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RAGTIME

o Formal structure
o Generally performed on piano

o Artist: Scott Joplin (Maple Leaf Rag, The Entertainer)


 Maple Leaf Rag was an instant hit. It sold 75,000 copies.

BLUES
o Blues, by definition: a lament, bemoaning poverty, social injustice, fatigue, or the loss of
something (L-U-V).
o Originated in South among enslaved African Americans and spirituals and carried through in
oral tradition to their descendants.
o Lyric Topics include sexual references, betrayal, desertion and love.

o Artists: Bessie Smith, B.B. King, Muddy Waters (McKinley Morganfield), Gertrude “Ma”
Rainey, Howlin ’ Wolf (Chester Arthur Burnett)

DIXIELAND
o Typical (small) groups included: clarinet, trumpet, trombone, tuba (bass), piano, banjo and
drums
o Variations were typical
o Characteristic sound derived from
 Combination of instruments (timbre)
 Melody instruments improvising at the same time (polyphony)
o Marches, Church Hymns, Negro Spirituals, Boogie Woogie.
o Scat singing-vocal style of improvisation using ‘nonsense’ syllables.
 Louis Armstrong known for starting and using this style…story says he was recording
and dropped his music, could not remember the lyrics, so he ‘improvised’ by scatting.

o Artists: Louis “Satchmo” Armstrong (also known as one of the founding Father of Jazz) (vocals,
trumpet), Joe “King” Oliver, Ferdinand “Jelly Roll” Morton, Leon “Bix” Beiderbecke, James
Fletcher Henderson, Preservation Hall Ensemble.

SWING
o AKA “Big Band” or “Dance Band”
o Largest group so far, c. 15 members (hence ‘big’ band)
o Considered POPULAR MUSIC.
o Sections now instead of individual instruments
 Saxophone Section (clarinet often included)
 Trumpet Section
 Trombone Section
 Rhythm Section (Piano, Bass, Guitar, Drums)
o Saxophone: fairly new invention (from the sarussaphone)
o More people playing now, composers/arrangers wrote solos and relied less on improvisation
o Unison playing normal (rhythms and/or pitches)
o Most ‘charts’ were based on 12-bar blues
o Many groups entertained during WWII

o Artists: Edward Kennedy “DUKE” Ellington, Ella Fitzgerald, Count Basie, Glenn Miller, Tommy
Dorsey, Jimmy Dorsey, Louis Prima, Cab Calloway, Artie Shaw, Gene Krupa, Benny Goodman,
Stan Kenton, The Commodores, The Airmen of Note, NC Jazz Repertory Orchestra, Lincoln
Center Jazz Orchestra (Wynton Marsalis), Harry Connick, Jr., Bob Mintzer
BEBOP
o More complex music for smaller groups
o Basic instruments and format same as big band
o Back to improvisation, less unison
o Meant for listening, not dancing (more irregular time/style changes).
o More stylish harmonies
o Rhythm section responsible for keeping time AND as melody instruments

o Artists: Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, Thelonius Monk (Rocky Mount, NC), Charles Mingus,
Bud Powell, Miles Davis, Thad Jones, Sonny Stitt, Sonny Rollins, Art Pepper, Erroll Garner,
Oscar Peterson, Max Roach

COOL JAZZ
o AKA “West Coast Jazz”
o More calm and relaxed than bebop, hence ‘cool’
o Longer compositions than bebop
o More written arrangements, less improvisation
o Flute, cello and horn often included
o Very experimental

o Artists: Lester Young, Miles Davis, Chet Baker, Gerry Mulligan

LATIN JAZZ
o It is mostly written in 2/4 timing.
o Up-tempo.

o Artists: Tito Puente, Machito, Mario Bauzá, Mongo Santamaria, Antônio Carlos Jobim

FREE JAZZ
o Break from traditional jazz forms, melodies, harmonies and chords
o Very reflective of times
o Very irregular in form
o Coincides with chance/aleatoric music of John Cage
o Very much a recording music, rather than a sit-and-listen.

o Artists: Miles Davis (late), Ornette Coleman, John Coltrane (High Point, NC)

FUSION to MODERN
o Became “Funk”
o Combines jazz and the evolving Rock and Roll style (which came from jazz)…took over as
‘popular music’
o Traditional instruments and synthesizers, electric piano, guitar, and other electronic
instruments.
o Afro-Cuban and Latin Percussion

o Artists: Miles Davis (late), Earth, Wind & Fire, Weather Report, Chicago, Tower of Power