. 116. as withdrawal symptom. 59. 58. 11. 147. 119. 57. 21. 116. 58. 85. 129. 20. 57. 75. 112. 28. 83–84 110. 29. 10. 93. 71. 114. 25. 76. 104. 84. 99. 42. 131. 118. definition/explanation 165. 85. 76. 89. 93. 16. 125. 82. 89. 99. 101. homegrown. 89–90 156. 169. 139. 123. 89. 164. 161 herbal stimulants. 133. 37. 55. 168 53. 7. 115. 80. 112. 108. 7. 98. 165. 30. 14. 50. 46. 36. 111. 83. 180 of. 121. 152. 23. 111. 59. 177. 116.” 88 of. 85. 3. 169 108. 87 . heroin. 118. 92. 31. 110. 5. 20. 147. 169. 9. 8. 109. 18. 9. as side effect. 33. 41. 176. 130. hallucinogens. 96. 60. 98. 7. 181 39. 123. 26. 136. 136. 79. 133. 4. 87. 121. 118. 12. 124 hard drugs. 177 126. 133. 89. 152. 99. 79. 157. 126. 181 hippocampus. headaches. 9. 161. of. 125. 146. 53. effects/dangers of. 154. 117. 8. 89. 40. hangover. 84–85. 169. 56. 29. 84. 44. 13. 90. 143. 124. 57. 152. 9. definition/explanation 126. 136. 33. 88. 17. 80. 20. heart rate. 119 heartburn. 111. 26. 156. 14. 57. 57. 107. 92. 21. high. 164. 125. 55. 13. 69. 51. 90–91. 104. 173 119. 92. 166 89. 56. 70. H heart disease/damage. 36. 93. 165. hallucinations. 123. 26. 20. 112. 16. 92. 144. 150. 124. 115. 106. 157 74. 126. 60. 155. 76. 6. 168 165. 119. 168 treatments of. 176. 33. 60 194 . 53. 47. 121. 54. inreased. 29. 149. 29. 152 103. 121. 6. 20. 119. 50. 42. 95 hydrocodone. 136. 159 as side effect. 57. 10. 54. 96. hazing. 117. 125. 89. 119. 16 HIV. 108. 35. 97. 116. 14. 37. 82–83. 57. 163 111. 91 hydromorphone. 112. 75. 54. 74. 124 106. 46. 121. 124. 41. 86. See volatile solvents. 181 118. 34. 60. 112. 54. 84. 41. 138 152. hunger. definition/explanation “herbal ecstasy. as withdrawal symptom. herpes. effects of drugs on. 39. 97. 147. 164 hydrochloric acid. 59. 61. 156. 88. 69. 103. 135. hepatitis. 142. 71. 9. 112 hashish/hash oil. 138. as result of overdose/poisoning. 85–86 huffing. 169 as result of overdose. 91 heart. 80. 86. 96. 88–89. 86.

20 164. 9 J immune system. 93. 90. 9. 24. 160. 146. 42. intoxication. 60. 85. 108. I 57. 124. 177 154. 36. 9. 82. 104. 171 joint. 125. 50. 152. hypotension. 116 kidney failure. on. 57. 80. 80. 91. 95. 75. 43. 177 treatment of. 178 K inhibitions. 24. 124. as withdrawal symptom. 79. 12. 112. 89. 103. 117. 93. 15. 54. 176. 16. 36. 119. 21. effects of drugs on. 47. kidneys. 56. 15. 180 ibuprofen. 155 irritability. 29. 111. 96. 17. 125. definition/explanation 160. 136. loss of. 10. 58. 52. 88. hyperventilation. 124. 146. 13 176. effects of drugs jaundice. 165. 20. 156. 137. 2. 80. 64. 171. 195 . intervention. 152. 168 124. 151. 31. 103. 162 57. 6. 89. 58. 97–98 119. 41. 99 hypoglycemia. 120. 151 hypothalamus. kidney stones. 92. 10. 164. insomnia/inability to sleep. 63. 85. 18. 155 as side effect. 89. definition/explanation of. 87. 126 immunosuppressants. 14. 97. kidney disease/damage. 12. 37. 29. 95. dangers of. 120. 58. 37. 87. 14. 20. 35. 164. 152 ketoprofen. 101. 180. 96. 92. 54. 166. 140. 55. 110. 10. 14. 5. 99. 6. 98. 5. 108. 58 as side effect. 65. 176 of. function of. 11. 155. 109. 104. 3. 160. 155. 4. 93. 89. 59. 95 illness. 172 125. 123. 164 jimsonweed. ketamine. 29. 110 as result of overdose. 7. 164 as withdrawal symptom. 95 inject/injecting. 147. 111. 23. 173. 155. increased susceptibility to. 169. 75. 124. 112. 7. 79. 57. 109 120. 157. 142. 115. 159 146. 117. 181 hypertension. 95. 126. 104 70. 11. 88. 88. 39. 53. 98 50. 32. 172. 92. 87. 108. 3. 93. 121. 32. 181 hypnotic-sedatives. 96. 126. 86. 98–99 112. 50.hyperglycemia. 111. 11. insulin. 58. 39. 159 inhalants. 11. 164. 2. 97. 101. 56. 98. 83. 37. 156. 119. 124. 59. 15. 144. 54. 178 as result of overdose. 59. 10. 173. 98. 110. 23. 127 ice (crystal meth). 40.

37. 93. 82. 118. 178 medicinal uses of illegal drugs. 112. 141. 159. 7. 54. 84. 103. 112. 70. 2. 157. 118. 106. 64. 154. 15. 106–107 168. 91 118. 123. 57. 17. 56. 47. 84. 40. 9. 117. 107–108 manic-depressive disorder. 181 143. 114. lithium. LSD. 112 56. 160. 164 “laughing gas. 137. 109. 47. liver failure. 109. 76. 133. 109. 159 164. 114. 82. 69. heightened. 131. 7. 86. 95. 160. 32. 127 marijuana. 66. 3. 168 effects of drugs on. 72. 133. 151. 107. 99. 40. 156. 32. mescaline. 9. lungs. 109 MDMA. 10. 35. mania. 86. 84. 164. See inject/injecting. 111. 17. 39. 61. 136. 110. 161. 90. 71. 19. 98. 121 133. Librium. 97. 36. 119. 171 lidocaine. 84. 165 M methaqualone. 126. 8. 112. functions of. 99. 97. 151 ma huang. 114–115. 57. 7. 159 144. 3. 29. 24. 35. 19. 18. 115 115 . 116. See also ecstasy. as side effect. 151 lung cancer. meperidine. 121. 108. laxative. 80. 54. 19. 95. 114. 178 methamphetamine. 106. 12. 74. 15. 124. 80. 91. 112. 158. 60. 161. 110. 97. 177 maintenance drugs. 119. 47. 155 116–117 lorazepam. 171 146. 88. 150. 70 migraines. methylphenidate. 159 28. 17. 14. 9. 63. lightheadedness. 165. 101. 32. 108. 64. 112. 101. 115 101. 9. 39. 142 196 . 139. 160. 56. mainline. 89. 146 “magic mushroom. 82. 90. 120. 4. 40. 35. 85. treatment of. 32. 63. 121. 116. 176. 155. 169 meprobamate. 26. 53. 156. 50. 117. 160. 35.” See psilocybin. 76. 116. Luminal. 33. 159. liver disease/damage. 28. 50. laam. 159 109. 87–88. 116. 20. 171 memory loss. 84. 6. 96. 144 131. 50. 43. 142. 159. 111–112. 9. 10. 124 monoamine oxidase inhibitors. liver. 119–120 . 172. effects of drugs on. 42. 88. 109–110 effects/dangers of. 159 mental activity. 139. 171 legalization. 53. 65. medical attention/care. 82. 11. 26. 79. 3. 57. 164.” See nitrous oxide. 114. L malnutrition. 5. 121. 106. 124. 117. 133. 110. 119. 44. methadone. 118–119. 28. 117. 57. 171 lung disease/damage. 56 161. 108.

126. 80. 29. 51. Nembutal. 155. 42. 17. 127. 155. 97. 177. 127. 131. 151. 70. 70. 20. 59. 121. 143. 120. 20. 103. 150. 16. 31. 142. 42. 135. nitrous oxide. 169 nausea. 50. 119. 106. 118. 99. 112. 74. 25. 178 149. 150. 126. 29. norepinephrine. 133. 52. See nicotine. 46. 16. 25. as result of overdose/poisoning. 121. nerve/nervous system damage. 60. 41. 80. 36. 11. 151. 58. 125. 129. 83. 159 nervous disorders. 104 morphine. 146. 93. 59. 123. 44. 127 119. 112. also twelve-step programs. 89. 93. 55. as withdrawal symptom. 12. 123.mood swings. 109. 39. 123 as withdrawal symptom. 121 . 54. 106. 76. 93. 50. 108. 164. 111. 89. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory 44. 54. 164 neurotransmitters. 149. 143. 117. 131. 37. 124. 59. 47. 111. 39. 60. 83. 165 nephrotic syndrome. 15. 109. 17 164. 125. 180 168. 80 117. 74. 13. novocaine. 124. 57. 125. 119. treatment of. 91. 42. 70. 89. 74. 155. 3. 147. 180. 88. 116. 8. narcotics. 21. 125–126 as side effect. needle tracks. 95 motion sickness drugs. 16. 29. 63. 18. syndrome. See inject/injecting. 85. 117. 79. 17. 140. 56. 61. 75. O 178. 64. 23. 138. 9. 164. 24. 92. 79. 169. 118. 123. 172 197 . 119. 150. 19. as withdrawal symptom. 86. 7. 130 nervousness. 124 14. drugs (NSAIDs). 41. 24. 111. 143. 83. 149. 137 91. 159 20. 160. 29. 146. 181 114. 3 106. 109. 126. N 142. 119. 15. 95 neuroleptic malignant narcolepsy. 88. 6. 106. 64. 21. 111. 164. 176. 120. 13. 88. 176. 54. 143. 54. 152. 164. 178 naltrexone. 151 nightshade. 60. 110. 16. 57. 7. 174. 123–124. 142. 88. 108. 126. 155. 37. 121. 79. 8. 116. 72. 9. 133. 129. as side effect. 108. 131. 34. 109. 136. 3 as side effect. 99. 172. 10. 151. 155. 19 151. 20. 38 naproxen. 19. 110. 43. nightmares/bad dreams. 61. 35. 79. 13. 172 Narcotics Anonymous. 39. 95. 147. treatment of. 95. 181 obsessive-compulsive disorder. 71. 119. 50. 12. naloxone. 159 156. 74.

See oxycodone. peyote. 57. 134 Prozac. 117. 63. 76. 42. 47. 50 penicillin. 116. 168 peer pressure. 84. 46. 150 propoxyphene. 115. 28. overdose. 10. 77. 83. 25 57. 84. 126. 71. 51. See also 56. definition/explanation definition/explanation of. 160. 21. 133. mescaline. physical performance. during. 13. 2. 15. 56. 143. 156 75. 160. 87. as result of overdose. 14. 107. 156. 119 prescription drug. 168 Percodan. 52. 159. 121. 151. 70. 61. opioid analgesics. 137. 131.160. 9. 82. 124. 126 amyl nitrite. 56. 144. treatment of. 91. 45–46. 101. 129 . possession. opiate/opium. 130 of. 140 71. 138 as result of overdose.” 10. pregnancy. 56. of. 89. 136 over-the-counter drug. 170 paralysis. 42. pharmacodynamics. 55. pregnancy. 135 144. 45. 45. 93. 60. treatment of. 136. 20. 139–140 as withdrawal symptom. 135 opioids. 131 pipes. 135. 118. unwanted. 141–142. explanation of. See also as side effect. 164 physical dependence. procaine. 63. 142–143 198 . definition/ Parkinson’s disease. 129. 24. 25–26. 139 as side effect. 130 70. 56. 53. 77. 143. 74. 88 106. 123. 116. 181 137–138. 116 poison/poisoning. danger of drugs/alcohol 70. 124. 103. 36. 109. 119. 140–141 PCP. 140. treatment of. 133–134. paranoia/paranoid delusions. See oxycodone. 53. 123. 15 osteoporosis. 59 osteoarthritis. 135 phenobarbital. 112. 127 159. 83. 164 prohibition. 2. Percocet. 109. 56. 14 “poppers. 89. 125. 152 opportunistic infections. 72. 65. 134. 23. 79 prevention. 155. 108. 2 phobias. 99. definition/explanation heightened/increased. 118 118. 53. 130. 85. 47. 111. 118. 82. 136 pituitary gland. 5 phenylpropanolamine. 169 111. 17. 181 pharmacokinetics. 4. 50. 54. 61. 76. pennyroyal. 164 oxycodone. 136–137 P pneumonia. panic/panic attacks. 58 placebos. 118. 63. 8–9. 91. 88. 16. panic disorder. 165 polysubstance use. 64. 103. 111.

36. 129. 143–144 Reye’s syndrome. 10. 159 Seconal. 60. 109. 82. 88 83. 176 72. 20. 57. 19. 131. as withdrawal symptom. 147. 36. 23. 42 152. 168. 169 inhibitors. 6. 24. 19. 159. 115. 28. 28. 55. 80. 133 S pulmonary embolism. 154. 63. 32. 142. 173 quinidine. 57. 119. 71. 91. 108. 19. 130 psychological dependence. 152. 29. 151. 109. 89. 70. 119. 123. 159 definition/explanation of. 10. 118. 144 Rohypnol. 117. 110. 135. 65. 50. slowed. 159 psychostimulants. 150. 169 sedatives. 83. 176. 112 schizophrenia. 52 reverse transcriptase psilocybin. 146. 119. 95. 42. 116. 82. 146–147 140. 18. 21 psychoactive drugs. 112. 142. 75. 177 117. sensory awareness. 123. 79. 164. 112. 160 inhibitors. 108. 125. 125 seizures. 169 receptors. quinine. 121. increased. 62. 155. 156. 127. 16. 51. 39. 142. 110. 133 treatment of. 16. 155–156 42. 93. 181 relapse. 93. 124. 17. 124 176. 15. 111. 170 self-esteem. 151. 34. as result of overdose/ 54. 124 sex drive. 168 serotonin. 109. 43. psychosis. 61. reflexes. 29. R 154–155 rash. Ritalin. poisoning. 136. 29. 8. 65. 10. 143. 129. 9. 114. 16. 46. 155. 11. 98. 154. 106. 110. 143. 11 199 . 110. 74. 121. 149 treatment of. 117. 170 133. 2. 147. 9. 39. as withdrawal symptom. 63. 144. as side effect. 17 psychotic reactions/episodes. 74. 59. 125. 92. 40. 80. 159. 149.pseudoephedrine. 168. 126. as side effect. 156. 151. 165. 154 Quaalude. selective serotonin reuptake 120. 171 Q secobarbital. 168. 109. 31. 123. 61. 136. 134. 130. 50. low. 146 secondhand smoke. 117. 138. 86. 59. 80. 34. 150 . 37. 143. 108. 143. 177 recovery. 108. 177 131. 172 resistance. reduced. 146. 111. 93. 8. 117. 142. 89. recreational drugs. 18. 42. 19. 91. 59. 3 restlessness. 4. 80. 37. 116. 24.

99. 55. 133. 120. 161 swelling (as side effect). society. 14. 125 T speech. talkativeness. sleep aids. 39. 133. 84. 124. of. smoke/smoking. 41. 99. 176. 155. 152. reduced participation 54. 35. 19. sober/sobriety. 41. 166 110. 18. 112. definition/explanation of. 50. 177 snort. sleep disorders. 59. 162–163 sexual stimulants (aphrodisiacs). 136. 147. 164–165 . 156. 46. 121. 165 tachycardia. 30. 147. 181 suicide/suicidal tendencies. 12. 16 59. 117. 176 as side effect. 110. 121. 88. 177 125. 80. 15. 176. definition/explanation stimulants. 39. 160 164. 75. definition/ 125. sexual dysfunction. 26. 18. 159 45. 54. sudden sniffing death. 142. sulfamethoxazole. 37. 7. 130. 60. as side effect. 108. 10. 169 sinsemilla. 9. 29. See also 10. explanation of. 176 temperance. side effect. 83. 93. 144. 133. 57. 142. 160 stroke. 25. 15 166. treatment of. 74. 119. 169. 58. 142 91. 86. 158 effects/dangers of. 164–165 152. 116. 161 89. 181 explanation of. of. 168. 160. 108. 163–164. 6. 54. 172. 106. in/withdrawal from. 54. 108. definition/explanation as withdrawal symptom. 20. 166 sodium bicarbonate. 6. 4. 119 109. 20. 92. 168 55. 10. 120. 54. 53. 93. 57. 19. 24. 111. 30. sleepiness. 23. 25. 93. 111. 151. 31. 7. 181 172. 117. 152 as side effect. slurred. 51. 63. synthetic drug. 168 200 . 124. 161 solanine. 155. 56. 11. 47. 33. 176. sildenafil citrate. 50. 42. as withdrawal symptom. 127. 85. 89. 23. 24. 88. 165 as result of overdose. 6. 70. 180 119. slang terms. 45. 142. 166 soft drug. 13. 180. 9. sweating. 7. 85. 7. 39. 70. 110. 165. 111. 124. simethicone. 150 synergism. 119. 56. 176 STDs. 62. 130. sexual assault. 19. 43. 121. 25. 63. 9. 116. 88 anabolic steroids. 133. 63. 146. 168. 77 explanation of. steroids. 156. 5 142. definition/ 71. 156 57. 20. 11. 33 as result of overdose. 117. 157.

39. 92. toxic/toxicity. 154. 159. 177 as side effect. 133. testosterone. 150. 176. 8. 60. 181 volatile solvents. 80. 160. 124. 30. 37. 131. 151 urinating. 117. 8. 45. 40. 142 107. as result of overdose. 177 transplants. 108. vasopressin. 123. tuberculosis. 11. 58 twelve steps. 170 tranquilizers. 115. 119. 84. 18 tics/facial tics. 178 trimethoprim. vision. 121. 173 15. 136. 131. 35. 37. 60. ulcers/peptic ulcers. 138. 19. 169 107. THC (tetrahydrocannabinol). 152. 174 Thorazine. tricyclic antidepressants. 75. 110. 40. 121. 115. 158. 44. 169 108. 109. V 93. 15. 42. of. 74. 10. 115. 7. 57. See hallucinogen. Tuinal. blurred. 168–169. unconsciousness. 9. 160. 37. 13. 123. 50. 58 176. 77. 42. difficulty in. 112. 5. 172–173 117. 109. 19. 74. 18. 56. 19. 112. 91. 77. 57. 151 201 . 92. 125. 17. 29. 57. 13. and LSD. 170 toxins. 56. 110. 9. 71. 172. 151. 140. 108. 9. 114. 29. 116 as withdrawal symptom. 117. as result of overdose. 96. 171 . 172 169. 124. 168 U tobacco. 101. as withdrawal symptom. 32. 112. 168. 171. 171 thrush.tension. 176. 34. 89. 70. 106. 176. 28. 144. 147. 19. 109. 178 tolerance. 29. trip/bad trip. 89 Tourette’s syndrome. 155. 33. 91. 181 136. 64. 20. 97. reducing/treatment of. 109. 53. 55. 125. 114 tremors. 15. 109. 57 as side effect. 50. high. 85. 20. 111. 57. as result of overdose/poisoning. 133. 176 of. 95. Valium. 5 vomiting. 86. 117. 13. 152. 23. 83. 121. 57. 14. 55. 176 144. 125. 157. 50. definition/explanation as result of overdose/poisoning. 126. 171 violent behavior. 19. definition/explanation 60. 39. 41. 170 10. 110. 96. 117 152. 21. 146. 124. 55. 24. 117. 56. 65. 47. 5. 164 46. 159. 38. 25. 127. 93. 181 Viagra. 37. 16. 160. 168. 6. 2. 4. 76. 161. 104. 23. 80. as side effect. 59. 56. 54. 166. 150. 146 twelve-step program. 47. 14. 10. 54. 43. 168 173–174 thirst.

173. 169. 29. 134. as withdrawal symptom. 21. 50. 181 W weakness. 151. 91. 59. See also bupropion. 17. 181 nitrous oxide. 142. 92. 93. 131 Zyban. 121. 60. 26. Wellbutrin. 110. 57. 91. as withdrawal symptom. 25. 117. 159. 108. 172. 29. 164. 29. 74. 117. 171. 13. 172. 110. 42. 119. 54. 176. 99. definition/explanation 80. 93. 143. of. 125. 123. 180 126. 13. 12. 29. 5. 165 as result of overdose. 111. 120. 61. 124. 119 44. 180 119. 18. 60. 131. 147. 36. 80. 92. 79. 39. 180. withdrawal.” 126. 155. 75. 120. “whip-its. 108. 106. 80. 125. 121. 39. 152. 142. 83. 55. 37. 112. 19. 180 103. Z 98. See also bupropion. 55. 87. 39. weight gain. as side effect. 89. 88. 133. 117. as side effect. 20. 181 X Xanax. 150. 106. 89. 176. 19. 42. 151. 109. 118. 16. 146. 110. 121. weight loss. 126. See also 177. 136. 178 202 . 108. 106. 109.

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