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Programa de Apoyo Integral

para Estudiantes Nuevos


Cuaderno de Apoyo l n x dx
e^-x
al Estudiante inte
g ra l (0-i
nf )

- )=
Matemática
gam
m a =
|
-( x +
x -2
2
=9
|+ |4 -
11
/7 + ... |−23 -x = 1
1
- 1 x =-
1/ 5
+
- 1/3 r 2h
= 1/1 / 3 pi
| a|
= 1 a| =
b h | – = c
( 1 /3) 1. a+b
e= ≥ 0 r2
|
VA LUE 2 . |a 4×
π ×
x Ga m
LE
UT )bh /3 x+ 1) =
AB S O d = (1 ma(
y ra mi Gam | b
|a| –
p
r3 (
ir 1 r 2 b| ≥
) p |a – -P
(4 /3 0 / n) NT
5 0 ,00 (1 + r
L = B =A x-1)
dt
LU T E /3 )b
A BSO ra mid = (1
py
2r 3
r 1 r
pi
Programa de Apoyo Integral para Estudiantes Nuevos
)
(4/3 0
5 0 ,00
L = B
AȀ 


”‘•ƒ–—”ƒŽ‡• ‹’‘•†‡”‘•ƒ–—”ƒŽ‡•ǣ
a
e rt egr
‘ƒ“—‡ŽŽ‘••À„‘Ž‘•“—‡‘•’‡”‹–‡
”‘•”‹‘•ǣ‘ƒ“—‡ŽŽ‘•“—‡•×Ž‘’—‡†‡†‹˜‹†‹”•‡’‘”•À‹•‘•Ǥ
i nt
”‡’”‡•‡–ƒ” Žƒ …ƒ–‹†ƒ† †‡ ‡Ž‡‡–‘•
C r x(
P=
 ǣʹǡ͵ǡͶǡ͹ǡͳͳǡͳ͵ǡͳ͹ǡͳͻǡʹ͵ǡʹͻǡ͵ͳǡʹ͹ǤǤǤ
“—‡ –‹‡‡ — …‘Œ—–‘Ǥ ‡ ”‡’”‡•‡–ƒ
…‘ŽƒŽ‡–”ƒ ǣ


”‘• ‘’—‡•–‘•ǣ ‘ ƒ“—‡ŽŽ‘• “—‡ ‘ •‘ ’”‹‘•ǡ ‡• †‡…‹” “—‡m a(
’—‡†‡
x) =
 Ga
†‹˜‹†‹”•‡’‘”—‘‘˜ƒ”‹‘•ï‡”‘•ƒ–—”ƒŽ‡•ǡ†‹•–‹–‘•ƒ±Ž‹•‘Ǥ m
𝐈𝐈𝐈𝐈 = {1,2,3,4,5,6, … 18, … ,57, … 320, … }  ǣͶǡ͸ǡͺǡͻǡͳͲǡͳʹǡͳͶǡͳͷǡͳ͸ǡͳͺǡʹͲǡʹͳǡʹʹǡʹͶǡʹͷǡʹ͸ǤǤǤ

00 r) t


”‘•ƒ”‡•ǣʹǡͶǡ͸ǡͺǡͳͲǡͳʹǤǤǤ

5 , 0 +
(1


V
”‘• ’ƒ”‡•ǣͳǡ͵ǡͷǡ͹ǡͻǡͳͳǡͳ͵ǤǤǤ
= C

P=
a|
‡•…‘’‘•‹…‹×‡ ƒ…–‘”‡•”‹‘•  ǣ‡•…‘’‘‰‘‡Žï‡”‘͸Ͳ‡•—•ˆƒ…–‘”‡•’”‹‘•Ǥ


| 2 * sq
‘†‘ï‡”‘“—‡‘•‡ƒ’”‹‘ǡ•‡ Ͷͷ
| = ǣ͵
rt2/
–a s q
1. |
’—‡†‡†‡•…‘’‘‡”‡ˆƒ…–‘”‡•’”‹‘•Ǥ ͳͷ ǣ͵
I =
ͷ ǣͷ 2/P
ͳ 

0


–‘…‡•ǣͶͷൌ͵∙ 3 ∙ 5ൌ͵ʹ∙ 5ൌͶͷ

| a |≥
2.


  ǣ‡–‡”‹ƒ”‡Ž‡–”‡ͳͲ›ͳʹǤ
À‹‘‘ï‹’Ž‘
ƒǤ ‡•…‘’‘‰‘…ƒ†ƒï‡”‘‡•—•ˆƒ…–‘”‡•’”‹‘•ǣ
•‡Ž‡‘”ïŽ–‹’Ž‘…‘ï‡–”‡— 

…‘Œ—–‘†‡ï‡”‘•ƒ–—”ƒŽ‡•Ǥ 

ͳͲ ǣʹ  ͳʹ ǣʹ



ͷ ǣͷ  ͸ ǣʹ

ͳ   ͵ ǣ͵
   ͳ 


„Ǥ ‘•–‡”‹‘”ƒ‡•‘ǡ‡Ž‹Œ‘Ž‘•ˆƒ…–‘”‡•…‘—‡•‡Ž‡˜ƒ†‘•ƒŽƒ›‘”‡š’‘‡–‡ǡ›
Ž‘•ˆƒ…–‘”‡•‘…‘—‡•ǡ‡•†‡…‹”ǡ•‹ǣ
ͳͲൌʹ∙ ͷ
ͳʹൌʹ∙ ʹ∙ ͵ൌʹʹ∙ ͵


‘•˜ƒŽ‘”‡••‡Ž‡……‹‘ƒ†‘••‡”Àƒǣʹʹǡ͵›ͷǤ


…Ǥ Žǡ‡•‡Ž”‡•—Ž–ƒ†‘†‡Ž’”‘†—…–‘†‡‡•‘•˜ƒŽ‘”‡••‡Ž‡……‹‘ƒ†‘•ǣ
ൌʹʹ∙͵∙ͷൌ͸Ͳ


  ǣ‡–‡”‹ƒ”‡Ž‡–”‡͵Ͳ›ͳʹǤ
žš‹‘‘ï‹˜‹•‘”
ƒǤ ‡•…‘’‘‰‘…ƒ†ƒï‡”‘‡•—•ˆƒ…–‘”‡•’”‹‘•ǣ
•‡Žƒ›‘”†‹˜‹•‘”…‘ï‡–”‡— 

…‘Œ—–‘†‡ï‡”‘•ƒ–—”ƒŽ‡•Ǥ 

͵Ͳ ǣʹ  ͳʹ ǣʹ


ͳͷ ǣ͵  ͸ ǣʹ
ͷ ǣͷ  ͵ ǣ͵
ͳ   ͳ 


„Ǥ ‘•–‡”‹‘”ƒ‡•‘ǡ‡Ž‹Œ‘Ž‘•ˆƒ…–‘”‡•…‘—‡•‡Ž‡˜ƒ†‘•ƒŽ‡‘”‡š’‘‡–‡ǡ‡•
†‡…‹”ǡ•‹ǣ
͵Ͳൌʹ∙ ͵∙ͷ
ͳʹൌʹ∙ ʹ∙ ͵ൌʹʹ∙ ͵


‘•˜ƒŽ‘”‡••‡Ž‡……‹‘ƒ†‘••‡”Àƒǣʹ›͵Ǥ


…Ǥ Ž‡•‡Ž”‡•—Ž–ƒ†‘†‡Ž’”‘†—…–‘†‡‡•‘•˜ƒŽ‘”‡••‡Ž‡……‹‘ƒ†‘•ǣ
MCD = 2 ∙ 3 = 6
 

4
4 x+ 1)
ma( 2
Gam 1d
|a | – |b ( ½ ) d
b | ≥
|a – NT -P
r / n)
(1 +
B =A x-1 ) dt
 -r tt(
i nf) e   V
0 to
al)(


†‡–‹ˆ‹…‘‡Ž‘Ž‘•–‹’‘•†‡”‘ƒ–—”ƒŽǡ•‡‰ï•—•…ƒ”ƒ…–‡”À•–‹…ƒ•ǣ
c
* ...

ƒǤ ͷͻ  ̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴  / 2
̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴
) )
„Ǥ ͳͲʹ ̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴ 
s qrt2)̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴
…Ǥ ͷ͹  +
̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴  ̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴
rt( 2
t 
(2 +
( s q
‡•…”‹„‘‡Œ‡’Ž‘•…‘…”‡–‘•†‡Žƒ˜‹†ƒ†‹ƒ”‹ƒǡ†‡ƒ’Ž‹…ƒ…‹×†‡Ž‘•ï‡”‘•ƒ–—”ƒŽ‡•ǣ
r t

* s q
)ƒǤ/2̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴Ǥ
rt2
2 + sq „Ǥ ̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴Ǥ
qrt( …Ǥ ̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴Ǥ



‡–‡”‹‘‡Ž†‡Ž‘••‹‰—‹‡–‡•‰”—’‘•†‡ï‡”‘•ǣ

ƒǤ ͸›ʹͳ



ൌ    
„Ǥ ͳͷ›Ͷͷ



ൌ    
…Ǥ ʹͲǡͳͷ›ͳʹ



ൌ    



‡–‡”‹‘‡Ž†‡Ž‘••‹‰—‹‡–‡•‰”—’‘•†‡ï‡”‘•ǣ

ƒǤ ͳʹ›ͳ͸



ൌ    
„Ǥ ʹͲ›Ͷͷ



ൌ    
…Ǥ ͸Ͳǡͳͺ›Ͷʹ



ൌ    


 

5
LU T E /3 )b
A BSO ra mi d = (1
py
2r 3
r 1 r
pi
Programa de Apoyo Integral para Estudiantes Nuevos
)
(4/3 0
5 0 ,00
L = B
AȀ 


—ƒ  ǣ
a
e rt tegr
 
x( i n
•—ƒ‘’‡”ƒ…‹×ƒ–‡ž–‹…ƒ“—‡”‡ï‡ ƒǤ ͹൅ͳʹൌͳͻ
C =r
†‘•‘ž•ï‡”‘•ŽŽƒƒ†‘••—ƒ†‘•ǡ
P=
—ƒ†‘•ǣ͹ǡͳʹ
ma(
x)
Gam
‡—”‡•—Ž–ƒ†‘ŽŽƒƒ†‘•—ƒǤ —ƒǣͳͻ

„Ǥ ʹͶͻ൅͹ͷൌ͵ʹͶ
—ƒ†‘•ǣʹͶͻǡ͹ͷ
0 00 r) t
—ƒǣ͵ʹͶ
= 5 , (1 +
 V C
…Ǥ ʹ͸൅ͳͲͷ൅ͷʹൌͳͺ͵
—ƒ†‘•ǣʹ͸ǡͳͲͷǡͷʹ P=
—ƒǣͳͺ͵
= | a| rt2/
2 * sq

–a | s q
1. |

I =
  2/P


‘—–ƒ–‹˜‹†ƒ†ǣŽ‘”†‡†‡Ž‘•  ǣ
|≥ 0
•—ƒ†‘•‘ƒŽ–‡”ƒŽƒ•—ƒǤ 
| a
ƒǤ ͵ͺ൅ͷͳൌͺͻ
„Ǥ ͷͳ൅͵ͺൌͺͻ 2.

–‘…‡•͵ͺ൅ͷͳൌͷͳ൅͵ͺ

•‘…‹ƒ–‹˜‹†ƒ†ǣ—ƒ•—ƒ†‡–”‡•‘ž•  ǣ
ï‡”‘•ǡ±•–‘••‡’—‡†‡ƒ•‘…‹ƒ”‡ 
‰”—’‘•†‹•–‹–‘•ǡ•‹ƒˆ‡…–ƒ”Žƒ•—ƒˆ‹ƒŽǤ ʹͳͷ൅͵ʹͳ൅Ͷ͹ൌ

ƒǤ ሺʹͳͷ൅͵ʹͳሻ൅Ͷ͹ൌ
ͷ͵͸൅Ͷ͹ൌͷͺ͵

„Ǥ ʹͳͷ൅ሺ͵ʹͳ൅Ͷ͹ሻൌ
ʹͳͷ൅͵͸ͺൌͷͺ͵

–‘…‡•ሺʹͳͷ൅͵ʹͳሻ൅Ͷ͹ൌʹͳͷ൅ሺ͵ʹͳ൅Ͷ͹ሻǡ‡•†‡…‹”ǡ‡Žƒ•—ƒ•‡’—‡†‡
ƒ•‘…‹ƒ”†‡ƒ„ƒ•ˆ‘”ƒ•ǡ›‡Ž”‡•—Ž–ƒ†‘‡•‡Ž‹•‘Ǥ

Ž‡‡–‘‡—–”‘†‡Žƒƒ†‹…‹×ǣ  ǣ
‘””‡•’‘†‡ƒŽï‡”‘…‡”‘ሺͲሻ’‘”“—‡ 
ƒŽ•—ƒ”Ͳƒ—ï‡”‘ƒ–—”ƒŽ ƒǤ ͳʹ൅Ͳൌͳʹ
…—ƒŽ“—‹‡”ƒǡ‡Ž˜ƒŽ‘”‘…ƒ„‹ƒǤ Ͳ൅ͳʹൌͳʹ

„Ǥ ͳǤʹͲͶ൅ͲൌͳǤʹͲͶ
Ͳ൅ͳǤʹͲͶൌͳǤʹͲͶ



‡•–ƒ  ǣ
 
•Žƒ‘’‡”ƒ…‹×…‘–”ƒ”‹ƒƒŽƒƒ†‹…‹×‘• ƒǤ ͳʹ͵–͵Ͷൌͺͻ
–±”‹‘•†‡Žƒ†‹ˆ‡”‡…‹ƒ•‡ŽŽƒƒ 
‹—‡†‘ǡ•—•–”ƒ‡†‘ǡ›ƒŽ”‡•—Ž–ƒ†‘•‡Ž‡ „Ǥ ͵ͷͳǤ͸͹ͺ–ʹǤͶ͵ͳൌ͵͵ͻǤʹͶ͹
ŽŽƒƒ†‹ˆ‡”‡…‹ƒǤ 
 

6
4 x+ 1)
ma( 2
Gam 1d
|a | – |b ( ½ ) d
b | ≥
|a – NT -P
r / n)
(1 +
B =A ( x- 1) d
t
rt t
) e-
   V

to inf 

al) (0 —‘Ž‘••‹‰—‹‡–‡•ï‡”‘•ƒ–—”ƒŽ‡•ǣ

ƒǤ ͸൅ͳͷൌ   ̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴
 * ...c
„Ǥ ͳͺ൅͵͸൅͹ͺൌ  ) ) )/2
̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴
2
r t
+ sq

…Ǥ ͳͳ൅ͷͳ൅ͳͲʹ൅ͷʹͲൌ
rt ( 2
̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴
t 

rt (2 +
( sq

/2 * sq
) †‹…‘“—±’”‘’‹‡†ƒ†•‡ƒ’Ž‹…ƒǡ›•—‘Ž‘•ï‡”‘•ƒ–—”ƒŽ‡•ǣ
rt2
+ sq

2
qrt(
ƒǤ ሺʹͺͶ൅͹͸ሻ൅ሺͳ͵͵൅ͳͲ͹ሻൌ    ”‘’‹‡†ƒ†̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴



„Ǥ ͵ʹ൅ሺͳͷ͵൅ʹͳͲ൅ͷͶሻ൅ͳʹൌ    ”‘’‹‡†ƒ†̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴



‘’Ž‡–‘’ƒ”ƒ“—‡•‡…—’ŽƒŽƒ‹‰—ƒŽ†ƒ†ǣ

ƒǤ ͵͸ʹ൅̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴ൌͳͺ൅͵͸ʹ    ”‘’‹‡†ƒ†̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴
̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴ൌ̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴


„Ǥ ሺʹ͵Ͷ൅Ͷ͸͹൅̴̴̴̴̴̴̴ሻ൅ͺͲൌʹ͵Ͷ൅ሺ̴̴̴̴̴̴̴൅ͷ͸൅ͺͲሻ ”‘’‹‡†ƒ†̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴


…Ǥ ͵͹ͺ൅Ͳൌ̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴൅͵͹ͺ     ”‘’‹‡†ƒ†̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴


†Ǥ Ͳ൅͵ǤͲͲͲǤͲͲͲൌ      ”‘’‹‡†ƒ†̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴


‡•—‡Ž˜‘ǣ

ƒǤͳʹ൅ሺ͵Ͷͷ൅Ͳ൅ͳͺሻൌ

„Ͳ൅ʹͶǤͷ͸͵൅ͳʹ൅Ͳൌ

…ሺʹͲͳ൅Ͷͺሻ൅ሺͲ൅ͶǤͻͺͳሻൌ



‡•–‘Ž‘••‹‰—‹‡–‡•ï‡”‘•ƒ–—”ƒŽ‡•ǣ

ƒǤ ͹ͶǤͳͻ͸–ͺǤʹͲͺൌ

„Ǥ ͵͸ͶǤͲͲͲ–ͶͺǤͻͲͲൌ

‘’Ž‡–‘ǡ†‡–‡”‹ƒ†‘‡Ž˜ƒŽ‘”†‡•…‘‘…‹†‘ǣ

ƒǤ ʹǤ͵Ͳͻ–̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴ൌ͹Ͷͺ

„Ǥ ̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴–ʹ͹͵ൌͷǤͲͲͳ

 

7
LU T E /3 )b
A BSO ra mi d = (1
py
2r 3
r 1 r
pi
Programa de Apoyo Integral para Estudiantes Nuevos
)
(4/3 0
5 0 ,00
L = B

AȀ 

a
—Ž–‹’Ž‹…ƒ…‹×  ǣ
C e rt =r
x( i ntegr

P=
 
x)
ma(
• —ƒ ‘’‡”ƒ…‹× ƒ–‡ž–‹…ƒ “—‡ ”‡ï‡ †‘• ‘ ž• ï‡”‘• ƒǤ ͻ∙ͳͷൌͳ͵ͷ
ŽŽƒƒ†‘•ˆƒ…–‘”‡•ǡ‡—”‡•—Ž–ƒ†‘ŽŽƒƒ†‘’”‘†—…–‘Ǥ ƒ…–‘”‡•ǣͻǡͳͷ
”‘†—…–‘ǣͳ͵ͷ Gam
 

0 00 r) t
„Ǥ ͳͲ∙ͺ∙ʹͺൌʹǤͲͲͲ
=
ƒ…–‘”‡•ǣͳͲǡͺǡʹͺ 5 , (1 +
V C
P=
”‘†—…–‘ǣʹǤͲͲͲ

 
= | a| rt2/
2 * sq
|–a |


= s q
I
1ƒǤ. ͺ͹∙ʹͳൌͳǤͺʹ͹ 2/P
‘—–ƒ–‹˜‹†ƒ†ǣŽ‘”†‡†‡Ž‘•ˆƒ…–‘”‡•‘ƒŽ–‡”ƒ‡Ž’”‘†—…–‘Ǥ  ǣ

„Ǥ ʹͳ∙ͺ͹ൌͳǤͺʹ͹ 0

| a |≥
2.
–‘…‡•ͺ͹∙ʹͳൌʹͳ∙ͺ͹

•‘…‹ƒ–‹˜‹†ƒ†ǣ—ƒ—Ž–‹’Ž‹…ƒ…‹×†‡–”‡•‘ž•ï‡”‘•ǡ±•–‘•  ǣ
•‡’—‡†‡ƒ•‘…‹ƒ”‡‰”—’‘•†‹•–‹–‘•ǡ•‹ƒˆ‡…–ƒ”‡Ž’”‘†—…–‘ˆ‹ƒŽǤ 
ƒǤ ሺʹͷ∙͵ʹሻ∙Ͷ͹ൌ
ͺͲͲ∙Ͷ͹ൌ͵͹Ǥ͸ͲͲ

„Ǥ ʹͷ∙ሺ͵ʹ∙Ͷ͹ሻൌ
ʹͷ∙ͳͷͲͶൌ͵͹Ǥ͸ͲͲ

–‘…‡•ሺʹͷ∙͵ʹሻ∙Ͷ͹ൌʹͷ∙ሺ͵ʹ∙Ͷ͹ሻǡ‡•†‡…‹”ǡ‡Žƒ
—Ž–‹’Ž‹…ƒ…‹×•‡’—‡†‡ƒ•‘…‹ƒ”†‡ƒ„ƒ•ˆ‘”ƒ•›‡Ž
’”‘†—…–‘‡•‡Ž‹•‘Ǥ

Ž‡‡–‘‡—–”‘—Ž–‹’Ž‹…ƒ–‹˜‘ǣ‘””‡•’‘†‡ƒŽï‡”‘—‘ሺͳሻǡ  ǣ
’—‡• ƒŽ —Ž–‹’Ž‹…ƒ” ‡Ž ͳ …‘ — ï‡”‘ ƒ–—”ƒŽ …—ƒŽ“—‹‡”ƒǡ ‡Ž 
”‡•—Ž–ƒ†‘‘…ƒ„‹ƒǤ ƒǤ ͳǤ͵ʹͶ∙ͳൌͳǤ͵ʹͶ
ͳ∙ͳǤ͵ʹͶൌͳǤ͵ʹͶ

„Ǥ ͺͻͲ∙ͳൌͺͻͲ
ͳ∙ͺͻͲൌͺͻͲ

”‘’‹‡†ƒ† †‹•–”‹„—–‹˜ƒǣ ˜‘Ž—…”ƒ Žƒ ‘’‡”ƒ–‘”‹ƒ †‡ Žƒ •—ƒ › Žƒ  ǣ
—Ž–‹’Ž‹…ƒ…‹×ǡ†‘†‡•‡’—‡†‡ƒ‰”—’ƒ”‘†‹•–”‹„—‹”†‡Žƒ•‹‰—‹‡–‡
ʹ͵∙(12 +36) = 23 ∙12 + 23 ∙ 36
ƒ‡”ƒǡ•‡‰ï•‡ƒ‡…‡•ƒ”‹‘ǣ
ʹ͵∙ 48 ൌʹ͹͸൅ͺʹͺ

ͳǤͳͲͶൌͳǤͳͲͶ
ƒ∙„൅ƒ∙…ൌƒ∙ሺ„൅…ሻ



‘„‹‡ǣ

ƒ∙ሺ„൅…ሻൌƒ∙„൅ƒ∙…



 

8
4 x+ 1)
ma( 2
Gam 1d
|a | – |b (½ ) d
b | ≥
|a – NT -P
r / n)
(1 +
B =A x-1 ) dt
- r tt(
i nf) e 
0 to
al)(
   V


—Ž–‹’Ž‹…‘Ž‘••‹‰—‹‡–‡•ï‡”‘•ƒ–—”ƒŽ‡•ǣ
 * ...c
ƒǤ ͸∙ͳͷൌ   ) ) )/2
̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴
2
r t
+ sq

„Ǥ ͳ͵∙͹ͺ∙ʹͲͲൌ 
rt ( 2
̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴
t 
t(2
+ ( s q ̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴
…Ǥ ͳͳ∙ሺͶ͸∙ͳͲǤͲͲͲሻൌ
 * sqr
)/ 2
rt2
2 + sq 
qrt(


’Ž‹…‘’”‘’‹‡†ƒ†‡•’ƒ”ƒ—Ž–‹’Ž‹…ƒ”Ž‘••‹‰—‹‡–‡•ï‡”‘•ƒ–—”ƒŽ‡•ǣ

ƒǤ ሺͳ∙͹͸ሻൌ

„Ǥ ʹ∙ሺͳͷ∙ʹሻ∙ሺʹ∙ͳͷሻൌ

…Ǥ ͷ∙ሺͻ൅ͳͲ–ͳͳሻൌ




‘’Ž‡–‘‡Ž‡•’ƒ…‹‘“—‡ˆƒŽ–ƒǡ’ƒ”ƒ“—‡•‡…—’ŽƒŽƒ‹‰—ƒŽ†ƒ†ǡ›…ƒŽ…—Ž‘ǣ

ƒǤ ͸ʹ∙̴̴̴̴̴ൌͳͺ∙͸ʹ

̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴ൌ̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴  


”‘’‹‡†ƒ†̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴


„Ǥ ሺʹͶ∙Ͷ͹ሻ∙̴̴̴̴̴̴̴ൌʹͶ∙ሺ̴̴̴̴̴̴∙ͺͲሻ 

 ̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴ൌ̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴


”‘’‹‡†ƒ†̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴


…Ǥ ̴̴̴̴̴∙ሺͳͲǤͲͲͲ∙ͳͲሻൌሺͳ∙̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴ሻ∙ͳͲ

 ̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴ൌ̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴  


”‘’‹‡†ƒ†̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴








 

9
LU T E /3 )b
A BSO ra mi d = (1
py
2r 3
r 1 r
pi
Programa de Apoyo Integral para Estudiantes Nuevos
)
(4/3 0
5 0 ,00
L = B
AȀ 


”‘•–‡”‘•
a
• ‡Ž …‘Œ—–‘ “—‡ ‡•–ž …‘’—‡•–‘ ’‘” Ž‘• ï‡”‘•
C e rt =r
x( i ntegr

P=
ƒ–—”ƒŽ‡•ǡ•—•‘’—‡•–‘•›‡Ž…‡”‘Ǥ‡”‡’”‡•‡–ƒ‡†‹ƒ–‡Žƒ
x)
Ž‡–”ƒℤǤ
ma(
 ‘•ï‡”‘• ƒ–—”ƒŽ‡•”‡’”‡•‡–ƒ—•—„…‘Œ—–‘†‡
‡Žƒ‡…–ƒ—±”‹…ƒ
Gam
‡’”‡•‡–ƒ…‹×‰”žˆ‹…ƒ†‡Ž‘•ï‡”‘•‡–‡”‘•
Ž‘•ï‡”‘•‡–‡”‘•ŽŽƒƒ†‘‡–‡”‘•’‘•‹–‹˜‘•ሺℤ൅ሻǤ
 —• ‘’—‡•–‘• ”‡’”‡•‡–ƒ ƒ Ž‘• ‡–‡”‘• ‡‰ƒ–‹˜‘• ሺℤ–ሻǡ
0 00

r) t
“—‡ •‘ Ž‘• ï‡”‘• ’‘•‹–‹˜‘• …‘ — •‹‰‘ ሺ–ሻ
= 5 , 
(1 +
ƒ–‡’—‡•–‘ƒ‡ŽŽ‘•Ǥ
V C
•À‹•‘ǡŽ‘•ï‡”‘•‡–‡”‘•’‘•‹–‹˜‘•–‹‡‡ƒ–‡’—‡•–‘
—•‹‰‘ሺ൅ሻǡƒ—“—‡’‘”…‘˜‡‹‘ǡ’”ž…–‹…ƒ‡–‡‘•‡—•ƒǡ
P=
a| * sq

›•‹—ï‡”‘‡–‡”‘‘ŽŽ‡˜ƒ•‹‰‘ǡ”‡’”‡•‡–ƒƒ—ï‡”‘
‡–‡”‘’‘•‹–‹˜‘Ǥ
| = | rt2/
2
–a s q
1. |
 I =
–‡• †‡ •‡‰—‹” ƒƒŽ‹œƒ†‘ ‡•–‡ …‘Œ—–‘ǡ ‡• ‡…‡•ƒ”‹‘ 2/P
…‘‘…‡”‡Ž…‘…‡’–‘†‡˜ƒŽ‘”ƒ„•‘Ž—–‘Ǥ

| ≥ 0
. | a
׆—Ž‘‘˜ƒŽ‘”ƒ„•‘Ž—–‘
‡ ‡š’”‡•ƒ ‡†‹ƒ–‡ †‘•
 ǣ
2
 ȁͷȁൌͷǡ›ƒ“—‡‡Žï‡”‘ͷ‡•–ž‡šƒ…–ƒ‡–‡ƒͷŽ—‰ƒ”‡•†‡Ž…‡”‘Ǥ
„ƒ””‹–ƒ•˜‡”–‹…ƒŽ‡• (| |) Ǥ 
Ž×†—Ž‘‘˜ƒŽ‘”ƒ„•‘Ž—–‘†‡—  ȁ–ͷȁൌͷ›ƒ“—‡‡Žï‡”‘–ͷ‡•–ž‡šƒ…–ƒ‡–‡ƒͷŽ—‰ƒ”‡•†‡Ž…‡”‘Ǥ
ï‡”‘ ‡–‡”‘ǡ ‡• Žƒ †‹•–ƒ…‹ƒ 
‡–”‡‡•‡ï‡”‘›‡Ž…‡”‘ǡ‡Žƒ Entiéndase como “lugares” a posiciones en la recta numérica representativa de los
‡…–ƒ —±”‹…ƒǡ ’‘” Ž‘ –ƒ–‘ǡ ‡Ž ï‡”‘•‡–‡”‘•Ǥ
˜ƒŽ‘”ƒ„•‘Ž—–‘†‡—ï‡”‘‡• 
•‹‡’”‡’‘•‹–‹˜‘Ǥ






 ȁ–ͳǤͲͲͲȁൌͳǤͲͲͲ
 ȁͲȁൌͲ


”‘•‡‰ƒ–‹˜‘•‡
 ǣ
Žƒ ˜‹†ƒ †‹ƒ”‹ƒ › •—

”‡’”‡•‡–ƒ…‹× ‡
 ‡’‡”ƒ–—”ƒ•„ƒŒ‘…‡”‘Ǥ
ƒŽ‰—ƒ••‹–—ƒ…‹‘‡•Ǥ


“ƒ–‡’‡”ƒ–—”ƒ”±…‘”†‡Žƒ•ƒ•‡’”‘†—Œ‘Š‘››ˆ—‡†‡–62 °C”= “La temperatura récord en

Žƒ•ƒ•‡’”‘†—Œ‘Š‘›ǡy fue de 62 °C bajo cero”.

 ‹•–ƒ…‹ƒ•„ƒŒ‘‡Ž‹˜‡Ž†‡Žƒ”ǣ

“El •—„ƒ”‹‘‡•–žƒ–100 metros” = “El submarino está a 100 metros de profundidad”.

 ±”†‹†ƒ•ˆ‹ƒ…‹‡”ƒ•ǣ

“Lƒ˜ƒ”‹ƒ…‹×†‡Ž†×Žƒ”ˆ—‡†‡–ʹΨ” = “La …ƒÀ†ƒ†‡Ž†×Žƒ”fue de un 2%”

 

10
4 x+ 1)
ma( 2
Gam 1d
|a | – |b ( ½ ) d
b | ≥
|a – NT -P
r / n)
(1 +
B =A x-1 ) dt
 -r tt(
i nf) e   V
0 to
al)(


‘’Ž‡–‘ Žƒ •‹‰—‹‡–‡ –ƒ„Žƒǡ „—•…ƒ†‘ ‡ –‡”‡–ǡ ƒ’Ž‹…ƒ…‹‘‡• †‡ Ž‘• ï‡”‘• ƒ–—”ƒŽ‡• ‘ ‡–‡”‘•ǡ ƒ Žƒ• •‹‰—‹‡–‡•
‡•’‡…‹ƒŽ‹†ƒ†‡•ǣ
c

* ...
) )/2
)
qrt2
±…‹…‘Ȁ ‰‡‹‡”Àƒ‡”‡˜‡…‹×†‡‹‡•‰‘•
+s
rt( 2
t ‘•–”—……‹×‹˜‹Ž
rt(2
+ ( sq 

q
±…‹…‘‡‘•–”—……‹×
s
2*
)/±…‹…‘‡‹„—Œ‘†‡”“—‹–‡…–—”ƒ›„”ƒ•‹˜‹Ž‡•
2
+ sqrt ±…‹…‘‡‘’‘‰”ƒˆÀƒ 

qrt (2 ±…‹…‘‡‘•–”—……‹×›‡Šƒ„‹Ž‹–ƒ…‹×
—•–‡–ƒ„Ž‡

±…‹…‘Ȁ ‰‡‹‡”Àƒ‡‡…ž‹…ƒ—–‘‘–”‹œ›
—–‘–”א‹…ƒ
±…‹…‘‡‡…ž‹…ƒ—–‘‘–”‹œ‡ƒ“—‹ƒ”‹ƒ
‡•ƒ†ƒ
±…‹…‘‡ƒ–‡‹‹‡–‘‡…ž‹…‘

±…‹…‘‡‹‡”Àƒ


±…‹…‘‡Ž‡…–”‹…‹†ƒ†›Ž‡…–”א‹…ƒ

±…‹…‘Ȁ ‰‡‹‡”Àƒ†‡Œ‡…—…‹×‡ 
†‹‹•–”ƒ…‹×†‡’”‡•ƒ•‡…‹×ƒ”‡–‹‰
±…‹…‘Ȁ ‰‡‹‡”Àƒ†‡Œ‡…—…‹×‡
†‹‹•–”ƒ…‹×†‡’”‡•ƒ•‡…‹×‡…—”•‘•
—ƒ‘•
±…‹…‘Ȁ ‰‡‹‡”Àƒ†‡Œ‡…—…‹×‡
†‹‹•–”ƒ…‹×†‡’”‡•ƒ•‡…‹× ‹ƒœƒ•
±…‹…‘‡†‹‹•–”ƒ…‹×†‡’”‡•ƒ•‡…‹×
‘‰À•–‹…ƒ
±…‹…‘‡†‹‹•–”ƒ…‹×†‡’”‡•ƒ•‡…‹×
‘‡”…‹‘š–‡”‹‘”
±…‹…‘‡’‡”ƒ…‹‘‡•‘‰À•–‹…ƒ•
±…‹…‘‡†‹‹•–”ƒ…‹×†‡Žƒ”‘†—……‹×
‰”‘’‡…—ƒ”‹ƒ›‰”‘‹†—•–”‹ƒŽ

—†‹–‘”Àƒ
±…‹…‘‡‘–ƒ„‹Ž‹†ƒ†
‡‡”ƒŽ

‰‡‹‡”Àƒ†‡Œ‡…—…‹×‡ ˆ‘”ž–‹…ƒ‡…‹×
‡•ƒ””‘ŽŽ‘†‡‹•–‡ƒ•
±…‹…‘‡”‘‰”ƒƒ…‹×›žŽ‹•‹•†‡‹•–‡ƒ•
±…‹…‘‡”‘‰”ƒƒ…‹×‘’—–ƒ…‹‘ƒŽ

‰‡‹‡”Àƒ†‡Œ‡…—…‹×‡†‹‹•–”ƒ…‹×†‡
‡†‡•
±…‹…‘‡ •–ƒŽƒ…‹×›ƒ–‡…‹×†‡‡†‡•
 

11
LU T E /3 )b
A BSO ra mi d = (1
py
2r 3
r 1 r
pi
Programa de Apoyo Integral para Estudiantes Nuevos
)
(4/3 0
5 0 ,00
L= B
AȀ 


—ƒ†‡”‘•–‡”‘•  ǣ
a
e rt egr

—ƒ†‡ï‡”‘•†‡‹‰—ƒŽ•‹‰‘
i nt
ƒ”ƒ”‡•‘Ž˜‡”—ƒƒ†‹…‹×‘•—ƒ†‡†‘•ï‡”‘•‡–‡”‘•ǡ•‹’Ž‡‡–‡
x(
†‡„‡‘•”‡…‘‘…‡”Žƒ••‹‰—‹‡–‡•†‘•‹•–ƒ…‹ƒ•ͳǣ
—ƒ †‡ †‘• ï‡”‘• ‡–‡”‘• †‡ ‹‰—ƒŽ •‹‰‘: “SumamosP
=C ƒǤ Ͷͷ൅ʹͳ൅ͺͲൌͳͶ͸
sus valores „Ǥ –ͷ͸൅ሺ–ͳͺሻൌ–͹Ͷ ma(
x) =r
absolutos y el resultado mantiene el signo de ambos”Ǥ
…Ǥ
Gam
− 25 + (− 145) + (− 7) = − 177
—ƒ†‡†‘•ï‡”‘•‡–‡”‘•†‡†‹•–‹–‘•‹‰‘: “Restamos sus valores
ƒ„•‘Ž—–‘• › ‡Ž ”‡•—Ž–ƒ†‘ ƒ–‹‡‡ ‡Ž •‹‰‘ †‡ ƒ“—‡Ž “—‡ –‡‰ƒ ‡Ž ˜ƒŽ‘” †Ǥ
00
|− 76| + |234| = 76 + 234 = 310
0 r) t
ƒbsoluto mayor” 
= 5 , (1 +

V
—ƒ†‡ï‡”‘•†‡†‹•–‹–‘•‹‰‘
C

ƒ„Žƒ”‡•—‡
ƒǤ ͵ͺ൅ሺ–ͳʹሻൌʹ͸ P=
a|
‹‰‘  ‹‰‘  ‡„‡‘•Šƒ…‡”Ž‘•‹‰—‹‡–‡ 
* sq

 ൅ ൅ ൅ ൌ
—ƒ”Ž‘•˜ƒŽ‘”‡•ƒ„•‘Ž—–‘• „Ǥ
| = |
ሺ–Ͷͷሻ൅ʹͺൌ–ͳ͹
rt2/
2
–ሺ–a͵͹ሻ൅ሺ
›ƒ–‡‡”•‹‰‘൅
 
s q
1. | ൌሺ
—ƒ”Ž‘•˜ƒŽ‘”‡•ƒ„•‘Ž—–‘• –͵ʹሻ൅ͷͶ൅ͻͺൌ I =
2/P
 – ൅ – ൌ …Ǥ
 ›ƒ–‡‡”•‹‰‘– –͸ͻሻ൅ͳͷʹ
 ൅ ൅ – ൌ ‡•–ƒ”Ž‘•˜ƒŽ‘”‡•ƒ„•‘Ž—–‘• ൌͺ͵
 ›ƒ–‡‡”•‹‰‘†‡Ž͑…‘ 
†Ǥ |− 45| +≥
| 0= 45 + 64

a |− 64|

2. |
– ൅ ൅ ൌ ƒ›‘”˜ƒŽ‘”ƒ„•‘Ž—–‘Ǥ
 = 45 + (64) = 109



‡•–ƒ†‡”‘•–‡”‘•  ǣ


‡ˆ‹‹‘•Žƒ—•–”ƒ……‹×‘‡•–ƒ†‡”‘•–‡”‘•†‡Žƒƒ‡”ƒ
ƒǤ ͹͸–ͶͶൌ͹͸൅ሺ–ͶͶሻൌ͵ʹ
•‹‰—‹‡–‡ǣ•‡ƒƒ›„ï‡”‘•‡–‡”‘•ǡ‡–‘…‡•ǣ
 
a − b = a + (−b) „Ǥ ʹ͸–ሺ–ͳʹሻൌʹ͸൅ͳʹൌ͵ͺ

a − (−b) = a + b …Ǥ –ͻ͵–͵͸ൌ–ͻ͵൅ሺ–͵͸ሻൌ–ͳʹͻ

‘“—‡ ‘•‹‰‹ˆ‹…ƒ “—‡Žƒ•‘’‡”ƒ…‹‘‡••‡ƒ‹‰—ƒŽ‡•ǡ•‹‘“—‡•—• 
”‡•—Ž–ƒ†‘••‘‡“—‹˜ƒŽ‡–‡•Ǥ †Ǥ –ͷʹ–ሺ–͵ͺሻൌሺ–ͷʹሻ൅͵ͺൌ–ͳͶ
 
 •À–‡•‹•ǡŽƒ •—•–”ƒ……‹× †‡Ž ‹—‡†‘ › ‡Ž •—•–”ƒ‡†‘ •‡ ’—‡†‡ ‡Ǥ –ͳ–ʹ–ሺ–͵Ͷሻ–ʹͲͲ–ሺ–Ͷͻʹሻൌ
‡•…”‹„‹”ǡ ‡“—‹˜ƒŽ‡–‡‡–‡ǡ …‘‘ Žƒ ƒ†‹…‹× †‡Ž ‹—‡†‘ › ‡Ž ൌ–ͳ൅ሺ–ʹሻ൅͵Ͷ൅ʹͲͲ൅Ͷͻʹ
‹˜‡”•‘ƒ†‹–‹˜‘†‡Ž•—•–”ƒ‡†‘Ǥ ൌ–͵൅͹ʹ͸
 ൌ͹ʹ͵
ƒ„Žƒ‡•—‡ 
 
 ǣ‘„‹‡‘••—ƒ•›”‡•–ƒ•
Ž”‡•—Ž–ƒ†‘†‡  •‡“—‹˜ƒŽ‡–‡ƒ 
 ͵Ͷ–ͷ͸൅͸͹–ͺͶ͵൅ʹͳൌ
൅ – ൅ ൌ ൅ ൅ –  ͵Ͷ൅ሺ–ͷ͸ሻ൅͸͹൅ሺ–ͺͶ͵ሻ൅ʹͳൌ
 ͵Ͷ൅ʹͳ൅͸͹൅ሺ–ͷ͸ሻ൅ሺ–ͺͶ͵ሻൌ
൅ – – ൌ ൅ ൅ ൅  ͳʹʹ൅ሺ–ͺͻͻሻൌ–͹͹͹

– – ൅ ൌ – ൅ – ‡•–‡‡Œ‡’Ž‘ǡƒ’Ž‹…ƒ‘•Žƒ’”‘’‹‡†ƒ†…‘—–ƒ–‹˜ƒǡ
Žƒ’”‘’‹‡†ƒ†ƒ•‘…‹ƒ–‹˜ƒ›‡Ž‹˜‡”•‘ƒ†‹–‹˜‘—‘’—‡•–‘Ǥ
– – – ൌ – ൅ ൅



 

ͳ‘–ƒǣ…‹‡”–ƒ•‘’‡”ƒ…‹‘‡•ǡ‡Žï‡”‘‡‰ƒ–‹˜‘•‡…‘Ž‘…ƒ‡–”‡’ƒ”±–‡•‹•’ƒ”ƒ“—‡ǡ†‡‘†‘“—‡‡Ž•À„‘Ž‘ሺ–ሻ‘•‡

…‘ˆ—†ƒ…‘Žƒ•—•–”ƒ……‹×Ǥ

12
4 x+ 1)
ma( 2
Gam 1d
|a | – |b ( ½ ) d
b | ≥
|a – NT -P
r / n)
(1 +
B =A x-1 ) dt
e r tt(
-   V
o i nf)
(0 t


al) —‘ï‡”‘•‡–‡”‘•†‡‹‰—ƒŽ•‹‰‘ǣ


ƒǤ ͵Ͷ൅ʹͺ൅ͷ͸൅͹ൌ
c
 * ...
„Ǥ ͳǤͷͲ͵൅ͷ͸͹൅Ͷʹ͵൅ʹǤ͵ͳʹൌ ) )/2

s q rt2)
+
rt( 2
…Ǥ –͵Ͷͷ൅ሺ–ͷ͸͹ሻ൅ሺ–ͷ͸ሻ൅ሺ–ͳǤͶ͵ʹሻൌ
t †Ǥ

|−354| +(2|456|
(
+ = s q
* sqrt

)/2 

rt2 ‡•—‡Ž˜‘‡Ž•‹‰—‹‡–‡’”‘„Ž‡ƒǣ„—œ‘„ƒŒƒͷ‡–”‘•„ƒŒ‘‡Ž‹˜‡Ž†‡Žƒ”ǡ†‡•…ƒ•ƒ—‹—–‘›•‹‰—‡„ƒŒƒ†‘͸‡–”‘•
2 + sq ž•ǡˆ‹ƒŽ‡–‡„ƒŒƒ†‘•‡–”‘•›•‡†‡–‹‡‡ƒ‡•’‡”ƒ”•—…‘’ƒÓ‡”‘Ǥ
qrt( 
ƒǤ Ǭ—ž–‘•‡–”‘•„ƒŒ×Šƒ•–ƒ‡•’‡”ƒ”ƒ•—…‘’ƒÓ‡”‘ǫ

„Ǥ Ǭ׏‘”‡’”‡•‡–‘—±”‹…ƒ‡–‡‡•ƒ†‹•–ƒ…‹ƒ„ƒŒ‘‡Ž‹˜‡Ž†‡Žƒ”ǫ



—‘ï‡”‘•‡–‡”‘•†‡†‹•–‹–‘•‹‰‘ǣ


ƒǤ Ͷͷ൅ሺ–͵ͳሻ൅͵ͷ͸൅ሺ–ʹǤ͵Ͷͷሻൌ

„Ǥ –͵ͷ൅ሺ–Ͷ͸ͷሻ൅ͺͳͷ൅ሺ–ͳǤʹ͵Ͷሻ൅ͳ͵ʹ൅ሺ–ͳሻൌ

…Ǥ ͵ǤʹͶͷ൅ͷ͸Ǥ͹ͳʹ൅ሺ–͵Ǥ͸͹ͷሻ൅ሺ–͹ͺǤͳʹ͵ሻൌ

†Ǥ |− 345| + |36| + (− 918)൅|− 3.515|ൌ



‡•—‡Ž˜‘‡Ž•‹‰—‹‡–‡’”‘„Ž‡ƒǣƒ”Àƒ˜‹•‹–ƒƒ•—ƒ‹‰ƒ‹–ƒ“—‡˜‹˜‡‡‡Ž’‹•‘ͳͶ†‡—‡†‹ˆ‹…‹‘ǡ’ƒ”ƒ•—„‹”–‹‡‡“—‡
•—„‹”‡—ƒ•…‡•‘”“—‡ˆ—…‹‘ƒ†‡‡š–”ƒÓƒƒ‡”ƒǣ•—„‡͵’‹•‘•ǡ„ƒŒƒͳǡ‡–‘…‡•ǣ

ƒǤ š’”‡•‘†‡ˆ‘”ƒ—±”‹…ƒŽƒ•‹–—ƒ…‹×Ǥ

„Ǥ ǬŽ‡‰ƒ”žƒ•—†‡•–‹‘ǫ

…Ǥ Ǭ—ž–‘•’‹•‘•†‡„‡”ž”‡…‘””‡”’ƒ”ƒŽŽ‡‰ƒ”ƒ•—†‡•–‹‘ǫ


‡•–‘Ž‘••‹‰—‹‡–‡•ï‡”‘•‡–‡”‘•ǣ


ƒǤ ͷ͸–ͺ͹ൌ

„Ǥ –͹ͳ–ͳͺ–ͻͲʹൌ

…Ǥ ͵͹ʹ–ͷǤ͸͹ͳ–ሺ–ͳͶሻൌ

†Ǥ –ͷ͸–ሺ–͸͹ሻ–ሺ–ͻͺሻൌ

‡Ǥ |38| − |6| − |− 43| =



‘„‹‘‘’‡”ƒ–‘”‹ƒ•›”‡•—‡Ž˜‘ǣ


ƒǤ –Ͷͷ͸–͹ͷ൅ͷͳʹ–ሺ–͵ͳʹሻ–ͷ͸ൌ

„Ǥ ͵Ͷͳ൅ሺ–ͻሻ–ͳͻͺ–ሺ–͹ʹሻൌ

…Ǥ |12| + |−25| − |−8| – 1 =

 

13
LU T E /3 )b
A BSO ra mi d = (1
py
2r 3
r 1 r
pi
Programa de Apoyo Integral para Estudiantes Nuevos
)
(4/3 0
5 0 ,00
L = B
AȀ 


—Ž–‹’Ž‹…ƒ…‹×Ȁ‹˜‹•‹×†‡ï‡”‘•‡–‡”‘•  ǣ—Ž–‹’Ž‹…ƒ…‹‘‡•Ǥ
a
e rt tegr
 
x( i n
ƒ„ƒ•‘’‡”ƒ…‹‘‡•ǡ•‡—–‹Ž‹œƒŽ‘•‹•‘•…”‹–‡”‹‘•’ƒ”ƒ
C ƒǤ ͳʹ∙Ͷ͸ൌͷͷʹ
=r
†‡–‡”‹ƒ”‡Ž•‹‰‘†‡Ž”‡•—Ž–ƒ†‘ǣ
 P = „Ǥ ሺ–͵ʹሻ∙ሺ–͸ሻൌͳͻʹ ma(
x)
ƒǤ —Ž–‹’Ž‹…ƒ…‹×Ȁ‹˜‹•‹×†‡†‘•”‘•–‡”‘•†‡‹‰—ƒŽ …Ǥ ሺ–ʹͳሻ∙ʹǤͲͲͲൌ–ͶʹǤͲͲͲ Gam
•‹‰‘ǣ
—Ž–‹’Ž‹…ƒ‘•ሺ†‹˜‹†‹‘•ሻ•—•˜ƒŽ‘”‡•ƒ„•‘Ž—–‘•ǡ“—‡†ƒ†‘‡Ž
†Ǥ
00
͹ͺ∙ሺ–ͷ͵ሻൌ–ͶǤͳ͵Ͷ

0 r) t
”‡•—Ž–ƒ†‘†‡•‹‰‘’‘•‹–‹˜‘Ǥ ‡Ǥ
5 ,
Ͷʹ∙ሺ–ͳ͸ሻ∙ሺ–ͳሻ∙ʹͳൌ
= (1 +
 
V Ͷʹ∙ʹͳ∙ሺ–ͳ͸ሻ∙ሺ–ͳሻൌ
C
P=
„Ǥ —Ž–‹’Ž‹…ƒ…‹×Ȁ‹˜‹•‹×†‡†‘•”‘•–‡”‘•†‡†‹•–‹–‘ ͺͺʹ∙ͳ͸ൌͳͶǤͳͳʹ
•‹‰‘ǣ 

a|
—Ž–‹’Ž‹…ƒ‘•ሺ†‹˜‹†‹‘•ሻ•—•˜ƒŽ‘”‡•ƒ„•‘Ž—–‘•ǡ“—‡†ƒ†‘‡Ž  ǣ‹˜‹•‹‘‡•Ǥ
| 2 * sq
=
”‡•—Ž–ƒ†‘†‡•‹‰‘‡‰ƒ–‹˜‘Ǥ 
| rt2/
–a q
 ƒǤ ͷ͸ǣʹൌʹͺ s
1. |
I =
2/P
ƒ„Žƒ”‡•—‡ሺ•‹”˜‡’ƒ”ƒŽƒ—Ž–‹’Ž‹…ƒ…‹×›Žƒ†‹˜‹•‹×ሻ 
 „Ǥ ሺ–ͷͷሻǣሺ–ͳͳሻൌͷ

‹‰‘†‡Ž”‘†—…–‘‘

|≥
…Ǥ ͳͲͲǣሺ–ͷͲሻൌ–ʹ 0
a
‹‰‘ ൈ ‹‰‘  ”‡•—Ž–ƒ†‘†‡Žƒ
—Ž–‹’Ž‹…ƒ…‹×


2. |
†Ǥ –͵ͺͷǣͷൌ–͹͹

൅ ∙ ൅ ൌ ൅  ǣŒ‡”…‹…‹‘•…‘„‹ƒ†‘•ሺ∙›ǣሻǤ

– ∙ – ൌ ൅ ƒǤ ሺ͹ʹǣͺሻ∙ሺ–Ͷͻǣሺ–͹ሻሻൌ
ͻ∙͹ൌ͸͵

൅ ∙ – ൌ –
„Ǥ ͳͺǣሺ–ʹሻǣሺ–ͳሻ∙ሺ–ͳͲͲሻൌ
–ͻǣሺ–ͳሻ∙ሺ–ͳͲͲሻൌ
– ∙ ൅ ൌ – ͻ∙ሺ–ͳͲͲሻൌ–ͻͲͲ
 



Œ‡”…‹…‹‘•…‘„‹ƒ†‘•  ǣ
 
ƒ”ƒ †‡•ƒ””‘ŽŽƒ” ‡Œ‡”…‹…‹‘• …‘„‹ƒ†‘• †‡ ”‘• ƒǤ ሺ–͵͸ሻǣͻ൅ሺ–ʹͷሻ∙͹ൌ
–‡”‘•›ǡ ‡‰‡‡”ƒŽǡ†‡…—ƒŽ“—‹‡”…‘Œ—–‘ —±”‹…‘ǡ ‡• –Ͷ൅ሺ–ͳ͹ͷሻൌ–ͳ͹ͻ
‹’”‡•…‹†‹„Ž‡ “—‡ ”‡•’‡–‡‘• ‡Ž •‹‰—‹‡–‡ ‘”†‡ †‡ 
’”‹‘”‹†ƒ†ǣ „Ǥ –͹Ͳ൅͵∙ሾʹͷ൅ሺ–ͳ͸ǣͶሻሿ൅ሾʹͺǣሺ–͹ሻሿൌ
 –͹Ͳ൅͵∙ሾʹͷ൅ሺ–Ͷሻሿ൅ሺ–Ͷሻൌ
Ǥ ‡”‡•—‡Ž˜‡Ž‘•’ƒ”±–‡•‹•Ǥ –͹Ͳ൅͵∙ʹͳ൅ሺ–Ͷሻൌ
Ǥ ‡”‡•—‡Ž˜‡Žƒ•—Ž–‹’Ž‹…ƒ…‹‘‡•›Ȁ‘†‹˜‹•‹‘‡•Ǥ –͹Ͳ൅͸͵൅ሺ–Ͷሻൌ
Ǥ ‡”‡•—‡Ž˜‡Žƒ••—ƒ•›Ȁ‘”‡•–ƒ•Ǥ –͹൅ሺ–Ͷሻൌ–ͳͳ
 
‘–ƒǣ‡Ž•‹‰‘†‡—Ž–‹’Ž‹…ƒ…‹×‘•‡†‹„—Œƒ…—ƒ†‘Žƒ …Ǥ ͺሺ͸൅ͳͷሻൌ
‘’‡”ƒ…‹×‡•–žƒ–‡•†‡—’ƒ”±–‡•‹•Ǥ ͺ∙ʹͳൌͳ͸ͺ




 

14
4 x+ 1)
ma( 2
Gam 1d
|a | – |b (½ ) d
b | ≥
|a – NT -P
r / n)
(1 +
B =A t ( x - 1) d
t
e -rt
   V
inf)


to
al) (0 —Ž–‹’Ž‹…‘ǡƒ’Ž‹…ƒ†‘Žƒ”‡‰Žƒ†‡Ž‘••‹‰‘•ǣ
ƒǤ ʹ͵∙Ͷͷൌ
c
„Ǥ ሺ–ͳʹͲሻ∙ሺ–ͷͲሻൌ
/2 * ...
…Ǥ ͵ͷ∙ሺ–ͻሻൌ
2 )))
†Ǥ ሺ–͸Ͳሻ∙ͺͺൌ + sqrt
rt (2
t ‡Ǥ ( sq
ሺ–͹ሻ∙ሺ–ͳʹሻ∙ሺ–ͷሻൌ
(2 +
* sqrt
ˆǤ
ሾͷͲ∙ሺ–͵ሻሿ∙ሺ–ͶͲሻ∙ͳ͸ൌ
)/2
rt2


2 + sq 

qrt(
‹˜‹†‘ǡƒ’Ž‹…ƒ†‘Žƒ”‡‰Žƒ†‡Ž‘••‹‰‘•ǣ
ƒǤ ͶʹͲǣʹͲൌ
„Ǥ ሺ–͵͸ሻǣሺ–ͻሻൌ
…Ǥ ͳͺͷǣሺ–ͷሻൌ
†Ǥ –͹ͷǣሺ–͵ሻൌ
‡Ǥ ሾͶͺǣሺ–͸ሻሿǣሾ–ͳͺǣሺ–ͻሻሿൌ
ˆǤ ͳͲͲ∙ሺ–Ͷሻǣሺ–ͳͲሻǣሺ–ͳሻൌ


‡•—‡Ž˜‘‡Ž•‹‰—‹‡–‡’”‘„Ž‡ƒǣ†”‡ƒƒ—‡–ׇ‡Ž–”‹’Ž‡•—†‡—†ƒǤ‹‹‹…‹ƒŽ‡–‡•—†‡—†ƒ‡”ƒ†‡̈́ͳͲǤͲͲͲǡ‡–‘…‡•ǣ

ƒǤ š’”‡•‘†‡ˆ‘”ƒ—±”‹…ƒ›”‡•—‡Ž˜‘Ǥ̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴


„Ǥ Ǭ…—ž–‘•—„‡•—†‡—†ƒǫ̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴




‡•—‡Ž˜‘Ž‘••‹‰—‹‡–‡•‡Œ‡”…‹…‹‘•…‘„‹ƒ†‘•ǣ
ƒǤ ͺͺ–͸͵ǣͻൌ


„Ǥ –͵͸∙ሺ–͸ሻ–ͷൌ


…Ǥ ʹͲͲǣሺ–ͳͲሻ–ሾ–ͺ൅ͳ͸–ሺ–Ͷሻሿൌ


†Ǥ –ͷሾͳʹǣሺ–Ͷሻ൅ͳͷǣ͵ሿൌ


‡Ǥ ሺʹͷǣͷ൅͵ͺǣሺ–ʹሻሻ൅ʹሺͻ–ͳͲሻൌ


ˆǤ –ሾ͵Ͷ–ሺ–ͳʹǣͶ൅͹ǣሺ–͹ሻሻሿ൅ͶͲͲǣͳͲͲൌ




 

15
LU T E /3 )b
A BSO ra mi d = (1
py
2r 3
r 1 r
pi
Programa de Apoyo Integral para Estudiantes Nuevos
)
(4/3 0
5 0 ,00
L = B
AȀ 


”‘•”ƒ…‹‘ƒŽ‡• ‡’”‡•‡–ƒ…‹×—±”‹…ƒǣƒ•ˆ”ƒ……‹‘‡••‡’—‡†‡”‡’”‡•‡–ƒ”†‡–”‡•ˆ‘”ƒ•ǣ
a
e rt egr

• ‡Ž …‘Œ—–‘ †‡ –‘†‘• Ž‘• ï‡”‘• i nt
”ƒ……‹‘‡•”‘’‹ƒ•ǣ
C x(
=r
P=
“—‡’—‡†‡‡•…”‹„‹”•‡†‡Žƒˆ‘”ƒǣ
x)
‘ ƒ“—‡ŽŽƒ• ‡ Žƒ• “—‡ ‡Ž ˜ƒŽ‘” ƒ„•‘Ž—–‘ †‡Ž —‡”ƒ†‘” ‡•  ƒŽ ˜ƒŽ‘”

a ƒ„•‘Ž—–‘†‡Ž†‡‘‹ƒ†‘”Ǥ ma(
 2 1 13
 ǣ  ǡ ǡ ǡ‡–…Ǥ
Gam
b
t
5 15 65

00 r)


‘†‡ƒ›„•‘ï‡”‘•‡–‡”‘•ǡ›„ ”ƒ……‹‘‡• ’”‘’‹ƒ•ǣ
5 , 0 +
V =
‡• — ï‡”‘ †‹•–‹–‘ †‡ …‡”‘Ǥ ‡ ‘ ƒ“—‡ŽŽƒ• ‡ Žƒ• “—‡ ‡Ž ˜ƒŽ‘” ƒ„•‘Ž—–‘ †‡Ž —‡”ƒ†‘” ‡•  ƒŽ ˜ƒŽ‘”
C (1
P=
”‡’”‡•‡–ƒ…‘ŽƒŽ‡–”ƒℚǤ ƒ„•‘Ž—–‘†‡Ž†‡‘‹ƒ†‘”Ǥ
 8 17 432
 ƒ“—‡ŽŽƒ• ˆ‘”ƒ• —±”‹…ƒ• •‡ Ž‡•  ǣ  ǡ ǡ Ǥ–…Ǥ

a| * sq
5 4 15
ŽŽƒƒ …‘ï‡–‡  ǡ 
| = | 2/2
sqrt
–a
†‘†‡ƒ‡•ŽŽƒƒ†‘—‡”ƒ†‘”ǡ›„‡• ”‘•‹š–‘•ǣ

1. |
ŽŽƒƒ†‘†‡‘‹ƒ†‘”Ǥ ‘ƒ“—‡ŽŽ‘•“—‡‡•–ž…‘’—‡•–‘•’‘”ï‡”‘•‡–‡”‘•›ˆ”ƒ……‹‘‡•’”‘’‹ƒ•Ǥ I =
 1 2 8 2/P
 ǣ ͵ ǡ 6 ǡ10 ǡ‡–…Ǥ
2 7 9


|≥ 0
a

  l
2. |


‹’Ž‹ˆ‹…ƒ…‹×  ǣ
‘””‡•’‘†‡ƒŽƒƒ……‹×†‡”‡†—…‹”—ƒ 30
‡š’”‡•‹× ˆ”ƒ……‹‘ƒ”‹ƒ †‹˜‹†‹‡†‘ ‹’Ž‹ˆ‹“—‡‘•Žƒˆ”ƒ……‹×
Ǥ‘‘͵Ͳ›ͳͺ–‹‡‡—†‹˜‹•‘”…‘ï“—‡‡•‡Žʹǡ
18
—‡”ƒ†‘” › †‡‘‹ƒ†‘” ’‘” ƒŽ‰ï †‹˜‹†‹‘•—‡”ƒ†‘”›†‡‘‹ƒ†‘”’‘”‡•‡˜ƒŽ‘”ǡ‡•†‡…‹”ǣ
†‹˜‹•‘”…‘ï‡–”‡‡ŽŽ‘•Ǥ
30 ∶ 2 15
 = 
 18 ∶ 2 9
 ‘‘ ’‘†‡‘• ˜‡”ǡ ‡ Žƒ ˆ”ƒ……‹× ”‡•—Ž–ƒ–‡ǡ ‡Ž —‡”ƒ†‘” › ‡Ž †‡‘‹ƒ†‘”
 –‹‡‡—‡˜ƒ‡–‡—†‹˜‹•‘”…‘ïǡ“—‡‡‡•–‡…ƒ•‘‡•’”‡…‹•ƒ‡–‡‡Ž͵ǡ’‘”
 Ž‘–ƒ–‘ǡ‡•’‘•‹„Ž‡˜‘Ž˜‡”ƒ•‹’Ž‹ˆ‹…ƒ”ǣ
 15 ∶ 3 5
 = 
 9∶3 3
 ‘‘›ƒ‘•‡’—‡†‡˜‘Ž˜‡”ƒ•‹’Ž‹ˆ‹…ƒ”ǡ‡•†‡…‹”ǡ‡Žͷ›‡Ž͵‘–‹‡‡†‹˜‹•‘”‡•
 …‘—‡•ǡŽƒˆ”ƒ……‹×”‡•—Ž–ƒ–‡‡•ŽŽƒƒ†ƒ  Ǥ‡ˆ‡…–‘ǡ•‹Žƒˆ”ƒ……‹×
 ‘”‹‰‹ƒŽ •‡ •‹’Ž‹ˆ‹…ƒ †‹”‡…–ƒ‡–‡ ’‘” ͸ǡ •‡ ŽŽ‡‰ƒ ƒ Žƒ ‹•ƒ ”ƒ……‹×
 ””‡†—…–‹„Ž‡ǣ
 30 ∶ 6 5
= 
 18 ∶ 6 3
 



’Ž‹ˆ‹…ƒ…‹×  ǣ
• ‡Ž ’”‘…‡•‘ “—‡ …‘•‹•–‡ ‡ 4
—Ž–‹’Ž‹…ƒ”—‡”ƒ†‘”›†‡‘‹ƒ†‘” ’Ž‹ˆ‹“—‡‘•Žƒˆ”ƒ……‹×9’‘”͹ǡ‡•†‡…‹”ǣ
’‘”—‹•‘˜ƒŽ‘”‡–‡”‘Ǥ•—›Ž 4 ∙ 7 28
’ƒ”ƒ‡…‘–”ƒ”ˆ”ƒ……‹‘‡•‡“—‹˜ƒŽ‡–‡• = 
9 ∙ 7 63
ƒ—ƒˆ”ƒ……‹×†ƒ†ƒǤ 4 28
‘†‡ › …‘””‡•’‘†‡ƒ†‘•ˆ”ƒ……‹‘‡•‡“—‹˜ƒŽ‡–‡•Ǥ
9 63




 

16
4 x+ 1)
ma( 2
Gam 1d
|a | – |b ( ½ ) d
b | ≥
|a – NT -P
r / n)
(1 +
B =A x-1 ) dt
-r tt(
   V
e
o i nf)


0 t
al)( ‘’Ž‡–‘Žƒ•‹‰—‹‡–‡–ƒ„Žƒǡ‹†‹…ƒ†‘‡Ž‹’‘ሺ”‘’‹ƒ‘ ’”‘’‹ƒሻ›•‹‡• ’”‘’‹ƒǡ•—”‡’”‡•‡–ƒ…‹×‹š–ƒǣ

c
* ...
š’”‡•‹×
”ƒ……‹× ‹’‘
/2
)))
‹š–ƒ
15 sqrt2
2+   

t ( s qrt( 4

(2 + 23
sqrt
−   
* 20
)/2
rt2 11
2 + sq 33
  
qrt( 47
  
15
51
−   
171
30
  
73
85
  
34
8
  
146
36
−   
111
7
−   
3

’Ž‹ˆ‹…‘Žƒ••‹‰—‹‡–‡•ˆ”ƒ……‹‘‡•ǡ’‘”‡Žï‡”‘“—‡•‡‹†‹…ƒǣ

3
ƒǤ ’‘”ͳͲ
7

− 13
„Ǥ ’‘”ͷ
12

8
…Ǥ ’‘”–͸
11


‹’Ž‹ˆ‹…‘ǡŠƒ•–ƒŽŽ‡‰ƒ”ƒŽƒˆ”ƒ……‹×‹””‡†—…–‹„Ž‡ǣ

300
ƒǤ =
200

35
„Ǥ =
45

3550
…Ǥ =
1252


 

17
LU T E /3 )b
A BSO ra mi d = (1
py
2r 3
r 1 r
pi
Programa de Apoyo Integral para Estudiantes Nuevos
)
(4/3 0
5 0 ,00
L = B
AȀ 


”ƒ•ˆ‘”ƒ…‹×†‡  V   ǣ


a
e rt egr
 
i nt
ƒ”ƒ –”ƒ•ˆ‘”ƒ” — ï‡”‘ ˆ”ƒ……‹‘ƒ”‹‘ ‡ ‡…‹ƒŽ ‹‹–‘
C x(
=r
P=
ï‡”‘†‡…‹ƒŽǡ•‡†‡„‡†‹˜‹†‹”‡Ž—‡”ƒ†‘”…‘ 
x)
ma(
25
‡Ž †‡‘‹ƒ†‘”ǡ ‘„–‡‹±†‘•‡ —‘ †‡ Ž‘• = 25 ∶ 4 = 6,25
Gam
4
•‹‰—‹‡–‡•–”‡•–‹’‘•†‡ï‡”‘•†‡…‹ƒŽ‡•ǣ


‡…‹ƒŽ ˆ‹‹–‘‡”‹×†‹…‘

‡…‹ƒŽ ‹‹–‘
 
0 00 r) t
, +
7
 3
= 7 ∶ 3 = 2,33333333 … = 2, 3̅

V

= 5 A͵
(1
‡…‹ƒŽ ˆ‹‹–‘‡”‹×†‹…‘ 
C
P=
 ‡…‹ƒŽ ˆ‹‹–‘‡‹–’‡”‹×†‹…‘
‡…‹ƒŽ ˆ‹‹–‘‡‹–’‡”‹×†‹…‘ 

|
15
̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅
* sq

a
= 1,07142857142857 … = 1,0714285 A͹ͳͶʹͺͷ

14
  
| = | 
 AͲ
rt2/
2
–a s q
1. |

I =
 2/P
”ƒ•ˆ‘”ƒ…‹×†‡   V  ǣ

|≥ 0
a
 
‡…‹ƒŽ ‹‹–‘ƒ ”ƒ……‹×
•–‡ •‡ ‘„–‹‡‡ …‘Ž‘…ƒ†‘ǡ …‘‘ —‡”ƒ†‘”ǡ Žƒ

ͳǤ 0,36 =
36
100 2.
=
|9
25
…‹ˆ”ƒ†‡…‹ƒŽǡ•‹…‘ƒǡ›…‘‘†‡‘‹ƒ†‘”—ƒ 
’‘–‡…‹ƒ†‡ͳͲሺͳͲǡͳͲͲǡͳǤͲͲͲǡ‡–…Ǥሻ†‡ƒ…—‡”†‘ƒŽƒ ʹǤ 2, 1432 =
21.432 ∶ 8
=
2.679

…ƒ–‹†ƒ† †‡ †À‰‹–‘• “—‡ –‡‰ƒ ‡Ž †‡…‹ƒŽǡ Ž—‡‰‘ 10.000 ∶ 8 1.250

•‹’Ž‹ˆ‹…ƒ”•‹‡•’‘•‹„Ž‡Ǥ 
35 7
 ͵Ǥ − 3,5 = − = − 
10 2
 

‡…‹ƒŽ ˆ‹‹–‘‡”‹×†‹…‘ƒ ”ƒ……‹× 


6−0 6 2
•–‡ •‡ ‘„–‹‡‡ …‘Ž‘…ƒ†‘ǡ …‘‘ —‡”ƒ†‘”ǡ Žƒ ͳǤ Ͳǡ͸͸͸͸͸͸͸͸ǤǤൌ0, 6̅ = = = 
9 9 3
…‹ˆ”ƒ †‡…‹ƒŽǡ •‹ …‘ƒǡ ‡‘• Ž‘• ï‡”‘• “—‡ 
‡•–ž ƒ–‡• †‡Ž ’‡”À‘†‘ǡ › …‘‘ †‡‘‹ƒ†‘” ʹǤ ̅̅̅̅ = 148 −1 = 147
1,484848 … = 1, 48
–ƒ–‘•ï‡”‘•“ͻ”ǡ…‘‘†À‰‹–‘•–‡‰ƒ‡Ž†‡…‹ƒŽǡ 99 99

Ž—‡‰‘•‹’Ž‹ˆ‹…ƒ”•‹‡•’‘•‹„Ž‡Ǥ 
5.123−5 5.118 1.706
 ͵Ǥ −5,123123123 … = −5, ̅̅̅̅̅
123 = − =− =− 
999 999 333
 

 
‡…‹ƒŽ ˆ‹‹–‘‡‹–’‡”‹×†‹…‘ƒ ”ƒ……‹× 
36 −03 33 11
•–‡ •‡ ‘„–‹‡‡ …‘Ž‘…ƒ†‘ǡ …‘‘ —‡”ƒ†‘”ǡ Žƒ ͳǤ 0,366666666 … = 0,36̅ = = = 
90 90 30
…‹ˆ”ƒ †‡…‹ƒŽǡ •‹ …‘ƒǡ ‡‘• Ž‘• ï‡”‘• “—‡ 
‡•–ž ƒ–‡• †‡Ž ’‡”À‘†‘ǡ › …‘‘ †‡‘‹ƒ†‘” ʹǤ −10,190909090909 … = −10,190 ̅̅̅̅ = − 10.190−101 = − 10.089 =
–ƒ–‘• “ͻ”, …‘‘ †À‰‹–‘• –‡‰ƒ ‡Ž ’‡”À‘†‘ › –ƒ–‘• 1.121
990 990

“Ͳ”, …‘‘ †À‰‹–‘• –‡‰ƒ ‡Ž ƒ–‡’‡”À‘†‘ʹǡ  Ž—‡‰‘ − 


110
•‹’Ž‹ˆ‹…ƒ”•‹‡•’‘•‹„Ž‡Ǥ 



 

ʹ‘””‡•’‘†‡ƒƒ“—‡ŽŽ‘•†À‰‹–‘•“—‡‡•–ž‡–”‡Žƒ…‘ƒ›‡Ž’‡”À‘†‘Ǥ

18
4 x+ 1)
ma( 2
Gam 1d
|a | – |b ( ½ ) d
b | ≥
|a – NT -P
r / n)
(1 +
B =A ( x - 1) d
t
rt t
) e-
   V

to inf 

al) (0 ‘’Ž‡–‘Žƒ•‹‰—‹‡–‡–ƒ„Žƒǡ‹†‹…ƒ†‘Ž‘•‘Ž‹…‹–ƒ†‘ǣ

‘”ƒ
‹’‘†‡ˆ”ƒ……‹× ...c
‘”ƒ
*†‡…‹ƒŽ ‹’‘†‡†‡…‹ƒŽ
/2
)))
ˆ”ƒ……‹‘ƒ”‹ƒ
2
+ sqrt
2
qrt (2
t
   
+(s
5
(2
* sqrt
) /2
rt2   12,45 
2 + sq
qrt(
−1
   
3

  0, 36363636 … 

5
−2    
6

  −2,017777 … 

13
   
7

  −18,444444 … 

11
−    
15

  0,119999999 … 






 

19
LU T E /3 )b
A BSO ra mi d = (1
py
2r 3
r 1 r
pi
Programa de Apoyo Integral para Estudiantes Nuevos
)
(4/3 0
5 0 ,00
L = B

AȀ 

a
—ƒȀ‡•–ƒ†‡ï‡”‘•”ƒ…‹‘ƒŽ‡•  ǣ
C e rt =r
x( i ntegr

P=
 
x)
ma(
ƒ”ƒ ”‡•‘Ž˜‡” —ƒ •—ƒ ‘ —ƒ ”‡•–ƒ †‡ ï‡”‘• 
”ƒ…‹‘ƒŽ‡•ǡ ’‘†‡‘• …‘•‹†‡”ƒ” Žƒ• •‹‰—‹‡–‡• †‘•
‹•–ƒ…‹ƒ•ǣ


Gam
 
0 00 r) t
ƒ •—ƒ ‘ ”‡•–ƒ †‡ ï‡”‘• ”ƒ…‹‘ƒŽ‡• …‘ —
†‡‘‹ƒ†‘” …‘ïǡ ‡• — ï‡”‘ ”ƒ…‹‘ƒŽ …—›‘
ƒǤ
= 5 ,
5 9 5+8 13
(1 +
V + = = 
C
P=
—‡”ƒ†‘” ‡• Žƒ •—ƒ ‘ ”‡•–ƒ †‡ Ž‘• —‡”ƒ†‘”‡• › 7 7 7 7
…—›‘ †‡‘‹ƒ†‘” ‡• ‡Ž †‡‘‹ƒ†‘” …‘ïǡ …‘‘ 
ƒ’ƒ”‡…‡‡Ž‘•‡Œ‡’Ž‘•ƒ›„ǣ 
 „Ǥ
= | a| rt2/
2 * sq
 
–12 a3 | s q
1. | 5 − 5 = 5 = 5 = 2
 12 − 2 10 I =
 2/P
 




| ≥ 0
a
2. | 54 + 75 − 152 =


ƒ •—ƒ ‘ ”‡•–ƒ †‡ ï‡”‘• ”ƒ…‹‘ƒŽ‡• …‘ †‹•–‹–‘ …Ǥ


†‡‘‹ƒ†‘”Ǥ ƒ”ƒ ‡•–‘• …ƒ•‘•ǡ ’”‹‡”‘ †‡„‡‘•
…ƒŽ…—Žƒ” ‡Ž À‹‘ ‘ï ‹’Ž‘ ሺሻ †‡ Ž‘•
†‡‘‹ƒ†‘”‡•Ǥ 
 
‡–‡”‹ƒ‘•‡Ž…—‘…‹‡–‡‡–”‡…ƒ†ƒ†‡‘‹ƒ†‘”› ‡–‡”‹ƒ‘•‡Ž‡–”‡Ž‘•†‡‘‹ƒ†‘”‡•Ͷǡͷ›ʹ
‡Ž Ǥ Ž ”‡•—Ž–ƒ†‘ Ž‘ —Ž–‹’Ž‹…ƒ‘• ’‘” ‡Ž 
—‡”ƒ†‘” †‡ ‡•ƒ ˆ”ƒ……‹× › Ž‘ …‘Ž‘…ƒ‘• ‡ Žƒ Ͷ ǣʹ  ͷ ǣͷ  ʹ ǣʹ
ˆ”ƒ……‹×”‡•—Ž–ƒ†‘ǡ…‘‘ƒ’ƒ”‡…‡‡‡Ž‡Œ‡’Ž‘…ǣ ʹ ǣʹ  ͳ   ͳ 
 ͳ       
 
 ൌʹ∙ʹ∙ͷൌʹʹ∙ͷൌʹͲ
 
 ‘”Ž‘–ƒ–‘ǡ
 
 5 7 15 25 28 150 53 − 150 −97
 + − = + − = = 
4 5 2 20 20 20 20 20
 
 
 
 
 
ƒ› …ƒ•‘• †‘†‡ ‡Ž  …‘””‡•’‘†‡ ƒŽ ’”‘†—…–‘ †Ǥ
‡šƒ…–‘†‡Ž‘•†‡‘‹ƒ†‘”‡•Ǥ•‘•‡’”‘†—…‡’‘”“—‡ 7 6 7 ∙ 5 6 ∙ 3 35 18 53
         + = + = + = 
3 5 3 ∙ 5 5 ∙ 3 15 15 15
 ǡ‘  ǡ…‘‘ 
ƒ’ƒ”‡…‡‡‡Ž‡Œ‡’Ž‘†ǣ 

‘–ƒǣŽ‘•ï‡”‘•”ƒ…‹‘ƒŽ‡•›Žƒ‘’‡”ƒ–‘”‹ƒ†‡•—ƒǡ
…—’Ž‡…‘Žƒ•‹•ƒ•’”‘’‹‡†ƒ†‡•“—‡Žƒ•—ƒ†‡
ï‡”‘•‡–‡”‘•Ǥ




 

20
4 x+ 1)
ma( 2
Gam 1d
|a | – |b (½ ) d
b | ≥
|a – NT -P
r / n)
(1 +
B =A x-1 ) dt
 e -r tt(
i n )
f   V
0 to
al)(


—‘‘”‡•–‘ǡ•‡‰ï…‘””‡•’‘†ƒǣ
c

/2 * ...

2)))
sqrt
3 7 1
ƒǤ + + =
4 4 4
2 +
t

( s qrt(
 +
 s q rt(2
−*
„Ǥ2 )/2
−7 17
+ =
r
sq t 20 20

2+
qrt( 

18 7
…Ǥ − =
8 8



−15 3 1
†Ǥ − − =
17 17 17



25 (−17) 4
‡Ǥ + − =
9 9 9



2 1
ˆǤ + =
5 10



−5 (−3) 9
‰Ǥ + − =
4 12 6



3 5 −4 −3
ŠǤ [ − ] + [ + ] =
5 3 15 5



3 2
‹Ǥ 2 + =
7 5



17 3 −7
ŒǤ (−45 − )+5 + =
3 4 8






 

21
LU T E /3 )b
A BSO ra mi d = (1
py
2r 3
r 1 r
pi
Programa de Apoyo Integral para Estudiantes Nuevos
)
(4/3 0
5 0 ,00
L = B
AȀ 


—Ž–‹’Ž‹…ƒ…‹×†‡ï‡”‘•”ƒ…‹‘ƒŽ‡•  ǣ
a
e rt egr

ƒ—Ž–‹’Ž‹…ƒ…‹×†‡ï‡”‘•”ƒ…‹‘ƒŽ‡•ǡ‡•—ï‡”‘”ƒ…‹‘ƒŽǡ
i nt
C
ƒǤ
x(
…—›‘ —‡”ƒ†‘” ‡• ‡Ž ’”‘†—…–‘ †‡ Ž‘• —‡”ƒ†‘”‡• › …—›‘
=r
P=
4 6 4 ∙ 6 24
x)
ma(
†‡‘‹ƒ†‘”‡•‡Ž’”‘†—…–‘†‡Ž‘•†‡‘‹ƒ†‘”‡•ǡ…‘‘ƒ’ƒ”‡…‡ ∙ = = 
5 5 5 ∙ 5 25
Gam
‡Ž‘•‡Œ‡’Ž‘•ƒǡ„›…ǣ 
 „Ǥ
a c a∙c
∙ =
b d b∙d


0
−2 7
00 ∙ =
−2 ∙ 7
=
−14

r) t


= 5 , 3 12 3 ∙ 12 36

(1 +
‹˜‹•‹×†‡ï‡”‘•”ƒ…‹‘ƒŽ‡•
V
…Ǥ
C
ƒ †‹˜‹•‹× †‡ †‘• ï‡”‘• ”ƒ…‹‘ƒŽ‡• •‡ †‡ˆ‹‡ †‡ Žƒ •‹‰—‹‡–‡
ƒ‡”ƒǣ
7
12
∙ 15 ∙
25
16
=
12 ∙ 16
=P=
7 ∙ 15 ∙ 25 2.625
192


a| * sq
 
a c a d a∙d
: = ∙ = 
†Ǥ
| = | rt2/
2
–a q
12 9 12 5 60
b d b c b∙c s
1. |
∶ = ∙ =  I =
2/P
 5 5 5 9 45

 •À–‡•‹•ǡ Žƒ †‹˜‹•‹× •‡ ’—‡†‡ ”‡’”‡•‡–ƒ”ǡ ‡“—‹˜ƒŽ‡–‡‡–‡ǡ
‡Ǥ
0
…‘‘‡Ž’”‘†—…–‘†‡Ž†‹˜‹†‡†‘’‘”‡Ž‹˜‡”•‘—Ž–‹’Ž‹…ƒ–‹˜‘†‡Ž 21 1 21 16 (−1) −336 −21
|≥
†‹˜‹•‘”ǡ…‘‘ƒ’ƒ”‡…‡‡Ž‘•‡Œ‡’Ž‘•†›‡ǣ ∶ ∶ (−4) = ∙ ∙ = = 
| a 8 16 8 1 4 32 2

2.


‘–ƒǣ Ž‘• ï‡”‘• ”ƒ…‹‘ƒŽ‡• › Žƒ ‘’‡”ƒ–‘”‹ƒ †‡ —Ž–‹’Ž‹…ƒ…‹×
…—’Ž‡ …‘ Žƒ• ‹•ƒ• ’”‘’‹‡†ƒ†‡• “—‡ Žƒ —Ž–‹’Ž‹…ƒ…‹× †‡
ï‡”‘•‡–‡”‘•Ǥ


—ƒ›”‡•–ƒ†‡ï‡”‘•”ƒ…‹‘ƒŽ‡•‡š’”‡•ƒ†‘•‡Žƒˆ‘”ƒ  ǣ

†‡…‹ƒŽ
ƒǤ
 45.612,459
ƒ–‘‡Žƒ•—ƒ…‘‘‡Žƒ”‡•–ƒ†‡ï‡”‘•†‡…‹ƒŽ‡•ǡ•‡ + 3.906,092
†‡„‡”‡•’‡–ƒ”Žƒ’‘•‹…‹×†‡Ž‘•†À‰‹–‘•, colocando “la coma 49.518,551
bajo la coma” y luego sumar o restar, según corresponda, „Ǥ
…‘‘•‡Šƒ…‡…‘Ž‘•ï‡”‘•ƒ–—”ƒŽ‡•Ǥ 578,068
−145,781 
432,287

—Ž–‹’Ž‹…ƒ…‹×†‡ï‡”‘•†‡…‹ƒŽ‡•  ǣ
 

ƒ”ƒ —Ž–‹’Ž‹…ƒ” ï‡”‘• †‡…‹ƒŽ‡•ǡ •‡ †‡„‡ —Ž–‹’Ž‹…ƒ” ͵Ͷ͸ǡʹ͵  ͸ǡͶ


igual que los números enteros, sólo que acá se “ignora” las ͳ͵ͺͶͻʹ
…‘ƒ•›‡‡Ž”‡•—Ž–ƒ†‘ˆ‹ƒŽǡ•‡…‘Ž‘…ƒŽƒ…‘ƒǡ…‘–ƒ†‘†‡ ʹͲ͹͹͵ͺ 
†‡”‡…Šƒ ƒ ‹œ“—‹‡”†ƒǡ –ƒ–‘• Ž—‰ƒ”‡• …‘‘ †À‰‹–‘• Šƒ›ƒ ʹǤʹͳͷǡͺ͹ʹ
†‡•’—±•†ƒŽƒ•…‘ƒ•Ǥ

‹˜‹•‹×†‡ï‡”‘•†‡…‹ƒŽ‡•  ǣ
 
ƒ”ƒ†‹˜‹†‹”ï‡”‘•†‡…‹ƒŽ‡••‡†‡„‡‹‰—ƒŽƒ”Žƒ…ƒ–‹†ƒ† ͳǤ ʹǡ͸ǣʹൌ
†‡ …‹ˆ”ƒ• †‡…‹ƒŽ‡• ሺ†‡•’—±• †‡ Žƒ ‘ Žƒ• …‘ƒ•ሻ › Ž—‡‰‘ ʹǡ͸ǣʹǡͲൌ
ƒ’Ž‹ˆ‹…ƒ”’‘”—ƒ’‘–‡…‹ƒ†‡ͳͲሺͳͲǡͳͲͲǡͳǤͲͲͲǡ‡–…ሻ’ƒ”ƒ ʹ͸ǣʹͲൌͳǡ͵

–”ƒ•ˆ‘”ƒ” Ž‘• †‡…‹ƒŽ‡• ‡ ï‡”‘• ‡–‡”‘•Ǥ —‡‰‘ǡ •‡
ʹǤ ͶͷǣͲǡͻൌ
†‹˜‹†‡†‡Ž‹•‘‘†‘“—‡…‘Ž‘•ï‡”‘•‡–‡”‘•Ǥ
ͶͷǡͲǣͲǡͻൌ

ͶͷͲǣͻൌͷͲ
 

 „Ǥ ʹǡͶ͸ǣͳǡʹൌ
 ʹǡͶ͸ǣͳǡʹͲൌ
 ʹͶ͸ǣͳʹͲൌʹǡͲͷ
 
 

22
4 x+ 1)
ma( 2
Gam 1d
|a | – |b (½ ) d
b | ≥
|a – NT -P
r / n)
(1 +
B =A ( x - 1) d
t
tt
e -r   V
inf)


to
al) (0 —Ž–‹’Ž‹…‘›•‹’Ž‹ˆ‹…‘ǡ•‹‡•’‘•‹„Ž‡ǣ

5 28
ƒǤ  ∙ ൌ
c
* ...
7 15

/2
)))
−3 10 6
„Ǥ ∙ ∙ =
2
sqrt
8 17 15

…Ǥ 2
3

(−5)

(−26)
=
(2 +
t qrt
5 3 12


( 2 +(s
r t
* sq
‹˜‹†‘›•‹’Ž‹ˆ‹…‘ǡ•‹‡•’‘•‹„Ž‡ǣ

2 )/2ƒǤ 18 : 4 ൌ
+ sqrt 7 5

qrt (2 „Ǥ 5∶
7
=
8
−4 1
…Ǥ ∶3 =
11 5
5 4 9
†Ǥ ∶ : =
4 5 10


‡•—‡Ž˜‘‡Œ‡”…‹…‹‘•…‘‘’‡”ƒ–‘”‹ƒ…‘„‹ƒ†ƒǣ

2 14 3
ƒǤ ∙ ∶ =
7 32 4
9 (−2)
„Ǥ 2∶ + =
5 5
7 3 6
…Ǥ [ − ]∶ =
4 8 12
9 7 1 2
†Ǥ ∙2− [ + 5 ] =
14 12 5 3




—‘›Ȁ‘”‡•–‘•‡‰ï…‘””‡•’‘†ƒǣ
ƒǤ ʹǤͶͷ͵ǡ͸͹൅͹ͷ͸ǡ͵ʹʹ͸ൌ
„Ǥ Ͳǡ͵͹ͺ൅ͻͲǡ͵ͷ͹ͳൌ
…Ǥ ͵ʹͳǡ͵൅ͶǤͷ͸ʹǡ͹ͺͻ൅͵ǡ͸ͷͳ͵ʹൌ
†Ǥ ͵ͷ͸ǡ͹ͺ–͵Ͷǡ͵͸ൌ
‡Ǥ ͵ǤͻͲͶǡͷͲ͹ͻ–ʹǤͶ͹ͳǡ͵͹͵ʹͲൌ
ˆǤ ʹ͵ǡͶ͸͹–ʹǤͷͳ͵ǡ͵Ͷͷൌ

—Ž–‹’Ž‹…‘Ž‘••‹‰—‹‡–‡•ï‡”‘•†‡…‹ƒŽ‡•ǣ
ƒǤ ͳͺͻǡ͵ͷ∙͵ͺൌ
„Ǥ ʹǤͻ͸͹ǡͲ͸∙ ͵ǡͶͷൌ
…Ǥ –ͳͻͺǡ͵ʹ∙ Ͳǡ͹ͷൌ

‹˜‹†‘Ž‘••‹‰—‹‡–‡•ï‡”‘•†‡…‹ƒŽ‡•ǣ
ƒǤ ʹͷǡͷǣͷൌ
„Ǥ ͺͶʹǣͲǡʹൌ
…Ǥ ʹ͵ǡͶͷǣʹǡͷൌ
†Ǥ ͻͺǡ͵ǣʹǡͷ͸ൌ

 

23
LU T E /3 )b
A BSO ra mi d = (1
py
2r 3
r 1 r
pi
Programa de Apoyo Integral para Estudiantes Nuevos
)
(4/3 0
5 0 ,00
L = B
AȀ 


ƒœ‘‡•  ǣ
a
e rt egr
 
i nt
•—ƒ”‡Žƒ…‹×‡–”‡†‘•‘ž•ƒ‰‹–—†‡•ǡ‡†‹ƒ–‡— Ž’ƒ†”‡Ž‡•‡–”‡‰ƒƒ•—•Š‹Œ‘•—–‘–ƒŽ†‡̈́ͷͺǤͲͲͲǡ›Ž‡•†‹…‡“—‡
C x(
=r
P=
…—‘…‹‡–‡Ǥ…ƒ•‘ †‡ “—‡Žƒ…‘’ƒ”ƒ…‹×•‡ƒ‡–”‡†‘• †‡„‡”ž†‹˜‹†‹”Ž‘‡”ƒœ×†‡•—•‡†ƒ†‡•Ǥ‹Ž‘•Š‹Œ‘•–‹‡‡ͳ͹›
x)
ƒ‰‹–—†‡•ǡ—ƒƒœ×‡•—ƒ‡š’”‡•‹×†‡Žƒˆ‘”ƒǣ ͳʹƒÓ‘•ǡǬ…—ž–‘”‡…‹„‹”ž…ƒ†ƒ—‘†‡‡ŽŽ‘•ǫ
ma(

a

Gam
–‘–ƒŽǡ‡Ž‘–‘•‡†‹˜‹†‹”ž‡ʹͻ’ƒ”–‡•ሺͳ͹൅ͳʹൌʹͻሻǡŽ‘“—‡

t


00
‹’Ž‹…ƒǣ

r)
b
0
$58.000

5 , +

= $2.000
‘†‡ ƒ ‡• ŽŽƒƒ†‘ ƒ–‡…‡†‡–‡ǡ › „ ‡• ŽŽƒƒ†‘ 
V = 29
C (1
P=
…‘•‡…—‡–‡Ǥ
 –‘…‡•…ƒ†ƒ’ƒ”–‡˜ƒŽ‡̈́ʹǤͲͲͲǡŽ‘“—‡•‹‰‹ˆ‹…ƒǣ
Ǥ Ž ”‡•—Ž–ƒ†‘ †‡ †‹˜‹†‹” ‡Ž ƒ–‡…‡†‡–‡ › ‡Ž Hijo (17) = 17 ∙ $2.000 = $34.000
…‘•‡…—‡–‡ǡ•‡Ž‡ŽŽƒƒ˜ƒŽ‘”†‡Žƒ”ƒœ×Ǥ Hijo (12) = 12 ∙ $2.000 = $24.000

= | a| rt2/
2 * sq
|


–a s q
1. | a c 
”‘’‘”…‹‘‡• I =
 ‡‘”‡ƒ —†ƒ‡–ƒŽ†‡Žƒ•”‘’‘”…‹‘‡•
2/P
ƒ’”‘’‘”…‹×…‘””‡•’‘†‡ƒŽƒ‹‰—ƒŽ†ƒ††‡†‘•”ƒœ‘‡•Ǥ

 0
ƒ … = ⟺ a ∙ d = b ∙ c

ƒ‡š’”‡•‹×  …‘””‡•’‘†‡ƒ—ƒ’”‘’‘”…‹×†‘†‡ b d
„ †
a |
2. | extremos”
„  †  Ͳ Ǥƒ›†•‘ŽŽƒƒ†‘•‡š–”‡‘•†‡Žƒ”‘’‘”…‹×ǡ “El producto de los medios es‹‰—ƒŽƒŽ’”‘†—…–‘†‡Ž‘•
‡…ƒ„‹‘„›…•‘ŽŽƒƒ†‘•‡†‹‘•†‡Žƒ”‘’‘”…‹×͵Ǥ



”‘’‘”…‹‘ƒŽ‹†ƒ†‹”‡…–ƒǤ  ǣ
‘• ƒ‰‹–—†‡• •‘ ‹”‡…–ƒ‡–‡ ƒǤ ƒ–ƒ„Žƒ”‡’”‡•‡–ƒ ƒ‰‹–—†‡•†‹”‡…–ƒ‡–‡’”‘’‘”…‹‘ƒŽ‡•ǡ…‘’Ž‡–ƒ…‘‡Ž
”‘’‘”…‹‘ƒŽ‡•ǡ •‹ …ƒ„‹ƒ ‡ ‡Ž ˜ƒŽ‘”“—‡ˆƒŽ–ƒ
‹•‘ •‡–‹†‘ǡ ‡•–‘ ‡•ǡ •‹ —ƒ 
˜ƒ”‹ƒ„Ž‡ ƒ—‡–ƒǡ Žƒ ‘–”ƒ –ƒ„‹± ͳͲ ʹͲ ͵Ͳ ›
ƒ—‡–ƒǡ‡Žƒ‹•ƒ’”‘’‘”…‹×Ǥ‡ ʹͲ š ͸Ͳ ͳͲͲ
Žƒ‹•ƒˆ‘”ƒǡ•‹—ƒ†‹•‹—›‡ǡŽƒ
‘–”ƒ–ƒ„‹±†‹•‹—›‡ǤŽ…—‘…‹‡–‡ ƒ…‘•–ƒ–‡‡•ʹͲǡ’—‡•ƒŽ†‹˜‹†‹”ʹͲǣͳͲൌšǣʹͲൌ͸Ͳǣ͵ͲൌͳͲͲǣ›ൌʹͲ
‡–”‡ ƒ„ƒ• ˜ƒ”‹ƒ„Ž‡• ‡• •‹‡’”‡ 10 20 20 ∙ 20
…‘•–ƒ–‡Ǥ‘”‡Œ‡’Ž‘ = →x= = 40
20 x 10

‹•–ƒ…‹ƒ‡…‘””‹†ƒ›‡Ž‘…‹†ƒ†Ǥ ‡Žƒ‹•ƒˆ‘”ƒ†‡–‡”‹ƒ‘•›ǣ›ൌͷͲ
‹Žƒ˜‡Ž‘…‹†ƒ†ǡŽƒ†‹•–ƒ…‹ƒ 
”‡…‘””‹†ƒ –ƒ„‹± Ǥ  „Ǥ ƒ–‹‡†ƒ†‡ƒ”–À…—Ž‘•†‡’‘”–‹˜‘•˜‡†‡ͺ„ƒŽ‘‡•†‡ƒ•‡–„ƒŽŽ‡̈́ͳͲͲǤͲͲͲǤ
…ƒ„‹‘ǡ•‹Žƒ‡Ž‘…‹†ƒ†  ǡŽƒ ‹—‹†‹˜‹†—‘†‡•‡ƒ…‘’”ƒ”ͳͷ„ƒŽ‘‡•†‡ƒ•‡–„ƒŽŽǡǬ—žŽ‡•‡Ž’”‡…‹‘“—‡
†‹•–ƒ…‹ƒ”‡…‘””‹†ƒ•‡”žǤ †‡„‡”Àƒ’ƒ‰ƒ”ǫ
 
ƒ–‹†ƒ††‡”–À…—Ž‘•›•—‘•–‘Ǥ Žƒ–‡ƒ‘•‡Ž’”‘„Ž‡ƒ†‡Žƒƒ‡”ƒ•‹‰—‹‡–‡ǣ
‹Žƒ…ƒ–‹†ƒ††‡ƒ”–À…—Ž‘•ƒ…‘’”ƒ” 
ǡ ‡Ž …‘•–‘ •‡”ž Ǥ ͺ„ƒŽ‘‡•†‡ƒ•‡–„ƒŽŽ   ̈́ͳͲͲǤͲͲͲ
ƒ•‘…‘–”ƒ”‹‘•‹†‹•‹—›‡ǡ‡Ž…‘•–‘ ͳͷ„ƒŽ‘‡•†‡ƒ•‡–„ƒŽŽ  ̈́
•‡”žǤ 
‘‘•‡‹†‹…ƒ‡Žƒ†‡ˆ‹‹…‹×ǡ‡Ž…—‘…‹‡–‡†‡Žƒ•ƒ‰‹–—†‡•‡•…‘•–ƒ–‡ǡ‡–‘…‡•
ͺ ͳͲͲǤͲͲͲ
 Ǥ‡ƒ…—‡”†‘ƒŽ‡‘”‡ƒ —†ƒ‡–ƒŽ†‡Žƒ•”‘’‘”…‹‘‡•ǡ–‡‡‘•
ͳͷ š
ͳͷ  ͳͲͲǤͲͲͲ

“—‡ ͺ  š  ͳͷ  ͳͲͲǤͲͲͲ ǡ‡…‘•‡…—‡…‹ƒ š  ̈́ͳͺ͹ǤͷͲͲ Ǥ
ͺ


ƒ …
͵•ž••‡…‹ŽŽ‘‡–‡†‡”›”‡…‘‘…‡”“—‡ƒ›†•‘‡š–”‡‘•›“—‡„›…•‘‡†‹‘•ǡ•‹…‘•‹†‡”ƒ‘•Žƒ’”‘’‘”…‹×  †‡
„ †
Žƒˆ‘”ƒ ƒ ǣ „  … ǣ † Ǥ

24
4 x+ 1)
ma( 2
Gam 1d
|a | – |b ( ½ ) d
b | ≥
|a – NT -P
r / n)
(1 +
B =A x-1 ) dt
e -r tt(
AȀ 
o i nf)


0 t
al)( ”‘’‘”…‹‘ƒŽ‹†ƒ† ˜‡”•ƒǤ  ǣ

ƒǤ ƒ–ƒ„Žƒ”‡’”‡•‡–ƒƒ‰‹–—†‡•‹˜‡”•ƒ‡–‡’”‘’‘”…‹‘ƒŽ‡•ǡ …‘’Ž‡–ƒ…‘‡Ž
‘• ƒ‰‹–—†‡• •‘ ˜‡”•ƒ‡–‡
˜ƒŽ‘”“—‡ˆƒŽ–ƒ2 * ..
.c
”‘’‘”…‹‘ƒŽ‡•ǡ •‹ …ƒ„‹ƒ ‡ )/
†‹•–‹–‘ •‡–‹†‘ǡ ‡•–‘ ‡•ǡ •‹ —ƒ

qr t 2) )
+ s ͳͲ ʹͲ ͷͲ ›
(2
˜ƒ”‹ƒ„Ž‡ƒ—‡–ƒǡ‡…‘•‡…—‡…‹ƒǡŽƒ
rtŽƒ•
t rt(2
+ s
‘–”ƒ †‹•‹—›‡Ǥ Ž ’”‘†—…–‘
( q†‡
ƒ‰‹–—†‡•‡••‹‡’”‡…‘•–ƒ–‡Ǥ‘”
ͳͲͲ š ʹͲ ͳͲ
ƒ…‘•–ƒ–‡‡•ͳͲͲͲ’—‡•ƒŽ—Ž–‹’Ž‹…ƒ”ͳͲͲ∙ͳͲൌš∙ʹͲൌʹͲ∙ͷͲൌͳͲ∙›ൌͳͲͲͲ
s q
/2 *
‡Œ‡’Ž‘ǣ ‘”Ž‘–ƒ–‘šൌͷͲ‡›ൌͳͲͲ
r 2 )
t 
sq ƒ‘†‡„”ƒ›Àƒ•”ƒ„ƒŒƒ†‘•Ǥ
2+ „Ǥ ‘…‡ –”ƒ„ƒŒƒ†‘”‡• †‡„‡ –‡”‹ƒ” —ƒ ‘„”ƒ ‡ ͵Ͳ †Àƒ•Ǥ ‹ Žƒ …ƒ–‹†ƒ† †‡
qrt( ‹Žƒ…ƒ–‹†ƒ††‡„”‡”‘•ǡ –”ƒ„ƒŒƒ†‘”‡•ƒ—‡–ƒ‡͸ǡǬ—ž–‘•†Àƒ•†‡‘”ƒ”ž‡–‡”‹ƒ”Žƒ‘„”ƒǫ
Žƒ…ƒ–‹†ƒ††‡†Àƒ•’ƒ”ƒ”‡ƒŽ‹œƒ”—ƒ  
‘„”ƒ  Ǥƒ•‘…‘–”ƒ”‹‘•‹Žƒ Žƒ–‡ƒ‘•‡Ž‡Œ‡”…‹…‹‘†‡Žƒ•‹‰—‹‡–‡ƒ‡”ƒǣ
…ƒ–‹†ƒ† †‡ „”‡”‘•   ǡ Žƒ 

…ƒ–‹†ƒ† †‡ †Àƒ• †‡ –”ƒ„ƒŒ‘ •‡”ž ͳͲ”ƒ„ƒŒƒ†‘”‡•  ͵Ͳ†Àƒ•


Ǥ ͳͷ”ƒ„ƒŒƒ†‘”‡•  †Àƒ•

 ‘‘ •‡ ‹†‹…ƒ ‡ Žƒ †‡ˆ‹‹…‹×ǡ ‡Ž ’”‘†—…–‘ †‡ Žƒ• ƒ‰‹–—†‡• ‡• …‘•–ƒ–‡ǡ
‡Ž‘…‹†ƒ††‡—×˜‹Ž›–‹‡’‘Ǥ
ͳͲ  ͵Ͳ
‹ Žƒ ˜‡Ž‘…‹†ƒ† †‡ — ×˜‹Ž 
ͳͲ  ͵Ͳ  ͳͷ  š ǡ‡…‘•‡…—‡…‹ƒǡ š  ʹͲ †Àƒ•Ǥ
ǡ ‡Ž –‹‡’‘ ‡ ŽŽ‡‰ƒ” ƒ •— ͳͷ

†‡•–‹‘•‡”žǤ…ƒ„‹‘ǡ•‹Žƒ •†‡…‹”ǡŽ‘•ͳͺ–”ƒ„ƒŒƒ†‘”‡••‡†‡‘”ƒ”žʹͲ†Àƒ•‡–‡”‹ƒ”Žƒ‘„”ƒǤ
˜‡Ž‘…‹†ƒ†   ǡ ‡Ž –‹‡’‘
Ǥ


‘”…‡–ƒŒ‡•  ǣ
 
‘• ’‘”…‡–ƒŒ‡• •‘  — …ƒ•‘ ƒǤ ‘”…ƒ†ƒ̈́ͳͲͲ‡Žƒ…‘†‡ŽƒÀ•‘•†ƒ̈́ͻ†‡‹–‡”±•‡‡ŽƒÓ‘ǡ‡•†‡…‹”‡Žƒ…‘
’ƒ”–‹…—Žƒ”†‡”‘’‘”…‹×‹”‡…–ƒǤ ‘•†ƒ—ͻΨ†‡‹–‡”±•ƒ—ƒŽǤ
„Ǥ ‡…ƒ†ƒͳͲͲ†Àƒ•‡‡ŽƒÓ‘ǡ‡—‡”–‘‘––ŽŽ—‡˜‡͹͵ǡ‡•†‡…‹”ǡ‡—‡”–‘‘––
‡’”‡•‡–ƒ — ˜ƒŽ‘” “—‡ ‡š’”‡•ƒ
ŽŽ—‡˜‡͹͵Ψ†‡Ž‘•†Àƒ•†‡ŽƒÓ‘Ǥ
ƒŽ‰—ƒ ’ƒ”–‡ †‡ — –‘–ƒŽ ”‡†—…‹†ƒ ƒŽ
…Ǥ ’ƒ–ƒŽ×†‡˜‡•–‹”‡•–žƒŽƒ˜‡–ƒ…‘—†‡•…—‡–‘†‡—͵ͲΨǤ‹•—’”‡…‹‘
…‘•‡…—‡–‡‡•–ž†ƒ”ͳͲͲǤ
‘”‹‰‹ƒŽ‡•†‡̈́ʹͶǤͲͲͲǤǬ—ž–‘†‡„‡”ž…ƒ…‡Žƒ”—•‡Ó‘”•‹Ž‘…‘’”ƒ…‘‡Ž
Ž–‘–ƒŽ†‡—ƒ…ƒ–‹†ƒ†ǡ‡š’”‡•ƒ†ƒ‡ †‡•…—‡–‘‘ˆ”‡…‹†‘ǫሺ‘–ƒǡ•‹Ž‡†‡•…—‡–ƒ—͵ͲΨǡ‡–‘…‡•†‡„‡”ž…ƒ…‡Žƒ”
’‘”…‡–ƒŒ‡ǡ…‘””‡•’‘†‡ƒŽ ͳͲͲΨǡ›ƒ —͹ͲΨሻ
“—‡•‹‰‹ˆ‹…ƒ“—‡†‡ͳͲͲ’ƒ”–‡•“—‡•‡ 
’—‡†ƒ †‹˜‹†‹” ‡Ž ‡–‡”‘ǡ 24.000 100% 24.000 ∙ 70
= →x= = $16.800
…‘•‹†‡”ƒ‘•Žƒ•ͳͲͲǤ x 70% 100

‘”Ž‘–ƒ–‘ǡ‡Ž•‡Ó‘”…ƒ…‡Žƒ”ž̈́ͳ͸ǤͺͲͲ



 

25
LU T E /3 )b
A BSO ra mi d = (1
py
2r 3
r 1 r
pi
Programa de Apoyo Integral para Estudiantes Nuevos
)
(4/3 0
5 0 ,00
L = B
   V


a
e rt egr
•…”‹„‘Žƒ”ƒœ×…‘Ž‘••‹‰—‹‡–‡•’ƒ”‡•†‡ï‡”‘•›•‹’Ž‹ˆ‹…‘•‹…‘””‡•’‘†‡ǣ
i nt
C x(
ƒǤʹ›ͳʹ
=r
„ǤͳͲͲ›ͷͲͲ P= ma(
x)
…ǤͶǤͷͲͲ›ͻͲͲ
Gam

0 00 r) t
= 5 , (1
‡•—‡Ž˜‘‡Ž•‹‰—‹‡–‡’”‘„Ž‡ƒǣ—…Ž—„†‡Žƒ–‡”…‡”ƒ‡†ƒ†Šƒ›ͳͷ†ƒƒ•›ͳͲ˜ƒ”‘‡•ǡ›•—‘„Œ‡–‹˜‘’”‹…‹’ƒŽ‡••ƒŽ‹” +
†‡˜‹ƒŒ‡Ǥ•…”‹„‘Žƒ”ƒœ×‡–”‡ǣ V C
ƒǤ Ž‘•˜ƒ”‘‡•›‡Ž–‘–ƒŽ†‡‹–‡‰”ƒ–‡•†‡Ž…Ž—„ P=
„Ǥ Žƒ•†ƒƒ•›Ž‘•˜ƒ”‘‡•
…Ǥ ‡Ž–‘–ƒŽ†‡‹–‡‰”ƒ–‡•›Žƒ•†ƒƒ•
= | a| rt2/
2 * sq
–a | s q
1. |
 =
I
‡–‡”‹‘•‹Žƒ••‹‰—‹‡–‡•”ƒœ‘‡•ˆ‘”ƒ—ƒ’”‘’‘”…‹×ǣ 2/P
2 6
ƒǤ
7
y
21


|≥ 0
9 18
| a
2.
„Ǥ y 
11 20
12 36
…Ǥ y 
17 51


ƒŽ…—Ž‘‡Ž˜ƒŽ‘”†‡šǡ†‡‘†‘“—‡Žƒ•”ƒœ‘‡•ˆ‘”‡—ƒ’”‘’‘”…‹×ǣ
x 7
ƒǤ = 
12 4
150 x
„Ǥ = 
300 30
9 0,8
…Ǥ = 
x 0,9


‡•—‡Ž˜‘‡Ž•‹‰—‹‡–‡’”‘„Ž‡ƒǣ‡†‹˜‹†‡—–‡””‡‘†‡ͶǤͷͲͲŠ‡…–ž”‡ƒ•‡–”‡–”‡•ˆƒ‹Ž‹ƒ”‡•ǡ‡Žƒ”ƒœ×ͷǣ͹ǣ͸ǤǬ—ž–‘Ž‡
…‘””‡•’‘†‡ƒ…ƒ†ƒ—‘ǫ






 

26
4 x+ 1)
ma( 2
Gam 1d
|a | – |b ( ½ ) d
b | ≥
|a – NT -P
r / n)
(1 +
B =A x-1 ) dt
e -rtt(
   V
o i nf)
t


0
al)(

‘’Ž‡–‘Žƒ–ƒ„Žƒ…‘Ž‘•˜ƒŽ‘”‡•“—‡ˆƒŽ–ƒǡ•‹Žƒ•ƒ‰‹–—†‡••‘†‹”‡…–ƒ‡–‡’”‘’‘”…‹‘ƒŽ‡•ǣ
 c
 /2 ͳʹ* ... Ͷͺ
) )
s qrt2)ͳʹͲ ʹͶͲ 
 2 +
t qrt(
‘’Ž‡–‘Žƒ–ƒ„Žƒ…‘Ž‘•˜ƒŽ‘”‡•“—‡ˆƒŽ–ƒǡ•‹Žƒ•ƒ‰‹–—†‡••‘‹˜‡”•ƒ‡–‡’”‘’‘”…‹‘ƒŽ‡•ǣ
( s
+

s q rt(2
/2 *
ͳʹ  Ͷ
2 )
sqr t
ͷ ͳʹ 
2+
qrt( ‡•—‡Ž˜‘Ž‘••‹‰—‹‡–‡•’”‘„Ž‡ƒ•ǣ

ƒǤ ‘”Žƒ…‘’”ƒ†‡–”‡•…—ƒ†‡”‘•’ƒ‰—±̈́͵Ǥ͸ͲͲǤǬ…—ž–‘†‡„‡”±’ƒ‰ƒ”’‘”—ƒ†‘…‡ƒ†‡…—ƒ†‡”‘•‹‰—ƒŽ‡•ǫ

„Ǥ „—•–ƒ”†ƒʹŠ‘”ƒ•‡”‡…‘””‡”ͳͺͲ‹Ž×‡–”‘•ǤǬ—ž–‘–ƒ”†ƒ”ž‡”‡…‘””‡”—‹Ž×‡–”‘ǫ

…Ǥ ×˜‹Ž–ƒ”†ƒ‡†‡–‡‡”•‡—ƒŠ‘”ƒ•‹–‡Àƒ—ƒ”ƒ’‹†‡œ†‡ͺͲ‹Ž×‡–”‘•’‘”Š‘”ƒǡ†‘•Š‘”ƒ••‹•—”ƒ’‹†‡œ‡•†‡ͶͲ
‹Ž×‡–”‘•’‘”Š‘”ƒǤǬ“—±”ƒ’‹†‡œ˜‡†”ž’ƒ”ƒ–ƒ”†ƒ”…—ƒ–”‘Š‘”ƒ•‡†‡–‡‡”•‡ǫ

†Ǥ —‰ƒŽ’א•‡–‹‡‡‰—ƒ”†ƒ†‘ͳͲͲ”ƒ…‹‘‡•†‡’ƒ•–‘’ƒ”ƒͳͷͲ†Àƒ•Ǥ‹•‡†‡•‡ƒ“—‡‡Ž•—‹‹•–”‘†‡’ƒ•–‘†—”‡Ͷͷ†Àƒ•
ž•ǤǬ—žŽ•‡”Àƒ‡Ž–‘–ƒŽƒ’”‘š‹ƒ†‘†‡”ƒ…‹‘‡•’‘”‡•ǫ

‡Ǥ —…Àƒ•‡…‘’”×—ƒ’‹•…‹ƒ”‡†‘†ƒǡ’ƒ”ƒŽŽ‡ƒ”Žƒ†‡ƒ‰—ƒ—•ƒ†‘•ƒ‰—‡”ƒ•“—‡‡–”‡‰ƒ‡Ž‹•‘ˆŽ—Œ‘†‡ƒ‰—ƒ›
–ƒ”†ƒͳͷŠ‘”ƒ•‡ŽŽ‡ƒ”Žƒ’‹•…‹ƒǤ‹“—‹‡”‡”‡†—…‹”‡Ž–‹‡’‘ƒͷŠ‘”ƒ•ǤǬ—ž–ƒ•ƒ‰—‡”ƒ•‹‰—ƒŽ‡•‡…‡•‹–ƒ”žǫ

ˆǤ ǩ‘”ˆ‹–‡’‘”ƒ†ƒ†‡†‡•…—‡–‘•Ǩ

 –‡Ž‡˜‹•‘”…—‡•–ƒ̈́ͷͷͲǤͲͲͲǡ‡Ž†‡•…—‡–‘‡•†‡ͶͲΨǤǬ—ž–‘†‹‡”‘•‡†‡•…—‡–ƒǫ
 Ǭ—±’‘”…‡–ƒŒ‡•‡†‡„‡”Àƒ’ƒ‰ƒ”ǫ

‰Ǥ —ƒ–‹‡†ƒǡ•‡Ž‹“—‹†ƒŽƒ•œƒ’ƒ–‹ŽŽƒ•†‡‹Ó‘•…‘—͵ͷΨ†‡†‡•…—‡–‘’ƒ”ƒ…Ž‹‡–‡•ǡ›—ʹͷΨ…‘…—ƒŽ“—‹‡”‘–”‘
‡†‹‘†‡’ƒ‰‘ሺ‡Ž†‡•…—‡–‘•‡Šƒ…‡‡…ƒŒƒሻǤ‘•‹–ƒ‡•…Ž‹‡–‡›†‡•‡ƒ…‘’”ƒ”͵’ƒ”‡•†‡œƒ’ƒ–‹ŽŽƒ•’ƒ”ƒ•—•‹‡–‘•Ǥ‹
Žƒ•œƒ’ƒ–‹ŽŽƒ•‡•–ž‡˜‡–ƒƒ̈́͵ͺǤͲͲͲ…ƒ†ƒ’ƒ”ǤǬ—ž–‘†‡„‡”ž…ƒ…‡Žƒ”‡Žƒ…ƒŒƒ•‹’”‡•‡–ƒ•—–ƒ”Œ‡–ƒ†‡…Ž‹‡–‡ǫ•‹
’‘”‘Ž˜‹†‘ǡ‘ŽŽ‡˜ƒŽƒ–ƒ”Œ‡–ƒǡǬ…—ž–‘’ƒ‰ƒ”žǫ

ŠǤ †”‡ƒ‡•–žŠƒ…‹‡†‘‡Ž…žŽ…—Ž‘†‡Žƒ‘–ƒ“—‡†‡„‡•ƒ…ƒ”‡‡Ž‡šƒ‡•‡‡•–”ƒŽ’ƒ”ƒ‘„–‡‡”—͸ǡͲ…‘‘‘–ƒˆ‹ƒŽǤ‹
•—’”‘‡†‹‘•‡‡•–”ƒŽ‡•—ͷǡͺ›…‘””‡•’‘†‡ƒŽ͹ͲΨ†‡Žƒ‘–ƒˆ‹ƒŽ†‡Ž•‡‡•–”‡ǤǬ“—±‘–ƒÀ‹ƒ†‡„‡”ž‘„–‡‡”
‡‡Ž‡šƒ‡ǫ





 

27
LU T E /3 )b
A BSO ra mi d = (1
py
2r 3
r 1 r
pi
Programa de Apoyo Integral para Estudiantes Nuevos
)
(4/3 0
5 0 ,00
L = B
  

a
e rt egr
 
i nt
ž‰‹ƒͷ
C

x(
=r
P=
 ‡•–‘
x)
†‡–‹ˆ‹…‘ ƒǤ͸ͷǤͻͺͺ
ma(
ƒǤͷͻǣ”‹‘ǡ ’ƒ”
„ǤͳͲʹǣ‘’—‡•–‘ǡƒ”
„Ǥ͵ͳͷǤͳͲͲ
Gam
‘’Ž‡–‘
…Ǥͷ͹ǣ‘’—‡•–‘ǡ ’ƒ”
ƒǤͳǤͷ͸ͳ
0 00 r) t
‡•…”‹„‘ „ǤͷǤʹ͹Ͷ
= 5 , (1 +
ƒǤ”‘•–‡Ž‡ˆ×‹…‘• 
V C
„Ǥ”‘†‡…‘’‡–‹†‘”‡•‡—ƒ…ƒ””‡”ƒǤ
…Ǥ”‡…‹‘•†‡ƒ”–À…—Ž‘•Ǥ
ž‰‹ƒͻ
 P=
a| * sq
—Ž–‹’Ž‹…‘
‡–‡”‹‘
ƒǤͶʹ
ƒǤͻͲ
| = | rt2/
2
|–a
„ǤʹͲʹǤͺͲͲ
= s q
„ǤͶͷ I
…Ǥ͸Ͳ
1 .
…ǤͷǤͲ͸ͲǤͲͲͲ
’Ž‹…‘
2/P
‡–‡”‹‘
ƒǤͶ
ƒǤ͹͸

|≥ 0
a
„ǤͳǤͺͲͲ
„Ǥͷ
…Ǥ͸
2.
…ǤͶͲ |
 ‘’Ž‡–‘
ž‰‹ƒ͹ ƒǤ
 ”‘“—‡ˆƒŽ–ƒǣͳͺ
—‘ ‡•—Ž–ƒ†‘ǣͳǤͳͳ͸
ƒǤʹͳ ”‘’‹‡†ƒ†ǣ‘—–ƒ–‹˜ƒ
„Ǥͳ͵ʹ „Ǥ
…Ǥ͸ͺͶ ”‘“—‡ˆƒŽ–ƒǣͺͲ
”‘“—‡ˆƒŽ–ƒǣͶ͹
†‹…‘
‡•—Ž–ƒ†‘ǣͻͲǤʹͶͲ
ƒǤ͸ͲͲǡ•‘…‹ƒ–‹˜ƒ
”‘’‹‡†ƒ†ǣ•‘…‹ƒ–‹˜ƒ
„ǤͶ͸ͳǡ•‘…‹ƒ–‹˜ƒ
…Ǥ
‘’Ž‡–‘ ”‘“—‡ˆƒŽ–ƒǣͳ
ƒǤ ”‘“—‡ˆƒŽ–ƒǣͳͲǤͲͲͲ
”‘“—‡ˆƒŽ–ƒǣͳͺ ‡•—Ž–ƒ†‘ǣͳͲͲǤͲͲͲ
‡•—Ž–ƒ†‘ǣ͵ͺͲ ”‘’‹‡†ƒ†ǣ•‘…‹ƒ–‹˜ƒ›Ž‡‡–‘‡—–”‘†‡Žƒ
”‘’‹‡†ƒ†ǣ‘—–ƒ–‹˜ƒ —Ž–‹’Ž‹…ƒ…‹×

„Ǥ
ž‰‹ƒͳ͵
”‘“—‡ˆƒŽ–ƒǣͷ͸

”‘“—‡ˆƒŽ–ƒǣͶ͸͹
—‘
‡•—Ž–ƒ†‘ǣͺ͵͹
ƒǤͳʹͷ
”‘’‹‡†ƒ†ǣ•‘…‹ƒ–‹˜ƒ
„ǤͶǤͺͲͷ
…Ǥ …Ǥ–ʹǤͶͲͲ
”‘“—‡ˆƒŽ–ƒǣͲ †ǤͺͳͲ
‡•—Ž–ƒ†‘ǣ͵͹ͺ
‡•—‡Ž˜‘
”‘’‹‡†ƒ†‡•ǣŽ‡‡–‘‡—–”‘†‡Žƒ•—ƒ›‘—–ƒ–‹˜‹†ƒ†
ƒǤͳ͵‡–”‘•†‡’”‘ˆ—†‹†ƒ†
†Ǥ „Ǥ–ͳ͵‡–”‘•
‡•—Ž–ƒ†‘ǣ͵ǤͲͲͲǤͲͲͲ
—‘
”‘’‹‡†ƒ†ǣŽ‡‡–‘‡—–”‘
ƒǤ–ͳǤͻ͹ͷ
‡•—‡Ž˜‘ „Ǥ–͹ͺͺ
ƒǤ͵͹ͷ …Ǥ–ʹͳǤͺͶͳ
„ǤʹͶǤͷ͹ͷ †Ǥ–ͶǤͷͲʹ
…ǤͷǤʹ͵Ͳ 

 

28
4 x+ 1)
ma( 2
Gam 1d
|a | – |b ( ½ ) d
b | ≥
|a – NT -P
r / n)
(1 +
B =A x-1 ) dt
e -r tt(
  
o i nf)
0 t 
al)(  
‡•—‡Ž˜‘ ž‰‹ƒͳ͹
c
ƒǤ‘‹‡œƒ‡‡Ž’‹•‘ͳǡ‡–‘…‡•ǣ * ...
ͳ൅͵–ͳ൅͵–ͳ൅͵–ͳ൅͵–ͳ൅͵–ͳ൅͵ൌͳͶt2) ) )/2 ‘’Ž‡–‘
r
„Ǥ‹
( 2 + sq š’”‡•‹×
t …Ǥʹ͵’‹•‘• qrt ”ƒ……‹× ‹’‘
(2 +(s ‹š–ƒ
sqrt
‡•–‘
ƒǤ–͵ͳ2 * 15 3
’”‘’‹ƒ
2 )/
 3 
sqrt…Ǥ–ͷǤʹͺͷ
„Ǥ–ͻͻͳ 4 4
2+ 23 3
qrt( †ǤͳͲͻ − 
20
’”‘’‹ƒ −1 
20
‡Ǥ–ͳͳ
11
‘„‹‘›”‡•—‡Ž˜‘  ”‘’‹ƒ  
33
ƒǤʹ͵͹
47 2
„ǤʹͲ͸  ’”‘’‹ƒ 3 
…Ǥʹͺ 15 15
 51
ž‰‹ƒͳͷ −  ”‘’‹ƒ  
171

30
—Ž–‹’Ž‹…‘  ”‘’‹ƒ  
ƒǤͳǤͲ͵ͷ 73
„ǤͳͺǤͲͲͲ 85 17 1
…Ǥ–͵ͳͷ  ’”‘’‹ƒ 2 =2 
34 34 2
†Ǥ–ͷǤʹͺͲ
8
‡Ǥ–ͶʹͲ  ”‘’‹ƒ  
ˆǤͻ͸ǤͲͲͲ 146
36
‹˜‹†‘ −  ”‘’‹ƒ  
ƒǤʹͳ 111
„ǤͶ 7 1
−  ’”‘’‹ƒ −2 
…Ǥ–͵͹ 3 3
†Ǥʹͷ
‡Ǥ–Ͷ 
ˆǤ–ͶͲ ’Ž‹ˆ‹…‘
‡•—‡Ž˜‘ 30
ƒǤ 
ƒǤ”‹’Ž‡†‡̈́ͳͲǤͲͲͲǡ‡•†‡…‹”ǣ 70
3 ∙ $10.000 = $30.000 65
„Ǥ− 
„Ǥƒ†‹ˆ‡”‡…‹ƒ‡–”‡Žƒ†‡—†ƒˆ‹ƒŽ›Žƒ‹‹…‹ƒŽǡ‡•†‡…‹”ǣ 60
͵ͲǤͲͲͲ–ͳͲǤͲͲͲൌ̈́ʹͲǤͲͲͲ 48
…Ǥ 
66
‡•—‡Ž˜‘
ƒǤͺͳ ‹’Ž‹ˆ‹…‘
„Ǥʹͳͳ 3
ƒǤ 
…Ǥ–͵ʹ 2
†Ǥ–ͳͲ 7
„Ǥ 
‡Ǥ–ͳ͸ 9
ˆǤ–͵Ͷ 1.775
…Ǥ 
626


 

29
LU T E /3 )b
A BSO ra mi d = (1
py
2r 3
r 1 r
pi
Programa de Apoyo Integral para Estudiantes Nuevos
)
(4/3 0
5 0 ,00
L = B
  

 
a
e rt egr
ž‰‹ƒͳͻ ž‰‹ƒʹ͵
i nt

C x(
=r
P= x)
‘’Ž‡–‘ —Ž–‹’Ž‹…‘›•‹’Ž‹ˆ‹…‘
4 ma(
‘”ƒ ‹’‘†‡ ‘”ƒ ‹’‘†‡
ƒǤ 
3 Gam
ˆ”ƒ……‹‘ƒ”‹ƒ ˆ”ƒ……‹× †‡…‹ƒŽ †‡…‹ƒŽ 3
„Ǥ− 
34
0 00 r) t
2
 ”‘’‹ƒ 0,4 ‹‹–‘ …Ǥ
169

= 5 , (1 +
5 18
V C
P=
249 ‹˜‹†‘›•‹’Ž‹ˆ‹…‘
 ’”‘’‹ƒ 12,45 ‹‹–‘
20 45

a|
ƒǤ 
−1 ˆ‹‹–‘ 14
| 2 * sq
=
 ”‘’‹ƒ −0,3333333 …
rt2/
40
|
3 ‡”‹×†‹…‘

–a q
„Ǥ 
s
1. |
4 7
I =
2/P
ˆ‹‹–‘ 5
 ”‘’‹ƒ 0, 3636363 …
11 ‡”‹×†‹…‘ …Ǥ− 
44
5 125
0
ˆ‹‹–‘
−2  ‹š–ƒ −2,8333333 … †Ǥ 
|≥
6 ‡‹’‡”‹×†‹…‘ 72
| a
2.
454 ˆ‹‹–‘ ‡•—‡Ž˜‘
−  ’”‘’‹ƒ −2,0177777 …
225 ‡‹’‡”‹×†‹…‘ 1
ƒǤ 
13 ˆ‹‹–‘ 6
 ’”‘’‹ƒ 1,85714285… ‡”‹×†‹…‘
32
7 „Ǥ 
45
166 ˆ‹‹–‘ 11
−  ’”‘’‹ƒ −18,4444444 … ‡”‹×†‹…‘ …Ǥ 
9 4
11 673
−  ”‘’‹ƒ −0,7333333 …
ˆ‹‹–‘ †Ǥ− 
15 ‡‹’‡”‹×†‹…‘ 315
3 ˆ‹‹–‘ —‘›Ȁ‘”‡•–‘
 ”‘’‹ƒ 0,1199999 … ‡‹’‡”‹×†‹…‘ ƒǤ͵ǤʹͲͻǡͻͻʹ͸
25
„ǤͻͲǡ͹͵ͷͳ

…ǤͶǤͺͺ͹ǡ͹ͶͲ͵ʹ
ž‰‹ƒʹͳ
†Ǥ͵ʹʹǡͶʹ

‡ǤͳǤͶ͵͵ǡͳ͵Ͷ͹
—‘‘”‡•–‘
11 ˆǤǦʹǤͶͺͻǡͺ͹ͺ
ƒǤ 
4 —Ž–‹’Ž‹…‘
24 6 ƒǤ͹Ǥͳͻͷǡ͵
„Ǥ− =− 
20 5 „ǤͳͲǤʹ͵͸ǡ͵ͷ͹
11 …ǤǦͳͶͺǡ͹Ͷ
…Ǥ 
4 ‹˜‹†‘
19
†Ǥ−  ƒǤͷǡͳ
17 „ǤͶǤʹͳͲ
4
‡Ǥ  …Ǥͻǡ͵ͺ
9 †Ǥ͵ͺǡ͵ͻͺͶ͵͹ͷ
5 1
ˆǤ =  
10 2 
‰Ǥ−3
61 
ŠǤ−  
15 
99
‹Ǥ  
35 
1.057
ŒǤ− 
24


 

30
4 x+ 1)
ma( 2
Gam 1d
|a | – |b ( ½ ) d
b | ≥
|a – NT -P
r / n)
(1 +
B =A x-1 ) dt
e -r tt(
  
o i nf)
0 t
al)(  
ž‰‹ƒʹ͸ ž‰‹ƒʹ͹
 ...c
*‘’Ž‡–‘ሺ’”‘’‘”…‹×†‹”‡…–ƒሻ
•…”‹„‘ ) )/2
ƒǤ2 ∶ 12 = 1 ∶ 6
s qrt2) ͸›ͻ͸Ͳ
„Ǥ100 ∶ 500 = 1 ∶ 5 2 +
t …Ǥ4.500 ∶ 900 = 5 ∶ 1 ( s qrt( ‘’Ž‡–‘ሺ’”‘’‘”…‹×†‹”‡…–ƒሻ
(2 + ͷ›ʹͲȀͳʹ
‡•—‡Ž˜‘ sqrt
∶2
ƒǤ10)/
*
25 = 2 ∶ 5
‡•—‡Ž˜‘
r t 2 ƒǤ̈́ͳͶǤͶͲͲ
sq „Ǥ15 ∶ 10 = 3 ∶ 2
2+ „ǤͲǡ͸͹‹—–‘•ൌͶͲ•‡‰—†‘•
qrt( …Ǥ25 ∶ 15 = 5 ∶ 3
…ǤʹͲȀŠ
‡–‡”‹‘ †ǤʹͲ”ƒ…‹‘‡•’‘”‡•
ƒǤ  ‡Ǥ͸ƒ‰—‡”ƒ•
„Ǥ ˆǤ̈́ʹʹͲǤͲͲͲ›͸ͲΨ
…Ǥ  ‰Ǥ̈́͹ͶǤͳͲͲ›̈́ͺͷǤͷͲͲ
ŠǤ͸ǡͷ
ƒŽ…—Ž‘

ƒǤx = 21
„Ǥx = 15
…Ǥx = 10,125
‡•—‡Ž˜‘
‘•ˆƒ‹Ž‹ƒ”‡•‘„–‡†”žͳǤʹͷͲǡͳǤ͹ͷͲ›ͳǤͷͲͲŠ‡…–ž”‡ƒ•Ǥ




31
5 -
/3 + 1/ h
2
3 pi r |a |
= 1/ a| =
h – c
b 1. | a + b =
0 x)
LUE |a| ≥ π × r2 amm
a(
VA 2. 4× =x
G
U TE (1/ 3) b
h
a( x + 1 )
mid
=
G amm 1d 2
pyra b d
3 a |–| (½ )
r 2 r
b | ≥|
r1 |a – -P
NT
0 r/n)
5 0 ,00 (1 +
L= B =A t (x-
1) dt
e -rt
to inf)
) (0
gral
C e rt =r
x(i nte
...c
x) *
ma( 2) ) )/2
Gam + sqrt
qrt(2
,000 + r) t (2 +
(s

V=5 C (1 2 )/
2*
sqrt
P= + sqrt
rt( 2
= | a| /2 * sq
a | qrt2
. |– 2/P
I=s

| ≥ 0
2. |a