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How to overcome test challenges in Keysight Presenters:


400G/PAM-4 designs
Rob Sleigh
• Steve Reinhold

February 15, 2017

© Keysight Technologies 2017


Agenda

• Introduction
o Why use Pulse Amplitude Modulation 4-Level (PAM-4)?
o Review Standards using PAM-4

• Output (Transmitter) Characterization


o Key Optical PAM-4 Measurements
o Key Electrical PAM-4 Measurements

• Input (Receiver) Characterization

• Summary

• Q&A

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Why does the industry need PAM-4?
Enables higher data throughput
• NRZ > 28 Gb/s limits trace length
or increases cost

• PAM-4 packs 2 bits / symbol


• Halves the channel BW needs

• Allows designers to develop


products to fit cost structure of
available channel technologies.

• 4 amplitude levels
• 2 bits of information in every symbol
 ~ 2x throughput for the same Baud rate
 28 GBaud PAM-4 = 56 Gb/s
• Lower SNR, more susceptible to noise
• More complex TX/RX design, higher cost
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Challenges moving from NRZ to PAM-4
Design and Measurement

• Packing 4 levels into amplitude swing of 2 – lose 9.6 dB SNR


• It is not just about timing jitter budgets anymore!
• Better management of noise and return loss

• Finite rise time creates inherent DDJ

• How to implement clock recovery?

• Closed eyes with lower SNR


• FEC often required

• ....

• ....

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Current Draft Standards and IAs using PAM-4
Optical

• 200G/400G Ethernet (802.3bs) (Draft 3.0)


• 200GBASE-FR4/LR4 4 lanes of 26.5 Gbaud WDM on 1 SMF 2/10 km reach
200GBASE-DR4 4 lanes of 26.5 Gbaud PAM-4 on 4 SMF 500 m reach
• 400GBASE-FR8/LR8 8 lanes of 26.5 Gbaud WDM on 1 SMF 2/10 km reach
• 400GBASE-DR4 4 lanes of 53 Gbaud PAM-4 on 4 SMF 500 m reach
• 50G/100G/200G Ethernet (802.3cd) (Draft 1.2)
• 50GBASE-SR, 100GBASE-SR2, 200GBASE-SR4 1/2/4 MMF
NEW !
• 50GBASE-FR, 50GBASE-LR 1 SMF CWDM
• 100GBASE-DR 1 SMF

• 64GFC Fibre Channel (PI-7)


• Several variants using both SMF and MMF

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System Architectures - Optical
Parallel vs WDM (Wavelength-division multiplexing)

Parallel Fiber Architecture WDM Architecture


Reference: IEEE P802.3bs™/D2.2, 28th Nov 2016, page 294. Reference: IEEE P802.3bs™/D2.2, 28th Nov 2016, page 246.

• WDM (right) only requires one fiber, but requires more complex Tx/Rx (WD Mux/Demux)
• Unless otherwise specified, all Tx optical measurements performed through a short patch
cable (2m-5m)
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Current Draft Standards and IAs using PAM-4
Electrical – Chip-to-Chip (C2C), Chip-to-Module (C2M)

• Optical Internetworking Forum – Common Electrical Interface (CEI-56G-xxx)


• CEI-56G-XSR-PAM-4 chip to nearby chip using forwarded ref clock 100 mm
reach
• CEI-56G-VSR-PAM-4 chip to chip, chip to module 150 mm reach with 1
connector
• 400G Ethernet (802.3bs) (Draft 3.0)
• 200GAUI-4 / 400GAUI-8 chip 2 chip, chip 2 module
(similar to CEI-56G-VSR-PAM-4)
• 64GFC Fibre Channel (PI-7)
• Chip to chip and Chip to Module 150 mm reach,
based on CEI-56G-VSR-PAM-4
• InfiniBand High Data Rate (HDR) – 50/200/600 Gb/s
• Several variants based on IEEE 802.3bs/cd and OIF CEI-56G IAs

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Current Draft Standards and IAs using PAM-4
Electrical – copper cable, circuit board, and backplane

• Optical Internetworking Forum – Common Electrical Interface (CEI-56G-xxx)


• CEI-56G-MR-PAM-4 chip to distant chip on same board 500 mm reach
• CEI-56G-LR-PAM-4 backplane/passive cable with 3 connectors 1 m reach

• 50G/100G/200G Ethernet (802.3cd D1.2)


NEW !
• 50GBASE-CR, 100GBASE-CR2, 200GBASE-CR4 1/2/4 diff pairs of twinax
• 50GBASE-KR, 100GBASE-KR2, 200GBASE-KR4 1/2/4 lanes in backplane

• InfiniBand High Data Rate (HDR) – 50/200/600 Gb/s


• Several variants based on IEEE 802.3bs/cd and OIF CEI-56G IAs
• 1, 4, and 12 lanes

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Overview of IEEE P802.3bs™/D3.0, 10th January 2017
PAM-4 used in 200 Gb/s and 400 Gb/s Operation
Channel Signaling Rate Modulation
Name # of lanes Reach Reference Receiver Defined in IEEE
(Medium) (each lane) Format
4 TDECQ with 4th Order BT filter,
200GBASE-DR4 SM 2m to 500 m 26.5625 GBd PAM4 Clause 121
Parallel Fibres BW 19.34 GHz
Optical

4 WDM Lanes TDECQ with 4th Order BT filter,


200 Gb/s PHY

200GBASE-FR4 SM 2m to 2 km 26.5625 GBd PAM4 Clause 122


(1 Fibre) BW 19.34 GHz
4 WDM Lanes TDECQ with 4th Order BT filter,
200GBASE-LR4 SM 2m to 10 km 26.5625 GBd PAM4 Clause 122
(1 Fibre) BW 19.34 GHz
D3.0

Electrical

200GAUI-8 Chip-to-Chip and ~ 25 cm 4th Order BT filter,


8 26.5625 GBd NRZ Annex 120B/C
P802.3bs™ / D2.2

(formerly CCAUI-8) Chip-to-Module 10.2dB at 13.28 GHz BW 33 GHz


200GAUI-4 Chip-to-Chip and ~ 25 cm 4th Order BT filter,
IEEEP802.3bs™/

4 26.5625 GBd PAM4 Annex 120D/E


(formerly CCAUI-4) Chip-to-Module 10.2dB at 13.28 GHz BW 33 GHz
TDEC with 4th Order BT filter,
16
400GBASE-SR16 MM 0.5 m to 100 m (OM4) 26.5625 GBd NRZ BW 12.6 GHz Clause 123
Parallel Fibres
Eye Mask BW 19.38 GHz
Optical

4 TDECQ with 4th Order BT filter,


400GBASE-DR4 SM 2m to 500 m 53.125 GBd PAM4 Clause 124
400 Gb/s PHY

Parallel Fibres BW 38.68 GHz


IEEE

8 WDM Lanes TDECQ with 4th Order BT filter,


400GBASE-FR8 SM 2m to 2 km 26.5625 GBd PAM4 Clause 122
(1 Fibre) BW 19.34 GHz
8 WDM Lanes TDECQ with 4th Order BT filter,
400GBASE-LR8 SM 2m to 10 km 26.5625 GBd PAM4 Clause 122
(1 Fibre) BW 19.34 GHz
Electrical

400GAUI-16 Chip-to-Chip and ~ 25 cm 4th Order BT filter,


16 26.5625 GBd NRZ Annex 120B/C
(formerly CDAUI-16) Chip-to-Module 10.2dB at 13.28 GHz BW 33 GHz
400GAUI-8 Chip-to-Chip and ~ 25 cm 4th Order BT filter,
8 26.5625 GBd PAM4 Annex 120D/E
(formerly CDAUI-8) Chip-to-Module 10.2dB at 13.28 GHz BW 33 GHz

• Recent update (D3.0) includes changes to TDECQ and Jitter measurements


• Many “compliant” measurements require:
o Clock Recovery, Loop BW 4 MHz (all PAM-4)
o Reference Receiver with 4th Order Bessel-Thomson frequency response

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Overview of IEEE P802.3cd™/ D1.2, 3rd February 2017
PAM-4 used in 50 Gb/s, 100 Gb/s, and 200 Gb/s Operation
Channel Signaling Rate Modulation
NEW ! Name # of lanes
(Medium)
Reach
(each lane) Format
Reference Receiver Defined in IEEE

0.5 m to 70 m for OM3 TDECQ with 4th Order BT filter,


50GBASE-SR 1 Fibre MM Fibre 26.5625 GBd PAM4 Clause 138
0.5 m to 100 m for OM4 BW 12.6 GHz
Optical

TDECQ with 4th Order BT filter,


50GBASE-FR 1 Fibre SM Fibre 2 m to 2 km 26.5625 GBd PAM4 Clause 139
50 Gb/s PHY

BW 19.34 GHz
TDECQ with 4th Order BT filter,
50GBASE-LR 1 Fibre SM Fibre 2 m to 10 km 26.5625 GBd PAM4 Clause 139
BW 19.34 GHz
4th Order BT filter,
Electrical

50GBASE-CR 1 Copper Cable >3m 26.5625 GBd PAM4 Clause 136


BW 33 GHz
Electrical 4th Order BT filter,
D1.1
P802.3cd™ // D1.2

50GBASE-KR 1 30dB at 13.28125GHz 26.5625 GBd PAM4 Clause 137


D1.0

Backplane BW 33 GHz
TDECQ with 4th Order BT filter,
P802.3cd™/
P802.3cd™

100GBASE-DR 1 Fibre SM Fibre 2m to 500 m 53.125 GBd PAM4 Clause 140


Optical

BW 38.68 GHz
100 Gb/s PHY

2 0.5 m to 70 m for OM3 TDECQ with 4th Order BT filter,


100GBASE-SR2 MM Fibre 26.5625 GBd PAM4 Clause 138
Parallel Fibres 0.5 m to 100 m for OM4 BW 12.6 GHz
4th Order BT filter,
Electrical
IEEE

100GBASE-CR2 2 Copper Cable >3m 26.5625 GBd PAM4 Clause 136


BW 33 GHz
IEEE
IEEE

Electrical 4th Order BT filter,


100GBASE-KR2 2 30dB at 13.28125GHz 26.5625 GBd PAM4 Clause 137
Backplane BW 33 GHz
Electrical Optical

4 0.5 m to 70 m for OM3 TDECQ with 4th Order BT filter,


200GBASE-SR4 MM Fibre 26.5625 GBd PAM4 Clause 138
200 Gb/s PHY

Parallel Fibres 0.5 m to 100 m for OM4 BW 12.6 GHz

4th Order BT filter,


200GBASE-CR4 4 Copper Cable >3m 26.5625 GBd PAM4 Clause 136
BW 33 GHz
Electrical 4th Order BT filter,
200GBASE-KR4 4 35dB at 12.9GHz 26.5625 GBd PAM4 Clause 137
Backplane BW 33 GHz

• New proposal: 802.3cd adds support for 50/100/200 Gb/s for MM / SM / Copper Cable / Backplane applications
• Many “compliant” measurements require:
o Clock Recovery, Loop BW 4 MHz (all PAM-4)
o Reference Receiver with 4th Order Bessel-Thomson frequency response
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Understanding the application space
Typical implementation: Ethernet Switch using 400GBASE-FR8 Optical Link
Both IEEE and OIF-CEI are used

Switch Card Backplane Line Card


400G-FR8 Module
ROSA
Retimer
8 TOSA
Switch Host
Retimer Retimer
ASIC n n n
ASIC 400G-FR8 Module
ROSA
Retimer
8 TOSA

CEI-56G-VSR CEI-56G-LR CEI-56G-MR 400GAUI-8 400GBASE-FR8


PAM-4 or NRZ PAM-4 or eNRZ PAM-4 or NRZ 8 x 26 GBd PAM-4 8 λ WDM in SMF
(8 x 56 Gb/s)

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Patterns
Test patterns for PAM-4 encoded signals defined in IEEE P802.3bs
• JP03A - The JP03A test pattern is a repeating PAM4 Test Patterns
{0,3} sequence (clock) Pattern Pattern Description Defined in Clause
Square Wave Square wave (8 threes, 8 zeros) 120.5.11.2.4
– No longer used in 802.3bs/cd. 3 PRBS31Q 120.5.11.2.2
4 PRBS13Q 120.5.11.2.1
• JP03B - The JP03B test pattern is a repeating 5
6
Scrambled Idle
SSPRQ
119.2.4.9
120.5.11.2.3
sequence of {0,3} repeated 15 times followed by
{3,0} repeated 16 times (clock with a phase shift)
- No longer used in 802.3bs/cd

• PRBS13Q - The PRBS13Q test pattern is a repeating 8191-symbol sequence formed by Gray
coding pairs of bits from two repetitions of the PRBS13 pattern into PAM-4 symbols as described in
120.5.7. (Note: PRBS13Q is different from QPRBS13 defined in IEEE 802.3-2015 (bj) Clause 94)

• PRBS31Q - The PRBS31Q test pattern is a repeating 2^31-1 symbol sequence formed by Gray
coding pairs of bits from two repetitions of the PRBS31 pattern defined in 49.2.8 into PAM-4
symbols as described in 120.5.7.
• SSPRQ – Short Stress Pattern Random Quaternary.
The SSPRQ pattern is a repeating 2^16–1 PAM-4 symbol sequence. Comprised of 4 sequences,
each based key “stressors” from PRBS31. Stressful pattern, but short enough to use advanced
analysis tools available on today’s T&M tools (e.g. Equalization, Jitter/Noise analysis, etc.)

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Compliant Frequency Response (Reference Receiver)
Receiver Frequency Response: Scopes have different frequency responses
Typical SS
Response  Will result in different eye/waveform shapes
and amplitudes
Typical RT –> different measurement results!
“Brick wall”
Response  To achieve 33/40 GHz 4th Order BT response
on a RT scope, must start with > 60 GHz
“brick wall” response

To provide more consistency, most standards now specify BW and shape.


Examples:
4th Order Bessel-Thomson (BT) Response
• IEEE P802.3bs™/D3.0, 10th January 2017
Clause 120D.3.1 200GAUI-4 or 400GAUI-8 transmitter characteristics:
“A test system with a fourth-order Bessel-Thomson low-pass response with 33
GHz 3 dB bandwidth is to be used for all transmitter signal measurements,
unless otherwise specified.”
Step Response (red)
• CEI-56G-VSR-PAM-4
Frequency Response (blue) Section 16.3.4 Output Differential Voltage, pk-pk
“The waveform is observed through a fourth-order Bessel-Thomson response
with a 3-dB bandwidth of 40 GHz using a QPRBS13-CEI pattern.”

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Clock Recovery for PAM-4 Designs
Clock Recovery (CR)
• Recovers a clock for the Rx to use, tracks out some
low-frequency jitter
• Scopes need to emulate CR used in Rx used to
track out low-frequency jitter, trigger the scope

PAM-4 adds potential complexity


• Data pattern affects transition density
• Transitions no longer only at 0V vdiff
• DSP and analog CDR solutions common
• OIF-CEI proposal:
o 1 detector: 0V crossing
o allow all edges that cross to be counted
• CR Loop BW reduced from 10 MHz to ~ 4 MHz
(IEEE 802.3bs/cd and CEI-56G-PAM-4)

Instrument Clock Recovery


• Real-time oscilloscopes use software CR
• Transition level qualified SW CDR
will include 0-3/3-0 and 1-2/2-1 level transitions.
• Sampling oscilloscopes use hardware CR
• Existing Keysight HW clock recovery designs
work on PAM-4 signals
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Output (Transmitter) Characterization: Optical
A quick review of legacy 25 GBd NRZ Tx Test…

What are the key NRZ Tx


parameters that get measured?
• OMA (optical modulation
IEEE 802.3
amplitude, difference participants can
access the latest
between the 1 level and 0 level) specs on the IEEE
website.
• Extinction ratio
(ratio of 1 and 0 level)

• Tx Eye mask

• Transmitter and Dispersion Penalty IEEE 100GBASE-LR4/ER4 Tx Parameters


(TDP) Reference: IEEE 802.3-2015_SECTION6 Clause 78-95, page 326

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What is TDP and what are its challenges?

Transmitter and Dispersion Penalty

TDP is the primary spec that defines inter-operability, but it is complex,


expensive and time consuming to perform.
 TDP is very often characterized on early units, and is then correlated to
Reference: IEEE 802.3-2015_SECTION4 Clause 44-55, page 513
Extinction Ratio, OMA, and Eye Mask. ER, OMA and eye mask are
then tested in manufacturing.

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Overview of Key Optical PAM-4 Measurements
Used in multiple IEEE 802.3bs/cd Clauses

What are the key PAM-4 Tx


parameters that get measured?
IEEE 802.3
• Outer Optical Modulation Amplitude participants
can access the
latest draft
• Outer Extinction Ratio specs on the
802.3 website.

• Transmitter and dispersion eye closure


for PAM-4 (TDECQ)

Do you notice anything missing compared to


legacy NRZ Tx Specs? No Tx mask test!
IEEE 400GBASE-FR8/LR8 Tx Parameters
Reference: IEEE P802.3bs™/D3.0, 10th January 2017, page 252.
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PAM-4: OMA and Extinction Ratio

• Extinction ratio measurement is made


on specific bits in a specific pattern
(outer levels of PRBS13Q or SSPRQ)

• OMA is constructed from the same


symbols and values as extinction ratio

• OMA = P3 – Po (Average Power)

• ER = Ave Power P3 / Ave Power Po


(Ratio measurement in dB)

• Newer T&M software provides these


optical measurements directly
(Keysight 86100D-9FP/9TP,
Reference: IEEE P802.3bs™/D2.1, 6th October 2016, page 223.
integrated into FlexDCA FW)

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Transmitter and dispersion eye closure for PAM-4 (TDECQ)
• TDECQ is a measure of each optical transmitter's vertical eye closure when transmitted
through a worst case optical channel (TDECQ units = dB) using SSPRQ pattern.
Reference Receiver: 4th order Bessel-Thomson low-pass filter
(Oscilloscope noise measured and mathematically ‘backed out’
per Standard). • MM: 12.6 GHz BW (26.56 GBd)
Generate SSPRQ o No Pol. controller, fiber
• SM: 19.34 GHz BW (26.56 GBd)
pattern (~ 2^16 symbols)
86100D DCA-X Scope • SM: 38.68 GHz BW (53 GBd)

CR PLL BW 4 MHz, Slope 20 dB/dec Equalizer


(1st Order, no peaking) (5 tap, T/2 spaced, FFE)

Where:
Qt = 3.414 (target SER) Targeted samples on
R = noise term PAM-4 eye diagram.

Reference: IEEE P802.3bs™/D2.2, 28th November 2016, Figure 121-5, Page 226. Overcoming test
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© Keysight Technologies 2017
Keysight TDECQ implementation
Option 9FP / 9TP (includes all PAM-4 measurements), Option TFP / TTP (only TDEC and TDECQ)
• TDECQ equalizer
function:
o Designed according
to IEEE 802.3bs
o Uses SSPRQ test
pattern required by
802.3bs standard
(but SW will operate
on other patterns too)

• Automatically optimizes
tap settings to minimize
TDECQ value
o Supports user tap
values also

• Preserves uncorrelated
signal content as
required by IEEE 802.3bs
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TDECQ measurement setup

• Simple and fast: Two clicks


to execute the measurement

• OMA required for the TDECQ


calculation:
• OMA is measured
according to 802.3bs
• Alternatively, OMA can be
made on a separate
measurement and applied
to the TDECQ calculation

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TDECQ, OMA and ER all available from the TDECQ
process
• Extinction ratio and Waveform at transmitter output
OMA are derived from
the 0 and 3 levels of the
transmitter output
• Specific bit
sequences are used

• TDECQ derived from


the equalized waveform
• Uses OMA from the
unequalized
Waveform at equalizer output
waveform (may
change to equalized
waveform)

Keysight TDECQ solution: Simple, integrated,


fast, accurate, and very repeatable.
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© Keysight Technologies 2017
Early TDECQ Findings
• TDECQ appears to be a valid method to predict BER performance

Correlation between BER Penalty


Measured TDECQ vs. Tx BW and TDECQ

TDECQ degrades with a reduction Consistent trend in measured


in Tx BW TDECQ change and BER penalty

Results from a joint experiment performed by Keysight/Intel/MACOM reported to IEEE 802.3cd.

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53 Gbaud (106 Gb/s/PRBS13Q) Optical PAM-4 analysis
Measured using Keysight 86116C Optical Module (Option 041/IRC)

23 GHz with FRC (-3000)


25.8 GHz TX BW 14.5 GHz TX BW

33 GHz with FRC (-3000)

TDECQ = 2.58 dB
TDECQ = 0.73 dB

TDECQ degrades with a reduction in Tx BW


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Keysight Oscilloscope Solutions for Optical Test
Full coverage for all optical PAM-4 applications (using existing DCA HW solutions).

New N1092A/B/D “DCA-M” 86100D DCA-X with 86100D DCA-X with


86105D/86115D module 86116C module

• 20-28 GBd optical channels • 8.5 GBd to 28 GBd • 25/26/28GBd or 53/56 GBd
• Multimode and Single-Mode • Multimode and Single-Mode • Single-Mode
• 1, 2 or 4 channels • 1 or 2 @ 34 GHz optical channels • 1 @ optical channel per module
• Highest sensitivity on the market (1 to 4 optical per mainframe) • 1 @ 80 GHz Electrical Channel
(lowest noise receiver) • 1 @ 50 GHz Electrical Channel • “Ideal” frequency response (SIRC)
• Fastest sampling combined with 160fs • “Ideal” frequency response (SIRC) • < 100 fs rms timebase jitter
typical trigger jitter • < 100 fs rms timebase jitter (86100D-PTB)
• Lowest cost solution (86100D-PTB) • PAM-4 analysis with TDECQ
• “Ideal” frequency response (SIRC) • PAM-4 analysis with TDECQ (Option 9FP/9TP)
• PAM-4 analysis with TDECQ (Option 9FP/9TP)
(Option 9FP/9TP)

N1077A CR provides compliant electrical/optical (SM/MM) clock recovery to 32 GBd.


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Keysight Real-time oscilloscope with O/E front-end
• Keysight N7004A 33 GHz O/E converter

A fully-integrated optical-to-electrical (O/E)


converter for measuring up to 28 GBd optical
signals using Infiniium real-time scopes.
o Compatible with Infiniium V-Series,
90000X/Q, and Z Series.

• System level R&D debug and troubleshooting

• Reference receiver testing (filtered


response) and unfiltered characterization of
optical transmitters

• Scope SW includes built-in optical


measurements

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Output (Transmitter) Characterization: Electrical
Key Electrical Measurements
IEEE 802.3bs Annex 120D 200GAUI-4 and 400GAUI-8

What are the key PAM-4 Tx


parameters that get measured?
IEEE 802.3
• Output waveform participants
can access
o Level Separation Mismatch Ratio the latest
draft specs
on the 802.3
• Signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio website.

(SNDR)

• Output Jitter
o Jrms
o J4
o Even-Odd Jitter (EOJ) Reference: IEEE P802.3bs™/D3.0, 10th January 2017, page 352.
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Transmitter Linearity at TP0a (IEEE)
120D.3.1.2 Level Separation Mismatch Ratio, RLM (200GAUI-4 and 400GAUI-8)

• How evenly spaced are the PAM-4


levels?
V3
• Significant change in definition from IEEE
802.3bj (100GBase-KP4) Clause 94 V2
Vmid
• Defined as a function of the mean signal V1
level transmitted for each PAM-4 symbol
level.
V0
Measurement Setup:
• Receiver: 4th Order Bessel-Thomson low-pass
filter with 33 GHz BW
• CR PLL BW 4 MHz and a slope of 20 dB/decade
• Tested using PRBS13Q
(no longer uses the stair-step pattern)
ES = Effective Symbol Level

RLM = min ((3 x ES1), (3 x ES2), (2 – 3 x ES1), (2 – 3 x ES2)


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Signal-to-noise and distortion ratio (SNDR)
IEEE P802.3bs™/D3.0, 10th January 2017, Clause 120D.3.1.6
Procedure:
1. Measured at the output of TX with all lanes enabled
2. Capture PRBS13Q waveform (lane under test)
3. Import into math program and perform matrix math
a. Compute:
i. Linear fit pulse response, p(k)
o Pmax is the max value of p(k)
ii. Linear fit error waveform, e(k)
o σe is the standard deviation of e(k)
b. Measure RMS deviation from mean voltage on the
flattest portion of at least 6 consecutive PAM-4 symbols
i. Compute σn
c. Calculate SNDR

Measurement Setup:
• Receiver: 4th Order Bessel-Thomson low-pass filter with 33 GHz BW
• CR PLL BW 4 MHz and a slope of 20 dB/decade
• Note - SNDR is very sensitive to noise measurement (ensure to use a low noise scope)

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Output Jitter at TP0a
200GAUI-4 and 400GAUI-8 transmitter characteristics at TP0a
• New jitter measurement methodology PAM4 PAM4
Under o First defined in IEEE P802.3bs™/D2.2, TX
Development 28th November 2016
in ad hoc o Accounts for Tx designs that use different clock
group
buffers (uncorrelated jitter) for MSB and LSB Amplitude Jitter
• J4 and JRMS jitter Edge Model
Amplitude-to-Time
o Measure RJ/PJ on 12 specific transitions using Sample
(Jitter) transfer 1
function
a PRBS13Q pattern (exclude correlated jitter). ~ 100% efficiency

o Rise: 0 to 3, 1 to 2, 0 to 1, 2 to 3, 0 to 2, 1 to 3
o Fall: 3 to 0, 2 to 1, 1 to 0, 3 to 2, 2 to 0, 3 to 1

• Even-Odd Jitter (EOJ)


o Measured on PRBS13Q (3 repeats)
o Max from measurements on all 12 edges
Measurement Setup:
• Receiver: 4th Order Bessel-Thomson low-pass filter with 33 GHz BW Sample 2
• CR PLL BW 4 MHz and a slope of 20 dB/decade
• Keysight plans to implement an optimized test methodology after the Ideal edge position
Standard becomes more stable.

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Key Electrical PAM-4 Measurements at TP1a
Annex 120E, Chip-to-Module, measured at TP1a (200GAUI-4 and 400GAUI-8)

IEEE 802.3
Key New/Updated Measurements: participants
• Eye Symmetry Mask Width can access
the latest
• Eye Height, differential draft specs
• Transition Time (20%-80%) on the
802.3
website.

Reference: IEEE P802.3bs™/D2.2, 28th November 2016, page 369

Measurement Setup:
• Receiver: 4th Order Bessel-Thomson low-pass filter with 33 GHz BW
• Clock Recovery: 4MHz, slope 20db/dec

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Eye symmetry mask width (ESMW) at TP1a
C2m, 200GAUI-4 and 400GAUI-8 at TP1a, Reference 120E.4.2

• ESMW verifies proper timing/alignment Upper, Middle, and Lower eye


of all 3 eyes (skew) must extend beyond “mask”

• Determine center of middle eye


(TCmid) using 10E-3

• 10–5 horizontal openings of the middle


eye at VCmid, the upper eye at VCupp,
and of the lower eye at VClow must all VCupp
extend beyond the EW5 mask.

Measurement Setup: VCmid


• Ref Rcvr: 4th order BT, 33 GHz BW
• CR: 4 MHz BW, 20dB/dec
• Use CTLE (3 pole) VClow
• PRBS13Q pattern

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Host output eye height (TP1a)
C2m, 200GAUI-4 and 400GAUI-8 at TP1a, EW Reference 120E.4.2

120E.3.1.6 Host output eye width and eye height

• Measure EW of all 3 PAM-4 eyes @ 1E-5


using methodology outlined in 120E.4.2

Measurement Setup:
• Ref Rcvr: 4th order BT, 33 GHz BW
• CR: 4 MHz BW, 20dB/dec
• Use CTLE (3 pole) defined in 120E.3.1.7
• PRBS13Q pattern
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Transition Times at TP1a
Defined in Annex 120E (120E.3.1.5)
• Use PRBS13Q pattern
• Measure on isolated 0 -> 3 and 3 -> 0
• 000333 (rise) and 333000 (fall)
• 20-80% transition times (rise and fall time)
• Measured using 33 GHz LPF (“such as Bessel-Thomson response”)
Gray
Code PAM-4
Level Symbol
3 +1

2 +1/3

1 -1/3

Use FlexDCA’s “Find Bit Sequence”


feature to quickly locate the correct edge
0 -1

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Key Electrical PAM-4 Measurements at TP4
Annex 120E, Chip-to-Module, measured at TP4 (200GAUI-4 and 400GAUI-8 )

IEEE
Key New/Updated Measurements: members
can access
the latest
• Near-end and Far-end draft specs
o Eye Symmetry Mask Width (ESMW) on the IEEE
website.
o Eye Width and Eye Height @ 1E-5

Reference: IEEE P802.3bs™/D2.2, 28th November 2016, page 373/4

Measurement Setup:
• Receiver: 4th Order Bessel-Thomson low-pass filter with 33 GHz BW
• Clock Recovery: 4MHz, slope 20db/dec
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Host output eye width and eye height (TP4)

120E.3.2.1 Module output eye width and eye height

• Measure EW/EH of all 3 PAM-4 eyes @ 1E-5


Vupp
using methodology outlined in 120E.4.2 Hupp
Reference:
o Measure Near-end EW5/EH5 (with Max 3dB CTLE peaking) Center of Middle Eye
Vmid
o Measure Far-end after convolving with loss channel Hmid
(~ 6.4 dB loss at Nyquist defined in 92.10.7.1.1,
use any CTLE per Table 120E-2 (max 9dB)
Vlow
Hlow
• Measurement Setup:
o Reference Rcvr: 4th order BT, 33 GHz BW
o CR: 4 MHz BW, 20dB/dec
o Use CTLE (3 pole) Measure here (TP4)
defined in 120E.3.1.7
o PRBS13Q pattern Loss channel
CTLE

Input Calculate
(TP4) EW5/EH5 Post process
spec here
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CEI-56G-VSR-PAM-4 Very Short Reach (VSR) Interface
Working draft dated June 3, 2016
Overview:

• 56 Gb/s chip-to-module PAM-4 electrical CEI-56G has similar PAM-4


interface (18.0 to 29.0 Gsym/s) measurements and methodologies
to those defined in IEEE 802.3bs.
• Up to 10.0 dB loss at the Nyquist
frequency, including one connector. Examples include:
• Eye Width (1E-6)
• Drives 100 mm (min) of host PCB trace
• Eye Height (1E-6)
plus one connector and 50 mm (min) of
• SNDR
module PCB trace.
• Transition Times
• Raw BER of 1E-6 per lane; FEC • Eye Symmetry Mask Width
corrects to 1E-15 or better. • Eye Linearity (2 methods)

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16.3.10.1 Eye Width and Eye Height test at TP1A, TP4
EW6 and EH6 for Host and Module output
• Reference Point for all EW6/EH6:
Tmid = the midpoint of the maximum horizontal
eye opening of the 1E-3 inner eye contour of
the middle eye
• Xtalk required on all co-/counter-propagating lanes;
use QPRBS13-CEI, or QPRBS31-CEI, or a
valid CEI signal.

• Test Pattern = QPRBS13-CEI

• CRU = 1st order with fb/6640 3dB BW Figure 16-7: TP1a and TP4 Eye Width, Eye Height
(same as IEEE 802.3bs) e.g. 26.56 GBd/6640 = 4 MHz and Eye Amplitude
Reference: Working draft of oif2014.230.09, dated
• Apply Reference CTLE Nov 18, 2016, page 16.

• Near-end EW6, EH6


(CTLE TP1a max 9 dB, TP4 max 2 dB)

• Far-end EW6, EH6 – convolves emulated test


channel, ~7 dB loss at fb/2 (CTLE max 9 dB)
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Transmitter Linearity
Two Methods defined in CEI-56G-VSR-PAM-4, Nov 18, 2016

• Eye Linearity (Section 16.C.4.2)


– ratio of min to max PAM-4 eye amplitudes
• Used at TP1A and TP4
• Eye linearity = min(AVupp, AVmid, AVlow)
max(AVupp, AVmid, AVlow)
Reference: Figure 16-7 from oif2014.230.09,
dated Nov 18, 2016, page 16.

• Transmitter Linearity – defined as a function of the mean signal level


transmitted for each PAM-4 symbol (CEI-56G-VSR-PAM-4 Appendix 16.C.4.3)
• Same equation as that used in IEEE P802.3bs™/D2.2, 28th November 2016
(Refer to Level Separation Mismatch Ratio, RLM)
• Used in other CEI Clauses (not VSR-PAM-4)
• RLM = min((3 x ES1), (3 x ES2), (2 - 3 x ES1), (2 - 3 x ES2))
Reference: Working draft of oif2014.230.09, Nov 18, 2016, page 32.
ES = Effective Symbol Level
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Keysight Electrical Solutions
Used to characterize/troubleshoot PAM-4 Electrical Tx Designs

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Symbol Error Ratio Measurements (BER/SER) using RT Scope
View waveform and locate errors. Troubleshoot Reed-Solomon FEC failures.

Cumulative
SER/BER

Navigate easily to
the occurrence of
each symbol error

Identifies
Burst Errors in
Captured
Waveforms

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Built-in PAM-4 Measurement Capability
PAM-4 Analysis SW options for Keysight real-time and
sampling scope platforms:

• 86100D-9FP for the 86100D DCA-X

• N8827A/B PAM-4 Analysis Software


for RT scopes

We are actively updating PAM-4 algorithms as the Standards evolve.


Updates will be included in future FW releases.

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PAM-4 Measurement Apps for Keysight Scopes
“Pre-Compliance” SW Apps for emerging Standards using PAM-4

• N1085A PAM-4 Measurement App


for Ethernet and OIF-CEI
(for the 86100D DCA-X)

• N8836A PAM-4 Measurement App


for Ethernet and OIF-CEI
(for Infiniium real-time scopes)

We are actively updating PAM-4 algorithms as the Standards evolve.


Updates will be included in future SW releases.
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Keysight Oscilloscope Solutions - Electrical

Electrical – Sampling Scope Electrical – Real-time Scope


(includes built-in clock recovery and precision timebase) Keysight DSO Z-Series
Keysight 86100D DCA-X with 86108B • Channels 2-4
• Channels: 2 • Bandwidth: up to 63 GHz
• Bandwidth: 50 GHz • Sample Rate: Up to 160 GSa/s
• Jitter: <45 fs rms typ. • PAM-4 Serial Data Analysis Wizard
• Electrical Clock Recovery – integrated HW Clock Recovery • Software Clock Recovery (specify transitions for CR)
works with PAM-N signals up to 32 Gbaud • N8827A/B PAM-4 Analysis SW
• 86100D-9FP PAM-4 Analysis SW • N8836A PAM-4 “Pre-Compliance” SW
(works with any DCA module, optical or electrical) • PAM-4 SER/BER “Error Capture” and “Decode”
• N1085A PAM-4 “Pre-Compliance” SW capabilities using single-shot capture
• NOTE – 75 / 85 / 100+ GHZ BW remote head modules
also available.

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Comparing the impact of a scope’s intrinsic random noise (RN)
on 56 GBaud (112 Gb/s) PAM-4 signals

Real-time scope
(63 GHz Z-Series)

RN = random noise
S = Slew Rate, dV/dt

Equivalent-time scope
(86100D DCA-X)

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© Keysight Technologies 2017 400G/PAM-4 designs Page 47
Oscilloscope Solutions for 100G/400G
Chip R&D Verification Compliance Manufacturing

Sampling Scopes (SS), “DCA”


 Best for validating/characterizing PAM-4 designs

For applications that place top priority on Real-time Scopes (RT)


waveform precision.  Best for troubleshooting PAM-4 designs
• Highest Fidelity
Board
Level

The most versatile tool for all areas of


 Low noise
high-speed digital communications
 Ultra-low jitter
• Best for troubleshooting
 High Bandwidth
• Captures one-time (glitch) events
 Highest Resolution (14-16 bits)
• No explicit trigger required
• Modular Platform • Does not require repetitive signals for
System

 Electrical pattern waveform measurements.


 Optical • N7004A Optical-to-Electrical Converter
 TDR/TDT • N8827A/B PAM-4 Analysis SW
• Lowest price for same BW • N8836A PAM-4 “Pre-Compliance” SW
• 86100D-9FP PAM-4 Analysis SW • PAM-4 SER/BER “Error Capture” and
• N1085A PAM-4 “Pre-Compliance” SW “Decode” capabilities
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PAM-4 Receiver Test
PAM-4 Receiver Test Challenges
─ Transmitter Equalization
─ Level Non-linearity:
─ Input Linearity Testing
─ Linearity Margin Testing
─ BER vs. Symbol levels
─ Long (Q)PRBS(Q) patterns
─ Stressed Input Test for Host & Module
─ Receiver Interference Tolerance
─ Loop Closure for RX Tolerance Testing
─ NRZ and PAM-4 signaling on same RX input

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Test Challenge: PAM-4 TX Equalization

– TX EQ pre-distorts the transmitter output to emphasize the high frequency portions of the signal and/or
de-emphasize the low frequency portions

– PAM-4 signaling makes TX equalization even more important due to intrinsic DDJ and reduced SNR

– 32 Gbaud PAM-4 Eye before and after channel:

Channel

Channel

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Test Challenge: PAM-4 Input Linearity Test

• CEI standard defines a new input test for PAM-4: ability to tolerate level
non-linearities, current draft proposes eye amplitudes of up to 0.67 AMax.

• But when using a 2 channel pattern generator with PAM-4 combiner, the
resulting levels cannot not be varied individually. What to do?

This setup does not work PAM-4 eyes can show a level
here: separation mismatch:

0.67 A Max

A Max

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Test Challenge: Linearity margin test
• Margin test steps through increasing degrees of stress until link failure
• (BER worse than target for FEC, - not error free)

• Design the stress to emulate the impairment

• Two general linearity impairment classes in PAM-4


1. DAC bit weighting error
2. Compression/Expansion in linear stage

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Test Challenge: BER vs Symbol Level

• Receiver circuits can exhibit non-linearity effects similar to TX effects

• Understanding the BER vs. Symbol level performance of the receiver is


important

• Varying PG TX signal levels to compensate for these RX effects can


reduce the time to debug link BER issues

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Test Challenge: Long (Q)PRBS(Q) patterns

– NRZ BERT architectures have memory-based pattern length limitations when


applied to PAM-4 signaling

– QPRBS31/PRBS31Q will not fit in pattern memory

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Test Challenge: Stressed Input Test for Host & Module
Example: OIF CEI-56G-VSR-PAM-4
How to inject simultaneously
and calibrate mix of
‒ What is UBHPJ? (BUJ) Challenges:
‒ What is UUGJ? (RJ) How to emulate
‒ SJ is multi-UI LF SJ and x-talk?
HF SJ up to 200MHz ‒ Fast tr
‒ Asynchronous
or
synchronous
with phase
control?

Note: the validity


of emulating the
effect of the
Challenges: DUT‘s counter
‒ Compensate loss TP4a opposing output
‒ Emulate TX de-emphasis during test via
‒ PRBS31 for NRZ TCB is
‒ QPRBS13 or ? for PAM-4 questionable (the
coupling is not
Reference: OIF VEI-56G-VSR-PAMR Very Short Reach Interface, draft Nov 18, 2016 p20 defined)!

ISI channel (channel loss


depends on distance) Generally: CEI 4.0 56G draft specs keep changing till finally released!

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Test Challenge: Receiver Interference Tolerance
COM Method referenced by OIF CEI-56G-LR/MR-PAM-4 (draft)
The Channel Operating Margin (COM) is a figure of merit for a channel derived from a measurement of its
scattering parameters. COM is related to the ratio of a calculated signal amplitude to a calculated noise amplitude =
20log10(As/Ani). Source: IEEE 802.3bj™-2014, Annex 93A

Challenge: the transmitter output, as measured


The channel noise at TP0a, meets all transmitter specifications:
source emulates • Pre- and post- cursor peaking ratio
crosstalk and non-
equalize-able signal
distortions introduced The ISI channel emulates the frequency
by a channel. dependent loss of a backplane channel.

as of CEI-56G-LR-PAM-4
It is Gaussian with a
crest factor of at least
4.

0.1- 0.5
Challenge: Reference: IEEE 802.3-2015 Challenge: get all data needed for MATLAB
Annex 93C – Figure 93C-2 COM model input file to calculate desired eye
Differential Interference tolerance test
adders cause height correctly.
setup
loss +skew
Overcoming test
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Test Challenge: Loop Closure for RX Tolerance

– “Loopback” to BERT error detector is traditional method

– Some DUT’s do not have loopback capability

– Some DUT’s incorporate on-chip error detectors

– Some interfaces operate at high BER levels (e.g. 1E-5) and correct with FEC

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Test Challenge: NRZ and PAM-4 on same RX input

•Some SERDES receivers have flexible RX inputs that can be used for both
PAM-4 and NRZ signaling

•NRZ BERT architectures require significant recabling/recalibration when


changing from NRZ to PAM-4

Overcoming test
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M8040A 64 GBaud High-performance BERT
Key capabilities:
- Highly integrated BERT, AXIe based
- Accurate physical layer characterization and
compliance test of next generation digital high-
speed I/Os with NRZ and PAM-4 data formats
- Control via M8070A system software for M8000

Pattern Generator (M8045A)


‒ Single or dual 32/64 GBaud NRZ/PAM-4
‒ Built-in de-emphasis
‒ Clean and jittered data patterns and clocks
‒ Remote head for close connection to DUT
Where used: ‒ NRZ and PAM-4 is switchable by software
- 400GbE, 200GbE, CEI-56G
- Input (RX) characterization and Error Detector (M8046A)
compliance test
‒ 32/64* GBaud error detector for PAM-4 and NRZ
- For PAM-4 and NRZ signals up to 64 ‒ * second release
GBaud

Overcoming test
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Test Challenge: PAM-4 TX Equalization Solved
Using M8045A Pattern Generator 4-tap TXEQ controls

Channel

Channel

Overcoming test
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Test Challenge: PAM-4 Input Linearity Test and
Linearity Margin Test Solved
Using M8045A Pattern Generator PAM-4 symbol 1 and 2 level controls

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Test Challenge: BER vs Symbol Level Solved
Using M8046A Error Detector BER vs. symbol level analysis window

All errors found on


Overcoming test
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Test Challenge: Long (Q)PRBS(Q) patterns Solved
Using M8046A Error Detector native PAM-4 analysis

M8046A samples all three PAM-4 thresholds simultaneously

3
Detecting 1 0
2
Threshold Vupp =3 = 0 or 1 or 2?
Threshold Vmid = 2 or 3? = 0 or 1?
1
Data In
0
Threshold Vlow = 1 or 2 or 3? =0

PAM-4 Vupp Vmid Vlow Gray


3 1 1 1 1 0
2 0 1 1 1 1
1 0 0 1 0 1
0 0 0 0 0 0

Only a true PAM-4 error analyzer can provide a PAM-4 symbol error rate. Error ratios down to 10-15 or error-
free can be measured even for long PRBS 2 31-1 or QPRBS-31 patterns. Errored 0,1,2,3 symbols can be
counted seperately for further debugging.

Overcoming test
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Test Challenge: Stressed Input Test for Host & Module
Solved
Using M8045A flexible jitter sources and second PG
channel for crosstalk

Overcoming test
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Test Challenge: Receiver Interference Tolerance Solved
Using M8195A or -96A AWG as RI/SI source in same chassis, same GUI
Option to use AWG for RI/SI source, eye-skew
Loopback to ED PAM-4 and NRZInpu
RI/SI t
(RX)
+
diff und
PAM-4 or NRZ er
Remote
head test

M8196A complements input test setup


when used as:
‒ Random/ sinusoidal interference source
with directional couplers
‒ PAM-4 generator to emulate horizontally
skewed eyes
‒ Economic PAM-4 generator (see appendix
for restrictions)

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Test Challenge: Loop Closure for RX Tolerance Solved 1
Using M8046A Error Detector for DUT’s with loopback
PAM-4 or NRZ Loopback to ED

Input (RX)
2 under test
PAM-4 or
NRZ Remote head

Key features analyzer:


− 1 analyzer channel per module (M8046A, 1U)
− Symbol rates:
− 2 to 32 Gb/s NRZ and 32 GBaud PAM-4
− 2 to 64 Gb/s NRZ and 64 GBaud PAM-4*
− Detects NRZ and PAM-4 signals without power splitters
− True real-time symbol error rate for PAM-4 without post-processing
− Full sampling even for long PRBS and low BERs, e.g.10 -15
− Jitter tolerance measurements

*64 Gbaud version comes in a second release


Overcoming test
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Test Challenge: Loop Closure for RX Tolerance Solved 2,3
Access via M8070A Software:
3: Realtime Scope based error
2: On-chip error counters: counters:
‒ On chip ED can be used for – For BERs 10-5, 10-6, 10-7
integrated measurements,
such as JTOL – Unfold into waveform upon error
‒ M8070A-1TP/-1NP are – Trigger on burst error
available as transportable – Cumulative and „per acquisition“
and as network license – Unknown expected pattern by
‒ Python-script based interface capture
into M8070A software – Requires Infiniium SW rev. 5.60
and N8836A

Python
DUT
error
counter

Update Aug 2016© Keysight Technologies 2017 Overcoming test


challenges in
400G/PAM-4 designs Page 68
Test Challenge: NRZ and PAM-4 on same DUT-Solved!
Using M8040A Native NRZ/PAM-4 Capabilities – switch PG/ED on the fly

Custom
coding
too!
Overcoming test
© Keysight Technologies 2017 challenges in 02/15/2017
400G/PAM-4 designs Page 69
M8000 Series of BER Test Solutions
Now: Extension to 400GbE:
PAM-4 & NRZ, 64 GBaud

M8040A PAM-4 and NRZ


Highly integrated 64 GBaud, 1-2 channel
and scalable for simplified,
time efficient testing

High-performance NRZ BERT

M8000 Series of BER Test Solutions

16 / 32 Gb/s, 1 - 4 channels
M8195A AWG,
4 channel

Highly integrated
16 Gb/s J-BERT M8020A 32 Gb/s J-BERT M8020A M8030A
1 - 4 channel and M8062A 10 channel

Master your next design

Overcoming test
© Keysight Technologies 2017 challenges in 02/15/2017
400G/PAM-4 designs Page 70
Summary
• Transition from NRZ to PAM-4 is revolutionary
• Many new challenges in both electrical and optical links

• Required Output (Tx) measurements and Input (Rx) stress types are
changing
• New eye measurements for PAM-4 Output tests (e.g. TDECQ,
JRMS, J4, …)
• Linearity added to stressed Input testing

• New tools are needed for characterizing and troubleshooting links


using FEC

• Learn more on the web at: www.keysight.com/find/pam4

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Overcoming test
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Partnering with Keysight will speed your PAM-4 transition
• Keysight helps you master your PAM-4 designs by reducing the complexity of
characterization and compliance testing with tools for:
• Simulation – ADS and SystemVue software
• Output (Tx) Characterization - Oscilloscopes
• Keysight DSAX 63 GHz real-time oscilloscope
o N8827A PAM-4 Measurement Tool With BER
o N8836A PAM-4 Measurement Application for Ethernet and OIF-CEI
www.keysight.com/find/n8827a
www.keysight.com/find/n8836a

• Keysight 86100D DCA-X sampling oscilloscope


o 86100D-9FP PAM-4 Analysis Software
o N1085A PAM-4 Measurement Application for Ethernet and OIF-CEI
www.keysight.com/find/86100D-9FP
www.keysight.com/find/N1085A
NEW !
• Keysight N1092x DCA-M sampling oscilloscope
www.keysight.com/find/N1092A

NEW ! • Input (Rx) Characterization - BERTs:


• Keysight M8040A 64 GBaud High Performance BERT
www.keysight.com/find/m8040a
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Acronyms
c2c = Chip-to-Chip
c2m = Chip-to-Module
BER = Bit Error Ratio
BUJ = Bounded Uncorrelated Jitter (used to emulate crosstalk)
DUT = Device Under Test
EW = Eye Width
EH = Eye Height
FEC = Forward Error Correction
FFE = Feed-Forward Equalizer
NRZ = Non-Return to Zero (Refers to 2 level signaling or PAM-2)
PAM-n = Pulse Amplitude Modulation, where n = number of levels
RJ = Random Jitter
RS = Reed-Solomon
SER = Symbol Error Ratio
SIRC = System Impulse Response Correction
SJ = Sinusoidal Jitter
SMF/MM F– Single-mode fiber, Multimode fiber
TDP = Transmitter and Dispersion Penalty
TDEC = Transmitter and Dispersion Eye Closure
TDECQ = Transmitter and dispersion eye closure quaternary (for PAM-4)
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M8040A 64 GBaud High-performance BERT

Master your 400 G design

‒ Highly integrated for simplified RX test setup

‒ True PAM-4 error detector for repeatable results

‒ Scalable NRZ/ PAM-4, 32/ 64 GBaud

Overcoming test
© Keysight Technologies 2017 challenges in
400G/PAM-4 designs Page 75