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PARTS OF SPEECH

The parts of speech explain how a word is used in a sentence.


There are eight main parts of speech (also know as word classes): nouns, pronouns,
adjectives, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections.
Most parts of speech can be divided into sub-classes.Prepositions can be divided into
prepositions of time, prepositions of place etc. Nouns can be divided into proper nouns,
common nouns, concrete nouns etc.
It is important to know that a word can sometimes be in more than one part of speech.
For example with the word increase.
Increase can be a verb e.g. Prices increased and increase can also be a noun e.g. There
was an increase in the number of followers.
NOUN - (Naming word)
A noun is the name of a person, place, thing or idea.
Examples of nouns: David, Coimbatore, table, dog, teacher, pen, city, happiness, hope
Example sentences: Sam lives in Salem. Mary uses pen and paper to write letters.
Point out the nouns in the following sentences
1. Always speak the truth.
2. We all love honesty.

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3. I have two children.
4. The lion is the king of the beasts.
5. Solomon was the wisest of all kings.
6. Cleanliness is next to godliness.
7. Birds of a feather flock together.
8. Who teaches you grammar?
9. The Nile is the longest of all rivers.
10. A committee of six was appointed to assess the situation.
11. Jawaharlal Nehru was the first Prime Minister of India.
12. The boy was rewarded for his honesty.
13. He gave me an apple.
14. I recognized his voice at once.
15. You should never tell a lie.
16. Wisdom is better than riches.
17. He is on the jury.
18. Silver and gold are precious metals.
19. Still waters run deep.
20. The cackling of geese saved Rome.
21. Tubal Cain was a man of might.
22. Old habits die hard.
23. The early bird catches the worm.
24. It was Edison who invented the phonograph.
25. You can’t pump the ocean dry.
PRONOUN - (Replaces a Noun)
A pronoun is used in place of a noun or noun phrase to avoid repetition.
Examples of pronouns: I, you, we, they, he, she, it, me, us, them, him, her, this, those
Example sentences: Mary is tired. She wants to sleep. I want her to dance with me.

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Personal Pronouns
The personal pronouns are I, you, he, she, it, we, they, and who. More often than not (but not
exclusively), they replace nouns representing people. When most people think of pronouns, it is
the personal pronouns that usually spring to mind.
Example:
 We can’t all be heroes because somebody has to sit on the curb and clap as they go by.
 I bought some batteries, but they weren’t included.

Fill in the blanks with a suitable pronoun each.


Example:
(a) To whom shall I address this letter?
(b) The souvenir which I received is a pester.
1. This is the gentleman ______ you want to meet very much.
2. The reservation ______ you made last week has been cancelled.
3. That’s a very good idea. ______ is it?
4. ______ do you know about the incident involving us?
5. ______ is the person responsible for the fund-raising dinner?
6. Tell me ______ is a better offer: a three-day holiday or a cash award of $2000?
7. The personnel ______ we met a while ago is actually the CEO of the company.
8. Can you find out ______ is the guest of honor for the function?
9. The driver ______ license has been suspended is appealing.
10. I will tell you ______ I know only after visiting the patient.

ADJECTIVE - (Describing word)


An adjective describes, modifies or gives more information about a noun or pronoun.
Examples: big, happy, green, young, fun, crazy, three
Example sentences: The little girl had a pink hat.

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Complete the following sentences using the appropriate form of the adjective given in the
brackets.
1. He is __________ than his neighbors. (rich)
2. The brides were much __________ than the grooms. (young)
3. He is too __________ to be taught. (intelligent)
4. He is __________ than I thought him to be. (clever)
5. When the old woman became __________, she began to move about. (strong)
6. He is much __________ now. (good)
7. The offer was too __________ to be true. (good)
8. He fishes with __________ success than I do. (great)
9. Shakespeare is the __________ playwright in English. (great)
10. The pain was __________ than he could bear. (much)
11. The __________ thing of all was that his son was rude to him. (bad)
12. Jane was the __________ player of the two. (good)
VERB - (Action Word)
A verb shows an action or state of being. A verb shows what someone or something is doing.
Examples: go, speak, run, eat, play, live, walk, have, like, are, is
Example sentences: I like Woodward English. I study their charts and play their games.
Complete the following sentences using an appropriate tense form.
1. I __________ here since morning.
a) am waiting
b) have been waiting
c) had been waiting
2. It __________ raining since yesterday.
a) hasn’t stopped
b) didn’t stop
c) hadn’t

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3. I __________ interested in metaphysics.
a) am always
b) have always been
c) had always been
4. They __________ in this street for twenty years.
a) have lived
b) have been living
c) Either could be used here
5. I__________ to a foreign country.
a) am never gone
b) have never been
c) was never gone
6. Where __________ the sun rise?
a) does
b) do
c) had
7. I __________ Susie Monday.
a) see
b) am seeing
c) Either could be used here
8. We __________ the money on the 15th.
a) are needing
b) will need
c) Either could be used here
9. ‘There is the doorbell.’‘I __________’
a) am going
b) will go
c) Either could be used here

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10. She __________ half of her time traveling.
a) spends
b) is spending
c) Either could be used here
ADVERB - (Describes a verb)
An adverb describes/modifies a verb, an adjective or another adverb. It tells how, where, when,
how often or to what extent. Many adverbs end in -LY
Examples: slowly, quietly, very, always, never, too, well, tomorrow, here
Example sentences: I am usually busy. Yesterday, I ate my lunch quickly.
Fill in the blanks with suitable adverbs. Choose from those given in the table.

Slowly Even Only Tomorrow Quickly Completely Probably

Upstairs CertainlyNeatly Definitely Happily Often always

1. Polite people __________ say thank-you.


2. I __________ have headaches.
3. You have __________ been working too hard.
4. He always wears a coat, __________ in summer.
5. __________ he can do a thing like that.
6. __________ I have got a meeting in New York.
7. She got dressed __________
8. This time tomorrow I will be __________ working in my garden.
9. It will __________ rain this evening.
10. The children are playing __________
11. I __________ feel better today.
12. My brother __________ forgot my birthday.
13. Write your answers __________
14. She read the letter __________

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PREPOSITION - (Shows relationship)
A preposition shows the relationship of a noun or pronoun to another word. They can indicate
time, place, or relationship.
Examples: at, on, in, from, with, near, between, about, under
Example sentences: I left my keys on the table for you.
Fill in the blanks with appropriate prepositions
1. His shoes were lying________on the floor.
2. The book has________300 pages.
3. They went off________the wide world, so their parents didn’t see them again.
4. The milk quickly turned________butter.
5. The Greens were the only party that voted________the government.
6. Prices have gone________again.
7. He pushed his way________the crowd.
8. The meeting was________at 4 o’clock
9. The boy handed the money________to us.
10. Times are no longer as they were________
11. The boy was named________his grandfather.
12. We watched the houses go________several building stages.
13. The team won the game________ease.
14. Walter is still living________his parents.
15. The child was run________by a motorist.
16. They shared the money________them.
17. They came in, one________the other.
18. They are living________north.
19. Freezing point is when water turns________ice.
20. She was standing________her husband and her eldest son.

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CONJUNCTION - (Joining word)
A conjunction joins two words, ideas, phrases or clauses together in a sentence and shows how
they are connected.
Examples: and, or, but, because, so, yet, unless, since, if.
Example sentences: I was hot and exhausted but I still finished the marathon.
1. I like sugar in my tea,______I don’t like milk in it.
2. Listen to the story______answer the questions in complete sentences.
3. Is it Thursday______Friday today?
4. He was late______the bus didn’t come.
5. We were very tired______happy after our flight to Sydney.
6. They climbed the mountain______it was very windy.
7. ______Lenny was watching the planes his wife was reading in the car.
8. I’ll text you______I have arrived in Toronto.
9. Neither my brother______my sister own a car.
10. The sun was warm,______the wind was a bit too cool.
INTERJECTION - (Expressive word)
An interjection is a word or phrase that expresses a strong feeling or emotion. It is a short
exclamation.
Examples: Ouch! Wow! Great! Help! Oh! Hey! Hi!
Example sentences: Wow! I passed my English test. Great! – Ouch! That hurt.
In the following sentences, identify the interjection and underline it.
1. Hi, I’m glad that you could make it to my party.
2. Wow! You look great tonight.
3. That was the best performance that I have ever seen, bravo!
4. I can’t believe you broke my favorite toy, bah.
5. Hmm, I wonder where I put my keys and wallet?

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6. Miners used to shout, eureka, when they struck gold.
7. “Shoo!” shouted the woman when she saw the cat licking milk from her cereal bowl.
8. I guess that’s the end of the movie, darn.
9. Stop! You should always wear a helmet when riding a bike.
10. Yippee, I made this picture all by myself.

I.Read the following sentences and underline the word or words that belong to the part of
speech specified in the bracket.
An example is given below.
Question: She must have reached home. (verb)
Answer: She must have reached home.
1. She went to the market and bought some eggs. (verb)
2. I want to go now. (adverb)
3. What are you doing there? (adverb)
4. There is a mouse underneath the piano. (preposition)
5. Masons build houses. (noun)

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6. John is my best friend. (proper noun)
7. She looked up but didn’t see anything. (adverb)
8. My family live in different parts of India. (collective noun)
9. That was a difficult question. (adjective)
10. She was very impressed with her results. (adverb)
11. Although she is poor, she is happy. (conjunction)
12. Have we bought enough chairs? (adjective)
13. The policeman didn’t run fast enough to catch the thief. (adverb)
II. What part of speech are the underlined words?
1. She thought of a wise plan.
2. I want to go now.
3. Where are you going?
4. That was a lovely evening.
5. My father works in a factory.
6. She must be a stupid.
7. Selena is my best friend.
8. The dress was expensive; still I bought it.
9. It is my doll.
10. The sun gives us heat and light.
11. Do it quickly.
12. She went to the market to buy some vegetables.
13. I helped him because I liked him.
14. Jasmines are white in color.
15. The cat is under the bed.

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